H (há) is the eighth letter. In the old Runic alphabet it was represented by ? and RUNE, which are used indiscriminately (but never RUNE or RUNE): ? and RUNE both occur on the Golden horn, the former once, the latter twice. This Rune was no doubt borrowed from the Greek or Latin. In the later common Runic alphabet this character was replaced by ? (rarely RUNE), which we may infer was taken from the Greek RUNE (the g of the old Runic alphabet) marked with a perpendicular stroke down the middle, rather than from the Latin RUNE (see Ritschl’s essay in the Rheinisches Museum, 1869, p. 22); yet the old form RUNE is now and then found on the oldest of the later monuments, e. g. the stones from Snoldelöv, Höjetostrup, and Helnæs (Thorsen 15, 17, 335), on which monuments the ? is used for a: in some inscriptions ? serves both for h and soft g. The name of the Rune h was Hagall or Hagl, an Anglo-Saxon form, explained as meaning hail, hagl er kaldast korna (hail is the coldest of grains), in the Norse Runic poem; cp. hägl byð hwitust corna in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which is the prototype of the Norse. These names in the Anglo-Saxon and Norse poems are in no way derived from the form of the Rune, but are merely alike to the modern rhymes in English ABC books,—‘B is a Baker’ or the like. The Hagall was the first of the second group of Runes, H n i a s, which was therefore called Hagals-ætt, the family of Hagal (cp. introduction to F).

A. PRONUNCIATION AND SPELLING.—H is sounded as in English hard, house: the aspirate is still sounded in hl, hr, hn much as in the Welsh ll, rh: the hv is in the west and north of Icel. sounded as kv; but in the south and east the distinction is kept between hv and kv (hver a kettle and kver a quire, hvölum whales and kvölum torments), as also in writing; and hv is sounded like wh in Northern English; in a small part of eastern Icel. it is sounded like Greek χ (hvalr as χalr, hvað as χað), and this is probably the oldest and truest representation of the hv sound. II. the h is dropped, 1. in the article inn, in, it, for hinn, hin, hit, which is often spelt so in old MSS. β. in the personal pronoun hann, hún if following after another word, e. g. ef ‘ann (ef hann), ef ‘ún (ef hún), þó ‘onum (þó honum), látt’ ‘ann vera (láttu hann vera), segð’ ‘enn’ að koma (segðu henni að koma); this is the constant pronunciation of the present time, but in writing the h is kept: whereas, at the beginning of a sentence the h is sounded, e. g. hann (hón) kom, he (she) came, but kom ’ann? (if asking the question). γ. in a few words such as álfa and hálfa, óst and host (cp. hósta), ökulbrækr and hökulbraekr. 2. in the latter part of such compounds as have nearly become inflexions, as ein-arðr for ein-harðr: in -úð, -ýðgi, -ygð (Gramm. p. xxxiii, col. 1); elsk-ogi, var-ugi, öl-ogi, from hugr; örv-endr, tröll-endr, gram-endr, from hendr; litar-apt = litar-hapt: in -ald = hald, handar-ald, haf-ald; lík-amr = lík-hamr, hár-amr = hár-hamr; skauf-ali, rang-ali, from hali; at-æfi = at-hæfi, and perhaps in auð-œfi, ör-œfi, from hóf or hœfi; and-œfa = and-hœfa, to respond; hnapp-elda = hnapp-helda: in pr. names in -arr, -alli, -eiðr, -ildr, for -harr = herr, -halli, -heiðr, -hildr, (Ein-arr, Þór-alli, Ragn-eiðr, Yngv-ildr, etc.) In a few words, as hjúpr, and derivatives from júpr, hilmr and ilmr, hopa and opa, h seems to have been added. In some of the cases above cited both forms are still heard, but the apocopate are more usual. III. h is neither written nor sounded as final or medial, and has in all such cases been absorbed by the preceding vowel or simply dropped (see Gramm. p. xxx, col. 1). IV. some MSS., especially Norse, use a double form gh and th to mark a soft or aspirate sound, e. g. sagha and saga, thing and þing; especially in inflexive syllables, -ith = -it, etc. V. a curious instance of spelling (as in Welsh) rh for hr is found occasionally in Runes, e. g. Rhruulfr for Hrúlfr, Thorsen 335; to this corresponds the English spelling wh for hw, in white, wheat, whale, where, whence, why, whelp, whine, whet, whirl, wharf, wheel, while, whim, = Icel. hvítr, hveiti, hvalr, hvar, hvaðan, hvé, hválpr, hvína, hvetja, hvirfill, hvarf, hvel, hvíld, hvima, etc.

B. REMARKS, CHANGES, ETC.—In Icel. h is used as an initial letter most largely next to s; in modern Teutonic languages it has been greatly reduced through the dropping of the aspiration before the liquids l, n, r, and before v, whereby all words in hl, hn, hr, and hv have been transferred to the liquids and to v (see Gramm. p. xxxvi, signif. II. β); the h in these words is essential to the etymology, and was in olden times common to all Teutonic languages, but in Scandinavia it was lost about the 11th or 12th century, so that not a single instance of hl, hn, hr is on record in any MS. written in Norway; though old Norwegian poets of the 10th century used it in alliteration, so it must have been sounded at that time; h in hl, hn, hr is therefore a test of a MS. being Icelandic and not Norse. In modern Icel. pronunciation the h aspirate has been lost in two or three words, as leiti for hleyti, a part, a word which was borrowed from Norway about the 14th century; rót = hrót, a roof: it is a matter of course that the h is dropped in words which were borrowed from the English not earlier than the 12th century, e. g. lávarðr. Early Engl. lauerd (lord), but A. S. hlâford. II. the h has been added in a few words to which it does not rightly belong, viz. in hneiss and hneisa for neiss and neisa; hnýsa for nýsa; hreifr (glad) for reifr; hniðra (to lower) for niðra (niðr); hlykkr (and hlykkjóttr), a curve, for lykkr (cp. lykkja, a noose); hrjóta for rjóta, to snort; hlað, a lace, cp. Lat. laqueus; hnestla for nestla, a loop. β. in a few instances both forms are used to form double words, in hrífa and rífa, Lat. rapere; hrasa and rasa, to stumble; rata (= Goth. vraton), to find the way, but hrata, to fall (cp. Vsp. 52); hrjá and rjá, to vex. 2. the h seems to be a substitute, α. for an old v, in hrekja, to toss about, to wreck, akin to Goth. vrekan, Icel. reka; in hreiðr, a nest, Dan. rede, cp. Engl. wreath, Goth. vriþus. β. in modern pronunciation h is a substitute for g in the words hneggja, hnegg, for gneggja, gnegg; þver-hnípt for þver-gnipt. γ. for k in hnífr, hnúi, hnefi, hnöttr, hnútr, hnörr, hnakkr, hnjúkr, hnoða, hnappr, for knífr, knúi, knefi …, knoða, knappr; this spelling is found in MSS. of the 15th century, e. g. the Hrokkinskinna passim (see letter K). In all these cases the h is etymologically wrong; in some of the words above (as in hneisa) it is found even in very old MSS., e. g. the Mork.; but the true etymology is seen from the alliteration in old poems, e. g. Hm. 48, 140, Hðm. 26 (raut, reginkunni); Stor. 13 (Nýsumk hins | ok hygg at því); Edda 105 (reifr gékk herr und hlífar | hizig …); but not so in modern poets, e. g. Hröktu því svo og hrjáðu þig | Herra minn ílsku-þjóðir, Pass. 9. 9; Forvitnin holdsins hnýsir þrátt | í Herrans leyndar-dóma, 21. 2; Nær eg fell eðr hrasa hér | hæstur Drottinn vill reiðast mér, 5. 6. III. the Gothic has a special sign for hv, viz. w, which thus answers to wh in English, e. g. wan = when. 2. when followed by an o or u, the v in hv is dropped, e. g. hót hooting, hóta to hoot, cp. Goth. wota and wotjan; as also in hót = hvat what, hóll from hváll, hjól and hvel, hólf and hválf, horfinn, hurfu, hyrfi for hvorfinn, hvurfu, hvyrfi.

C. INTERCHANGE.—Latin c and Greek κ answer to the Teut. and Icel. h; thus Lat. căper, căput, cănis, carbasus, centum, cervus, cŏr (cord-), collum, corvus, cūtis, = Icel. hafr, höfuð, hundr, hörr (hörv-), hundrað, hjörtr (hirtu) and hjarta, háls (hals), hrafn, húð; calx, cp. hæll; cardo, cp. hjarri; claudus, cp. haltr; clīvus, cp. hlíð; corpus, cp. hræ (hræv-); cĕrebrum, cp. hjarni; crāter, cp. hurð; cōs, cp. hein; clāmo, cp. hljómr; cēlo, cp. hylja and Hel; coelum, cp. holr (hollow); căpio (-cĭpio) = hefja; prin-cipium = upp-haf; cēteri, cp. hindri; co- and con-, cp. hjá; cĭtra, cp. héðra (hér is a contracted form); clūnis, cp. hlaun; clīno, cp. hlein, Engl. to lean; căleo, cp. hlé-, hlý-r; cŏlo, cp. halda; custodio, cp. hodd, Engl. to hoard; cella, cp. hellir; carcer, cp. hörgr; circus, cp. hringr; cŏrium, cp. hörund; curvus, cp. hverfa (to turn round): Gr. καλλίων, κάλλιστος = Icel. hellri, hellztr (hölztr); καλαμος, κεφαλή, κέρας, κύων, καρδία, = Icel. hálmr, höfuð, horn, hundr, hjarta; κωνος, cp. húnn; κληρος, cp. hlutr; κυκλός, cp. högl-d, hvel, hjól; κοιλος, cp. holr; κόραξ, cp. hrafn; κρέας, cp. hræ; κρανίον, cp. hjarni and hvern or hvörn (the two pebble-like bones in a fish’s head), cp. also Goth. wairnis; κριός, cp. Icel. hrútr; κρατος, κρατερός, cp. harðr, hraustr; κείρω, cp. herja; καλύπτω, cp. hylja; κλίνω, cp. hlín, hlein; κλύω, cp. hlýða; κρίζω, cp. hrikta; κρηπίς, cp. hriflingar, hrifla; κώμη, cp. heimr; κυμα, cp. húm; κοινός, cp. hjú-, hjú-n: Lat. quis = hverr; qui = hve; quies, cp. hvíl-d, etc.: some of these words may be dubious, but others are evident.

Haðar, m. pl. the inhabitants of Haða-land, a Norse county, Fms. xii.

HADDA, u, f. (halda, Rd. 315, l. 14), [Ivar Aasen hodda, hadde, holle]:—a pot-hook or rather pot-links, for the hadda was a chain of rings rather than a mere handle, as is seen from Hým. 34—en á hælum hringar skullu—compared with, heyrði til höddu þá er Þórr bar hverinn, Skálda 168; hann kastaði katlinum svá at haddan skall við (rattled), Fms. vi. 364; hann dró á hönd sér höddu er ifir var bollanum, Ó. H. 135; ketill var upp yfir rekkjuna ok reist upp haddan yfir katlinum, ok vóru þar á festir hringar, … þá féll haldan á katlinum því at hann hafði komit við festina, Rd. 314, 315; hann krækti undir hödduna hinum minsta fingri ok fleytti honum (the kettle) jafnhátt ökla, Fb. i. 524; at konungr mundi gína yfir ketil-hödduna, … ok var haddan orðin feit, … konungr brá líndúk um hödduna ok gein yfir, Fms. i. 36.

HADDR, m. [Goth. hazds; A. S. prob. heard, v. infra], hair, only in poetry a lady’s hair; haddr Sifjar, the gold-hair of the goddess Sif., Edda 69, 70; hár heitir lá, haddr þat er konur hafa, 109; bleikja hadda, to bleach, dress the hair, 75, Korm. 26, Gkv. 1. 15; bleikir haddar, Fas. i. 478; grass is called haddr jarðar, Bm.; hadds höll is the head, Eb. (in a verse). haddaðr, part. hairy, Lat. crinitus; barr-h., barley-haired, an epithet of the earth; bjart-h., bright-haired; bleik-h., blond-haired; hvít-h., white-haired, Lex. Poët. hadd-bjartr, adj. bright-haired, blond, Hornklofi. hadd-blik, n. bleaching the hair, Edda 77. Haddingr, m. a pr. name of a mythical hero, = comatus, cp. A. S. hearding, Goth. hazdiggs, Engl. Harding, Lex. Poët., Munch i. 217. Haddingja-skati, a, m. a nickname, Sæm.

HAÐNA, u, f. (not hauðna, for the pl. is hoðnor, Grág. i. 503), [cp. Lat. hoedus], a young she-goat (one year old), Grág. i. 503, Bk. 20. COMPDS: höðnu-kið, n. (= haðna), a young kid, Gullþ. 19, Rd. 267. höðnu-leif, f., poët. ‘kid’s food,’ a withe or switch, used as a halter (?), Ýt. 12 (from goats feeding on branches and withes?)

HAF, n. [Swed. haf; Dan. hav; formed from hefja, to lift; a Scandin. word, which seems not to occur in Saxon or Germ.]:—the sea, Hdl. 38; esp. the high sea, the ocean; sigla í (á) haf, láta í haf, to put to sea, Eg. 69, Nj. 4; fimm (sex) dægra haf, five (six) days’ sail, Landn. 26; koma af hafi, to come off the sea, i. e. to land, Eg. 392; en haf svá mikit millum landanna, at eigi er fært langskipum, Hkr. i. 229; harm sigldi norðr í haf um haustið, ok fengu ofviðri mikit í hafi, Ó. H. 26; sigldi Þórarinn þá á haf út, 125; sigldu síðan á haf út þegar byr gaf, Eg. 125; en byrr bar þá í haf út, id.; en er sóttisk hafit, 126; liggja til hafs, to lie to and wait for a wind, Bs. i. 16; hann dó í hafi, he died at sea, Landn. 264; þeir vissusk jafnan til í hafinu, 56; veita e-m far um hafit, Eb. 196; tyrir austan mitt haf, beyond the sea (i. e. between Iceland and Scandinavia); en er inn sækir í fjörðinn þá er þar svá vítt sem mikit haf, Fms. vi. 296 (for the explanation of this passage see Aarböger for Nord. Oldk. 1868); útí fjarðar-kjapta þar til er haf tekr við, Bs. i. 482: in plur., ganga höf stór ór útsjánum inn í jörðina, Hkr. (begin.); út-haf, regin-haf, the ocean; Íslands-haf, the sea between Iceland and Norway, Fms. vi. 107, Band. 9; Grænlands-haf, the sea between Greenland and America, Fms. iv. 177; Englands-haf, the English Sea, i. e. the North Sea, between England and Norway, 329, x. 272, 398, xi. 201, Fær. 88; Írlands-haf, the Irish Sea, i. e. the Atlantic, Þorf. Karl. 390; Álanz-haf, the gulf of Bothnia, Orkn. (begin.); Sólundar-haf, the sea of the Sulin Island (Norway), Fms. x. 34, 122; Grikklands-haf, the Grecian Archipelago, vi. 134, 161, vii. 85, passim; Svarta-haf, the Black Sea, Hkr. i. 5, Fms. vi. 169; Jótlands-haf, the Cattegat, 264; Jórsala-haf, the sea of Jerusalem, i. e. the Mediterranean, x. 85, Fb. iii; Rauða-haf or Hafið Rauða, the ‘Red Sea,’ i. e. the Ocean (mythol.), nú heldr jörð griðum upp, en himininn varðar fyrir ofan, en Hafit Rauða fyrir utan, er liggr um lönd öll þau er vér höfum tíðendi af, Grág. i. 166; in mod. usage the Red Sea = Sinus Arabicus; Dumbs-haf, the Polar Sea, Landn.; Miðjarðar-haf, the Mediterranean; Atlants-haf, the Atlantic; Kyrra-haf, the Pacific (these three in mod. writers only). COMPDS: hafs-afl, n. the main, Sks. 606, v. l. hafs-auga, n., see p. 33, col. 2 (ζ). hafs-botn, m. a gulf; firðir ok hafs-botnar, Sks. 199: of the Polar Sea, as the ancients supposed a continuity of land between Greenland and Europe, Fms. xi. 411; hafsbotn er heitir Svarta-haf, Hkr. i. 5. hafs-brún, f. the ‘sea-brow,’ the sea-line on the horizon, cp. lands-brún, s. v. brún, p. 84. hafs-flóð, n. a deluge, Rb. 444. hafs-geil, f. a sea lane, i. e. a narrow strait, Stj. 287. Exod. xiv. 22, 23. hafs-geimr, m. = hafsmegin. hafs-megin, n. the main, the high sea; sakir hafsmegins, storma ok strauma, Fms. i. 153; þótti þeim íllt at eiga lengr við hafsmegin, i. e. they longed for land, Eb. 120; allmikill harmr er þat, er vér eigum svá langt hingað at sækja, fyrst hafs-megin mikit, etc. (i. e. between Iceland and Sweden), Ó. H. 57. haf-alda, u, f. a roller, wave. haf-att, f. = hafgola. haf-bára, u, f. a wave, Stj. 26. haf-bylgja, f. id., Bs. ii. 50. haf-fugl, m. a sea-bird, Stj. 78. haf-færr and haf-færandi, part. sea-going, sea-worthy, of a ship, Eg. 364, Hkr. ii. 183, Krók. 42. haf-för, f. a sea voyage, Landn. 174. haf-gall, n. sea-amber, Björn. haf-gerðingar, f. pl. ‘sea-fens,’ portentous waves mentioned by old sailors in the main between Iceland and America, described in Sks. 171, Bs. i. 483; hann fór til Grænalands ok hom í hafgerðingar, Landn. 319 (10th century), whence Hafgerðinga-drápa, u, f. the name of a poem (a votive poem composed during a tornado), Landn. 320. haf-gjálfr, n. the roar of the sea, Bs. i. 119, ii. 50, Róm. 369. haf-gola, u, f. a sea breeze, Eb. 8, Eg. 370, 373, Sturl. iii. 70. haf-gúfa, u, m. a mermaid, Sks. 138, Fas. ii. 249, Edda (Gl.) haf-hallt, adj. standing seaward, Fms. i. 62, 63. haf-hrútr, m. a sea ram, Fms. viii. 373. haf-íss, m. ‘sea-ice,’ i. e. drift ice, Landn. 30, Bs. ii. 5, Eb. 292, Ann. 1233, 1261, 1275, 1306, 1319, 1375. haf-kaldr, adj., poët. cold as the sea, Lex. Poët. haf-kóngr, m. a kind of shell, Eggert Itin. haf-lauðr, n., poët. sea foam, Lex. Poët. haf-leið, f. standing seawards, Fms. i. 59. haf-leiði, n. a sea-way, Post. (Unger) 4. haf-leiðis, adv. seawards, Hkr. i. 181. Haf-liði, a, m. ‘Sea-slider,’ a pr. name, Landn. haf-ligr, adj. marine, Sks. 605. haf-nest, n. provisions for a voyage, Grett. 94 A, Eb. haf-nýra, n., poët. a ‘sea-kidney,’ a pearl, Hd. haf-reið, f., poët. a ship. haf-rek, n. a wreck, Gþl. 519. haf-reka, adj. indecl. wrecked, tossed about, Ann. 1347. haf-rekinn, part. shipwrecked, Bs. i. 819. haf-rekinn, part. sea-tossed, Mar. 1054. haf-rekstr, m. wreck, jetsum; með öllum gögnum ok gæðum, með flutningum ok hafrekstri, Dipl. iii. 10. haf-ræðr, adj. sea-worthy, able-bodied, of a sailor, B. K. 20. haf-rœna, u, f. a sea breeze. haf-rœnn, adj. blowing from the sea. haf-sigling, f. a voyage. hafsiglingar-maðr, m. a seaman, mariner, Landn. 28. haf-skip, n. a sea-going ship, Landn. 47, Grág. ii. 397, Eg. 130, Fms. ii. 219. haf-skíð, n., poët. a ship. haf-skrimsl, n. a sea-monster, Sks. 86. haf-sleipnir, m. a sea-horse, poët. a ship. haf-stormr, m. a storm at sea, Bret. 98, Sks. 227. haf-strambr, m. a fabulous sea-monster, Sks. 166, Ann. 1305. haf-straumr, m. a sea current, Lex. Poët. haf-súla, u, f. a kind of bird, bassanus. haf-tyrðill, m. uria alla, a sea-bird, Edda (Gl.) haf-velktr, part. sea-tossed, Krók. 75. haf-viðri, n. a sea breeze, Landn. 225, Eg. 373, Bárð. 6 new Ed. haf-villr, adj. having lost one’s course at sea, Nj. 267, v. l. haf-villur, f. pl. loss of one’s course at sea, Finnb. 242; rak þá víða um hafit, vóru þeir flestir innanborðs at á kom hafvilla, Ld. 74; koma nú á fyrir þeim myrkr ok hafvillur, Fms. iii. 181, Þorf. Karl. 372. haf-þrunginn, part. sea-swoln, Mar.

B. Lifting; hann hnykkir upp steininum, sýndisk flestum mönnum úlíkligr til hafs fyrir vaxtar sakir, Finnb. 324; cp. Grettis-haf, the lift of Grettir, of a heavy stone. II. beginning; upp-haf, principium.

HAFA, pret. hafði; subj. hefði; pres. sing. hefi (less correctly hefir), hefir, hefir; plur. höfum, hafit, hafa: the mod. pres. sing. is monosyllabic hefr or hefur, and is used so in rhymes—andvara engan hefur | … við glys heims gálaus sefur, Pass. 15. 6, but in print the true old form hefir is still retained; the monosyllabic present is used even by old writers in the 1st pers. before the personal or negative suffix, e. g. hef-k and hef-k-a ek for hefi-g and hefig-a ek, see e. g. Grág. (Kb.) 79, 82, in the old oath formula, hef-k eigi, Hallfred; hef ek, Fms. iii. 10 (in a verse); but not so in 3rd pers., e. g. hefir-a or hefir-at, Grág. l. c.: imperat. haf, hafðu: part. pass. hafðr, neut. haft;—hafat is an απ. λεγ., Vsp. 16, and is prob. qs. hafit from hefja, to heave, lift: [Ulf. haban; A. S. habban; Engl. have; Hel. hebben; Germ. haben; Dutch hebben; Dan. have, Swed. hafva: it is curious the Lat. form habere retains the consonant unchanged, cp. the Romance forms, Ital. avere, Fr. avoir, Span. haber, etc. ☞ Hafa is a weak verb, and thus distinguished from hefja (to lift, begin), which is a strong verb, answering to Lat. capere, incipere; but in sundry cases, as will be seen below, it passes into the sense of this latter word; as also in some instances into that of another lost strong verb, hafa, hóf, to behave, and hœfa, to hit]:—to have.

A. To have; hann hafði með sér ekki meira lið, Fms. i. 39; hafði hverr hirð um sik, 52; höfðu þeir áttján skip, viii. 42; Sverrir hafði tvau hundrað manna, … þeir höfðu annan samnað á landi, 328; hann hafði mikit lið ok frítt, x. 36; þeir höfðu sjau skip ok flest stór, 102; hafa fjölmennar setur, Eb. 22; hann hafði menn sína í síldveri, Eg. 42; mun ek naut hafa þar sem mér þykkir hagi beztr, 716. II. to hold: 1. to keep, celebrate; hafa ok halda, Dipl. i. 6; hafa átrúnað, 10; hafa dóma, 12; hafa blót, Fms. iv. 254; hafa vina-veizlu, id.; hafa vina-boð, Nj. 2; hafa Jóla-boð, Eg. 516; hafa þing, Fms. ix. 449; hafa haust-boð, Gísl. 27; hafa drykkju, Eb. 154; hafa leik, Fms. x. 201, passim. 2. to hold, observe; hlýðir þat hvergi at hafa eigi lög í landi, Nj. 149; skal þat hafa, er stendr …, Grág. i. 7; skal þat allt hafa er finsk á skrá þeirri …, id.; en hvatki es mis-sagt es í fræðum þessum, þá es skylt at hafa þat (to keep, hold to be true) es sannara reynisk, Íb. 3; ok hafða ek (I kept, selected) þat ór hvárri er framarr greindi, Landn. 320, v. l. 3. to hold, keep, retain; ef hann vill hafa hann til fardaga, Grág. i. 155; skal búandinn hafa hann hálfan mánuð, 154; ok hafði hvárr þat er hélt á, Nj. 279; hitt skal hafa er um fram er, Rb. 56; kasta í burt þrjátigi ok haf þat sem eptir verðr, 494. 4. to hold an office; hafa lögsögu, to hold the office of lögsaga, Íb. passim; hafa jarldóm, konungdóm, passim; þat höfðu haft at fornu Dana-konungar, Eg. 267; þér berit konunga-nöfn svá sem fyrr hafa haft (have had) forfeðr yðrir, en hafit lítið af ríki, Fms. i. 52; hafa ríki, to reign, Hkr. pref. 5. phrases, hafa elda, to keep a fire, cook, Fms. xi. 129; hafa fjárgæzlu, to tend sheep, Eg. 740; hafa embætti með höndum, Stj. 204; hafa gæzlur á e-u, Fms. ix. 313; hafa … vetr, to have so many winters, be of such an age (cp. Fr. avoir … ans), Íb. 15; margir höfðu lítið fátt þúsund ára, Ver. 7: hafa vörn í máli, Nj. 93; hafa e-t með höndum, to have in hand, Fms. viii. 280, ix. 239; hafa e-t á höndum, Grág. i. 38; hafa fyrir satt, to hold for true, Fms. xi. 10; hafa við orð, to intimate, suggest, Nj. 160; hafa e-t at engu, vettugi, to hold for naught, take no notice of, Fas. i. 318. 6. with prepp. or infin., α. with prep.; hafa til, to have, possess; ef annarr þeirra hefir til enn annarr eigi, þá er sá skyldr til at fá honum er til hefir, Grág. i. 33; ef annarr hefir til …, id.; þér ætlið at ek muna eigi afl til hafa, Ld. 28. β. with infin.; hafa at varðveita, to have in keeping, Eg. 500; lög hafit þér at mæla, you have the law on your tongue, i. e. you are right, Nj. 101; hörð tíðindi hefi ek at segja þér, 64; sá er gripinn hefir at halda, Grág. i. 438; hafa at selja, to have on sale, Ld. 28. III. to use; var haft til þess sker eitt, Eb. 12; þá höfðu þeir til varnar skot ok spjót, Fms. vii. 193; er þín ráð vóru höfð, that thy advice was taken, Fs. 57; Gríss hafði þessi ráð, Fms. iii. 21; ek vil at þat sé haft er ek legg til, x. 249; þykki mér þú vel hafa (make good use of) þau tillög er ek legg fyrir þik, xi. 61; til þess alls er jarli þótti skipta, þá hafði hann þessa hluti, 129; tvau ný (net), ok hafa eigi höfð verit (which have not been used), haf þú (take) hvárt er þú vilt, Háv. 46; þær vil ek hafa enar nýju, en ek vil ekki hætta til at hafa enar fornu, id.; önnur er ný ok mikil ok hefir (has) til einskis höfð (used) verið, id.; buðkr er fyrir húslker er hafðr, Vm. 171; gjalda vápn þau er höfð eru, N. G. L. i. 75; þat hafði hann haft (used) fyrir skála, Edda 29; þeir vóru hafðir til at festa með hús jafnan, Nj. 118; sá hólmr var hafðr til at …, Fms. i. 218; hann skyldi hafa hinn sama eið, x. 7; orð þau sem hann hafði (had) um haft (used), Nj. 56; orð þau er hann hafði (made use of) í barnskírn, K. Þ. K. 14. 2. more special phrases; hafa fagrmæli við e-n, to flatter one, Nj. 224; hafa hljóðmæli við e-n, to speak secretly to one, 223; allmikil fjölkyngi mun vera við höfð áðr svá fái gört, Edda 27; hafa mörg orð um e-t, Ld. 268; hafa tvímæli á e-u, to discuss, doubt, speak diffidently of a thing, Lv. 52; hafa viðrmæli um e-t, to use mocking words, Nj. 89; hafa nafn Drottins í hégóma, to take the Lord’s name in vain, Fms. i. 310; (hann var) mjök hafðr við mál manna, much used to, versed in lawsuits, Dropl. 8: hafa sik til e-s, to use oneself to a thing, i. e. to do a mean, paltry thing; þeir er til þess vilja hafa sik, at ganga í samkundur manna úboðit, Gþl. 200; ef hann vill sik til þessa hafa, Fms. i. 99: hafa sik við, to exert oneself; skaltú ok verða þik við at hafa um þetta mál, ef þú getr þat af þér fært, Grett. 160: hafa e-n at skotspæni, to use one as a target, Nj. 222; hafa e-n at hlífi-skildi sér, to use one as a shield, 262; hafa e-n at ginningar-fifli, auga-bragði, háði, hlátri, Hm. 133, Nj. 224, passim. IV. to have, hold, maintain, of a state or condition; hafa vináttu við e-n, to maintain friendship with one, Sks. 662; hafa vanmátt, to continue sick, Eg. 565; hafa hættu-mikit, to run a great risk, Nj. 149; hafa vitfirring, to be insane, Grág. i. 154; hafa heilindi, to have good health, 26, Hm. 67; hafa burði til e-s, to have the birthright to a thing. Eg. 479; hafa hug, áræði, hyggindi, to have the courage …, Hom. 28; hafa vit (to know), skyn, greind … á e-u, to have understanding of a thing; hafa gaman, gleði, skemtun, ánægju af e-u, to have interest or pleasure in a thing; hafa leiða, ógeð, andstygð, hatr, óbeit á e-u, to dislike, be disgusted with, hate a thing; hafa elsku, mætr, virðing á e-u, to love, esteeem … a thing; hafa allan hug á e-u, to bend the mind to a thing; hafa grun á e-m, to suspect one; hafa ótta, beyg af e-u, to fear a thing; and in numberless other phrases. 2. with prepp.: α. hafa e-t frammi (fram), to carry out, hold forth; hafa frammi róg, Nj. 166; hafa mál fram, to proceed with a suit, 101; stefnu-för, 78; heitstrengingar, Fms. xi. 103; ok öll lögmælt skil frammi hafa, and discharge all one’s official duties, 232; var um búit en ekki fram haft, all was made ready, but nothing done, viii. 113; beini má varla verða betri en hér er frammi hafðr, xi. 52; hafðú í frammi (use) kúgan við þá uppi við fjöllin, Ísl. ii. 215; margir hlutir, þó at hann hafi í frammi, Sks. 276. β. hafa mikit, lítið fyrir e-u, to have much, little trouble about a thing; (hence fyrir-höfn, trouble.) γ. hafa við e-m (afl or the like understood), to be a match for one, Fms. vii. 170, Lv. 109, Nj. 89, Eg. 474, Anal. 176; hafa mikit, lítið við, to make a great, little display; (hence við-höfn, display, pomp); hann söng messu ok hafði mikit við, he sang mass and made a great thing of it, Nj. 157; þú hefir mikit við, thou makest a great show of it, Boll. 351; hann bað jarl leita, hann hafði lítið við þat, he did it lightly, Nj. 141; haf ekki slíkt við, do not say so, Ld. 182.

B. To take, carry off, win, wield, [closely akin to Lat. capere]: I. to catch, take, esp. in the phrase, hafa ekki e-s, to miss one; hann kemsk á skóg undan, ok höfðu þeir hans ekki, he took to the forest and they missed him, Nj. 130; ekki munu vér hans hafa at sinni, we sha’nt catch him at present, Fms. vi. 278; hafða ek þess vætki vífs, Hm. 101; þeygi ek hana at heldr hefik, 95: in swearing, tröll, herr, gramir hafi þik, the trolls, ghosts, etc. take thee! tröll hafi líf, ef …, Kormak; tröll hafi Trefót allan! Grett. (in a verse); tröll hafi þína vini, tröll hafi hól þitt, Nj.; herr hafi Þóri til slægan, confound the wily Thorir! Fms. vi. 278, v. l. (emended, as the phrase is wrongly explained in Fms. xii. Gloss.); gramir hafi þik! vide gramr. II. to carry, carry off, bring; hafði einn hjartað í munni sér, one carried the heart off in his mouth, Nj. 95; hann hafði þat (brought it) norðan með sér, Eg. 42; hafði Þórólfr heim marga dýrgripi, 4; hann hafði með sér skatt allan, 62; skaltú biðja hennar ok hafa hana heim hingat, Edda 22; fé þat er hann hafði (had) út haft (carried from abroad), Gullþ. 13; á fimm hestum höfðu þeir mat, Nj. 74; bókina er hann hafði (had) út haft, Fms. vii. 156; konungr hafði biskup norðr til Björgynjar með sér, viii. 296; biskup lét hann hafa með sér kirkju-við ok járn-klukku, Landn. 42; hann hafði með sér skulda-lið sitt ok búferli, Eb. 8; hann tók ofan hofit, ok hafði með sér flesta viðu, id.; ok hafa hana í brott, Fms. i. 3; tekr upp barnit, ok hefir heim með sér, Ísl. ii. 20; hann hafði lög út hingat ór Noregi, he brought laws hither from Norway, Íb. 5; haf þú heim hvali til bæjar, Hým. 26; ok hafa hann til Valhallar, Nj. 119. III. to take, get; hann hafði þá engan mat né drykk, he took no food nor drink, Eg. 602; hann hafði eigi svefn, he got no sleep, Bs. i. 139. 2. to get, gain, win; öfluðu sér fjár, ok höfðu hlutskipti mikit, Eg. 4; eigi þarftú at biðja viðsmjörs þess, þvíat hann mun þat alls ekki hafa, né þú, for neither he nor thou shall get it, Blas. 28; jarl vill hafa minn fund, he will have a meeting with me, 40, Skv. 1. 4: the sayings, hefir sá jafnan er hættir, he wins that risks, ‘nothing venture, nothing have,’ Hrafn. 16; sá hefir krás er krefr, Sl. 29. 3. phrases, hafa meira hlut, to get the better lot, gain the day, Nj. 90, Fms. xi. 93; hafa gagn, sigr, to gain victory, ix. 132, Eg. 7, Hkr. i. 215, Ver. 38; hafa betr, to get the better; hafa verr, miðr, to have the worst of it, Fms. v. 86, Þorst. S. St. 48, passim; hafa mál sitt, to win one’s suit, Grág. i. 7, Fms. vii. 34; hafa kaup öll, to get all the bargain, Eg. 71; hafa tafl, to win the game, Fms. vii. 219; hafa erendi, to do one’s errand, succeed, Þkv. 10, 11, Fas. ii. 517: hafa bana, to have one’s bane, to die, Nj. 8; hafa úsigr, to be worsted, passim; hafa úfrið, to have no peace; hafa gagn, sóma, heiðr, neisu, óvirðing, skömm, etc. af e-u, to get profit, gain, honour, disgrace, etc. from a thing; hafa e-n í helju, to put one to death, Al. 123; hafa e-n undir, to get one under, subdue him, Nj. 95, 128; höfum eigi, sigrinn ór hendi, let not victory slip out of our hands, Fms. v. 294. 4. to get, receive; hann hafði góðar viðtökur, Nj. 4; hón skal hafa sex-tigi hundraða, 3; skyldi Högni hafa land, 118; selja skipit, ef hann hafði þat fyrir (if he could get for it) sem hann vildi; Flosi spurði í hverjum aurum hann vildi fyrir hafa, hann kvaðsk vildu fyrir hafa land, 259; hafa tíðindi, sögur af e-m, to have, get tidings of or from one, Ld. 28; hafa sæmd, metorð óvirðing, to get honour, disgrace from one’s hands, Nj. 101; hafa bætr, to get compensation, Grág. i. 188; hafa innstæðuna eina, id.; hafa af e-m, to have the best of one, cheat one. IV. to carry, wear, of clothes, ornaments, weapons: 1. of clothes, [cp. Lat. habitus and Icel. höfn = gear]; hafa hatt á höfði, Ld. 28; hafa váskufl yztan klæða, … þú skalt hafa undir (wear beneath) hin góðu klæði þín, Nj. 32; hann hafði blán kyrtil, … hann hafði svartan kyrtil, Boll. 358; hafa fald á höfði, to wear a hood; hón hafði gaddan rautt á höfði, Orkn. 304; hann hafði um sik breitt belti, he wore a broad belt, Nj. 91; hafa fingr-gull á hendi, 146: to have about one’s person, vefja saman ok hafa í pungi sínum, Edda 27; hlutir sem mönnum var títt at hafa, Fms. xi. 128. 2. of weapons, to wield, carry; spjót þat er þú hefir í hendi, Boll. 350; hafa kylfu í hendi sér, to have a club in one’s hand, Fms. xi. 129; hafa staf í hendi, to have a stick in the hand, Bárð.; Gunnarr hafði atgeirinn ok sverðit, Kolskeggr hafði saxit, Hjörtr hafði alvæpni, Nj. 93; hann hafdi öxi snaghyrnda, Boll. 358; hann hafði kesjuna fyrir sér, he held the lance in rest, Eg. 532. V. here may be added a few special phrases; hafa hendr fyrir sér, to grope, feel with the hands (as in darkness); hafa vit fyrir sér, to act wisely; hafa at sér hendina, to draw one’s hand back, Stj. 198; hafa e-t eptir, to do or repeat a thing after one, Konr.; hafa e-t yfir, to repeat (of a lesson): hafa sik, to betake oneself; hafa sik til annarra landa, Grett. 9 new Ed.; hann vissi varla hvar hann átti at hafa sik, he knew not where (whither) to betake himself, Bs. i. 807; hefir hann sik aptr á stað til munklífisins, Mar.

C. Passing into the sense of hefja (see at the beginning); hafa e-t uppi, to heave up, raise; hafa flokk uppi, to raise a party, to rebel, Fb. ii. 89: hafa uppi færi, net, a fisherman’s term, to heave up, take up the net or line, Háv. 46; Skarphéðinn hafði uppi (heaved up) öxina, Nj. 144: hafa uppi tafl, to play at a game, Vápn. 29; þar vóru mjök töfl uppi höfð ok sagna-skemtan, Þorf. Karl. 406, v. l.: hafa e-n uppi, to hold one up, bring him to light; svá máttu oss skjótast uppi hafa, Fær. 42: metaph. to reveal, vándr riddari hafði allt þegar uppi, Str. 10. 2. with the notion to begin; Bárðr hafði uppi orð sín (began his suit) ok bað Sigríðar, Eg. 26, Eb. 142; hafa upp stefnu, to begin the summons, Boll. 350; hafa upp ræður, to begin a discussion; ræður þær er hann hafði uppi haft við Ingigerði, Fms. iv. 144, where the older text in Ó. H. reads umræður þær er hann hafði upp hafit (from hefja), 59; cp. also Vsp., þat langniðja-tal mun uppi hafat (i. e. hafit) meðan öld lifir, 16, (cp. upp-haf, beginning); þó at ek hafa síðarr um-ræðu um hann, better þó at ek hafa (i. e. hefja) síðarr upp ræðu um hann, though I shall below treat of, discuss that, Skálda (Thorodd) 168; er lengi hefir uppi verit haft síðan (of a song), Nj. 135; cp. also phrases such as, hafa á rás, to begin running, take to one’s heels, Fms. iv. 120, ix. 490; næsta morgin hefir út fjörðinn, the next morning a breeze off land arose, Bs. ii. 48: opp. is the phrase, hafa e-t úti, to have done, finished; hafa úti sitt dags-verk, Fms. xi. 431; hafa úti sekt sína, Grett. 149.

D. Passing into the sense of a lost strong verb, hafa, hóf (see at the beginning), to behave, do, act: I. with an adverb, hafa vel, ílla, or the like, to behave, and in some instances to do well or badly, be happy or unhappy, α. to behave; en nú vil ek eigi verr hafa en þú, Fms. iv. 342; þeir sögðu at konungr vildi verr hafa en þeir, 313; hefir þú ílla ór (málum or the like understood) haft við mik, Fs. 140; ólikr er Gísli öðrum í þolinmæði, ok hefir hann betr en vér, Gísl. 28. β. to do so and so (to be happy, unhappy); verr hafa þeir er trygðum slitu, Mkv. 3; ílla hefir sá er annan svíkr, 18; vel hefir sá er þat líða lætr, 6; vel hefir sá (he is happy) er eigi bíðr slíkt íllt þessa heims, Fms. v. 145; hvílíkt hefir þú, how dost thou? Mar.; hafa hart, to do badly, to be wretched; at sál Þorgils mætti fyrir þær sakir eigi hart hafa, Sturl. iii. 292, Mar.; Ólafr hafði þá hölzti ílla, O. was very poorly, D. N. ii. 156; þykisk sá bezt hafa (happiest) er fyrstr kemr heim, Fms. xi. 248; þá hefir hann bazt af hann þegir, i. e. that is the best he can do if he holds his tongue, Hm. 19; þess get ek at sá hafi verr (he will make a bad bargain) er þik flytr, Nj. 128; úlfgi hefir ok vel, the wolf is in a bad plight, Ls. 39; mun sá betr hafa er eigi tekr við þér, id.; betr hefðir þú, ef …, thou wouldest do better, if …, Akv. 16. γ. adding sik; hafa sik vel, to behave well, Fms. x. 415, Stj. 436. II. with the prep. at, to do, act, (hence at-höfn, at-hæfi, act, doing); hann lét ekki til búa vígs-málit ok engan hlut at hafa, Nj. 71; en ef þeim þykkir of lítið féit tekit, þá skulu þeir hafa at hit sama, to act in the same way, Grág. ii. 267; hvatki es þeir hafa at, Fms. xi. 132; hann tók af þér konuna, en þú hafðir ekki at, but thou didst not stir, didst take it tamely, Nj. 33; bæði munu menn þetta kalla stórvirki ok íllvirki, en þó má nú ekki at hafa, but there is no help for it, 202; eigi sýnisk mér meðal-atferðar-leysi, at vér höfum eigi at um kvámur hans, i. e. that we submit tamely to his coming, Fs. 32: absol., viltú þess freista, ok vita þá hvat at hafi, wilt thou try and see how it will do? Bjarn. 27; en nú skaltú fara fyrir, ok vita hvat at hafi, Bs. i. 712. III. phrases, hafa hátt, to be noisy, talk loud, Fms. i. 66; við skulum ekki hafa hátt (do not cry loud) hér er maðr á glugganum, a lullaby song; hafa lágt, to keep silent; hafa hægt, to keep quiet; hafa sik á (í) hófi, to compose oneself, Ls. 36; hafa í hótum við e-n, to use threatening (foul) language, Fb. i. 312; hafa í glett við e-n, to banter one, Fms. viii. 289; hafa íllt at verki, to do a bad deed, Ísl. ii. 184.

E. Passing into the sense of the verb hæfa (see at the beginning), to aim at, hit, with dat.: I. to hit; svá nær hafði hausinum, at …, the shot so nearly hit the head, that …, Fms. ii. 272; þat sama forað, sem henni hafði næst váða, those very precipices from which she had so narrow an escape, Bs. i. 200, Fms. ix. 357; nær hafði nú, at skjótr mundi verða okkarr skilnaðr, Al. 124; nær hafði okkr nú, it struck near us, it was a narrow escape, Fms. viii. 281; kvaðsk svá dreymt hafa (have dreamed), at þeim mundi nær hafa, ix. 387, v. l.; ok er nær hafði at skipit mundi fljóta, when the ship was on the point of floating, Ld. 58; ok hafði svá nær (it was within a hair’s breadth), at frændr Þorvalds mundu ganga at honum, Nj. 160; ok hafði svá nær at þeir mundi berjask, Íb. 11, cp. Bs. i. 21: the phrase, fjarri hefir, far from it! Edda (in a verse). 2. to charge; eigi em ek þar fyrir sönnu hafðr, I am not truly aimed at for that, ‘tis a false charge, Eg. 64; þeim manni er fyrir sökum er hafðr, i. e. the culprit, Grág. i. 29; cp. the mod. phrase, hafa á e-u, to make a charge of a thing; það varð ekki á því haft, they could not make a case for a charge of it. II. metaph. to be the ground or reason for, (hence til-hæfa, reason, fact, foundation); til þess ætla vitrir menn þat haft at Ísland sé Tile (i. e. Thule) kallað, at …, learned men suppose that is the reason that Iceland is called Thule, that …, Landn. (pref.); mikit mun til haft, er einmæli er um (there must be some reason for it, because all people say so), Þorgils segir, eigi er fyrir haft (there is no ground whatever for it), at ek mæla betr fyrir griðum en aðrir menn, Ísl. ii. 379; vér hyggjum þat til þess haft vera, at þar hafi menn sésk, we believe the substance of the story is that men have been seen there, Fms. xi. 158; hvat er til þess haft um þat (what is the truth of the matter?), hefir sundr-þykki orðit með ykkr? Boll. 364: in the saying, hefir hverr til síns ágætis nokkut, every one gets his reputation for something, Nj. 115. 2. to happen, coincide; hefir svá til, at hann var þar sjálfr, Fms. xi. 138, v. l. β. the phrase, hafa mikit (lítið) til síns máls, to have much (little) reason for one’s tale, i. e. to be much, little, in the right, Fms. vii. 221, xi. 138 (v. l.), Nj. 88: um þenna hefir svá stórum, it matters so much with this man, (v. l. for mun stórum skipta), Fms. xi. 311.

F. REFLEX. to keep, dwell, abide, but only of a temporary shelter or abode, cp. Lat. habitare, (cp. also höfn, a haven); hann hefsk á náttartíma niðri í vötnum, at night-time he keeps down in the water, Stj. 77: to live, þeir höfðusk mjök í kaupferðum, they spent much of their life in travelling, Hkr. i. 276; hann hafðisk löngum í bænum, Bs. i. 353. β. with prep. við; hér mun ek við hafask (I will stay here) en þú far til konungs, Fb. ii. 125; hafðisk hann við á skógum eðr í öðrum fylgsnum, 302; því at hann hafðisk þá á skipum við, Fms. viii. 44; hvílsk heldr ok hafsk við í því landi, rest and stay in that land, Stj. 162; Ásgeirr hafðisk við uppi í dalnum, Sd. 154; hafask lind fyrir, to cover oneself with a shield (?), Vsp. 50; hafask hlífar fyrir, to be mailed in armour, Hkm. 11. 2. hafask at, to do, behave (cp. D. above); vóru þeir þá svá móðir, at þeir máttu ekki at hafask, Fms. ii. 149; en síðan skulut þér at hafa slíkt sem ek kann fyrir segja, i. 158; þat eitt munu við at hafask, at ek mun betr göra en þú, Nj. 19; Lambi sá hvat Steinarr hafðisk at, Eg. 747. 3. hafask vel, to do well, thrive; vaxa ok vel hafask, to wax and do well, Hm. 142; nú er þat bæn mín, at þér hafisk við vel, that you bear yourself well up, Fms. ix. 497; Jungfrúin hafðisk vel við í ferðinni, x. 86; at fé hans mundi eigi hafask at betr at meðal-vetri, Grág. ii. 326. 4. recipr., hafask orð við, to speak to one another; ok er þat ósiðlegt, at menn hafisk eigi orð við, Fs. 14; þar til er þeir hafask réttar tölur við, N. G. L. i. 182. II. part. hafandi is used in the sense of having conceived, being with child; þá verit hann varr við at hón var hafandi, 656 B. 14; hón skyldi verða hafandi at Guðs syni, id.; generally, allt þat er hafanda var lét burð sinn ok ærðisk, Fms. vii. 187; svá sem hón verðr at honum hafandi, Stj. 178; (hence barns-hafandi, being with child.)

G. The word hafa is in the Icel., as in other Teut. languages, used as an auxiliary verb with a part. pass. of another verb, whereby a compound preterite and pluperfect are formed as follows: I. in transitive verbs with acc. the participle also was put in acc., agreeing in gender, number, and case with the objective noun or pronoun; this seems to have been a fixed rule in the earliest time, and is used so in all old poems down at least to the middle of the 11th century, to the time of Sighvat (circ. A. D. 990–1040), who constantly used the old form,—átt is an apostrophe for átta in the verse Ó. H. 81: 1. references from poets, Gm. 5, 12, 16; þá er forðum mik fædda höfðu, Vsp. 2; hverr hefði lopt lævi blandit eðr ætt jötuns Óðs mey gefna, 29; þær’s í árdaga áttar höfðu, 60: ek hafða fengna konungs reiði, Ad. 3; en Grjótbjörn um gnegðan hefir, 18; mik hefir marr miklu ræntan, Stor. 10; þó hefir Míms-vinr mér um fengnar bölva bætr, 22: gaupur er Haraldr hafi sveltar, Hornklofi: Loka mær hefir leikinn allvald, Ýt. 7; sá hafði borinn brúna-hörg, 14; jarlar höfðu veginn hann, 15: ek hef orðinn (found) þann guðföðr (verða is here used as trans.), Hallfred; höfum kera framðan, id.: hann hefir litnar, sénar, hár bárur, Ísl. ii. 223, thus twice in a verse of A. D. 1002; göngu hefik of gengna, Korm. (in a verse); hann hafði farna för, Hkr. i. (Glum Geirason); ek hefi talðar níu orustur, Sighvat; þú hefir vanðan þik, id.; ér hafit rekna þá braut, Ó. H. 63 (Óttar Svarti); hann hefir búnar okkr hendr skrautliga, Sighvat (Ó. H. 13); þeir hafa færð sín höfuð Knúti, id.; hvar hafit ér hugðan mér sess, id.; hafa sér kenndan enn nørðra heims enda, id.; Sighvatr hefir lattan gram, id.; hefir þú hamar um fólginn, Þkv. 7, 8; þú hefir hvatta okkr, Gkv. 6; ek hefi yðr brennda, Am. 39, cp. 56; hefi ek þik minntan, 81; hefir þú hjörtu tuggin, Akv. 36; hefir þú mik dvalðan, Hbl. 51; ek hefi hafðar þrár, I have had throes, Fsm. 51; en ek hann görvan hef-k, svá hefi ek studdan, 12 (verse 13 is corrupt); hann hefir dvalða þik, Hkv. Hjörv. 29; lostna, 30; mik hefir sóttan meiri glæpr, 32; ek hefi brúði kerna, id.; þú hefir etnar úlfa krásir, opt sár sogin, Hkv. 1. 36; sá er opt hefir örnu sadda, 35; hefir þú kannaða koni óneisa, 23; þá er mik svikna höfðut, Skv. 3. 55; hann hafði getna sonu, Bkv. 8; þann sal hafa halir um görvan, Fm. 42; bróður minn hefir þú benjaðan, 25; er hann ráðinn hefir, 37; sjaldan hefir þú gefnar vargi bráðir, Eg. (in a verse). 2. references from prose; this old form has since been turned into an indecl. neut. sing. part. -it. The old form was first lost in the strong verbs and the weak verbs of the first conjugation: in the earliest prose both forms are used, although the indecl. is more freq. even in the prose writers, as Íb., the Heiðarv. S., the Miracle-book in Bs., Njála, Ó. H., (Thorodd seems only to use the old form,) as may be seen from the following references, Björn hafði særða þrjá menn, Nj. 262; hann mundi hana hafa gipta honum, 47; hann hafði þá leidda saman hestana, 264: ek hefi sendan mann, Ísl. (Heiðarv. S.) ii. 333; ek nefi senda menn, id.: hafa son sinn ór helju heimtan, Bs. (Miracle-book) i. 337; en er þeir höfðu niðr settan sveininn, 349; hann hafði veidda fimm tegu fiska, 350: er þér hefir ílla neisu gorva, Ó. H. 107: þá hefi ek fyrri setta þá í stafrófi, Skálda (Thorodd) 161; þar hefi ek við görva þessa stafi fjóra, id.; hafa hann samsettan, 167: góða fylgd hefir þú mér veitta, Þorst Síðu H. 2: sagði, at Ólafr konungr hafði sendan hann, Bs. i. 11: Þyri, er hertogi hafði festa nauðga, Fms. x. 393 (Ágrip): hefi ek þá svá signaða ok magnaða, v. 236: hefir sólin gengna tvá hluti, en einn úgenginn, K. Þ. K. 92 (Lund’s Syntax, p. 12). β. again, neut. indecl., hana hafði átt fyrr Þoróddr, Ísl. ii. 192: hón hafði heimt húskarl sinn …, Ísl. (Heiðarv. S.) ii. 339; hann hefir ekki svá vel gyrt hest minn, 340; hefir þú eigi séð mik, 341; hve hann hafði lokkat hann. id.; gistingar hefi ek yðr fengit, 343: þeir höfðu haft úfrið ok orrostur, Íb. 12; hann hafði tekið lögsögu, 14: stafr er átt hafði Þorlákr, Bs. (Miracle-book) i. 340; er þær höfðu upp tekit ketilinn ok hafit …, 342; göngu es hann hafði gingit, 344; es sleggjuna hafði niðr fellt, 346; sem maðr hefði nýsett (hana) niðr, id.; jartein þá er hann þóttisk fingit hafa, 347; hafði prestrinn fært fram sveininn, 349: hjálm er Hreiðmarr hafði átt, Edda 73: hafa efnt sína heitstrenging, Fms. (Jómsv. S.) xi. 141: slíkan dóm sem hann hafði mér hugat, Ó. H. 176, etc. passim:—at last the inflexion disappeared altogether, and so at the present time the indecl. neut. sing. is used throughout; yet it remains in peculiar instances, e. g. konu hefi eg mér festa, Luke xiv. 20, cp. Vídal. ii. 21. ☞ This use of the inflexive part. pass. may often serve as a test of the age of a poem, e. g. that Sólarljóð was composed at a later date may thus be seen from verses 27, 64, 72, 73, 75, 79; but this test is to be applied with caution, as the MSS. have in some cases changed the true forms (-inn, -ann, and -it, -an being freq. abbreviated in the MSS. so as to render the reading dubious). In many cases the old form is no doubt to be restored, e. g. in vegit to veginn, Fm. 4, 23; búit to búinn, Hkv. Hjörv. 15; borit to borinn, Hkv. 1. 1; beðit to beðinn, Fsm. 48; orðit to orðin, Og. 23; roðit to roðinn, Em. 5; brotið to brotinn, Vkv. 24, etc.: but are we to infer from Ls. 23, 26, 33, that this poem is of a comparatively late age? II. the indecl. neut. sing. is, both in the earliest poems and down to the present day, used in the following cases: 1. with trans. verbs requiring the dat. or gen.; ek hefi fengit e-s, hann hafði fengit konu; hafa hefnt e-s, Fms. xi. 25; sú er hafði beðit fjár, Þkv. 32; stillir hefir stefnt mér, Hkv. Hjörv. 33, and so in endless cases. 2. in the reflex. part. pass.; þeir (hann) hafa (hefir) látisk, farisk, sagsk, etc. 3. in part. of intrans. neut. verbs, e. g. þeir þær (hann, hón), hafa (hefir) setið, staðit, gengit, legit, farit, komit, verit, orðit, lifað, dáit, heitið …, also almost in every line both of prose and poetry. 4. in trans. verbs with a neut. sing. in objective case the difference cannot be seen.

☞ The compound preterite is common to both the Romance and Teutonic languages, and seems to be older in the former than in the latter; Grimm suggests that it originated with the French, and thence spread to the Teutons. That it was not natural to the latter is shewn by the facts, that α. no traces of it are found in Gothic, nor in the earliest Old High German glossaries to Latin words. β. in the earliest Scandinavian poetry we can trace its passage from declinable to indeclinable. γ. remains are left in poetry of a primitive uncompounded preterite infinitive, e. g. stóðu = hafa staðit, mundu, skyldu, vildu, etc., see Gramm. p. xxv, col. 2. ☞ We may here note a curious dropping of the verb hefir, at ek em kominn hingat til lands, ok verit áðr (having been) langa hríð utan-lands, Ó. H. 31, cp. Am. 52; barn at aldri, en vegit slíka hetju sem Þorvaldr var, Glúm. 382. On this interesting matter see Grimm’s remarks in his Gramm. iv. 146 sqq.

hafald, n. (qs. hafhald), the perpendicular thrums that hold the weft.

hafli, a, m. name of a giant, Edda (Gl.)

HAFNA, að, to forsake, abandon, with dat.; hafna blótum ok heiðnum goðum, Fms. i. 33; h. fornum sið, Eb. 12; h. fornum átrúnaði, Anal. 141; h. fjándanum, K. Á. 74; h. líkamligum lystingum, 671. 4; h. boðum e-s, to disobey one’s orders, Andr. 65; h. ráði e-s, Al. 166; kýr hafnaði átinu, the cow left off eating, Bs. i. 194; ef hann hafnaði sínum úkynnum, Fms. v. 218; opt hafnar mær manni fyrir litla sök, MS. 4. 6; áðr ek þér hafna, lest I forsake thee, Korm. 50 (in a verse); h. hungri, poët. to feast, Fms. xi. 138 (in a verse); h. fjörvi, to die, Hkr. i. (in a verse); h. nafni e-s, to disown one, Hallfred; hafnið Nefju nafna, ye forsake (disgrace) the namesake of Nefja, Hkr. i. (in a verse); fyrir-litinn eða hafnaðr, Stj. 157, 173: part. hafnandi forsaking, Sks. 3. II. reflex. of cows and ewes, to conceive, to calve, lamb. III. hafna, að, to come to anchor; or hafna sig, id.

hafnan and höfnun, f. forsaking, abandonment, Hom. 2, Sks. 3, 612, Barl. 148; h. veraldar, Fms. v. 239; höfnun heims, Greg. 28; til hafnanar (disgrace) ok háðungar, K. Á. 208.

hafnar-, vide höfn, a haven.

hafn-bit, n. pasture, grazing, N. G. L. i. 25; cp. Dan. havne-gang.

hafn-borg, f. a sea borough, Þjal. 29.

hafning, f. a heaving up, elevation, lifting, of christening (cp. the phrase, hefja ór heiðnum dómi = to christen), N. G. L. i. 339, 340.

hafn-leysa, u, f. (hafn-leysi, n., Hkr. iii. 266), a harbourless coast, Sks. 223, N. G. L. i. 10, Eg. 161, Fs. 150.

hafn-ligr, adj. harbour-like, Eg. 99.

hafn-skipti, n. division of land (pasture), N. G. L. i. 249.

hafn-taka, u, f. ‘haven-taking,’ getting into harbour, N. G. L. ii. 280.

HAFR, m., gen. hafrs, pl. hafrar; hafrir, Haustl. 15, is scarcely correct: [A. S. hæfer, cp. Engl. heifer; Lat. caper]:—a buck, he-goat, Edda, of the he-goats of Thor, Hdl. 46, Þkv. 21, Lv. 47, 52, Hrafn. 3, Nj. 62, Grág. i. 427, 503, Eb. 94; hafra hár, goats’ hair, Magn. (pref.), Andr. 70. COMPDS: hafrs-belgr, m. = hafrstaka, Fb. iii. 400. hafrs-liki, n. the shape of a goat, Eb. 94. hafrs-þjó, n. buck’s thigh, a nickname, Landn. hafr-kytti, n. a kind of whale, Sks. 128. hafr-staka, u, f. a goat’s skin, Edda 28, Fms. vi. 96, Bs. 4. 551, Gísl. 7: in local names, Hafra-fell, Hafra-gil, Hafra-nes, Hafra-tindr, Hafra-tunga, Hafrs-á, Landn.; Hafrs-fjörðr (in Norway), Fms. xii, Fb. iii.

HAFR, m., only in pl. hafrar, [Germ. haber; North. E. haver], oats; it seems not to occur in old writers.

haf-rekr, m. sea-drifted. Heine havreki or Heine the sea-drifted is the name of the hero of a Faroe legend, told by Schlyter in Antiqu. Tidskrift, 1849–1851. The legend makes him the father of the arch-pirate Magnus Heineson, a historical person, whose exploits are told in Debes’ book; this Magnus, we may presume, served as a model to Scott’s Pirate (that Scott knew of Debes is scon from note K to the Pirate). The Faroe legend bears a striking likeness to the Anglo-Norman Haveloc the Dane; both name and story may have a common origin, ‘Haveloc’ being a corrupted French form, with r changed into l for the sake of euphony, haf-rót, n. a violent swell of the sea.

haft and hapt, n. [hafa], properly a handcuff; sprettr mér af fótum fjöturr, en af höndum haft, Hm. 150, 149: then generally a bond, chain, harðgör höft ór þörmum, Vsp. (Hb.); sitja í höftum, to be in fetters as a prisoner, Mar. 11; fætr hans váru í höptum, Mork. 205; leysa e-n ór höftum, Ls. 37; halda e-n í höftum, to keep one in bonds, Fb. i. 378; at hann er óðr ok hann má koma höftum á hann ef hann vill, Gþl. 149: the hobbles or tether fastened to a horse’s leg, taka af, leggja á haft; ef haft er áfast hrossi, Grág. i. 436, freq. in mod. usage, cp. hefta: so in the phrase, verða e-m at hafti, to be a hindrance or stumbling-block to one, Nj. (in a verse). haft-bönd, n. pl. fetter-bonds, Fas. iii. 17. II. metaph., pl. gods (as band II. 3), Edda 96. COMPDS: hafta-guð, n. the god of gods, the supreme god, of Odin, Edda 14. hafta-snytrir, m. the friend of the gods, Haustl. haft-sœni, n. the atonement (Germ. sühne) of the gods, i. e. poetry, Korm.; cp. the tale in Edda 47.

hafta, u, f. a female prisoner, a bondwoman; hafta ok hernuma, Gkv. 1. 9, Hkv. 2. 3; oft finnr ambátt höftu, Edda ii. 491 (in a verse).

haftr, m. a male prisoner, a bondman; haftr ok hernuminn, Fm. 7, 8, Vsp. 39, Akv. 28.

HAGA, að, [Hel. bihagan; Germ. behagen], to manage, arrange, with dat.; hversu hann skyldi haga verks-háttum sínum, Eb. 150; svá skulu vér haga inngöngu várri, at …, Fms. i. 16; en nú var oss því hægra at haga kostum þeirra eptir várri vild, vi. 261; at haga svá formælinu, at …, to put the words so, that …, 655 xi. 2; haga sér til sess, to take one’s seat, Ó. H. (in a verse); haga hálft yrkjum, to take the middle course, Am. 57; en fénu var hagat til gæzlu, the money was taken into keeping, Fms. iv. 31; þeim er sólina gerði, ok heiminum hagaði ok hann gerði, Fagrsk. 11. β. with adv., skal erkibiskup haga svá, at hann hafi lög, N. G. L. i. 145; hvernig skulum vér þá til haga, Fms. vi. 201;. γ. to conduct oneself, behave; þér hagit yðr verr en annarr lýðr, Stj. 430; ef vegandi hefir sér til óhelgi hagat, Grág. ii. 106; ef hann hagar annan veg (does otherwise), ok verðr hann útlagr um þrem mörkum, K. Þ. K. 84. δ. with prep. til, to contrive; svarði hann eiða, at hann skyldi svá til haga, at …, Edda 26; bað Þórir svá til haga, at Egill sé ekki langvistum í mínu ríki, Eg. 237; hagaðu svá til, at þú vitir víst at Hrærekr komi aldregi síðan lífs til Noregs, Ó. H. 75; haga svá (til) sem Jökull vildi, Fs. 10. 2. absol., haga e-m, to turn out so and so for one; en þetta sama hagaði honum til mikils háska, but this turned out to his great peril, Fms. viii. 17; þat hagar okkr til auðar, it falls luckily for us, Gísl. (in a verse); ok hagar þá siðleysi eigi vel fyrir manni, Sks. 280; oss þætti sem þér sé lítt til gamans hagat, Fas. ii. 225; ok hefir vætr meir til úyndis hagat, en þá, i. e. it was a sore calamity, Bs. i. 79; er sálinni hagar til mikils háska, which is fraught with much peril to the soul, Al. 163; þat hagaði Ólafi til mikils harms, Fms. x. 239; í þeim eyri sem okkr bezt hagaði, in the money which suited us best. D. N.; vil ek gefa þér skip þetta með þeim farmi, sem ek veit vel hagar til Íslands, with a cargo which I know is suitable for Iceland, Fms. vi. 305; en mér er eigi um at finna hann, þannig sem til hagat er, as matters stand, Orkn. 428. II. reflex. (rare), en það hagask svá til (it so happened) at þeir gengu út fjórir, Sturl. i. 129 (where Bs. i. 434, berr svá til, at …). III. part., at höguðu, meet, fitting; eigi skiptir þá at höguðu til, ef …, ‘tis not fitting, if …, Fms. ii. 61; cp. at högum, Fs. 99, l. c., and 79 (bottom):—van-haga, impers. to lack, want.

Hagall, m. a mythical pr. name: the name of the Rune h, whence Hagals-ætt, f. the second part of the Runic alphabet, vide introd. p. 227.

hagan, högun, f. management; til-högun, arrangement.

haganligr, adj. fit, meet, comfortable, (mod.)

Hag-barðr, m. name of a Danish mythical hero, ‘with the fine beard,’ Saxo, Grett. (in a verse): a name of Odin (cp. Harbarðr, Síð-grani, Síð-skeggr), Edda.

hag-beit, f. pasturage, Jm. 26.

hag-faldin, part. hooded with hedges, poët. of the earth, Fms. vi. 140.

hag-fastr, adj. of cattle, grazing constantly, Rb.

hag-fátt, n. adj. short of grazing, Fms. vi. 103.

hag-feldr, adj. fit, meet, suited for; ek mun þér h., því at ek em verkmaðr góðr, en þú ert iðju-maðr sjálfr, Njarð. 366; h. eyrendi, a meet errand, Ísl. ii. 458; allir hlutir hagfeldir ok farsælligir, Ó. H. 195.

hag-fella, u, f. a field, hagfellu-garðr, m. a field fence, Gþl. 381.

hag-fræði, f. agricultural statistics, (mod.)

HAGGA, að, to put out of order, derange, with dat.; e-t stendr ó-haggað, to remain unmoved: reflex. to be put out of joint.

hag-genginn, part. grass-fed, fattened in the pastures, of cattle, Stj. 560. 1 Kings iv. 23.

HAGI, a, m. [A. S. haga = a fence; Dan. have = a garden; Swed. hage; North. E. hag; Engl. hedge; cp. Old Engl. hay, Hayes as local names; the word still remains as an appellative in haw-thorn = hedge-thorn; haw-haw = a sunk fence]:—a pasture, prop. a ‘hedged field,’ Grág. ii. 227, Nj. 33, Fms. vii. 54, Ísl. ii. 330, Karl. 133; var hestum hagi fenginn, the horses were put out to grass, Fb. ii. 340; fjár-hagi, sauð-hagi, sheep pasture; fjall-hagar, fell pastures; heima-hagar, home pastures; út-hagi, out pasture (far from the farm); Icel. distinguish between tún and engjar for haymaking, and hagar for grazing. COMPDS: haga-beit, f. grazing, Eg. 718, Grág. ii. 224. haga-ganga, u, f. grazing. haga-garðr, m. a field fence, Pm. 88, Eb. 132, Fs. 47: Hagi is freq. the name of a farm, Landn. Haga-land, n. the estate of the farm Hagi, Sturl. ii. 171. haga-spakr, adj. = hagfastr.

hagi, a, m. [hagr], only in compds, þjóð-hagi, a great artist.

hagindi, n. pl. comfort, advantage, B. K. 110, H. E. ii. 165; vide hægindi.

hag-jörð, f. pasture land, Stj. 168, Sd. 167.

hag-keypi, n. a good bargain, Fb. ii. 75, iii. 450.

hag-kvæmr (hag-kvæmiligr), adj. meet, useful.

HAGL, n. [A. S. hagal; Engl. hail; Gerrn. hagel; Dan. hagel; Swed. hagel]:—hail, Fms. i. 175, Nj. 232, Ann. 1275, Glúm. 342, Bs. i. 698, passim. COMPDS: hagl-dropi, a, m. a hail-stone, Stj. 274. hagl-hríð, f. a hail-storm, Stj. 274, 275, Fms. iii. 180. hagl-korn, n. a hail-stone, Fms. i. 175, xi. 142. hagl-steinn, m. a hail-stone, Ann. 1275. hagl-vindr, m. a hail-storm, Pröv. 454. II. in plur. grapes, (mod.)

hagla, að, to hail.

hag-laust (hag-leysa, u, f.), n. adj. barren, without grass.

hag-leikr (-leiki), m. skill in handicraft, Bs. i. 138, 681, Sks. 443, 633, Stj. 519, Al. 93, Barl. 167, Fb. ii. 296, passim. hagleiks-görð, f. fine workmanship, Bs. i. 681. hagleiks-maðr, m. a handicrafts-man, an artist, Fas. ii. 463, Barl. 167.

hag-lendi, n. [hagi], pasture land.

hag-liga, adv. skilfully, handily, Fms. vi. 217: conveniently, suitably, meetly, v. 43, Sl. 72, Þkv. 16, 19 (neatly).

hag-ligr, adj. fine, handy, skilful, Mar.: fit, meet, proper, convenient, h. ráð, Fms. vii. (in a verse), K. Þ. K. 100; furðu h. geit, a very proper goat, Edda 24; ú-hagligr, troublesome, Bs. ii. 115.

hag-mýrr, f. [hagi], a pasture marsh, Sd. 167.

hag-mæltr, part. well-spoken, Fms. iv. 374: a kind of metre, Edda 138: in mod. usage only of one who has skill in verse-making, hann er lagmæltr, a happy verse-maker, but not yet a skáld, poet.

hagna, að, e-m hagnar, to be meet for one; hvárum ykkrum hefir betr hagnað, which of you has had the best luck? Fms. v. 193, xi. 212 (in a verse).

hagnaðr, m. advantage, Hkr. ii. 85.

hag-nýta, tt, to make use of, Rb. 42, D. N., freq. in mod. usage.

hag-orðr, adj. well-spoken, Fms. iii. 152.

HAGR, adj. handy, skilful, opp. to bagr, q. v.; hagr á tré, Bs. ii. 146; hagr á járn, Gísl. 18; hagr maðr á tré ok járn, Eg. 4, Ölk. 34; hann var hagr maðr, Ísl. ii. 325; hann húsar upp bæinn, því at hann var allra manna hagastr, 171; því at þú ert umsýslu-maðr mikill ok hagr vel, Fms. i. 290; Hreiðarr bað Eyvind fá sér silfr nokkut og gull, Eyvindr spurði ef hann væri hagr, vi. 214; þann mann er hagastr var á öllu Íslandi á tré, Bs. i. 132; hann valdi þann mann til kirkju-görðar, er þá þótti einn hverr hagastr vera, sá hét Þóroddr Gamlason, 163, 235; Völundr var hagastr maðr svá at menn viti í fornum sögum, Sæm. 89: of a lady, hón var svá hög (so handy at needlework) at fár konur vóru jafnhagar henni, Nj. 147; hón var væn kona ok hög á hendr, Ísl. ii. 4; Margrét hin haga, Bs. i. 143: of dwarfs, hagir dvergar, Hdl. 7; whence dverg-hagr, skilful as a dwarf. 2. = hagligr, of work; sem ek hagast kunna, as handily as I could, Vkv. 17: skurð-hagr, skilled in carving; orð-hagr = hagorðr; þjóð-hagr, a great artist.

HAGR, m., gen. hags, pl. hagir, [as to the root vide haga, cp. also the preceding word]:—state, condition; honum þótti þá komit hag manna í únýtt efni, Jb. 12; hefi ek sagt þér allt er yfir minn hag hefir gengit, Mar., Hom. 126, 155; at njósna hvat um hag Ástríðar mundi vera, Fms. i. 68; annan vetr eptir var Halldóra með barni, og lauksk seint um hag hennar, and she got on slowly, of a woman in labour, Sturl. i. 199; hann sagði með undrum hans hag fram flytjask, he said that his affairs went on in a strange way, Fb. i. 380; en nú tekr hagr minn at úhægjask, Þorf. Karl. 370. β. in plur. affairs; hversu komtu hér, eðr hvat er nú um hagi þína? Fms. i. 79; hversu hann skyldi nú með fara eðr breyta högum sínum, Nj. 215; var þat brátt auðséð á hennar högum (doings), at hón mundi vera vitr, Ld. 22; ef þér segit nokkrum frá um hagi vára Rúts, Nj. 7; lands-hagir, public affairs. II. metaph. means; ef hann hefir eigi hag til at færa þau fram, Grág. i. 232; hann skal færa þeim manni er nánastr er, þeirra manna er hag á til viðtökunnar, 248; en ef erfingi hefir eigi hag til framfærslu, 250; ef maðr týnir svá fé sínu, at hann á eigi hag at gjalda alla landaura, ii. 410; ráða-hagr, a match; fjár-hagr, money affairs. 2. advantage, favour, gain; svo eru hyggindi sem í hag koma, a saying; bera kvið í hag e-m, to pronounce for one, Grág. i. 176; hallat hefi ek víst, segir konungr, ok þó í hag þér, Fms. ii. 272; greiddisk eigi byrrinn mjök í hag þeim, Fb. iii. 446; hrolldi hvatvetna þat er til hags skyldi, Am. 95; ó-hagr, disadvantage. 3. adverbial phrase, at högum, suitably; eigi skiptir þat högum til, ‘tis not meet, ‘tis a shame, unfair, Fs. 79; eigi hefir hér at högum verit til skipt, 99; Kormakr kvað eigi at högum til skipta, ef hann sparir eigi við þik sverðit, en hann sparir við oss, Korm. 80; the mod. phrase, fara sínum högum ok munum, to do at one’s leisure, as one is pleased. hags-munir, m. pl. profit; at hann gerði hinum hagsmuni, fimm aura eðr meira fjár, í kaupinu, Grág. ii. 241 (freq. in mod. usage).

hag-ráð, n. an opportunity, O. H. L. 33.

hag-ráðr, adj. giving wise counsel, Nj. 2.

hag-ræða, dd, to put right, put in order, with dat., Fas. iii. 10.

hag-ræði, n. comfort, Hom. 19: service, Band. 4; en föður sínum görði hann aldri hagræði, 6; leggja til hagræðis með e-m, to do service to one, Bs. ii. 179.

hag-ræðr, adj. = hagráðr, N. G. L. ii.

hag-skeytr, adj. a good shot, Edda (Ub.) 270.

hag-skipti, n. fairness, a fair bargain, Þórð. 21.

hag-smiðliga, adv. handily, Jb. 218.

hag-smiðr, m. an artist, adept, Edda 96 (in a verse).

hag-spakligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), practically wise, Sks. 627.

hag-spakr, adj. sensible, practical, Ver. 17.

hag-speki, f. forethought, good sense, Fas. iii. 7, Sks. 50.

hag-stæðr, adj. fair, favourable, of wind and weather; h. byrr, a fair wind, Eb. 332; veðr hagstætt, Eg. 390; stór veðr ok hagstæð, Fms. ii. 64, Þorf. Karl. 372.

hag-sýni, n. a practised eye, (mod.)

hag-sæld, f. wealth, well-being, (mod.)

hag-tækr, adj. practical, Fb. i. 433.

hag-virki, n. master-work, Ísl. ii. 253 (in a verse), Od. xix. 227 (δαίδαλον).

hag-virk-liga, adv. in a workmanlike manner, to the purpose, Grág. ii. 338.

hag-virkr, adj. workmanlike.

hag-þorn, m. [hagi], the hawthorn, ‘hedge-thorn,’ Edda (Gl.), Stj. 395.

hai, interj. alas! Stj. 649, the rendering of heu heu! in the Vulgate, cp. ai, Sæm. 118.

hak, n. a little hook, such as the barb of a hook.

HAKA, u, f. [Swed. haka; Dan. hage], the chin, Eg. 305; skeggit við hökuna, 564; höku ok kjálka, Fms. ii. 59, xi. 139, N. G. L. i. 339, Edda; undir-haka, a double chin. COMPDS: höku-bein, n. the chin bone, Sd. 169. höku-langr, adj. having a long chin, Bárð. 165. höku-mikill, adj. having a large chin, Sd. 147. höku-skarð, n. a cleft in the chin. höku-skegg, n. the beard on the chin, Fas. ii. 434, Hkr. ii. 176.

haki, a, m. [Dan. hage; Swed. hake; Germ. haken; Engl. hook], a hook, (rare): a mythical pr. name, Edda, Fas.

hakka, að, to devour, eat ravenously, as a beast, (cant word.)

hak-langr, adj. = hökulangr, a nickname, Hkr. i.

hala, að, to haul, Mar. 1054 (Dan. hale).

HALD, n. (vide halda), hold: 1. a hold, fastening; nýtr bóndi afls ok kippir vaðnum, þvíat hann hugði haldit annan veg eigi bila, Fms. xi. 442. 2. a law phrase, withholding; gagna-hald, Grág. ii. 273; þá á hann kost hvárt er hann vill at hætta til haldsins eðr eigi, … en ef hón er login, þá verðr eigi rétt haldit, i. 312; stefna um tíundar hald, ok telja hinn sekjan um, K. Þ. K. 46. II. upholding, maintenance: 1. reparation; fyrir hald á kirkju, Vm. 12; segja til halds kirkjunni (to defray the repairs of the kirk) þann jarðar-teig, Dipl. iii. 12. 2. a law term, possession; sögðum vér með fullum laga-órskurði Guðmundi til halds sagða jörð, Dipl. iii. 5; hafa vald eðr hald e-s hlutar, Bs. i. 720; hón á tveggja króka hald í vatnið, she (the church) has the hold (right) of two hooks in the lake, Pm. 41. β. þessum fénaði beit ok hald (bite and occupation) fyrir sunnan á, Dipl. v. 10. 3. support, backing; við tókum okkr hald þar er Guð var, Hom. 154; hann hefir nú hald mikit af konungi, he has much support from the king, Eg. 336: so in the phrase, hald ok traust, help and support in need; hón hafði þenna mann sent honum til halds ok trausts, Ld. 46: and in the phrases, koma e-m at haldi or í hald, to prove true to one, be of use, help to one; ok má hann enn vel koma þér at haldi, Ísl. ii. 329; ílla koma honum góðir frændr í hald, Fms. x. 413, Greg. 22; eigi veit ek mér verr í hald koma úknáleik minn en þér afl þitt, Fms. vi. 203, Fs. 182; kemr oss þat lið ekki at haldi, Fms. viii. 214, xi. 31; þvíat vér höfum ærit mart (lið) ef oss kæmi þat vel at haldi, Nj. 192; hér kemr ílla í hald, this comes ill to help, is a great shame, Lv. 95. 4. custody; Ólafr konungr tók þá við haldi Hæreks konungs, Ó. H. 73; hafa e-n í haldi, to keep one in custody, freq.: hence varð-hald, custody. 5. entertainment; fór hann til hirðar jarls ok var með honum í góðu haldi, Bjarn. 5; hann var þar um vetrinn ok í því hærra haldi af húsfreyju sem hann var lengr, Fms. vii. 112. 6. a course, a naut. term; ef stýrimenn vilja báðir fara, ok skilr þá um hald, Grág. ii. 398: hence áfram-hald, going on; aptr-hald, return. 7. holding, meaning, suggestion; það er hald manna, freq. in mod. usage, but no reference to old writers has been found. 8. keeping, tending, of cattle; góð höld á skepnum, goð skepnu-höld, freq. III. a holding, keeping, observance, of a feast, holiday; allra heilagra manna hald, Ver. 53; þótt et meira hald sé á dægrinu, although it be a holiday of first degree, Grág. ii. 360; var þá þegar tekinn í mikit hald hans lífláts-dagr, Fms. xi. 309; í borg þessi var Þórs-hof í miklu haldi, in high worship, Al. 19: hence hátíða-hald, keeping high holidays; Jóla-hald, Fms. i. 32; Drottins-daga-hald, Nj. 165; af-hald, upp-á-hald, esteem, ‘uphold;’ ártíða hald, B. K. 25; níu lestra-höld, reading the nine legends, Vm. 51, 64. IV. in plur., höld, handles; klukka lítil af höldin, Vm. 42; handar-hald, a handle; cp. also haf-ald: á-höld, utensils. halds-maðr, m. a keeper, guardian, Gþl. 258, 501, Js. 121.

HALDA, pret. hélt (= Goth. haihald), 2nd pérs. hélt, mod. hélzt, pl. héldum; pres. held, pl. höldum; pret. subj. héldi; part. haldinn; imperat. hald and haltú: [Ulf. haldan = βόσκειν, ποιμαίνειν, whereas he renders to keep, hold by other words; Hel. haldan = alere, fovere, colere, which thus seems to be the primitive sense of the word, and to be akin to Lat. cŏlo; again, A. S. healdan, Engl. hold, O. H. G. haltan, Germ. halten, Swed. hålla, halda, Dan. holde, are all of them used in a more general sense]:—to hold.

A. WITH DAT. to hold to: I. to hold fast by; with the notion of restraint or force, tók Gizurr förunaut Ögmundar ok hélt honum, Sturl. i. 150; Gunnarr var kyrr svá at honum hélt einn maðr, Nj. 92; ef maðr heldr manni …, varðar fjörbaugs-garð, Grág. ii. 110; h. e-m undir drep, 17; h. skipum (to grapple the ships) með stafnljám, Fms. ii. 315: to keep back, Hrafn fékk eigi haldit henni heima þar, Ísl. ii. 249; ok halda þeim veðr í enni sömu höfn, Grág. i. 92; h. (sér) í e-t, to hold oneself fast by, grasp, þú skalt h. í hurðar-hringinn, Dropl. 29; heldr sér í faxit, Sd. 177. β. so in the phrases, halda barni (manni) undir skírn, vatn, primsignan, biskups hönd, eccl. to hold a bairn (man) at baptism, prima signatio, confirmation, Grág. i. 29; h. vatni (tárum), to hold one’s tears, 623. 56, Fms. viii. 232, vi. (in a verse); halda munni, to hold one’s tongue, be silent, vii. 227; halda tungu sinni, Þórð. 2. to withhold; þá megu þeir h. tíundum hans í móti, K. Þ. K. 62; h. vætti, Grág. i. 42; h. gögnum, 56; ef goði heldr tylftar-kvið, er hann heldr kviðnum, 58; halda matinum fyrir honum, 47; h. sköttum fyrir e-m, Nj. 8; h. skógar-manni fyrir e-m, Finnb. 334; um þat er hann hefir konunni haldit, Grág. i. 313; héldu bændr gjaldinu, Fms. vii. 302; hélt ek því (i. e. the money) fyrir honum, i. e. paid it not, Ísl. ii. 244. II. to hold, of a rope or the like; sá maðr hugði h. mundu er festi, … ok h. mundu í slíku veðri, Grág. ii. 361; reip þau tíu er tveggja manna afli haldi hvert, id.; skal hann svá göra at haldi fyrir fyrnsku, 268. β. to hold, hold out, last; optast halda þar íllviðri litla hríð, Sks. 212; sunnudags-helgi ríss upp á laugardegi, ok heldr (lasts) til mánadags, N. G. L. i. 138. III. to keep, retain, Germ. behalten; fá-ein skip héldu seglum sinum, Fms. x. 143; þú skalt jafnan þessu sæti h., Nj. 6; h. bústað sínum, Ld. 26; h. ríki sínu, Al. 58, Fms. i. 13; h. öllum Noregi, viii. 155; h. frelsi ok eignum, vi. 40; h. hlut sínum, to uphold one’s right, Eg. passim; halt sömum vinum sem ek hefi haft, Fas. i. 375; h. hreinleik sínum, Al. 58. β. to hold, keep safe, preserve; h. hlut sínum, Ld. 54; h. heilsu, Grág. i. 145; h. virðingu sinni, Ld. 16; þá heldr hann kosti sínum, Grág. ii. 209; h. tíma (honour) sínum, Al. 59; h. lífi ok limum, Eg. 89; h. lífinu, Nj. 111; h. trúnaði sínum, 109; vináttu sinni, Ld. 200; einorð sinni, Fb. ii. 265; h. sér réttum, to keep oneself right, Ld. 158; h. e-m heilum, Odd. 30; h. ríki fyrir e-m, Fms. v. 279; h. manna-forræði fyrir e-m, Hrafn. 19; h. réttu máli fyrir e-m, Fms. vii. 64. 2. to continue to keep, keep all along; h. teknum hætti, Fms. iv. 254; h. vöku, to keep oneself awake, Ld. 152; but h. vöku fyrir e-m, to keep another awake; halda sýslu sinni, Fs. 36; h. högum, to keep grazing, Eb. 104, Ld. 148. 3. to hold, keep one’s stock; ellipt., vetr var íllr ok héldu menn ílla, the winter was cold and it was ill to keep live stock, Sturl. ii. 143, (cp. fjár-höld); hann hélt vel svá at nær lifði hvat-vetna, Hrafn. 22: metaph., ílla hefir þinn faðir þá haldit, Fms. xi. 144; öld hefir ílla haldit, the people have had a sad loss, vi. (in a verse); h. fangi, and also ellipt. halda, of sheep and cattle, opp. to ‘to go back.’ 4. phrases, halda njósnum, to keep watch, to spy, Fms. viii. 146, Nj. 113; hann hélt njósnum til Önundar, Landn. 287; hélt konungr njósnum til, ef …, Fms. vii. 128; hann skyldi h. njósnum til ok gera orð konungi, i. 54; h. njósnum til um e-t, iv. 119, Nj. 93; halda njósn (sing.) um skip þat, Eg. 74; þér haldit njósnum nær færi gefr á Arnkatli, Eb. 186; hann lét h. njósnum uppi á landi, Fms. vii. 316; hann hélt fréttum til, ef …, iv. 349. β. halda (hendi) fyrir auga, to hold (the hand) before the eyes, shade the eyes, Nj. 132, Fms. v. 196; h. fyrir munn e-m, to hold (the hand) over one’s mouth; h. hendi yfir e-m, to hold the hand over one, protect one, Nj. 266, Fbr. 22, Korm.; h. hendi um háls e-m, to clasp the hands around one’s neck, Fms. i. 9; h. skildi fyrir e-n, to hold the shield for one as a second in a duel, Ísl. ii. 257, passim; h. e-m til náms, to hold one to the book, make one study, K. Þ. K. 56; h. e-m til virðingar, Ld. 98. IV. ellipt. (liði, skipi, för, stefnu, etc. understood), to hold, stand in a certain direction, esp. as a naut. term; þeir héldu aptr (stood back again) um haustið, Eg. 69; treystisk hann eigi á haf at halda, Eb. 6; héldu þeir vestr um haf, id.; stigu þeir á skip sín, ok héldu út (stood out) eptir firði, Fms. i. 63; þeir héldu þat sama sumar til Íslands, Ld. 6; hann hélt upp eptir hinni eystri kvísl, Fms. vii. 55; h. heim, to hold one’s course, stand homewards, Odd. 30; h. á braut, Grág. i. 92; Hrútr hélt suðr til Eyrar-sunds, Nj. 8; h. eptir e-m, to pursue one, 7; h. undan, to fly, Fms. x. 396, Nj. 98 (on land); kom móti þeim sunnan-veðr með myrkri, ok urðu þeir fyrir at h., to lay one’s course for the wind, A. A. 271; h. útleið, to stand on the outer tack, Eg. 78; h. til, to turn against, attack (on sea), Fms. xi. 72; hélt hann liði sínu suðr á Mæri, i. 62; þeir héldu liði sínu norðr til Þrándheims, id.; Haraldr konungr hélt norðan liði sínu, Eg. 32; héldu þeir skipi því suðr með landi, 69; skipi því lét hann halda vestr til Englands, id.; Unnr hélt skipinu í Orkneyjar, eptir þat hélt Unnr skipi sínu til Færeyja, Ld. 8. β. to graze, put in the field, of sheep, cattle; þykkir mér þat miklu skipta at þeim sé vel til haga haldit, Eg. 714; hvert Steinarr hafði látið nautum sínum halda, 715; ok bað hann h. nautunum annan veg, 716. γ. phrases, halda kyrru fyrir, to hold still, remain quiet, Ld. 216, Þórð. 30 new Ed., Nj. 223, 258; Hallr heldr nú til fangs (went fishing) sem áðr, Ld. 38. V. with prep.; halda á e-u, to hold, wield in the hand, freq. in mod. usage, h. á bók, penna, fjöðr, hníf, skærum, nál, etc.; hafði hverr þat er hélt á, Nj. 279; h. á sverði, Fb. i. 33; hann tók við öxinni ok hélt (viz. á), ok sá á, Eg. 180: to hold fast, heldr nú maðr á manni, Fas. i. 12; eigi máttu helvítis byrgi h. á honum, 656 C. 6; ef hann heldr á fénu (withholds it), Grág. i. 427. β. [Germ. anhalten], to hold to a thing, go on with, be busy about; h. á sýslu, to be busy, Rm. 14; h. á keri, qs. halda á drykkju, to go on drinking, carousing, Hm. 18: h. á hinni sömu bæn, Stj. 417; h. á fyrirsátrum við e-n, Þórð. 51 new Ed.; h. á búnaði sínum, Ld. 164; hélt hann þá á búnaði sínum sem skjótligast, Fms. ix. 215, x. 119, Sturl. ii. 245; þogar á bak Jólum hélt Ólafr konungr á búningi, Fms. v. 41; hann heldr nú á málinu, Nj. 259; nú heldr Þórðr á málinu ok verðr Oddný honum gipt, Bjarn. 11, Konr. (Fr.); h. á tilkalli, Fms. i. 84; h. á þessum sið, xi. 41; h. á för, to go on with one’s journey, Sighvat; gengu síðan brott ok héldu á ferð sinni, and went on their journey, Sturl.;—whence the mod. phrase, halda áfram, to go on, which seems not to occur in old writers. 2. halda e-u fram, to hold up, make much of; bróðir minn mun mér mjök hafa fram haldit fyrir ástar sakir, Nj. 3. β. to hold on doing, (hence fram-hald, continuation); halda fram upp-teknu efni, Fms. i. 263; slíku hélt hann fram meðan hann lifði, iv. 254; hélt hann (fram) teknum hætti um veizlurnar, id., Grett. 14. 3. halda saman, to hold together, Eluc. 6, Fms. vii. 140, Rb. 340. 4. halda e-u upp, to hold aloft, Yngvarr hélt upp vísu þeirri, Eg. 152; steinninn heldr upp annarr öðrum, Rb. 390; h. upp árum, to hold up the oars, cease pulling, Fas. ii. 517, N. G. L. i. 65. β. to uphold, maintain, support; halda upp hofi, Landn. 64, Eb. 24; h. upp hofum ok efla blót, Fms. i. 91; h. upp kirkju, K. Þ. K. 52; h. upp Kristninni, Fms. i. 32: to keep going, h. upp bardaga, orrostu, xi. 66, 188, 340. γ. to discharge; h. upp féráns-dómi, Grág. i. 120; h. upp lögskilum, 145; h. upp svörum, Ó. H. 174; h. upp kostnaði, Eg. 77; h. upp gjaldi, Grág. i. 384; gjöldum, Fms. i. 81; h. upp bót, Grág. ii. 182; bótum, Eb. 100, 162, N. G. L. i. 311; ef hann heldr upp yfirbót (penance) þeirri, Hom. 70; h. upp bænum fyrir e-m, to pray for one, Fms. xi. 271; hélt hann því vel upp sem vera átti, discharged it well, x. 93. δ. halda sér vel upp, to hold oneself well up, Sturl. ε. metaph., skal-at hann lögvillr verða, svá at honum haldi þat uppi (i. e. went unpunished), Grág. i. 316; ok heldr honum þat uppi (that will save him), ef hann er rétt-hafi at orðinn, ii. 242. 5. halda e-u við, to maintain a thing, Hkr. i. 195. VI. impers., 1. to continue, last; hélt því nokkura stund dags, Fms. x. 125: hélt því lengi um vetrinn, Ld. 288; regni hélt haustnótt gegnum, Fms. vi. 83. 2. with prep. við, to be on the brink of; hélt þá við atgöngu, they were within a hair’s breadth of coming to fight, Hkr. i. 143; hélt þá við vandræði, Fms. ix. 434; heldr við bardaga, vi. 8; heldr nú við hót, it is little short of a threat, i. 305; hélt við blót, x. 106; ok hélt við flótta, i. 174; hélt við meiðingar, Nj. 21, Sd. 143; henni hélt við, at hón mundi drepa hana, Nj. 118; þeim hélt við váða sjálfan, Ó. H. 168; konungi hélt við, hvárt hann mundi standask eðr eigi, Mag. 100; honum hélt við kafnan, Bs. i. 18; hélt þó við at þeir mundi berjask, Fs. 53.

B. WITH ACC. to hold: I. to hold in possession, a fief, land, estate, office, or the like; þeir héldu alla hina beztu staði með sjónum, Fms. xi. 131; þeir er áðr höfðu haldit land af Dana-konungi, i. 232; Eirekr skyldi h. land af Aðalsteini konungi, 23; Vemundr hélt Firða-fylki, Eg. 12; hélt hann þat ríki undir Knút konungi, Ísl. ii. 242; í þeirri borg héldu þeir langfeðgar fimmtán konungdóma, Ver. 37; h. land sem leigu-land, Grág. ii. 278; konungrinn heldr af Guði nafnit, Sks. 599 B; prestar er kirkjur halda, H. E. i. 486; sá prestr er heldr Pétrs-kirkju, N. G. L. i. 312; presta þeirra er kirkju halda, 346; skal sá maðr ráða er kirkju heldr, K. Þ. K. 60; Ólafs kirkju þá er Væringjar halda (the parish church of W.), Hkr. iii. 408. 2. halda ábyrgju, ábyrgð á e-n, to have the responsibility of a thing, Grág. ii. 399, K. Þ. K. 66; h. grip, to be in the possession of, Grág. i. 438, ii. 190; h. skóla, to keep a school, Mar.; h. fylgð, to perform, Fms. ix. 279; eiga vandræði at h., to be in a strait, difficulty, Eb. 108. II. to hold, keep, observe, a feast, holiday, or the like; halda kirkju-dag, K. Þ. K. 42; í hvers minning heldr þú þenna dag? Nj. 157; h. helgan þvátt-dag hvern, Pr. 437; h. helga daga, Sl.; h. Jóla-dag, Páska, Hvíta-sunnu, Rb. 134; minnstú að h. helgan hvíldar-daginn Drottins Guðs þíns (the Fourth Commandment in the Icel. version); h. heilagt, to keep holiday, Dipl. ii. 14; í dag þá hátíð höldum vér til himna sté vor Herra, Hólabók 54; er Júdar héldu hátíðligt, Stj. 110; (hence forn-haldinn, time-honoured): of the day-marks (vide dagr, p. 95), er þaðan haldinn miðr-morgin, Hrafn. 9. 2. to keep; halda orð sín, to keep one’s word, Fms. x. 95; höldum öll einka-mál vár, vii. 305; h. sættir, Nj. 57; gerðú svá vel, félagi, at þú halt vel sætt þessa, 111, Sturl. iii. 153, Fs. 65, Gullþ. 20; hann kvaðsk vilja hafa svardaga af þeim ok festu, at halda, Nj. 164; h. eið, Sturl. iii. 153; h. frið, to keep peace, Greg. 7; ef þú vilt nokkura hluti eigi h. þá er ek hefi á lagt við þik, Eg. 738: to observe faith, law, rite, etc., halda átrúnað, Fms. i. 34, x. 277; h. Guðs lög ok landsins, vii. 305; h. lands lög, viii. 155; h. ein lög, 625. 52; hafa ok halda þau lög, Fms. i. 34; h. Kristilega trú, K. Á. 74; h. mál (orð) e-s, Greg. 17; h. alla hluti með athugasamlegu minni, Sks. 439. 3. to keep, tend; halda geitr, Hkv. 2. 20 (exactly as in Gothic). III. to uphold, maintain, support; þykkir mér þér sé nú ísjár-vert, hvárt þú munt fá haldit þik eðr eigi, Nj. 155; munu vér þó ekki einhlitir at h. oss eptir þessi verk, Háv. 50; at hón mætti með valdi h. sik ok menn sína, Fas. i. 375; þat væri nokkurr várkunn, at þú héldir frænda þinn eðr fóstbróður, en þetta er alls engi (at) halda útlaga konungs, Ó. H. 145; enda ætla ek lítinn viljann til at h. vini þína, Fms. vii. 244; því at Eysteinn konungr kenndi Inga konungi, at hann héldi þá menn, 248; ef þú heldr hann (upholdest him) til þess at ganga á vini mína, Eg. 339; viljum vér allir fylgja þér ok þik til konungs halda, Fms. i. 34; Stephanus skyldi h. hann til laga ok réttinda, Sks. 653; h. e-n til ríkis, Fb. i. 236; vinsæld föður hans hélt hann mest til alþýðu vináttu, Fms. vii. 175; þeir sem upp h. (sustain) þenna líkama, Anecd. 4. β. phrases, halda e-m kost, borð, to keep at board, entertain, Fms. ix. 220, x. 105, 146, Nj. 6; or, halda e-n at klæðum ok drykk, Ó. H. 69; h. stríð, bellum gerere (not class.), Fms. x. 51; h. úfrið, Fas. ii. 539. 2. halda sik, to comfort oneself, Sks. 281, Hom. 29; kunna sik með hófi at h., Sturl. iii. 108; h. sik ríkmannliga, to fare sumptuously, Ld. 234; hann hélt betr húskarla sína en aðrir, Fms. vii. 242; h. mjök til skarts, to dress fine, Ld. 196; þar var Hrefna ok hélt allmjök til skarts, id.; hann var hægr hvers-dagliga, ok hélt mjök til gleði, Sturl. iii. 123; hélt hann hér mjök til vinsælda ok virðinga, he enjoyed much popularity and fame, Ld. 298. β. ellipt. (sik understood), at h. til jafns við e-n, to bear up against one, to be a match for one, Ld. 40; ef þér hefir eigi til þess hug eðr afl at h. til jafns við e-n húskarl Þorsteins, Eg. 714; h. til fullnaðar, to stand on one’s full rights; ef þær taka eigi fullrétti, eðr h. eigi til fullnaðar, Grág. ii. 109; h. fullara, to hold one above other men, Ó. H. (in a verse); lét konungr þá h. mjök til (make great preparations) at syngja messu hátíðliga, Hkr. i. 287. 3. to hold forth, put forward; at þeim inyiidi þungbýlt vera í nánd honum, ef þeir héldi nokkurn annan fyrir betra mann en hann, Ld. 26; síðan hélt konungr Erling fyrir tryggvan mann, Fms. ix. 399. β. to hold, deem, be of opinion; the old writers seem not to use the word exactly in this sense, but near to it come such phrases as, hón hélt engan hans jafningja innan hirðar hvárki í orðum né öðrum hlutum, i. e. she held him to be above all men, Ld. 60; halda menn hann fyrir konung, Fb. i. 216; still closer, halda menn at Oddný sé nú betr gipt, Bjarn. 12 (but only preserved in a paper MS.): this sense is very freq. in mod. usage, to hold, mean, eg held það; eg held ekki, I think not; (hence hald, opinion.) γ. phrases, halda mikit upp á e-n, to hold one in much esteem, love, Stj. 33; halda af e-m, id., Fas. i. 458, ii. 63, 200, iii. 520, esp. freq. in mod. usage, (upp-á-hald, af-hald, esteem.) 4. to hold on, keep up; halda varnir, to keep up a defence, Sks. 583; halda vörð, to keep watch, Eg. 120, Grág. i. 32, 264; halda njósn, Eg. 72, 74, Fms. xi. 46; halda tal af e-m, to speak, communicate with one, ii. 88. 5. to hold, be valid, be in force, a law term; á sú sekt öll at halda, Grág. i. 89; á þat at h. allt er þeir urðu á sáttir, 86; enda á þat at h. með þeim síðan, ii. 336. IV. to hold, compel, bind (with the notion of obligation or duty); heldr mik þá ekki til utan-ferðar, Nj. 112; þó heldr þik várkunn til at leita á, i. e. thou art excused, thou hast some excuse in trying, 21; var auðsætt hvat til hélt um sættir, Bjarn. 70; þik heldr eigi hér svá mart, at þú megir eigi vel bægja héraðs-vist þinni, Eb. 252; þar mælir þú þar, er þik heldr várkunn til at mæla, Nj. 227; ek mun vera vinr hans, ok alla þá, er at mínum orðum láta, halda til vináttu við hann, i. e. I will be his friend, and all those who lend ear to my words I will hold to friendship with him, Eg. 18. 2. halda sik frá e-u, to keep oneself from, to refrain from a thing, Sks. 276 B; h. sik frá munaðlífi, Post. 656 A. ii. 16, Hom. 53, 135; h. sik aptr af e-u, to abstain from, Hkr. i. 512. V. absol. to be the cause of, be conducive to a thing; heldr þar margt til þess, there are many reasons for this, Nj. 192; vildim vér vita hvat til heldr, Fms. vii. 106; en hann vissi eigi hvat til hafði haldit, er hann kom eigi, xi. 11; margir hlutir héldu til þess, Eg. 38; þat hélt til þess, at …, Al. 94; hélt til þess (conduced to it) góðgirnd hans, stórmennska ok vitsmunir, Fs. 29; hefir þat mjök til haldit, er ek hefi svá lengi dvalizt, at ek ætlaða, Ld. 32; hann lét bæði til h. vingan ok mágsemd, Fs. 24; heldr þat mest til at þá var komit útfall sjávar, Ld. 56; hélt þat mest til þess, at hann gafsk bezt í öllum mannraunum, 60; þat eitt hélt til, at þeir fóru eigi málum á hendr Þórði, at þeir höfðu eigi styrk til, 138. VI. to hold, comprise; sólar-öld heldr tuttugu ok átta ár, Rb. 510; h. skor (of weight), Grág. i. 500.

☞ In some instances the use of dat. and acc. wavers, e. g. halda húsum, to keep up the houses, Grág. ii. 278, 335; h. hliði, to keep the gate in repair, 265; but halda hlið (acc.), 332: to keep, observe, h. lögum, griðum, boðorðum, Glúm. 333, Grág. i. 357, ii. 166, 623. 28; hélt hann þessu sumu, Fms. x. 416 (Ágrip); halda ílla orðum, vii. (in a verse); þeir er því þingi áttu at h., Glúm. 386; h. sáttum, St. 17; h. eiðum, Bkv. 18; Gizuri þótti biskup h. ríkt (protect strongly) brennu-mönnum, Sturl. i. 201 C; Guð er sínum skepnum heldr (keeps, protects) ok geymir, Mar.; þá hélt engi kirkju mönnum, … kept no man safe, Fms. ix. 508; h. njósn (acc.) um e-t, Eg. 74; h. til njósn, 72; njósnir, Fms. xi. 46. In most of these instances the acc. is the correct case, and the dat. is due either to careless transcribers or incorrect speaking: in some instances an enclitic um has been taken for a dative inflexion, thus e. g. sáttum haldi in Stor. l. c. is to be restored to sátt um haldi; eiðum haldit in Bkv. l. c. to eið (for eiða) um haldit; in others the prep. um has caused the confusion, as ‘halda njósn um at’ has been changed into halda njósnum at. But in the main the distinction between the use of dat. and acc. is fixed even at the present time: the acc. seems to represent the more primitive usage of this verb, the dat. the secondary.

C. REFLEX.: I. to hold oneself, to stay; héldusk þeir þá ekki fyrir norðan Stað, Fms. i. 63; mátti hann eigi þar haldask, Landn. 246; h. á baki, to keep oneself on horseback, keep one’s seat, Grág. ii. 95; munu þeir skamma stund hér við haldask, Nj. 247: to be kept, remain, þá skal hann h. með Helju, Edda 39: to resist, megu vér ekki við h. fyrir ofreflis-mönnum þessum, Nj. 254; hélzk þá ekki við honum, Eg. 289; mann er svá hefir haldisk við höfuð-syndum, Hom. 157. β. to hold out, last, continue; ok hélzk ferillinn, Eg. 579; hélzk undr þetta allt til dags, Nj. 272 (twice); hélzk konungdómr í kyni hans, Rb. 394; lengi síðan hélzk bruna-öld með Svíum, Yngl. S.; lengi hélzk þat í ætt þeirri, at …, Eg. 770; hélzk vinátta með þeim, Nj. 66; þat hefir enn haldizk í ætt hans, Fms. iv. 8; ok hefir þat haldizk (it has continued to be so) síðan er ek hefi hann séð, Ld. 174; honum haldisk (imperat.) sigr ok langt líf, Ver. 57; betr þætti mér, at hún héldisk þér, that it (the luck) would hold out for thee, Fb. ii. 74; ef hann helzk í útrú sinni, if he perseveres in his untruth, 623. 26. γ. to be kept safe and sound; menn allir héldusk (all bands were saved) ok svá fé, Ld. 8, Fs. 143; þar héldusk menn allir ok mestr hluti fjár, Eg. 405; hafði fé vel haldizk, has been well kept, done well, Ld. 34. δ. to be valid, stand; eigu þau handsöl hennar at haldask, Grág. i. 334; engi má haldask dómr hans, Edda 15; skyldu þau (the truce) haldask um þingit, Nj. 348. 2. impers., mér helzk, e-m helzk vel, ílla, á e-u, to have a good hold, have luck with a thing; mér helzk lítt á sauða-mönnum, Grett. 110 A. 3. recipr., haldask á, to hold or pull one against another, wrestle, (hence á-höld); var sagt Magnúsi, at þeir héldisk á úti, that they were fighting outside, Sturl. ii. 44. II. part. pass. haldinn, [Dan. holden], so ‘holden,’ in such and such a state; vel haldinn, in good condition, faring well, well to do, Eg. 20, 234; hugðusk þar ok haldnir (safe) mundu vera, Ver. 34; þungliga h., very sick, Eg. 565, Hkr. ii. 199; vel haldinn, doing well; tak heldr annat fé, svá mikit, at þú þykisk vel haldinn af, i. e. fully satisfied, having got full redress, Boll. 350; Sveinn sagði, at hann vill hafa tvá hluti fjárins, Hrani sagðisk ekki af því haldinn (satisfied) vera, Fms. iv. 31: in the phrase, heilu ok höldnu, safe and sound, Bs. i. 191, Fms. xi. 376, Hkr. i. 319; með höldnu hljóði, preserving the sound, Skálda 175. 2. ok mun þykkja sér misboðit ef þú ert haldinn (kept, protected), Finnb. 344. β. kept, observed, Fms. xi. 99. γ. held in custody, in prison, Bs. i. 419, Sturl. i. 151. III. gerund., haldandi, holding good, valid; sá dómr er eigi haldandi, is not valid, K. Á. 304; af öllu afli er friðr haldandi, Hom. 5. 2. part. act., með upp haldandi höndum, with uplifted hands, Bs. i. 684.

halda, u, f. = hadda, q. v.

hald-góðr, adj. of good hold, durable, of clothes, etc., Sks. 403.

haldin-, part. pass. in the compds, haldin-orðr, adj. discreet, close, Fms. ii. 18, x. 326, Eg. 51; haldin-yrði, n. keeping close, Sks. 361, Sd. 169: in mod. usage these words mean the keeping one’s word.

hald-kvæmask (hall-), d, dep. to avail, suit; nægjask eðr h., Stj. 149.

hald-kvæmd, f. convenience, comfort, Sturl. i. 212.

hald-kvæmligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), convenient, comfortable, Sks. 377.

hald-kvæmr, and assimilated hall-kvæmr, Nj. 265, Fas. ii. 240, Sks. 505; or hall-kœmr, 380, 505 B, [cp. koma at haldi], adj. fit, meet, convenient, Hom. 141, Sturl. i. 45, Fms. ii. 261, Grett. 106 A.

hal-dreki, a, m. a ‘tail-dragon,’ scorpion, Stj. 578, Hb. 732. 18, Ant. 7.

hald-samr, adj. holding close, Stj. 635; vera h. á e-u, to keep it close, Fms. vi. 440, x. 170; e-m verðr ekki haldsamt á e-u, it slips out of one’s hands.

hald-semi, f. closeness, Greg. 24.

HALI, a, m. [Dan. hale, cp. Lat. cauda], a tail; kýr-hali, a cow’s tail; nauts-h., ljóns-h., etc.; skauf-hali, reynard, a fox, whence Skaufhala-bálkr, the name of an old poem, an Icel. Reineke Fuchs. Icel. use hali properly of cattle, and lions, wolves, bears; tagl of horses (of the hair, but stertr of a caudal vertebra); rófa of cats, dogs; skott of a fox; sporðr of a fish; stél or véli of birds; dyndill of seals. The old writers do not make these nice distinctions, and use hali of a horse and tagl of a cow, which a mod. Icel. would not do; hylr öll kykvendi hár eðr hali, Sks. 504: in Gþl. 398 of cattle, cp. N. G. L. i. 24; ef maðr höggr hala af hrossi svá at af rófu fylgir, Gþl. 399; ef maðr höggr hala af hrossi fyrir neðan rófu, id.; nú skerr maðr tagl af nautum, id.; eru þeir í málum mestir sem refr í halanum, Fms. viii. 350; ef maðr skerr af hrossi manns tögl, þá gjaldi aura þrjá; en ef hala höggr af, þá skal meta hross, N. G. L. i. 228; ok svá ef hann höggr hala af hrossi svá at rófa fylgir, id.: of a lion’s tail, Stj. 71. 2. phrases, nú er úlfs hali einn á króki, a wolf’s tail is all that is left, Band. (in a verse),—a proverb from the notion that wild beasts devour one another so that only the tail is left, cp. etask af ulfs-munni, vide eta: leika lausum hala, to play with a free tail, to be unrestrained, Ls. 50; veifask um lausum hala, id., Sturl. iii. 30; bretta halann, or bera brattan halann, to lift the tail, cock up the tail, to be vain or haughty, Hkv. Hjörv. 20; en ef eigi er unnit, þá muntú reyna hvárr halann sinn berr brattara þaðan í frá, Ísl. ii. 330; sé ek at þú heldr nokkru rakkara halanum en fyrir stundu áðan, Ölk. 36; draga halann, to drag the tail, sneak awav, play the coward; dregr melrakkinn eptir sér halann sinn nú—Svá er segir hann, at ek dreg eptir mér halann minn, ok berr ek lítt upp eðr ekki, en þess varir mik at þú dragir þinn hala mjök lengi áðr þú hefnir Halls bróður þíns, Ísl. ii. 329; sveigja halann, id., Hkv. Hjörv. 21; (cp. Ital. codardo, whence Engl. coward): spjóts-hali, the butt-end of a spear, Eg. 289, Ld. 132, Hkr. iii. 159; snældu-hali, a staff’s end. II. metaph. a train, the rear of a host; skammr er orðinn hali okkarr, we have a short train, few followers, Sturl. (in a verse). COMPDS: hala-ferð, f. the rear, Sturl. iii. 23. hala-rófa, u, f. ‘tail-row,’ i. e. a string one after another, like geese; ganga í halarófu, to walk in h.; cp. Dan. gaasegang, Fr. en queue. hala-stjarna, u, f. a ‘tail-star,’ comet, (mod.) hala-tafl, n. a kind of game, used synonymous to hnef-tafl, q. v., prob. similar to the Engl. ‘fox and goose;’ hann tefldi hnet-tafl, þat var stórt hala-tafl (having a fox with a big tail), hann greip þá upp töfluna ok setti halann á kinnbein Þorbirni (prob. of the brick representing the fox), Grett. 144 A; vide Skýrsla um Forngripa-safn Íslands by Sigurd Gudmundsson, Reykjavík 1868, pp. 38, 39; cp. also hali á hnefa-töflu in Vilmundar S. Viðutan, ch. 8. III. a nickname, Fb. iii.

hall, f. a hall; vide höll.

HALLA, að, [Dan. hælde; Swed. hälla], to lean or turn sideways, with dat., esp. of a vessel, ship, or the like; halla keri, fötu, staupi, skipi; but also of anything else, h. borði, stóli; Icel. distinguish between halla and the derivative hella, to pour out; hann hallar skipinu á ymsa vega, Fbr. 100 new Ed. II. metaph. to sway to the wrong side, in words or acts; halla dómi, to give an unfair judgment, Gþl. 174, Fs. 121, Sks. 662; h. sögu, to give an unfair report, Fms. vi. 261; ok um allar sagnir hallaði hann mjök til, id., Nj. 270; h. orðum til, to impute, Fms. ix. 332; h. eptir e-m, to be swayed, biased in one’s favour, 59; mér þykir þér hafa hallat til—hallat hefi ek víst (no doubt have I swerved) segir konungr, ok þó í hag þér, ii. 272; halla sæmd e-s, to let one’s honour swerve, do it injury, Orkn. 240; h. undan e-u, to avoid, shun one, Al. 83; h. sér, to lean with one’s body, seig at honum svefn, ok hallaði hann sér í kné henni, Fb. i. 280: with acc., h. sik (less correct), Karl. 292. III. impers. to swerve, with dat.; taka stór tré ok fella á Orminn, svá at honum halli til, so that she (the ship) swerved on one side, Fms. ii. 326; skip sveif upp á grunn ok hallaði (viz. því) mjök, vii. 264; hallaði honum svá at sjór féll inn á annat borð, Eg. 386. 2. to decline, of the day; þegar er út hallaði á kveldum, Lv. 43; hence Icel. say of the day-marks, hallandi dagmál, hádegi, nón, … náttmál, past dagmál, i. e. when the sun has just passed the day-mark in the horizon; sólu hallar, the sun sinks, Þjal. Jón 28; or degi hallar, the day is sinking, Luke ix. 12; or hallar út degi, as Til hafs sól hraðar sér | hallar út degi, Hymn-book, No. 294; vetri, sumri hallar, the winter, summer is declining, Fas. ii. 552. 3. of a river-basin, to slope; hann skildi eigi fyrr við þá en hallaði af norðr, Boll. 348; stigum þeim er hölluðu frá þjóðgötum, Sks. 1: the phrase, það hallar undan fæti, it slopes down hill. 4. tafli hallar á e-n, the game turns against one, Karl. 205. IV. reflex. to lean with the body; Bolli hallaðisk upp at sels-vegginum, Ld. 244; hann hallaðisk ok lagði höfuð (he nodded and laid his head) í kné Finni Árnasyni, Ó. H. 210; lengi ek hölluðumk, long have I been nodding (from sleep), Sl. 36; hann hallaðisk undan högginu, Fms. vi. 66. 2. to swerve; þá tók mjök at hallask Ormrinn, the ship lay over-much on one side, Fms. ii. 229: to be turned, tók þá at hallask taflit, svá at öðrum var komit at máti, Bs. ii. 186; á þá hallaðisk bardaginn, the battle turned against them, O. H. L. 20; hallask eptir e-u, to swerve towards a thing, Fms. ii. 32; h. til vináttu við e-n, Fs. 116: metaph., at mín virðing mundi halla (that my honour would be tarnished) af þínu tilstilli, Lv. 34.

hallan, f. a swerving, Stj. 65.

hallandi, a, m. = hall-lendi.

hallarr, m. [cp. Fr. hallier; Swed. and Norse hyll; Dan. hyld], a kind of tree, Edda (Gl.)

halli, a, m. [Ivar Aasen hall; cp. the Norse Fredriks-’hald’], a sloping, brink, declivity, Hem.; freq. in mod. usage: metaph. a drawback, loss of right.

Hallin-skíði, a, m., poët. a ram, Edda (Gl.): name of the god Heimdal, Edda, vide Lex. Poët.

hall-kvæmr, etc., vide hald-.

hall-lendi, n. a slope, declivity, Orkn. 244.

hall-lendr, adj. sloping, Sturl. i. 85.

hall-mæla, t, to speak ill of one, with dat., Nj. 53, Fms. iv. 81, xi. 260, Magn. 442, passim.

hall-mæli, n. pl. blame, reproof, Fas. i. 106, Str. 71, Fs. 15, Edda 8.

hall-oki (-oka), adj. indecl. [aka höllu], suffering defeat, worsted, overcome; in the phrase, vera, fara, h. fyrir e-m, Ld. 146, Fær. 229, Bárð. 174, Karl. 91 (v. l.), Hsm. 18. 3.

HALLR, adj., fem. höll, leaning to one side, swerving, sloping; jakarnir vóru hallir út af skerinu, Eb. 238; jakarnir vóru bæði hálir ok hallir, 240; hann (the ship) ferr jafnan hallr, it heeled over, Fb. i. 520, Fms. x. 368; h. í göngu, limping, Vápn. 6; bera hallt höfuðit, to bear the head on one side, Fms. ii. 70; hallt ker, a half-filled cup, Hm. 51; standa höllum fæti, to stand slanting, Nj. 97; bar hallan skjöldinn, the shield came aslant, Eg. 378; láta verða hallt á e-n, to overmatch one, metaph. from rowing or from the balance, Fbr. 122:—hann lætr ekki á sik hallt, ok höggr í móti, he allowed no inequality, but cut in return, i. e. he paid blow for blow, O. H. L. 92; nú leikr mér þat eigi í hug, at á yðr verði hallt um vár skipti, Þorf. Karl. 404: so in the phrases, aka höllu fyrir e-m (halloki) or aka höllum fæti (MS.), to be upset, to stoop or crouch before one, metaph. from driving, Ld. 206; fara höllum fæti, to he worsted, Bs. i. 907; aka undan höllum (öllum MS.) fæti, Lv. 76. II. metaph. swerving, biased; alþýðan er höll til ílsku ok synda, Ver. 7; hann var mest hallr at allri vináttu til Inga konungs, Fms. vii. 233: biased, attached to one, vera hallr undir e-n, id.; hann var hallr undir Einar í mála-ferlum þeirra Sturlu, Sturl. i. 75; þvíat hann var meir hallr undir þá feðga, 94; með mikla sveit þá er undir Rómverja vóru hallir, Clem. 29; þvíat hann var mest undir hann hallr at allri vináttu, and hann var mest h. undir Rögnvald jarl, 442, Fms. vii. 229, Bs. i. 714, Stj. 476; cp. vinhallr, partial, as a friend.

HALLR, m. [Ulf. hallus = πέτρα], a slope, hill; þá gékk hann frá bardaganum upp í hallinn ok settisk þar niðr, Sturl. i. 85; ok var mjök bratt at ganga upp í hallinn til steinveggsins, Fms. vii. 8i, a paraphrase from the verse in p. 82; this sense is rare and obsolete. II. a big stone, boulder, Gs. 10, 12, 16, 22 (of a millstone); Gísli fær sér hall einn ok kastaði út í skerit, Gísl. 123: of a precious stone, a gem, Fms. iii. 180; gler-h., a crystal (mod.): freq. in pr. names, of men, Hallr, Hall-björn, Hall-dórr (qs. Hall-þórr), Hall-freðr, Hall-gils, Hall-geirr, Hall-grímr, Hall-kell, Hall-mundr, Hall-ormr, Hall-steinn, Hall-varðr, Hall-aðr; of women, Halla, Hall-dóra, Hall-dís, Hall-fríðr, Hall-gerðr, Hall-gríma, Hall-katla, Hall-veig, Hall-vör: suffixed in Þór-hallr and Þór-halla: in local names, Hall-land, a county in Sweden; Hall-lendingar, Hallanders, Fms. xii. III. metaph. a stain, colour, meton. from steinn, Orkn. (in a verse).

hall-sperra, u, f. stiffness in the limbs, = harðsperra.

hall-æri, n. [ár], a bad season, a famine, dearth, Nj. 73, Fms. ix. 48, Bs. i. 200, Ísl. ii. 58, Ó. H. 102, Hkr. i. 21, 56.

halmr, m., vide hálmr.

HALR, m., pl. halir, [no doubt an apocopated form, akin to A. S. hæled, Germ. held = hero, as also to hölðr or höldr, q. v.]:—a man, only used in poetry; halr er heima hverr, a saying, Hm. 36; gráðigr halr, 19; hnígra sá halr fyrir hjörum, 159; halr hugfullr, Hðm. 19; halr enn hugblauði, Hbl. 49; úkristinn halr, Sighvat: in plur. men, troða halir helveg, Vsp. 52, 56: used of the dead inmates of Hel, Alm. 29, cp. Vþm. 43, which seems to be a pun, as the word itself is not akin to Hel.

hals, m. neck; vide háls.

HALTR or halltr, adj. [A. S. healt; Engl. halt; O. H. G. halz; Dan.-Swed. halt; cp. Lat. claudus; prob. akin to hallr]:—halt, lame, limping, Hm. 70, 89, Fms. vi. 322, Nj. 209, Landn. 100, Ísl. ii. 219, Edda 28; haltir ganga, Matth. xi. 5, xv. 31, xxi. 14, Luke vii. 22, xiv. 13, Acts iii. 2, viii. 7: haltr at máli, halting in speech, stammering, Barl. 15, (whence mál-haltr): as a nickname, Eyjólfr Halti, Lv.; Hrómundr H., Vd., Fs. 39, 48: metaph., h. í trúnni, halting, unsound in faith, Karl. 279; hand-haltr, q. v.

haltra, að, to halt, limp, Grett. 151, Fbr. 179, Bs. i. 321, Stj. 592, Hebr. xii. 13.

halzi, qs. haldsi, adj. indecl. holding, Fms. x. 396: with dat., haldzi e-u, Þiðr. 172.

HAMA, að, [cp. höm = shanks in animals, whence Engl. ham], of cattle or horses in a storm, to stand and turn tail to wind, leaving off grazing.

hamal-kyrni, n. a kind of seed, N. G. L. i. 385, 401.

hamall, m. a pr. name, Landn., Hkv.; see the following word.

hamall, a nickname, and then a pr. name, Landn.; cp. A. S. homola = a fool, one whose head is close-shaven.

HAMALT, n. adj., only in the old phrase, fylkja hamalt, synonymous with svínfylkja, to draw up a wedge-shaped column in the form of a hog’s snout; thus defined, hann hefir svínfylkt her sínum—Hverr man Hringi hafa kennt hamalt at fylkja? (who has taught king Ring to draw up the phalanx of hamalt?) … Hringr hafði svínfylkt öllu liði sínu, þá þótti þó svá þykk fylkingin yfir at sjá, at rani var í brjósti, Ring had drawn all his troops up in a hog-shaped column, so that the ranks looked all the deeper for the snout-formed shape of the front, Fas. i. 380; hildingr fylkti hamalt, a paraphrase from hann fylkti liði sínu svá, at rani var framan á fylkingar-brjóstinu, Fms. xi. 304: used of a column of ships in a sea-fight, vi. 314 (in a verse), cp. also Skv. 2. 23, Fas. ii. 40 (in a verse); a description of the cuneiform column is given in Sks. 384; in Skjöld. S. its invention is attributed to Odin himself, and it was a favourite battle array with the men of old.

HAMARR, m., dat. hamri, pl. hamrar, [A. S. hamor; Engl. hammer; O. H. G. hamar; Germ. and Dan. hammer; Swed. hammare]:—a hammer; h. töng, steði, Edda 9, Vkv. 18, Landn. 212 (in a verse); the thunderbolt was in the northern mythology represented as a hammer,—the hammer Mjölnir, Edda (Sksm.) 15, 26, 28–30, 58, 70, passim, Þkv. passim, Hbl. 47; hann (the idol) var merkðr eptir Þór ok hefir hamar í hendi, Ó. H. 108, O. T. 44; Þrúð-hamarr, the mighty hammer, Ls. 57, 59, 61, 63: the hammer was the holy sign with the heathens, answering to the cross of the Christians, hann görði hamar yfir, he made the sign of the hammer over it, Fms. i. 35; Þórr tók hamarinn Mjölni ok brá upp ok vígði hafr-stökurnar, Edda 28, cp. also Þkv. 30, where the bride and bridegroom were to be marked with the holy sign; hence Þórs-hamarr = the character RUNE which occurs on a few of the earliest heathen Runic stones (e. g. Thorsen, pp. 17, 329), cp. also Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 446; this RUNE is evidently an imitation of the thunderbolt. β. the back of an axe, Eg. 769. COMPDS: hamar-gangr, m. hammer-clash, Stj. 45. hamars-högg, n. a hammer stroke, Stj. 563. hamars-muðr (-munnr, -munni), m. the ‘mouth’ or thin end of a hammer, Edda 30. hamar-skalli, a, m. the thick end of a hammer, Fms. viii. 138. hamar-skapt, n. the shaft or handle of a hammer, Edda 28. hamar-spor, n. a hammer’s print, Edda 34. II. metaph. a hammer-shaped crag, a crag standing out like an anvil; þar stendr hamarr mikill fyrir þeim, Bs. i. 601; þeir leggja skip sín millum hamra tveggja, Grett. 83, Fas. iii. 257; þrítugr, fertugr … hamarr, a crag thirty, forty … fathoms high, i. 159: so in the saying, kljúfa þrítugan hamarinn til e-s, to split a thirty fathoms’ rock, to make great efforts, to make Herculean efforts in a thing, metaph. from cutting roads through rocks: in pl. hamrar, crags; fluga-hamrar, sjávar-hamrar, sea-crags; ogres were believed to live in crags, hence the phrase, sem genginn út úr hömrum, i. e. looking as wild as a crag-ogre, svá ílliligr sem genginn sé út ór sjávar-hömrum, Nj. 182. COMPDS: (hamar- and hamra-), hamar-tröll, n. a crag-ogre, Grett. (in a verse). hamar-dalr, m. a ravine, Karl. 292. hamar-gnípa, u, f. the peak of a crag, Stj. 134, Fms. v. 323, Þorf. Karl. 414. hamar-klettr, m. a crag (isolated), Fms. ii. 92, Nj. 264, v. l. hamar-klif, n. a craggy cliff, Gísl. 137. hamar-rifa, u, f. a rift in a crag, Fb. iii. 447. hamar-skarð and hamra-skarð, n. a scaur, cleft or ravine, Grett. 132, Gísl. 51, Grág. i. 17. hamar-skúti, a, m. a jutting crag, Nj. 264; gjá-h., q. v.: esp. freq. in local names in Icel. and Norway, Hamarr, Hamrar, Hamra-endar, Hamars-á: in compds, Smá-hamrar, Ein-hamarr, a single crag, Gísl., etc., vide Landn., Fms. xii, Fb. iii. 2. a kind of mark on sheeps’ ears, prob. of heathen origin, denoting the holy mark of the hammer of Thor: cutting the top of the ear thus UNCERTAIN is called hamar, whence hamar-skora, u, f. a cleft hamar UNCERTAIN; cp. the ditty of Stef. Ól., Hamarinn mér í greipar gékk | það gæfu-markið fína, and hamar-skoru og gloppu-gat | görðu í hægra eyra. 3. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.): prop. a false reading for humarr (q. v.), a lobster.

hamask, að, dep. to rage, to be taken by a fit of fury in a fight, synonymous to ganga berserks-gang (see p. 6l): the word is derived from hamr, prob. owing to a belief that such persons were possessed by a strange spirit or demon; cp. hamr, hamstoli, hamramr, all of them words referring to a change of shape:—svá er sagt, at þá hamaðisk hann, ok fleiri vóru þeir föru-nautar hans er þá hömuðusk, Eg. 122; hamask þú nú, Skallagrímr, at syni þínum, 192; Þórir hljóp þá af baki, ok er svá sagt, at hann hamaðisk þá it fyrsta sinn, Gullþ. 30, Fas. iii. 343, Landn. 119; Fránmarr jarl hafði hamask í arnar líki, Sæm. 95: the word is still used, to work as hard as a giant.

ham-farir, f. pl. a mythical word, the ‘faring’ or travelling in the assumed shape of an animal, fowl or deer, fish or serpent, with magical speed over land and sea, the wizard’s own body meantime lying lifeless and motionless; graphically depicted in Yngl. S. ch. 7, Vd. ch. 12, Hkr. (O. T.) ch. 37; hann sendi Finna tvá í hamförum til Íslands, Landn. 174; Haraldr konungr bauð kunngum manni at fara í hamförum til Íslands, sá fór í hvals-líki, etc., Hkr. i. 228.

ham-frær, f. pl., from hamfrú (?), witches, an απ. λεγ.; leirblót gört í manns-líki af leiri eðr deigi, eðr hamfrær, N. G. L. i. 383, v. l.

ham-föng, n. pl. frenzy, fury, Sturl. ii. 137.

ham-hleypa, u, f. a ‘ham-leaper,’ a witch that travels in hamfarir, Eg. 421, Fas. ii. 80, 390, Gullþ. 64: in mod. usage Icel. say, hann er mesta hamhleypa, he is a great h., works like a giant, of one who does great work in little time; hann er hamhleypa að skrifa, hamhleypa að vinna, etc.

hamingja, u, f. luck, fortune; prop. in a personal sense, a guardian spirit, answering to the guardian angel of Christians; derived from hamr, for the guardian spirits of men—and every man had his hamingja—were believed to take the shape sometimes of animals, sometimes and more commonly of human beings, esp. that of women; but they were themselves supernatural beings; that the hamingjur were giant-females proceeding from the great Norns—who were the hamingjur of the world—is borne out by the passage in Vþm. 48, 49. Hamingja and fylgja or fylgju-kona (Hallfred S. ch. 11) seem to be nearly synonymous, as also gæfa, gipta, auðna, heill; but hamingja is the most personal word, and was almost symbolical of family relationship. At the hour of death the hamingja left the dying person and passed into a dear son, daughter, or beloved kinsman; cp. Hallfr. S. ch. 11, and esp. the charming tale in Glúm. ch. 9. One might also impart one’s own good luck to another, hence the phrase leggja sína hamingju með e-m, almost answering to the Christian, ‘to give one’s blessing to another.’ Examples: sögðusk mundu leggja til með honum hamingju sína, Ld. 74; h. ok gæfa, Fms. vi. 165; þú en ústöðuga h., Al. 23; h. konungsins, 22; ok mun kona sjá hans h. vera er fjöllum hærra gékk, Glúm. 345; etja hamingju við e-n, Fb. ii. 65; ok reyna hvat hamingjan vill unna þér, Fs. 4; vilnask (hope) at h. mun fylgja, 23; vera má at þat sé til h. várrar ættar, 11; langæligar nytjar munu menn hafa hans hamingju, Bs. i. 229; forlög ekki forðumst ill | fram kemr það hamingjan vill, Úlf. 3. 69; meiri í hreysti en hamingju, Gullþ. 21; sigri eðr hamingju manns þessa, Fs. 10. It is still used in Icel. almost as Heaven, Providence; það má Hamingjan vita, God knows; eg vildi Hamingjan gæfi, would to Heaven! Guð og Hamingjan, God and Good Luck; treysta Guði og Hamingjunni; eiga undir Hamingjunni, to run the risk; and in similar phrases. COMPDS: hamingju-drjúgr, adj. lucky, Fs. 34. hamingju-hjól, n. the wheel of fortune, Fas. iii. 470. hamingju-hlutr, m. a lucky chance, Fms. x. 180. hamingju-lauss, adj. luckless, hapless, Stj. 464, Fms. viii. 93. hamingju-leysi, n. want of luck, Fms. i. 286. hamingju-maðr, m. a lucky man, Fms. xi. 205, Fs. 21. hamingju-mikill, adj. mighty lucky, Fms. ii. 31, Ld. 170, Eg. 46: compar. hamingju-meiri, Fb. i. 301. hamingju-mót, n. lucky appearance; h. er á pér, Fs. 11. hamingju-raun, f. a trial of fortune, Fms. xi. 244, Ó. H. 195. hamingju-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), lucky-looking, Fms. i. 96. hamingju-skipti, n. a shift or turn of fortune, Sturl. iii. 73. hamingju-skortr, m. lack of luck, Fms. xi. 260. hamingju-tjón, n. bad luck, Al. 56.

HAMLA, u, f. an oar-loop made of a strap or withe fastened to the thole-pin (hár), into which the oar was put, the oarsman pulling the oar against the thole, as is still done in the fjords of Norway; hence is called láta síga á hömlu, to pull slowly towards the hamla, i. e. stern foremost, Fms. i. 172, vii. 213; láta skip síga á hömlum, Hkr. iii. 336; á hömlo, Mork. l. c.; lét hann leggja fimm skipum fram í sundit svá at mátti þegar síga á hömlu, Grett. 83 A; hömlur slitnuðu, háir brotnuðu, the h. were torn, the tholes broken, Am. 35; leggja árar í hömlur, they put the oars in the loops, Fms. iii. 57. In Norway the levy or conscription was counted by the hömlur, cp. Ó. H. 227, where one hamla (i. e. man) was to be levied from every seven males over five years old, and so ‘til hömlu’ means naut. = per man, per oar, Gþl. 99, N. G. L. i. 98; thus, gera mat í hömlu, to contribute provisions by the head, 201, cp. D. N. passim and Fritzner’s remarks s. v.: the metaph. phrase, ganga e-m í hömlu um e-t, to go into one’s hamla, take one’s place, to be one’s match; sem Sigvalda myni fæst til skorta, at ganga mér í hömlu um ráða-gerðir ok dæma hér um mál manna, bæði fyrir vizku sakir ok ráðspeki, Fms. xi. 98. COMPDS: hömlu-band, n. an oar strap (= hamla), Eg. 390, Fbr. 181. hömlu-barði, a, m. a dub. απ. λεγ.; má þat ríki kalla hömlu-barða eða auðnar óðal, Sks. 333: the word is prob. taken from a ship defeated in a fight and pulling or drifting stern foremost. hömlu-fall, n. an illegal breaking up of a ship, a Norse law term, no king’s ship might be demolished unless the keel had been laid for a new ship; hömlufall was liable to a fine of three marks for every hamla, N. G. L. i. 101. hömlu-maðr, m. a Norse term answering to Icel. há-seti, an oarsman, sailor, N. G. L. i. 99. II. mod. a short oar with which the boatman paddles, leaning the body forwards and with his face towards the stem, using the oar partly instead of a rudder; hence stýris-hamla, a ‘rudder-oar.’

hamla, að, to pull backwards, stern foremost (= láta síga á hömlu); Hákon jarl lét ok h. at landi, Fms. i. 93; höfðu menn hans þá undan hamlat, 174; gátu þeir eigi svá skjótt vikit þó at þeir hamlaði á annat borð en reri á annat, viii. 386; hömluðu þeir skipunum at Norðnesi, Fagrsk. 254; vér skulum sýna þeim sem mestan undanróðr, en vér skulum þó raunar hamla, O. H. L. 69, cp. Þiðr. 61: in mod. usage to paddle with a short oar, turning the face towards the stem. 2. metaph. to stop, hinder one, with dat.; nú búask þeir bræðr í burt ok stoðar ekki at h. þeim, Fas. i. 42; hamlaði þat mjök afla Þorgríms, at frændr hans kómu eigi, Eb. 48. II. [A. S. hamelan, cp. Engl. to hamstring, O. H. G. hamal-stat = locus supplicii, and Germ. hammel = vervex], to maim, mutilate: with dat. and acc., sumir vóru hamlaðir at höndum eða fótum, Eg. 14; sá er manni hamlaði á hendi eðr á fæti eðr veitti önnur meiðsl, Fms. xi. 226, 298; hann drap suma, suma lét hann hamla, Hkr. i. 258; lét hann suma drepa, suma hamla, en suma rak hann ór landi, Ó. H. 105.

ham-leðr, n. the shank leather of a hide; cp. höm.

hamn-, vide hafn, from höfn, a haven.

hamótt, hömótt, f., mod. humótt; [from höm, a haunch (?), it is therefore not derived from húm]:—only in the phrase, fara í humótt eptir e-m, to follow in one’s wake; hleypr hann fram í veginn þar sem vagna-menninir fóru undan, ok hér eptir í hamóttina (haumóttina, v. l.), Clar. (vellum): mod., ganga í humótt á eptir, to slink behind.

hampa, að, to toss one in the arms, with dat.

HAMPR, m. [this word, like all words in mp (np), is of for. origin; cp. Gr. κάνναβις, whence Lat. cannabis; Germ. hanf; Engl. hemp; Dan. hamp: it scarcely occurs before the middle of the 13th century; hörr, q. v., is the genuine northern word]:—hemp, Sks. 287, H. E. i. 395, N. G. L. ii. 355.

HAMR, m., pl. hamir, dat. hami, Vsp. 36, but ham, Höfuðl. (where ham, gram, and fram form a rhyme), as also Haustl. 2, Hkr. i. 228, all of them poems of the 10th century; [A. S. hama, homa; Hel. hamo; O. H. G. hemedi, whence mod. Germ. hemd; Dan. ham; akin to hamr is Ital. camisa, Fr. chemise, with a final s answering to hams below]:—a skin, esp. the skin of birds flayed off with feathers and wings; álptar-hamr, a swan’s skin; fugls-hamr, a bird’s skin; arnar-hamr, an eagle’s skin; gásar-hamr, a goose’s skin, etc.; hams, q. v., of snakes: ham bera svanir hvítfjaðraðan (of a swan’s skin), Fas. i. 471 (in a verse); hleypa hömum (of snakes), to cast the slough, Konr. 34; hlátra hamr, poët. laughter’s cover, the breast, Höfuðl. 19. II. shape, esp. in a mythol. sense, connected with the phrase, skipta hömum, to change the shape, described in Yngl. S. ch. 7, Völs. S. ch. 7, 8, and passim; cp. also the deriv. ein-hamr, ham-farir, ham-ramr, ham-stola, hamingja, hamask, etc.,—an old and widespread superstition found in the popular lore and fairy tales of almost every country;—Óðinn skipti hömum, lá þá búkrinn sem sofinn eðr dauðr, en hann var þá fugl eða dýr, fiskr eða ormr, ok fór á einni svipstund á fjarlæg lönd, Yngl. S. l. c., Fas. i. 128 (Völs. S. l. c.); it is described in Völs. S. ch. 8,—þeir hafa orðit fyrir úsköpum, því at úlfa-hamir (wolf-coats) héngu yfir þeim; it tíunda hvert dægr máttu þeir komask ór hömunum, etc.; þeir fundu konur þrjár ok spunnu lín, þar vóru hjá þeim álptar-hamir þeirra, Sæm. 88 (prose to Vkv.); fjölkyngis-kona var þar komin í álptar-ham, Fas. i. 373, cp. Helr. 6; víxla hömum, to change skins, assume one another’s shape, Skv. 1. 42; Úlf-hamr, Wolf-skin, the nickname of a mythol. king, Hervar. S., prob. from being hamramr; manns-hamr, the human skin, Str. 31; hugða ek at væri hamr Atla, methought it was the form or ghost of Atli, Am. 19; jötunn í arnar-ham, a giant in an eagle’s skin, Vþm. 37, Edda; í gemlis-ham, id., Haustl.; fjaðr-hamr, Þkv.; í faxa-ham, in a horse’s skin, Hkr. i. (in a verse); í trölls-hami, in an ogre’s skin, Vsp. 36; vals-hamr, a falcon’s skin, Edda (of the goddess Freyja): it remains in mod. usage in metaph. phrases, að vera í góðum, íllum, vondum, ham, to be in a good, bad, dismal frame of mind or mood; vera í sínum rétta ham, to be in one’s own good frame of mind; færast í annan ham, to enter into another frame of mind: in western Icel. an angry, ill-tempered woman is called hamr, hún er mesti hamr (= vargr): hams-lauss, adj. distempered, furious, esp. used in Icel. of a person out of his mind from restlessness or passion, the metaphor from one who cannot recover his own skin, and roves restlessly in search of it, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. passim. COMPDS: ham-dökkr, adj. dark-skinned, of dark hue, Edda (Ht.), of the raven. ham-fagr, adj. fair of hue, bright, Ad. 7. ham-ljótr, adj. scraggy, ugly, Haustl. ham-vátr, adj. skin-wet, i. e. drowned, Landn. (in a verse): freq. in foreign, Saxon, and Germ. pr. names and local names; Hamðir, m. a pr. name, qs. Ham-þér, cp. A. S. Hama-þeow.

ham-ramaðr, part. = hamramr, Fas. iii. 424, (bad.)

ham-ramr, adj. a mythical term, able to change one’s shape; in the Sagas it is esp. used of berserkers,—men gifted with supernatural strength or seized with fits of warlike fury (berserks-gangr), vide hamask; but also, though less frequently, referring to hamfarir; hann var h. mjök, he was a great wizard who changed his shape, Landn. 87, 289; hann var h. mjök svá at hann gékk heiman ór Hraunhöfn um kveldit en kom um morgininn eptir í Þjórsár-dal, Landn. 236, 285, 306, Gullþ. 30; þat var mál manna at hann væri mjök h., Eg. 3; allir hinir sterkustu menn ok margir hamramir, 109; þeim mönnum er hamramir vóru eðr þeim er berserks-gangr er á, 125; eigi var þat einmælt at hann væri eigi h., 514:—as a nickname, Vékell hinn hamrami, Landn. 191; Vigi hinn h., Korm. 58; Tanni er kallaðr var hinn hamrami, Ísl. ii. 360,—the MS. has handrami, which is no doubt wrong, as also in the name of the mythical king Hávarðr handrami, Fb. i. 26; cp. hinn Rammi and ramaukinn, Landn. 107, 249, 277, Hdl. 34.

ham-remi, f. the state of being hamramr, Eg. 125.

hams, m. (= hamr), a snake’s slough; ormar skríða ór hamsi á vár, Mkv.; kalla sverðit orm, en fetlana ok umgörð hams hans, Edda (Ht.) 123: metaph., góðr (íllr) hams er á e-m, one is in a good (bad) frame of mind; hams er góðr á fljóðum, Hallfred: Icel. say, vera í góðum, vondum hamsi, id.: allit. phrases as, hafa hold og hams, ‘to keep up flesh and skin,’ i. e. to be hale and hearty, to be in a good state. II. in plur. hamsar means particles of suet. In Norway hams means the husks of beans and grains: in Dan. a kind of beetle is called gjedehams. ☞ The s in hams is curious; it is kept throughout all cases; it is either a remnant of the old masc. mark s for r as in Gothic, or perhaps the s answers to the inflex. d as in O. H. G. hamedi, Germ. hemd; but still more closely to the inflex. final s in Ital. camisa, Fr. chemise.

ham-skarpr, adj. [höm], thin in the flank, of a horse: the name of a horse, Edda (Gl.)

ham-skiptask, t, dep. = skipta hömum, Str. 30.

ham-stoli, mod. ham-stola, adj. ‘ham-stolen,’ prop. a wizard whose skin has been stolen, and hence metaph. frantic, furious, Eg. 565, Fms. vi. 198, Barl. 56, Karl. passim, cp. Völs. S. Fas. i. 130.

ham-stolinn, part. = hamstoli, Karl. 243, 352, El.

hana and hana-nú, interj. see here! vide Gramm. p. xxviii, col. 2.

HAND, f. a hand; vide hönd.

handa, adv. with dat. for one, to one, prop. a gen. pl. from hönd, q. v.

handa- and handar- in compds, vide s. v. hönd.

hand-afl, n. hand-strength; lesa sik upp með handafli, to haul oneself up by strength of hand, Fas. iii. 283.

hand-afli, a, m. the produce of one’s hands; lifa á handafla sínum, to live by one’s hands.

handan, adv., 1. denoting from the place, from beyond, beyond; handan um, and in mod. usage handan yfir, á, fjörð, sund, fjall, from beyond a river, firth, sound, fell, or the like; hann sá mann ríða handan um Vaðla, Ld. 148; skip reri handan um fjörðinn, Eb. 292; handan ór, af, frá, from the side beyond, the land being in dat.; kom þar Ingimundr ór Dölum handan, Sturl. i. 88; er þeir koma handan ór Tungunni, ii. 216; þeir sá at þrír menn hleyptu handan frá Akri, i. 83; handan af Nesinu, i. e. from Caithness to the Orkneys, Orkn. 410. 2. absol., vindar gnýja héðan ok handan, henceforth and thenceforth, Edda 8; Þórðr andar nú handan, from the opposite bench, Sturl. i. 21, Fms. v. 176 (in a verse); vestan Vatnsskarð ok handan, from the west of the fell W. and beyond, Sturl.; Íslands Húnalands sem Danmarkar handan, i. e. Iceland as well as Húnaland and Denmark beyond the sea, Korm. II. fyrir handan, denoting in the place, with acc.; þar vórum vér allir fyrir handan á upp frá Akri, Sturl. ii. 210; hér fyrir handan ána, Ísl. ii. 260; fyrir handan ver, beyond the sea, Gkv. 2. 7; fyrir handan sundit, Hbl. 1:—adverb., vera má nú at Barði sé fyrir handan, Ísl. ii. 387; Sódóma fyrir handan en Gomorra fyrir héðan, Symb. 30.

hand-bani, a, m. a law term, an actual slayer, homicide; opp. to ráð-bani, hald-bani, Hdl. 28, (αυτόχειρ.)

hand-bjalla, u, f. a hand-bell, Pm. 90.

hand-björg, f. ‘hand-supply;’ esp. in phrases, lifa við h. sína, to live from hand to mouth, Fas. iii. 538; eiga allt undir h. sinni, id., Róm. 290; færa e-n fram með h. sinni, to support a person by one’s labour, Jb. 267; whence handbjargar-úmagi, a, m. (-maðr, m.), a person supported by another’s labour, id.

hand-bogi, a, m. a hand-bow, Landn. 288, Sks. 390, 626, Orkn. 148, Fms. vii. 45, Fb. i. 486; opp. to lásbogi, a cross-bow.

hand-bók, f. a handbook, Vm. 52, Hom. 29.

hand-bragð, n. handicraft, manner of work, gott, íllt h.: of needlework, það er handbragðið hennar á því, and the like.

hand-byndi, mod. hand-bendi, n., prop. a handcuff: metaph. a hindrance, bother, e-m er (verðr) h. at e-u, to be bothered with a thing, Karl. 234; það er h. að honum; hann ekki nema til handbendis.

hand-bærr, adj. ready at hand, Greg. 7, Hornklofi.

hand-draga, dróg, to pull, Thom.

hand-fagr, adj. having fair hands, Korm.

hand-fang, n. ‘hand-grip,’ a span, Gísl. 23.

hand-fara, fór, to touch with the hands, Bs. i. 460.

hand-fátt, n. adj. lack of hands, having too few hands, Fb. i. 521.

hand-festa, t, a law term, to strike a bargain by shaking hands, to pledge; h. heit sitt, Fms. vi. 145; Ásgrímr handfesti at greiða þriggja vetra skatta, Bs. i. 740; handfestir eiðar, Dipl. ii. 19; biskup handfesti (betrothed) jungfrú Ingilborg, Fms. x. 103, H. E. i. 248; handfest mér upp á trú þína, at …, Stj. 629. 2 Kings x. 15.

hand-festa, u, f. (hand-festning, f., H. E. i. 251), = handfestr, Dipl. iv. ii, Fb. i. 366, Bs. ii. 61.

hand-festr, f. striking a bargain, the joining hands; þá ferr handfestr um allt skipit þeirra í millum at þessu heiti, Bs. i. 421; áttu þeir at handfesti ok vápna-tak at þessu heiti, Fms. viii. 55; tóku þeir heit sitt með h., v. 138; sira Oddr tók þá ok þetta skilorð með h., Bs. i. 746; við vitni ok h., Fb. i. 366: it answers to the signing one’s name in mod. law. ☞ In the early Dan. and Swed. laws the stipulation to be given by the king at his coronation was called haand-fæstning. In Scotland marriage used often to be preceded by a preliminary union called hand-fasting, see Jamieson s. v. II. a rope by which to haul oneself up, Jm. 1.

hand-fjatla, að, = handvætta.

hand-fyllr, f. a handful, Ó. H. 211.

hand-færi, n. an angling line.

hand-ganga, u, f. surrender (cp. ganga á hönd e-m), also submission to one as liege-lord; veita e-m handgöngu, Ó. H. 97; þá varð ekki af handgöngu við konunga, 163, Róm. 124, 134.

hand-genginn, part. [Dan. haandgangen], a king’s officer, belonging to the king’s household; görask h. e-m, Eg. 29, 197, Sks. 249, Eb. 110, Fs. 70; synonymous to hirðmaðr, Fms. iv. 122, Al. 27, N. G. L., Jb. passim.

hand-góðr, adj. handy, adroit, Valla L. 223.

hand-grannr, adj. having a thin hand.

hand-grip, n. = handrán, Bs. ii. 45.

hand-hafa, ð, to have in hand, possess, Gþl. 313.

hand-hafl, a, m. having in hand, Fb. 329; vera h. at e-u, to get into one’s hands, clutch a thing (as a law term less than to own); vera h. at jörðu at úleyfi konungs, Gþl. 452; ef sá kallask keypt hafa er h. er at, N. G. L. i. 249, Sturl. i. 56 (of unlawful seizure).

hand-haltr, adj. having a lame, bad hand, Sturl. i. 189.

hand-heitr, adj. having a warm hand.

hand-hæfi, n. and hand-höfn, f. a hand instrument, Þjal. 8.

hand-högg, n. a hacking off one’s hand, Sturl. iii. 116.

hand-höggva, hjó, to hack one’s hand off, Eb. 58, Fms. viii. 167.

hand-iðjan, f. = hannyrð, Bs. i. 619.

hand-kaldr, adj. having (usually) a cold hand.

hand-kista, u, f. a hand-box, D. N.

hand-klukka, u, f. a hand-bell, Vm. 114, 117, B. K. 83.

hand-klæði, n. a hand-towel, N. G. L. ii. 443, Nj. 176, Fms. iii. 194: for use in church, Vm. 15, 104, 117, Dipl. iii. 4, B. K. 83.

hand-knakkar, m. pl. a kind of crutches, Mar. 69, 70.

hand-kriki, a, m. an arm-pit.

hand-krókr, m. a game, ‘hand-crook,’ pulling with crooked hands.

hand-krækjask, t, recipr. to try the strength by pulling with crooked hands, Fms. vi. 203, Fs. 78 (where it is used of hooking hands together and standing in a circle as in a dance).

hand-kvern, f. a quern, hand-mill, B. K. 81.

hand-lag or hand-lög, n. [cp. mid. Lat. andilago, andilangus, per festucam et per andilangum tradere, Du Cange]:—joining hands, a pledging, = handfestr, Eb. 128, Sturl. iii. 233, D. N. i. 134: in sing., Dipl. i. 11.

hand-laginn, part. adroit; hand-lagni, f. adroitness.

hand-lami, adj. indecl. with a lame, bad hand, Bs. ii. 29, Karl. 547.

handlan, f. working, MS. 4. 10.

hand-latr, adj. lazy, Sturl. iii. 200.

hand-laugar, f. pl. washing the bands, a custom with the men of old after as well as before meals; gefa e-m h., Fms. vi. 321, Stj. 153; taka h., Fms. vii. 85; ganga til handlauga, v. 317; bera inn h., Nj. 220 (after dinner); Bergþóra gékk at borðinu með handlaugar, Nj. 52, cp. Nj. ch. 117, Lv. ch. 13, Har. S. Harðr. ch. 79: in sing. of the basin = mundlaug, Fms. vi. 199, Fb. iii. 467.

hand-lauss, adj. without hands, Gísl. (in a verse).

hand-leggja, lagði, = handfesta; h. e-m e-t, to pledge, confirm by handlög, Dipl. ii. 5; h. e-m land, til eignar, to sell an estate by handlög, Dipl. ii. 8, Thom. 298; handlagði Sophia kirkjunni til eignar þrjá tigi hundraða, Pm. 9: to seize, Post. (Fr.)

hand-leggr, m. the ‘hand-leg,’ the arm, Landn. 119 (v. l.), Bjarn. 65, Grett. 140, Nj. 19, 116, Ld. 220, Sturl. i. 85, ii. 104, Bs. i. 640, ii. 29, Fms. i. 16, ii. 264, vii. 226, Bárð. 169; cp. fótleggr: Icel. distinguish between upp-h., the upper-arm, and fram-h., the fore-arm; in mod. speech this compd word has almost superseded the old armr, q. v.

hand-leiðsla, u, f. guidance.

hand-leika, lék, to wield in one’s hand, have in the hand.

hand-leikinn, part. nimble-handed.

hand-lektari, a, m. a hand lectern or reading-desk, Vm. 110.

hand-léttir, m. lending a hand, Fbr. 93.

handligr, adj. manual, K. Á. 120.

hand-lín, n., eccl. sleeves, 625. 184, Fms. iii. 168, viii. 308, Vm. 30, Dipl. v. 18, B. K. 83, D. I. i. passim.

hand-ljótr, adj. having a loutish, clownish hand.

hand-megin and hand-megn, n. strength of hand, clasp, = handafl, Rb. 378; af handmagni, with the clasp of the hand, 625. 26: strength to work, working power, Grág. i. 237, 240: work = handbjörg, færa e-n fram á fé sínu eðr handmagni, 292. handmegins-úmagi, a, m. = handbjargar-úmagi, Grág. i. 289.

hand-meiddr, part. with maimed hands, Sturl. i. 189 C.

hand-mjúkr, adj. having a soft hand.

hand-numinn, part. seized, caught, Grág. ii. 136, 195, N. G. L. i. 61.

hand-óðr, adj. fumbling about and touching everything with the hands, esp. of children.

hand-pundari, a, m. a hand steel-yard, Gþl. 523, Jb. 373.

hand-raði, a, m. a drawer in a chest, 677. 9; freq. in mod. usage, kistu-handraði, kistils-handraði, etc.

hand-ramr, adj., vide hamramr.

hand-rán, n. a law term, ‘hand-robbery,’ wresting a thing out of another’s hand, a kind of frumhlaup (personal assault), defined in Grág. Vsl. ch. 3, liable to outlawry, Grág. ii. 191, N. G. L. i. 58, Gþl. 408, Jb. 426.

hand-reip, n. a rope for hauling, Sks. 414.

hand-rið, n. a hand-rail, of a staircase or the like, Fms. viii. 375 (of a bridge), Sks. 414.

hand-rif, n. [cp. handsyfte, Ivar Aasen], ‘hand-reefing,’ a naut. term, in the phrase, svipta h., to reef a sail; síga skyldi láta seglin, ok heldr seint, en svipta af handrifi, Ó. H. 182, (svipta af neðan handrifi, Fms. iii. 44.)

hand-rit, n. ‘hand-writ,’ manuscript, (mod.) handrita-safn, n. a collection of manuscripts.

hand-sal, n. [Scot. hansel; Dan. handsel], a law term, usually in pl. handsöl, ‘hand-selling’ or hanselling, i. e. the transference of a right, bargain, duty to another by joining hands;—hand-shaking was with the men of old the sign of a transaction, and is still used among farmers and the like, so that to shake hands is the same as to conclude a bargain, cp. Lat. mandare = manu-dare, mancipium from manu capere; jafnt þykkja mér þín heit sem handsöl annarra manna, thy word is as good as the h. of other men, Lv. 65: a trust, charge, Grág. i. 190; þetta handsal líkaði ílla Þorbrands sonum, Eb. 156; er hjá vóru gjöfinni ok handsalinu, Anal. 293; biskups handsöl, Vm. 66; taka við handsölum á e-u, to undertake the trust, charge of a thing, Nj. 257; ek vil gjarna at þú takir handsölum á öllu fénu, Ld. 50; taka við fé með handsölum, Fs. 125; eiga handsöl við e-n, to make a bargain with one, Hrafn. 21, Rd. 243, Fb. i. 109; gefa e-m handsöl yfir e-u, Bs. ii. 64; bjóða h. fyrir e-n, to offer bail for one, Fs. 87; ganga til handsala fyrir e-n, Eb. 128, 148, Grág. and Sagas passim. COMPDS: handsals-band, n. a bond of handsal, N. G. L. i. 223. handsals-maðr or handsala-maðr, m. a bail, surety, Grág. i. 295, 363, 655 iii. 1, Sturl. iii. 43. handsals-rof, n. a breach of h., N. G. L. i. 365. handsals-slit, n. a breach of h., Grág. i. 384, 385, Gþl. 517.

handsala, að, to make over by hansel, cp. Lat. mancipare; tak nú í hönd mér ok handsala, Nj. 21; rétt fram höndina ok h. mér nú landit, Eb. 38; h. sekð, sátt, Nj. 111, Grág. i. 118, 119; h. niðrfall at sökum, Nj. 21; h. e-m fé sitt, Glúm. 364, Eb. 156; h. sjálfdæmi, Bs. i. 286; h. löggrið, Grág. i. 19; fé handsalat, 399; h. kaup, to strike a bargain, N. G. L. i. 24; þá skal hann krefja harm verka slíkra, sem hann handsalaði honum, as he stipulated with him, 35: recipr., handsalask e-t, to stipulate with one another, Grág. i. 116; takask þeir í hendr ok handsalask við sættina, Sturl. ii. 252: part., handseld sök, etc., a suit conducted by proxy, Nj. passim.

hand-sama, að, to gather together, keep, catch.

hand-sax, n. a short sword, dirk, Fms. ii. 169, 268, 274, viii. 224. handsaxa-leikr, m. playing with dirks, by throwing them in the air and catching them by the hilt, Fb. i. 463.

hand-seinn, adj. slow with the hand, Ísl. ii. 84.

hand-seld, f. making over by handsal. handseldar-vitni, n. a witness to a handsal, Grág. ii. 203.

hand-selja, d, = handsala, Nj. 33; h. e-m e-t, Gþl. 513: to stipulate, make a bargain, h. sér konu, 229; h. e-m vitni, verk, D. N. i. 100, N. G. L. ii. 163.

hand-síðr, adj. long-armed, Fb. iii. 416.

hand-skjálfti, a, m., medic. a trembling of the hand.

hand-skot, n. a throwing by hand, opp. to bogaskot (shooting from a bow), Eb. 308, Fas. ii. 513, Fms. vi. 84, Bs. i. 621, Fb. i. 485.

hand-sleggja, u, f. a hand-sledge, Sks. 415.

hand-slöngva, u, f. a hand-sling, Sks. 380.

hand-smár, adj. small-handed.

hand-sterkr, adj. strong-handed, Eb. 166.

hand-stinnr, adj. with brawny hand; róa handstinnan, to pull briskly, Finnb. 250.

hand-stirðr, adj. stiff-handed, awkward.

hand-stór, adj. big-handed.

hand-stuttr, adj. short-handed.

hand-styrkja, t, in the phrase, h. sik upp, to haul oneself up, Grett. 96, 141.

hand-styrkr, adj. = handsterkr, Fms. i. 305, x. 172.

hand-styrkr, m. strength of hand, Bær. 9.

hand-sök, f. = handseld sök, Nj. 230 (MS.)

hand-tak, n. = handlag, Nj. 113, Sturl. i. 118, Bs. i. 771, Vm. 76.

hand-taka, tók, to seize, capture, Nj. 136, Sæm. 33, Fb. i. 395, Fs. 102, Fbr. 54 new Ed. 2. hand-tekinn, part. stipulated, Fs. 15.

hand-tygill, m. a lace-tag, Fms. vi. 140.

hand-únýtr, adj. quite worthless.

hand-válka (-volka), að, to squeeze or crumple up with the hands.

hand-vega, vá, to weigh in the hand, Fb. i. 370.

hand-vegr, m. a shoulder-seam, Fms. ii. 70, Thom. 41, Flov. 31.

hand-verk, n. a handiwork, trade, profession, (mod.) handverks-maðr, m. a handicraftsman.

hand-verkr, m., medic. chiragra, gout in the hand.

hand-viss, adj. in hand, quite certain, Karl. 175, 212, Thom. 5, 40, 63, 118.

hand-vætta, tt, = handvega, Fms. ii. 129.

hand-vömm, f. ‘hand-slip,’ maladroitness, clownishness, blundering, Grág. i. 383, N. G. L. i. 22, 25, Gþl. 501, Js. 121.

hand-æði, n. fidgetting with the hand, being handóðr.

hand-öx, f. a hand-axe, Nj. 27, Glúm. 329, Eg. 769: used as a missile, Ó. H. 217.

hang, n. the coil of a serpent; beygja hangit, of a cat, Edda 33.

HANGA, pret. hékk, 2nd pers. hékkt, mod. hékst, pl. héngu; pret. subj. héngja, mod. héngi; part. hanginn; pres. indic. irreg. hangi; a provincial weak pret. hangði also occurs a few times in old writers, e. g. Edda 76, which form is still heard in southern Icel. (in and about Reykjavík): [Ulf. hahan; A. S. hæn; Engl. hang; O. H. G. hahan; Germ. hangen; Dan. hænge; Swed. hänge]:—to hang, Lat. pendere: α. to hang, be suspended; hvers manns alvæpni hékk yfir rúmi hans, Eg. 88; vápn sín, er þar héngu hjá þeim, 377; þetta it stóra sverð er uppi hangir, Fas. iii. 120; hann hefir nú tvá daga á krossi hangit, 625. 79. β. to cleave to; svá hanga þykt á þeim skotin, Al. 138; ok hangði hón á lifrinni þar til er hann dó, Edda 76; en ef við hangir, if it hangs fast to, N. G. L. i. 66. γ. to hang up, for smoking; eða tvau laer héngi, Hm. 66; whence hanginn, hung, smoked; hangið kjöt (proncd. hangi-kjöt), hung, smoked meat. 2. to be hanged, executed; annarr skyldi hanga, en öðrum steypa í forsinn Sarp, Fms. vii. 181; at eigi væri hverr yðvarr maklegri at hanga, 13; gengir þú at hanga, Am. 22, cp. Hm. 139, Fms. v. 212.

hangi, a, m. a law term, a body hanging on a gallows, Fms. v. 212: the mythol. phrase, sitja, setjask undir hanga, to sit under a gallows, of Odin, in order to acquire wisdom or knowledge of the future;—for this superstition see Yngl. S. ch. 7;—whence Odin is called hanga-guð, hanga-dróttinn, hanga-týr, the god or lord of the hanged, Edda 14, 49, Lex. Poët.; varðat ek fróðr und forsum | fór ek aldregi at göldrum | … nam ek eigi Yggjar feng und hanga, I became not wise under waterfalls, I never dealt in witchcraft, I did not get the share of Odin (i. e. the poetical gift) under the gallows, i. e. I am no adept in poetry, Jd. 3 (MS., left out in the printed edition). According to another and, as it seems, a truer and older myth, Odin himself was represented as hangi, hanging on the tree Ygg-drasil, and from the depths beneath taking up the hidden mystery of wisdom, Hm. 139; so it is possible that his nicknames refer to that; cp. also the curious tale of the blind tailor in Grimm’s Märchen, No. 107, which recalls to mind the heathen tale of the one-eyed Odin sitting under the gallows.

hangi-kjöt, n. hung, smoked meat.

hangin-lukla, u, f. epithet of a housewife whose keys hang at her belt, Rm.

hangr, m. a hank, coil; það er hangr á því, there is a coil (difficulty) in the matter.

HANI, a, m. [Ulf. hana; A. S. hana; Engl. hen; Hel. hano; Germ. hahn; Dan. and Swed. hane; cp. Lat. cano]:—a cock, Fms. v. 193, 194, Vsp. 34, 35, passim; veðr-hani or vind-hani, a weathercock; Oðins-hani, a kind of sandpiper, tringa minima; Þórs-hani; Óðinshani and Þórshani are distinguished, Þjóðólfr, May 15, 1869, p. 124. 2. as a nickname, Fms. xii, Fb. iii, Landn.; whence in local names, Hana-tún, Hana-fótr, etc., Landn. COMPDS: hana-gal, n. or hana-galan, f. cock-crow, gallicinium, Fms. viii. 56. hana-ótta, u, f. cock-crow, N. G. L. i. 9.

hankask, að, dep. to be coiled up, Fms. vi. 312; vide áhankast, p. 41.

HANKI, a, m. [Dan. hanke; Engl. hank], the hasp or clasp of a chest, Fs. 132; naut. pullies or blocks for brailing up a sail, N. G. L. i. 101; whence hanka-gjald, n., 199.

HANN, pers. pron. masc. he; fem. HÓN or HÚN, she; for the pronunciation of this word see introduction to letter H; as to the inflexion see Gramm. p. xxi; in the MSS. the word is usually abbreviated ? = hann; hº or hō = hón; ?m = hánum; ?ar = hennar; ?i or ?e = henni: the old dat. masc. was hánum, as shewn by rhymes, mána vegr und hánum, Haustl.; but in Icel. it was no doubt sounded h́num, by way of umlaut; it was then sounded hónum with a long vowel, and lastly honum with a short vowel, which also is the mod. form; the old MSS. often spell hánum in full; the spelling hönum in old printed books recalls the old form h́num; from Pass. 9. 7 it may be seen that in the middle of the 17th century the dative was sounded precisely as at present. 2. sing. fem. hón (ho in mod. Norse, hoo in Lancashire) seems to be the older form; the MSS. use both forms hón and hún, but the former is the usual one; it was prob. sounded h́n, which again points to a long root vowel, hánn, hána? [Cp. Ulf. is; Germ. er; A. S., Engl., and Hel. he; old Fris. hi; in the Scandin. idioms with a suffixed demonstrative particle, vide Gramm. p. xxviii; Dan. and Swed. han, hun, etc.]

B. As this word appears almost in every line only special usages need be mentioned, as, ef maðr færir ómaga fram ok beri fé undir hann (acc., sc. ómagi), eðr eigi hann (nom., the same) fé, þá skal hann (nom., sc. maðr) beiða hann (acc., sc. ómagi) með vátta, at hann (nom., the same) seli hánum (dat., sc. maðr) fjár-heimting á hönd þeim mönnum er hann (nom., sc. ómagi) á fé undir, Grág. i. 279; here the context is very perplexing, chiefly owing to the identity of acc. and nom. sing. masc., but also because the pron. is sometimes demonstr., sometimes reflexive; in the latter case an Icel. would now say sér instead of hánum: so also, þá skal hann beiða samþingis-goða, at hanu fái honum (i. e. sibi) mann, 10: again, skal hann selja sókn ok vörn ef hann vill, ok svá varðveizlu fjár síns þess er hann á hér eptir, 146; þá skal hón ráða við ráð frænda síns (her) nokkurs, 307; Gunnarr kenndi féit at þat var hit sama sem hann (i. e. Njal) hafði honum (i. e. to Gunnar) greitt, Nj. 56. II. the pers. pron. is often prefixed to a pr. name, as a sign of familiarity; farit upp til hestsins ok gætið hans Kols, Nj. 56; eðr hverr maðr er hann Gunnarr, what sort of a man is Gunnar? 51; ok hleypr á hann Þorkel upp, 114; ok leitið ér at honum Höskuldi, go and look after Hoskuld, 171; sæmd er ek veitta honum Þórólfi bróður þínum, Eg. 112; segir hann Pálnir, Fms. xi. 47; hón Ingibjörg, 49; hann Gísli, Grett. (in a verse); ok berjask við hann Ólaf, Fagrsk. 86; hans Vígólfs, Sól.; svá er, segir hann Þórðr, Ísl. ii. 329:—this has become very freq. in mod. conversational usage, so that a person (nay, even an animal or a ship that has a name) is scarcely ever named without the pron., bidd’ ‘ann Jón að koma, segð’ ‘onum Jóni, vekt’ ‘ana Sigríði; hún Sigga litla, hann Jón litli, etc.; or of ponies, sækt’ ‘ann Brún, legð’ á ‘ana Skjónu; cp. the dialogue in Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 612,—ég skal fylla mína hít, segir ‘ún Hvít, ég ét sem ég þoli, segir ‘ann boli, etc.; or Kvöldv. ii. 197,—taktú þarna frá ‘enni Reyðr og gefð’ ‘enni Hyrnu, hún Húfa hefir flækt sig í niðrbandinu. III. er hann = who, that; sá maðr er hann vill, Grág. i. 19, 27, 36, vide p. 132. 2. answering to Fr. on, Germ. man, Engl. one; væri sverðit til tækt er hann vildi, when one wished, Eg. 505; but this use is very rare.

hannar-mæli, f. ‘skilful speech,’ eloquence, Róm. 301.

Hannarr, m. the Skilful, the Artist, name of a dwarf, Vsp.

HANNR, adj. skilled; sú var mar hanarst (i. e. hönnust) á Haþalandi, she was the most skilled maid in Hadaland, on a Norse Runic stone, cited by Bugge in Tidskr. for Philol. vol. vi. p. 90; hence sjón-hannr or sjón-hannarr, ‘skill-sighted,’ one whose eyes are cultivated, having the eyes of an artist, Ó. H. 16.

hannörð or hannyrð, f., esp. used in pl. and sounded hannyrðir; [this word is formed from hannr or hannar in the same way as einörð or einurð from einarðr]:—handiness, skill, fine work, esp. used of ladies’ needlework, embroidery, or the like, and freq. in mod. usage; enda er hannorð (skill, beauty) á hvívetna því er þú tekr þínum höndum til at göra, Clem. 24; hannörðir (pl.), 25; svá skyldi hans kona bera af öllum konum hannyrðir sem hón var hverri þeirra fríðari, Vígl. 48 new Ed.; kyrtill gullofinn ok gerr hannyrðum, hannyrð vefnaðar, Konr. (MS.); hón saumaði ok tefldi eða vann aðrar hannyrðir, Bs. i. 241; kenna konu við hannyrðir, Edda ii. 513; merkit var gert af miklum hannyrðum ok ágætum hagleik, Orkn. 28; hafa á skriptum ok hannyrðum, Gkv. 2. 15; hón hafði heima verit ok numit hannorðe (i. e. hannörð), Völs. S. 135 new Ed.; hón vandisk við borða ok hannyrðir, Fas. i. 523. hannyrða-kona, u, f. a woman skilled in needlework. ☞ This word is to be distinguished from hönd as it is spelt and sounded nn not nd, cp. Bugge’s interesting remarks in Hist. Tidskrift.

hanzki, a, m. [O. H. G. hant-scuoh = hand-shoe, Germ. hand-schuh; Dan. handske]:—a glove, Ls. 60, Hbl. 26, Edda 39.

HAPP, n. [cp. Engl. hap, happy], good luck, but with the notion of hap, chance, as is well said in the ditty, hamingjan býr í hjarta manns | höpp eru ytri gæði, Núm. 2. 87; þá varð minna happit en ek vilda, Fms. i. 182; happa fullting, ‘hap-help,’ Deus ex machina, vi. 165; happ sótti þik nú en brátt mun annat, gættu at þér verði þat eigi at úhappi, Landn. 146; til happs ok heilla sátta (allit.), for good hap and health, Grág. ii. 21: in the saying, sá skal hafa happ er hlotið hefir, Eb. 24; úhapp, mishap. COMPDS: happa-drjúgr, adj. lucky, Fas. iii. 619. happa-mikill, adj. having great luck, Hkr. iii. 422. happa-ráð, n. happy counsel, Ísl. ii. 159, Hkr. ii. 88. happa-verk, n. a happy deed, Fms. vii. 293. happ-auðigr, adj. wealthy, happy, Þorf. Karl. 378. happ-fróðr, adj. wise in season, Þorf. Karl. 378. happ-lauss, adj. hapless, Eg. (in a verse). happ-samr, adj. happy, lucky, Fas. iii. 427. happ-skeytr, adj. a happy shot, Edda 17. In poetry, happ-mildr, -kunnigr, -reynir, -vinnandi, -víss, adj. happy, fortunate: happ-snauðr, adj. hapless. Lex. Poët.

hapr-task (hafr-task), n. a haversack, Snót 163.

hapt, n. a bond; vide haft.

HARA, ð (?), [cp. Germ. harren], to wait upon (?), an απ. λεγ., Skm. 28; or perhaps the same word as the mod. hjara (q. v.), vitam degere.

Haraldr, m. a pr. name (from herr, q. v.), Fms. COMPDS: Haralds-slátta, u, f. the coinage of king Harold Harðráði, Fms. vi. Haralds-stikki, a, m. name of a poem, Fms.

harða, adv. = harðla, chiefly used in poetry, Al. 84, Fms. x. 101, Stj. 8, 452, Pr. 97, Lex. Poët.

harð-brysti, n. hard-heartedness, Thom. 486.

harðindi, n. pl. hardness; harðindi hafða ek þar í hendi því at bein er hart, Bs. i. 874. II. metaph. hardship, severity, K. Á. 54, Sks. 351, Fms. i. 220, vi. 110: esp. in mod. usage, a hard season, bad weather, harðinda-ár, -vetr, -sumar, vetrar-harðindi: harðindis-maðr, m. a stern man, Sks. 803.

harðla, and assimil. harla, adv. very, greatly, Fms. v. 257. vi. 217, Bs. i. 189, ii. 45, Stj. 58, Al. 156, Sturl. i. 159, Finnb. 232, passim.

harðliga, adv. forcibly, sternly, Fms. i. 71, vi. 44, Nj. 123, Gþl. 54: swiftly, fast, ríða harðliga, Karl. 58, Bær. 16; stíga h., Sks. 629.

harðligr, adj. hard, metaph. hard, severe, Nj. 181, Fms. ix. 291, v. l.

harðna, að, to harden. II. metaph. to be hardened, Stj. 261. Exod. vi. sqq., K. Á. 54, Fms. vi. 37, 153, vii. 30: to become severe, ii. 30, Sturl. ii. 255: of weather, Grett. 152, Fms. ix. 502, v. l.: of scarcity, harðnaði matlífi þeirra, they ran short of provisions, viii. 435: to be hard tried, tók þá at harðna í skapi sveins, the lad began to feel unhappy, Bs. i. 350: part. harðnaðr, hardened, i. e. grown up, Sturl. iii. 11; opp. to blautr; Grettir var lítt settr at klæðum, en maðr lítt harðnaðr, tók hann nú at kala, Grett. 91; ú-harðnaðr. unhardened, still a tender boy.

HARÐR, adj., fem. hörð, neut. hart, [Ulf. hardus = σκληρός, αὐστηρος; A. S. heard; Engl. hard; Germ. hart; Dan. haard; Swed. hard]: I. hard to the touch; eptir hörðum velli, Ísl. ii. 333; harðr skafl, Fb. ii. 103; harðar götur, hard, stony paths, Fms. x. 85; stokka eðr steina eðr hvargi þess er hart er fyrir, Grág. ii. 132; sjóða egg hart (harð-soðinn), Lækn. 472; af harðasta járni, Stj. 461: tempered, of steel, Gpl. II. metaph., 1. hard, stern, severe; hörð í skapi, Nj. 17 (skap-harðr); hörð orð, hard words, Fms. v. 106; harðr í hjarta, hard of heart, Flov. 38: with dat., harðr e-m, hard on one, Fb. i. 71. β. hardy; fólk hart ok íllt at sækja, hardy and ill to fight against, Fms. i. 85; eiga harðan son, vi. 105; hinn vaskasti drengr ok hinn harðasti karlmaðr, Ísl. ii. 264; þeir eru harðir ok hinir mestu bardaga-menn, Karl. 282; harðr í horn at taka (metaph. from a bull), hard to take by the horns, Fms. xi. 221: hard, gloomy, í hörðu skapi, Bs. i. 351, Fas. iii. 522; með harðri hendi, with high hand. γ. hard, sad; hörð tíðindi, Nj. 64; hér hafa orðit harðir atburðir, hard things have happened, 248. δ. hard, dire; harðr (kostr), Fms. v. 235; gera harðan rétt e-s, to deal hardly with one, i. 66; harðr dauði, ii. 173; hörð sætt, Nj. 254; hafa hart, to have a hard lot, Sturl. iii. 292; harðr bardagi, hörð orrosta, Fms. ii. 323, passim. ε. of weather; hörð norðanveðr, Nj. 124, Rb. 572. 2. neut. hart, adv. hardly, harshly; leika e-n hart, Fms. xi. 94. β. hard, fast; ríða hart, to ride hard, Sighvat, Ó. H. (in a verse), Nj. 82; en nú renn engi harðara en hann, 248; ganga hart ok djúpt, Edda 1; flýja sem harðast, to fly one’s hardest, 261; þeir fóru harðara en þeir vildu, Fms. x. 139. γ. hart íllt (qs. harða íllt) erindi, Fb. ii. 393; hart nær, hard by. COMPDS: Harð-angr, m. name of a firth in Norway; whence Harðengir, m. pl. the inhabitants of H., Hkr., Fms. xii. harða-fang, n. a law term, an execution for payment, Grág. i. 384, 398, 438. harð-beinn, adj. hard-foot, a nickname, Ld. harð-brjóstaðr (harð-brystr, adj., Greg. 41, Stj. 484), part. hard-hearted, Flov. 36. harð-býll, adj. a hard householder. harð-dreginn, part. hard to draw, difficult, Nj. 100, v. l. harð-dregi, n. being h., Hkr. iii. 185. harð-drægr, adj. hard to draw, hard to manage, Nj. 90, 192. harð-eggjaðr, adj. sharp-edged, Grett. (in a verse). harð-eygr, adj. hard-eyed, Njarð. 364. harð-fang, n. ‘hard wrestling,’ force, Sks. 782, v. l. harð-fari, a, m. one who travels hard, a quick traveller, Sturl. iii. 122: as a nickname, Eg. 72. harð-farliga, adv. harshly, Eb. 93 new Ed. harð-fengi, f. hardihood, valour, Nj. 98, Fms. ii. 28, Fs. 13, Anal. 169. harð-fenginn, adj. = harðfengr, Fas. i. 260, Ann. 1362 (in a verse). harð-fengliga (-fengiliga, Fms. iii. 143), adv. hardily, valiantly, Bær. 8, Fms. xi. 131, x. 355. harð-fengr, adj. hardy, valiant, Eg. 710, Nj. 192, Fas. ii. 525. harð-fenni, n. hard snow, Fbr. 39. harð-fótr, m. ‘hard-leg,’ a tempered bar, poët. of a sword, Hkm. harð-færi, n. stubbornness, Ld. 176. harð-færr, adj. hard to overcome, Edda 27. harð-geðr (-geðjaðr), adj. hard-minded. harð-gengr, adj. hard-going, rough, of a horse, opp. to góðgengr. harð-greipr, adj. hard-clutched, Lex. Poët. harð-görr, adj. hardy, stout, Nj. 30: of things strong-built, Fms. x. 355 (a ship), Fas. i. 273 (a tower). harð-hendliga, adv. with hard hand, Eg. 720. harð-hendr, adj. hard-handed, strong-handed, Stj. 553, Sks. 753. harð-hugaðr, adj. hard-hearted, Hom. 101, 108, Gh. 1. harð-jaxl, m. a grinder (tooth), a nickname, Rd. harð-kljáðr, part. hard-stretched, of a weft, Darr. harð-leikinn, part. playing a hard, rough game, Sturl. i. 23; verða e-m h., to play roughly with one, Fms. ii. 182, Stj. 463; fá harðleikit, to be roughly treated, Fms. vi. 210, ix. 449; göra e-m harðleikit, Grett. 127. harð-leikni, f. a rough game, Fms. vi. 37, Karl. 456. harð-leikr, m. hardness; hjartans h., Stj. 87: harshness, Fms. ii. 161, ix. 449. harð-leitr, adj. hard-looking, Eg. 305, Fms. x. 173. harð-lífi, n. a hard life, chastisement, Bs. i. passim, Barl. 210: medic. hardness of bowels, constipation, Fél. harð-lundaðr, adj. hard-tempered, 655 B. xiii. harð-lyndi, n. a hard temper, Fms. vi. 45. harð-lyndr, adj. hard-tempered, Nj. 16, Sturl. ii. 185. harð-magi, a, m. ‘hard-maw,’ a nickname, Fms. vii. 217. harð-mannligr, adj. hardy, manly, Fb. i. 168, Krók. 68. harð-menni, n. a hardy man, Edda (Gl.) harð-móðigr, adj. hard of mood, Lex. Poët. harð-mynntr (Grett. in a verse) and harð-múlaðr, part. hard-mouthed, Germ. hartmäulig, Sturl. (in a verse). harð-mæli, n. hard language, Sturl. iii. 201, Bs. i. 766. harð-mæltr, part. hard-spoken, Sturl. ii. 143, v. l.: gramm. pronouncing hard, opp. to linmæltr. harð-orðr, adj. hard-spoken, Fms. iii. 152. harð-raðr, adj. hard in counsel, tyrannical, Nj. 2, Fms. vii. 280, xi. 18; ríkr maðr ok h., Ver. 42: nickname of king Harold given him in Fagrsk. 106. harð-rétti, n. hardship, Rd. 249, Al. 82, Andr. 74: hard fare, sultr ok h., Stj. 257. harð-ræði, n. hardiness, Fms. viii. 448, Nj. 258, 263: hard plight, Fms. i. 251: hardness, harshness, x. 401. harð-skeyti, n. hard shooting, Fms. iii. 18. harð-skeytr, adj. shooting hard, of an archer, Fms. ii. 320, Karl. 244: metaph. hard, severe. harð-skipaðr, part. manned with hardy men, Bs. ii. 30, Fms. ii. 183. harð-sleginn, part. hard-hammered, of iron, Hým. 13. harð-slægr, adj. hard to mow, Glúm. 383, Fms. v. 203. harð-snúinn, part. hard-twisted, metaph. staunch, stalwart, Nj. 178. harð-sóttr, part. hard to get, difficult, Fms. v. 169. harð-sperra or hall-sperra, u, f. stiffness in the limbs. harð-spori, a, m. hard-trodden snow. harð-steinn, m. a hard stone, a kind of whet-stone, Ísl. ii. 348, Glúm. 375, Fms. xi. 223. harðsteina-grjót, n. a quarry of h., Fms. viii. 224. harð-svíraðr, adj. hard-necked, stiff-necked. harð-tenntr, part. having hard teeth, Sks. 753. harð-tækr, adj. hard, exacting, Háv. 40. harð-úð, f. hardness of heart. harð-úðigr, adj. hard-minded, Fms. iii. 95, Fs. 23, Fas. i. 217, Lex. Poët. harð-vaxinn, part. hardy of limb, brawny, Fms. vii. 321, viii. 238. harð-velli, n. a hard, dry field. harð-verkr, m. the name of a giant, Edda. harð-vítugr, adj. hardy, (cant word.) harð-yrði, n. hard words, Sturl. iii. 238, Hom. 144. harð-yrki, a, m. a hard worker, Fms. ix. 435. harð-yrkr, adj. hard working. harð-ýðgi, f. hardness of heart, severity, Fms. viii. 232, x. 217.

harð-stjóri, a, m. a tyrant: harð-stjórn, f. tyranny, (mod.)

hark, n. a tumult, Fs. 6, Fms. vii. 168, 321, ix. 288, 516 (harshness), Fb. ii. 191, Finnb. 144; hark ok háreysti, Ísl. ii. 344.

harka (qs. harðka), u, f. hardness, and metaph. hardiness, Fb. i. 521; freq. in mod. usage: also of a hard frost, mesta harka: the phrase, með hörku-munum, with utmost difficulty. hörku-veðr, n. hard frosty weather; vetrar-hörkur, winter frost.

harka, að, to scrape together, with dat., Fms. viii. 73; munu þeir hafa harkat saman liði sínu, Mork. 90: impers., e-m harkar, things go ill with one, Finnb. 338, Fas. ii. 239; það harkar um e-t, id., Bjarn. 62. II. reflex. id., Fas. ii. 307: to make a tumult, Finnb. 224; Ljótr vaknaði ok spurði hverr harkaðist, Háv. 31 new Ed.

HARKI, a, m. rubbish, trash, (= mod. skran); kistur ok annar h., Karl. 554, Bs. i. 830, Fs. 44. COMPDS: harka-börn, n. pl. rabble of children, Þrymlur 1. 3, (not háska-börn.) harka-geta, u, f. coarse food, Sturl. i. 166. harka-lið, n. rabble, Ísl. ii. 91. harka-maðr, m. a tramp, scamp, Sturl. i. 175. harka-samliga, adv. coarsely, Sturl. ii. 163.

harla, adv., vide harðla.

harma, að, to bewail, with acc., Nj. 20, Fms. i. 47, ii. 229, Hom. 20, Bs. i. 105, passim; h. sik, to wail, Fms. iii. 8: impers., e-m harmar, it vexes one, one is vexed, Blas. 41, Háv. 44.

harm-brögð, n. pl. mischief, Akv. 15.

harm-dauði, adj. indecl. (and harm-dauðr, adj., Fms. ix. 399), lamented, of one departed; vera harmdauði, Fms. vi. 232, ix. 421, x. 406, Orkn. 88, Fb. i. 28.

harm-dögg, f., poët. sorrow-dew, i. e. tears, Hkv. 2. 43.

harm-fenginn, adj. bowed by grief, O. H. L. 46.

harm-flaug, f. a baneful shaft, of the mistletoe, Vsp. 37.

harm-fullr, adj. sorrowful, Fms. v. 214.

harm-kvæli, n. pl. torments, 623. 35, Fms. iii. 217, Magn. 530, Bs. i. 325, ii. 107.

harm-kvæling, f. = harmkvæli, Matth. xxiv. 8.

HARMR, m. [A. S. hearm; Engl. harm; Dan. harme], grief, sorrow; hann mátti ekki mæla fyrir harmi, Fms. vi. 228: in plur., með hörmum, x. 368; mikill harmr er at oss kveðinn, Nj. 201, passim. COMPDS: harma-bylgja, u, f. a billow of sorrow, Pass. 41. 4. harma-grátr, m. the Lamentations, of Jeremiah. harma-raust (-rödd), f. lamentation, Pass. 41. 7. harma-tölur, f. pl. = harmtölur. harms-auki, a, m. addition to one’s grief, Fms. vi. 237. harms-fullr, adj. sorrowful, Fms. vi. 261, Edda 22, Fas. i. 456. harms-léttir, m. relief, Fms. iii. 5. II. in old poetry harmr often conveys the notion of harm, hurt, Skv. 2. 10, 11, Sdm. 12, 36, Ýt. 19. III. a kind of hawk, Edda (Gl.) IV. name of a fjord in Norway, Fms.

harm-saga, u, f. tidings of grief, Stj. 522, Eb. 98, Lv. 64, Fms. xi. 17.

harm-sól, f. sun of grief, name of an old poem.

harm-sök, f. a sad case, Nj. 221, Eb. 34 new Ed., v. l. to harmsaga.

harm-söngr, m. a song of sorrow, dirge, Stj. 349, Bret. 68.

harm-tíðindi, n. pl. = harmsaga, Gísl. 109.

harm-tölur, f. pl. lamentations, Hkr. ii. 107, Bret. 70.

harm-vesall, adj. wretched, Lex. Poët.

harm-vitegr, adj. = armvitegr, compassionate, Mart. 123, Bs. i. 332.

harm-þrunginn, part. ‘grief-swoln,’ filled with sorrow, Stj. 520, Ld. 50, Fms. iii. 11, iv. 32, Pass. 2. 11.

harm-þrútinn, part. = harmþrunginn, Fms. ii. 95.

harneskja, u, f. harness, armour, Bret. 60, Fms. x. 140: metaph. harshness.

HARPA, u, f. [A. S. hearpe; Engl. harp; O. H. G. harpha; Germ. harfe; Dan. harpe]:—a harp, it occurs as early as Vsp. 34, Akv. 31, Am. 62, Og. 27, Bs. i. 155, Fms. vi. 203, vii. 97, Sks. 704. COMPDS: hörpu-leikr, m. playing on a harp, Hkr. iii. 246. hörpu-maðr, m. a harp-man, harper, Sams. S. 9. hörpu-slagi and hörpu-slagari, a, m. a harper, Bs. i. 866, 909. hörpu-slagr, hörpu-sláttr, m. striking the harp, Bs. i. 202, Str. 83. hörpu-stokkr, m. a harp-case, Fas. i. 342. hörpu-strengr, m. a harp-string, Eluc. 45, Skálda: that the harp was in olden times used in churches in Icel. is seen from Laur. S. ch. 59. II. metaph. a shell; erat hlums vant kvað refr, dró hörpu at ísi, a saying, Fms. vii. 19: whence hörpu-diskr, m. a ‘harp-disk,’ a kind of shell: hörpu-skel, f. a harp-shell, Eg. 769, Eggert Itin. III. the first month of the summer, from the middle of April to the middle of May, is called Harpa.

harpa, að (?), to play on a harp, Str., a απ. λεγ.

harpari, a, m. a harper, Str. 57.

harpeis, m. resin, (mod.)

harp-slagi, a, m. = hörpuslagi, Stj. 460, Bret. 10.

harp-sláttr, m. = hörpusláttr, Eluc. 53, Bær. 4, Orkn. (in a verse).

HARRI, a, m. [akin to the mod. herra, q. v.], a lord, king, only used in poetry, Edda 104, Gloss.; hann heimti þangat Valerianum harra sinn, Greg. 75: as a pr. name, Landn.; as also the name of an ox, Ld., whence local names such as Harra-staðir, m. pl., freq. in western Icel.

HASA, að, in ofhasa, e-n hasar á e-u, to be surfeited with a thing, of food.

HASL, m. [A. S. hæsel; Engl. hasel; Germ. hessel], the hasel, Str. 66.

hasla, in pl. höslur, f. pegs or poles of hasel-wood, a technical term for the four square poles that marked out the ground for a pitched battle or a duel, described in Korm. 86, Eg. 277; undir jarðar höslu, poët. within the pale, on the face of the earth, Edda (in a verse by a poet of king Canute).

hasla, að, in the old phrase, hasla (e-m) völl, to ‘enhasel’ a battlefield, to challenge one’s enemy to a pitched battle (or duel) on a field marked out by hasel-poles, Korm. 46, Hkr. i. 150, Eg. 273, 275, 276 (of the battle of Brunanburgh).

HASTA, að, the mod. form of the old hersta (q. v.) in the phrase, hasta á e-n, to rebuke one to silence, command one to hold his peace, e. g. of children: used of Christ in the Gospel, þá reis hann upp og hastaði á vindinn og sjóinn, þá varð logn mikit, Matth. viii. 26.

hastar-liga, adv. hastily, suddenly.

hastar-ligr, adj. hasty, sudden.

hast-orðr, adj. = herstr, harsh-spoken, Ísl. ii. 158.

hastr, adj. = herstr, harsh, esp. of speech; of a horse = harð-gengr.

HATA, að, [Ulf. hatan = μισειν; A. S. hatjan; Engl. hate; O. H. G. hazen; Germ. hassen; Dan. hade; Swed. hata]:—to hate, with acc., Stj. 168, Post. 656 C. 27, Hom. 159, Fms. vi. 5, passim. 2. reflex., hatask við e-n, or móti e-m, to breathe hatred against one, Fb. ii. 339, Fms. i. 37, vi. 9, 186, viii. 238, xi. 259, Fs. 31, Eg. 139: recipr. to hate one another:—part. hatendr, pl. haters. II. the poets use hata with dat. in the sense to shun; eldr ok vatn hatar hvárt öðru, fire and water shun one another, Edda 126 (Ht. 17); hata gulli, to spend gold, Fas. i. 258; hata baugi, id., Fas. i. 259 (in a verse); sá er brott verðr hataðr, forsaken or driven away, Anecd. 26; this is prob. the original sense of the word, vide hati below. ☞ But hatta (double t, qs. hvata) seems a better reading; at least, Sturl. in a verse of A. D. 1207 makes trautt and hattar rhyme.

hati, a, m. one who shuns; baug-hati, gull-hati, a liberal man, Lex. Poët. passim. 2. the name of the mock sun (wolf) which is in front of the sun, Edda (Gl.), Gm. 39: the name of a giant, Hkv. Hjörv.

hatr, n. [Ulf. hatis = ὀργή; A. S. hete; Engl. hate; Germ. hass; Dan. had; Swed. hat]:—hatred, spite, aversion, Hm. 154, Post. 645. 64, Magn. 470, Stj. 192, Fms. viii. 26, xi. 437, passim; mann-hatr, misanthropy; trúar-hatr, religious fanaticism; þjóð-hatr, (mod.) COMPDS: hatrs-fullr, adj. hateful, Skálda 199. hatrs-sök, f. cause of hatred, Stj. 192.

hatr-lauss, adj. spiteless, free from spite.

hatr-leysi, n. freedom from spite, Mar.

hatr-liga, adv. hatefully, Fms. i. 270, Bs. i. 45.

hatr-ligr, adj. hateful, Bs. ii. 126.

hatr-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hateful, rancorous, Mar.

hatr-samr, adj. rancorous, H. E. i. 501, Karl. 127.

hatr-semd, f. rancour, Fr.

HATTR, m. a hat, Nj. 32, Fms. i. 74, Eg. 407; vide höttr.

hatt-staup, n. poët. the head, Ad. 7.

hau, interj. ho ho! of shouting, = hó, Karl. 321.

hauðna, vide haðna.

HAUÐR, n. [the etymology of this word is not known], poët. earth, Edda 97, Hdl. 48, Lex. Poët. passim: allit., hauðr ok himin, Sól. 54. COMPDS: hauðr-gjörð, f., -men, n. the earth-girdle, i. e. the sea, Lex. Poët. hauðr-fjörnir, m., -tjald, n. the helmet, tent of the earth, i. e. the heaven, Lex. Poët.

haug-brot, n. the breaking of a cairn, Sturl. i. 23, Bárð. 180.

haug-búi, a, m. a ‘cairn-dweller,’ a ghost, Fb. i. 214, Grett. 38 new Ed.

haug-færa, ð, to bury in a cairn, Fms. x. 212.

haug-ganga, u, f. the breaking into a cairn, Ísl. ii. 50, Fb. ii. 8.

haug-óðal, n. a Norse law term, the manorial right to treasures dug out of cairns, defined in Gþl. 310. haugóðals-maðr, m. an owner of haugóðal, id.

HAUGR, m. [akin to hár, high; Dan. höj; Swed. hog; North. E. how]:—a how, mound; haugr eða hæð, Mar., Fms. ix. 382, Stj. 260; there was usually a how near the houses, from which the master could look over his estate, Þkv. 6, Skm. 11; hann gékk nú at bæ Þorleifs ok at haugi þeim er hann sat a., Fs. 98; Þorleifr var því vanr, sem mjök var fornmennis háttr, at sitja löngum úti á haugi einum ok eigi langt frá bænum, Fms. ii. 59; þar er h. nokkurr er hann er vanr at sitja, v. 160; hann sat á haugi sem konungar, Hkr. i. 136, Stjörn. Odd. ch. 5. 2. a dung-heap. midden; fjós-h., a byre-midden; ösku-h., an ash-heap; myki-h., a muck-heap; draga myki út ok færa í haug, K. Þ. K. 100, Al. 178. II. a cairn, over one dead; the cairns belong to the burning age as well as to the later age, when the dead were placed in a ship and put in the how with a horse, hound, treasures, weapons, or the like, cp. Eg. 6, 7, 768. Hkr. (pref.), Landn. 62 (twice), 81, 82, 86, 125 (lagðr í skip), 169, Gísl. 23, 24, 31, 32, Ld. ch. 8, 24, Nj. ch. 79, Eb. ch. 9, 34, Hrafn. (fine), Hervar. 13 sqq. (1847), Fagrsk. ch. 4, 5, Hkr. (pref.), Hkr. i. 122 (Har. S. ch. 45), 152 (Hák. S. ch. 27), 160 (ch. 32), Har. Hárf. ch. 8, Skjöld. S. ch. 9: names of such cairns, Korna-haugr, Landn. 87; Hildis-h., 267; Hálfdanar-haugar, Hkr. i. 74; Tréfóts-h., Grett. 87; Melkorku-h., Mókolls-h., etc.: freq. in local names, Haugr, Haugar, Haugs-nes, Landn., Eb.; Hauga-þing, n. an assembly in Norway, Fms. viii. 245, ix. 109. There is an historical essay on Icel. cairns by old Jón Ólafsson in Arna-Magn. Additam. (autogr. MS. and interesting). β. a kind of sacrificial mound, Edda 83 (Hölgi), Yngl. S. ch. 12, Ó. H. ch. 122; hauga né hörga, hlaða hauga ok kalla hörg, N. G. L. i. 430; blót-h., q. v.: for tales about the breaking open of cairns, wrestling with the ghosts, and carrying off their weapons and treasures, see Landn. 169, Harð. S. ch. 15, Grett. ch. 20, Sturl. i. 23, Bárð. ch. 20 new Ed.: the burying in cairns was typical of the heathen age, whence such law phrases as, frá heiðnum haugi, from heathen how, i. e. from time immemorial, D. N. passim, vide Fr.; telja langfeðr frá haugi, or til haugs ok heiðni, to count one’s forefathers up to hows and heathen times, Rétt. 48, D. N. iii. 122: in early Dan. laws unbaptized children were called höghæmen = how-men. COMPDS: hauga-brjótr, m. a cairn breaker, a nickname, Landn. 278. hauga-eldr, m. a cairn fire, a kind of ignis fatuus, said to burn over hidden treasures in cairns, Eg. 767, Grett. l. c., Fas. i. 518. Hervar. S. hauga-herr, m. the host of cairns, fiends, ghosts, demons, Sighvat. hauga-öld, f. the cairn age, opp. to bruna-öld, Hkr. (pref.), Fms. i. 34. haugs-dyrr, n. the doors of a cairn, 655 xiv. haugs-gólf, n. the floor of a cairn, Fms. x. 213. haugs-görð, f. cairn-making, Fms. x. 212, Fas. i. 429.

haug-staðr, m. a cairn-place, heathen burial-place, Hkr. i. 2.

haug-tekinn, part. taken from a cairn (weapon), Ld. 78.

haug-þak, n. the roof of a cairn, Edda 68.

hauk-ey, f. hawk island, Sighvat; the old poët calls Norway the hawk island of the Danish king Harold, because he got a tribute of hawks from that land, Fms. vi. 44 (v. l.), cp. x. 341.

hauk-ligr, adj. hawk-like, of the eyes, appearance, Fms. x. 383, Lex. Poët. passim.

HAUKR, m. [A. S. heafoc; Engl. hawk; O. H. G. habuch; Germ. habicht; Dan. hög; Swed. hök]:—a hawk, Fms. i. 119, xi. 21, Jb. 542: metaph. a hero, vera haukar görvir, Fms. vi. (in a verse); eiga sér hauk í horni, to have a hawk in the corner, to have one to back one; or perhaps the phrase is, hrók í horni, a rook in the corner, borrowed from chess. Hawks were in olden times carried on the wrist, whence in poetry the hand is called the seat, cliff, land of the hawk, hauk-borð, -klif, -land, -mærr, -storð, -strönd, -völlr; the adjectives hauk-fránn (of the eye, flashing as a hawk’s eye), hauk-ligr, -lyndr, -snarr, -snjallr are all of them epithets of a bold man, Lex. Poët.: hauka-veiði, n. hawking, Gþl. 429: hauk-nefr, m. hawk-bill, a nickname, Landn.; sparr-h., a sparrow-hawk. II. as a pr. name, Landn.; and in local names, Hauka-gil, Hauka-dalr, whence Haukdælir, m. pl. name of a family, Sturl.; Haukdæla-ætt, f. id.; Hauk-dælskr, adj. belonging to that family.

hauk-staldar, or hauk-stallar, is a corrupt form of the A. S. heage-steald = young man, Og. 7, Skv. 3. 31, Edda (in a verse by a poët of the time of king Canute).

haula, adj. indecl. ruptured; eins er gangr aula | og þeir vagi um haula, Hallgr.

HAULL, m., acc. haul, a rupture, hernia, Bs. i. 208, Fél. ix. 218, where a distinction is made between kviðar-haull, nafla-h., nára-h., etc.: the passage höll við hýrógi, Hm. 138, is no doubt corrupt for við haulvi hýrógr, or hýrógr við haul, i. e. spurred rye (ergot of rye) against hernia:—the sense is clear, though the exact wording is not; the whole verse is a rude old medic. receipt, and the explanation of this passage as given by translators and commentators is no doubt erroneous.

HAUSS, m. [cp. Dan. isse], the skull, cranium, Vþm. 21, Gm. 40, Grág. ii. 11, Fb. i. 235, ii. 79, Eg. 769, 770, Nj. 253, Landn. 51, passim. COMPDS: hausa-kljúfr, m. skull-cleaver, a nickname, Orkn. hausa-mót, m. pl. sutures of the skull, Fas. iii. 214, haus-brot, n. skull-fracture, Bs. ii. 18. haus-fastr, adj. seated in the skull, Bs. i. 641. haus-filla, u, f. ‘skull-film,’ scalp, Tristr. 3. haus-kúpa, u, f. ‘skull-basin,’ skull. haus-skel, f. skull shell, (Germ. hirnschale); in the Icel. N. T. Golgotha is rendered Hausaskelja-staðr, m., Matth. xxvii. 33; in poetry the heaven (vault of heaven) is called the skull of the giant Ymir, undir gömlum Ýmis hausi, under the old skull of Ymir, sub dio, Arnór, see Edda, Vþm., Gm. l. c. II. the head, of beasts, fishes, þorsk-hauss, hross-h., hunds-h., nauts-h.; of men only as in contempt = blockhead.

HAUST, n.; that this word was originally masc. (as vetr, sumarr) is seen from the other Teut. idioms, as also the Norse form haustar- (for haust-), which occurs in haustar-tími, Stj. 14, and haustar-dagr, D. N. (Fr.), = haust-tími, haust-dagr; [A. S. hærfest; Engl. harvest; O. H. G. herbist; Germ. herbst; Dan. höst = harvest; Swed. höst: haust is in Icel. only used in a metaph. sense]:—autumn (harvest season), for the extension of that season see Edda 103, Nj. 9, 168, Fb. ii. 185, passim. COMPDS: haust-blót, n. a sacrificial feast in autumn, Eg. 5. haust-boð, n. an autumn feast, Gísl. 27, Fb. i. 302, Ld. 194, Þorf. Karl. 368. hauat-bær, adj. calving in autumn, of a cow. haust-dagr, m. autumn days, Eg. 12, Fms. x. 188. haust-gríma, u, f. an autumn night, Hm. 73. haust-heimtur, f. pl. getting in lambs in autumn, Band. 11 new Ed. haust-hold, n. pl., in the phrase, í haustholdum, a farmer’s term for cattle in a fat condition in autumn. haust-kveld, n. an autumn evening. haust-lag, n., in the phrase, at haustlagi, of paying debts in cattle in autumn. haust-langr, adj. lasting all the autumn, Eg. haust-leiðangr, m. an autumn levy, D. N. Haust-löng, f. (viz. drápa), the name of an old poem (Edda), prob. from being composed in autumn. haust-mánuðr, m. an autumn month, September, Edda 103. haust-myrkr, m. autumn darkness, a nickname, Landn. haust-nott, f. an autumn night, Fms. vi. (in a verse), Konr. 22. haust-skuld, f. in a pun, vide Sturl. iii. 216. haust-sól, f. an autumn sun. haust-veðrátta, u, f. autumn weather. haust-víking, f. a freebooting expedition in autumn, Orkn. 462. haust-þing, n. the autumn assizes, Nj. 251. haust-öl, n. an autumn banquet, Fms. x. 393.

hausta, að, to draw near autumn, Eg. 18, 251, Fms. ii. 29, 127.

haust-magi, hauat-mögöttr, vide höss.

há, mod. ha, interj. eh? (what did you say?), Sks. 304, 365; in the last century the long vowel was still sounded in the east of Icel.

HÁ, f. after-math, N. G. L. i. 40, cp. 289, freq. in mod. usage, whence há-bit, n. the after-math bite or grazing, Gþl. 407, 503. II. the hide of a horse or cattle, Hm. 135; hross-há, a horse’s hide: nauts-há, a neat’s hide; but gæra of a sheep: þing-há, a ‘thing-circuit,’ district, from heyja (q. v.); or is the metaphor taken from an expanded hide? III. in poetry há seems to occur twice in the sense of battle-field or battle, from the fact that duels were fought upon a hide: fara at há, to go to battle, Ó. H. (Sighvat); at há hverju (hverri), Hervar. (in a verse).

há, ð, in the phrase, e-m háir, one is pinched or worn by sickness, work, or the like; honum háir það, snarpr sultr hár (pinches) mannkyni, Merl. 2. 31; nú vill oss hvervetna há, everything vexes us, Fas. iii. 12, freq. in mod. usage. The part. háðr (háðr e-m, depending upon one, subservient to one, ó-háðr, independent) belongs either to há or to heyja.

há-band, n. a string round the leg.

há-benda, u, f. = hamla (see p. 244).

há-bora, að, to fit with rowlocks, Fms. ix. 33.

há-borur, f. pl. rowlocks, Fms. ix. 33, Sturl. iii. 66.

HÁÐ, n. [cp. Ulf. hauns = ταπεινός; Engl. heinous; Germ. hohn; Dan. haan; old Dan. haad]:—scoffing, mocking, Nj. 66, Fms. vi. 21, 216, vii. 61, Hm. 133; háð ok spott, Ísl. ii. 265, passim.

háð-samr, adj. scoffing, Fms. iii. 153: a nickname, Landn.

háð-semi, f. mockery, Fms. iii. 154, Hom. 86.

háðskr, adj. scoffing.

háðuliga, adv. shamefully, Fms. viii. 171, Orkn. 120, Fas. i. 21.

háðuligr, adj. scornful, Fms. iii. 148: contemptible, h. orð, abusive words, Stj. 107; h. verk, disgraceful deeds, 218, 623. 12.

háðung, f. shame, disgrace, Hm. 101, Nj. 80, Grág. ii. 121, Fms. vi. 417, xi. 152, Stj. 407, O. H. L. 45. háðungar-orð, n. pl. words of scorn, Sturl. iii. 163, Stj. 643.

háð-varr, adj. free from scoff, upright, Lex. Poët.

HÁFR, m. [North. E. haaf], a pock-net for herring-fishing; reyk-háfr, a ‘reek-draft,’ a chimney.

háfr, m. a dog-fish, háfs-roð, n. shagreen; vide hár.

háfur, f. pl. riches, good things, Volks. 291, Hallgr. Pét.

há-genginn, part. (uxi h.), fed on after-math, Stj. 493. 1 Sam. xxviii. 24.

há-karl, m. a shark, Dipl. iii. 4, Sturl. ii. 147, Fms. ix. 434.

Há-kon, m. a pr. name, a family name within the old house of the Norse kings; as an appel. it seems to answer to A. S. heagestald, Germ. hagestolz, Icel. drengr, and to be identical with the mod. provincial Norse haaman (Ivar Aasen), a young, unmarried man.

HÁKR, m., the proper sense may have been some kind of fish, cp. Engl. hake; the word is seldom used but in compds; mat-hákr, a glutton; orð-hákr, foul mouth: a nickname, hann var fyrir því kallaðr Þorkell hákr at hann eirði öngu hvárki í orðum né verkum, Nj. 183.

há-leistr, m. [from leistr (q. v.) and hár = a bough], a short sock reaching only to the ankles.

Há-leygir, m. pl. the inhabitants of the Norse county Hálogaland, Fms.; whence Háleyzkr, adj. from Hálogaland.

HÁLFA, u, f. often proncd. álfa, [akin to hálfr; Goth. halba = μέρος, 2 Cor. iii. 9; A. S. half; Hel. halba = latus]:—prop. a half, a part: I. a region, quarter, of the world, Stj. 72; í fyrrnefndum fjallsins hálfum, 87; í öllum hálfum heimsins, 18; í álfum Orkneyjaríkis, Magn. 502; í várri byggilegri hálfu (zone), Rb. 478; veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur, Edda 147; whence Austr-álfa, the East = Asia; Norðr-álfa, the North = Europe; Suðr-hálfa, Africa; vestr-álfa, America, (mod.); heims-álfa, one of the three (four) quarters; lands-álfa, region, Jesús gékk burt þaðan og fór í lands-álfur Tyri og Sidonis, Matth. xv. 21. β. with the notion of lineage, kin; svá höfðu þeir grimmliga leikit alla þá hálfu, all people of that kin, Fms. viii. 23; þá skulu taka arf bræðrungar ok systrungar, en fleiri menn ór annari hálfu (lineage), Grág. i. 17; seint er satt at spyrja, mér hefir kennt verit, at móðir mín væri frjálsborin í allar hálfur, Ó. H. 114; konungborin í allar ættir ok hálfur, Fb. ii. 171, cp. Ó. H. 87, l. c. γ. setja út í hálfur, to expand, of a metaphor, Edda 69. II. as a law phrase, on one’s behalf or part; af Guðs hálfu ok lands-laga, on behalf of God and the law of the land, Fms. vi. 94, Sks. 638; af e-s hálfu, on one’s part, Fms. xi. 444; Jóns biskups af einni hálfu, ok Gísla bónda af annarri hálfu, Dipl. iii. 7; á báðar hálfur, on both sides, v. 26; af annarra manna hálfu, on the part of other men, 2; af minni hálfu, on my part; hvártveggi hálfan, both parts, D. N. hálfu-þing, n. a kind of hustings, N. G. L. i. 251.

hálfna, að, to have half done with a thing; er þeir höfðu hálfnað sundit, Fær. 173: to be half gone or past, Fms. iii. 81, Bret. ch. 13, Sd. ch. 22 (slain the half of it); dagr, nótt, vegr er hálfnaðr, the day, night, way is half past.

HÁLFR, adj., hálf (hlf), hálft, freq. spelt halbr, halb er öld hvar, Hm. 52; [Goth. halbs; A. S. healf; Engl. half; Hel. halba; Germ. halb; Dan. halv; Swed. half]:—half; hálfr mánuðr, half a month, a fortnight, Nj. 4; þar átti hann kyn hálft, Eg. 288; hálf stika, half a yard, Grág. i. 498; hálf Jól, the half of Yule, Fs. 151, passim: adverb. phrases, til hálfs, by a half, Eg. 258, 304; aukinn hálfu, increased by half, doubled, Grág. i. 157, Gþl. 24. 2. with the notion of brief, scant, little; sjá hálf hýnótt, that little night, Skm. 42; hálf stund, a little while; eg skal ekki vera hálfa stund að því, i. e. I shall have done presently, in a moment; cp. hálb er öld hvar, only half, Hm. 52; með hálfum hleif, with half a loaf, a little loaf of bread, 51: an Icel. says to his guest, má eg bjóða þér í hálfum bolla, í hálfu staupi, hálfan munnbita, and the like. II. in counting Icel. say, hálfr annarr, half another, i. e. one and a half; h. þriði, half a third, i. e. two and a half; h. fjórði, three and a half; h. fimti, four and a half, etc.; thus, hálfan annan dag, one day and a half; hálft annað ár, hálfan annan mánuð, h. aðra nótt; hálf önnur stika, a yard and a half, Grág. i. 498; hálfa fimtu mörk, four marks and a half, 391; hálft annat hundrað, one hundred and a half, Sturl. i. 186; hálfr þriði tögr manna, two decades and a half, i. e. twenty-five, men, Ísl. ii. 387; hálfan fimta tög skipa, Hkr. iii. 374: similar are the compd adjectives hálf-þrítugr, aged twenty-five; hálf-fertugr, aged thirty-five; hálf-fimtugr, hálf-sextugr, -sjötugr, -áttræðr, -níræðr, -tíræðr, i. e. aged forty-five, fifty-five, sixty-five, seventy-five, eighty-five, ninety-five, and lastly, hálf-tólfræðr, one hundred and fifteen, Eg. 84, Fms. i. 148, Greg. 60, Stj. 639, Bs. i. 54, 101, Hkr. (pref.), Mar. 32, Íb. 18, Grett. 162, Fs. 160: also of measure, hálf-fertugr föðmum, Landn. (App.) 324, Fms. vii. 217; hálf-þrítugt tungl, a moon twenty-five days’ old, Rb. 26: contracted, hálf-fjórðu mörk, three marks and a half, Am. 63; hálf-fimtu mörk, four marks and a half, Jm. 36: as to this use, cp. the Germ. andert-halb, dritt-halb, viert-halb, etc., Gr. τρίτον ἡμιτάλαντον (two talents and a half), Lat. sestertius. III. neut. hálfu with a comparative, in an intensive sense, far; hálfu verri, worse by half, far worse; hálfu meira, far more, Fms. vi. 201; hálfu heilli! Fb. i. 180; hálfu síðr, far less, Þórð. 41 new Ed., Fb. ii. 357; fremr hálfu, much farther ago, Hðm. 2; h. lengra, Bs. ii. 48; h. betri, better by half; h. hógligra, far snugger, Am. 66; hálfu sæmri, Fb. ii. 334. β. with neg. suff.; hálft-ki, not half; at hálft-ki má óstyrkð ór bera, Greg. 54. IV. a pr. name, rare, whence Hálfs-rekkr, m. pl. the champions of king Half, Fas.: Hálf-dan, m. Half-Dane, a pr. name, cp. Healf-Danes in Beowulf, Fms.

B. The COMPDS are very numerous in adjectives, nouns, and participles, but fewer in verbs; we can record only a few, e. g. hálf-afglapi, a, m. half an idiot, Band. 4 new Ed. hálf-aukinn, part. increased by half, H. E. ii. 222. hálf-áttræðr, see above. hálf-bergrisi, a, m. half a giant, Eg. 23. hálf-berserkr, m. half a berserker, Sd. 129. hálf-björt, n. adj. half bright, dawning. hálf-blandinn, part. half blended, Stj. 85. hálf-blindr, adj. half blind. hálf-bolli, a, m. half a bowl (a measure), N. G. L. ii. 166. hálf-breiðr, adj. of half breadth, Jm. 2. hálf-brosandi, part. half smiling. hálf-bróðir, m. a half brother (on one side). hálf-brunninn, part. half burnt. hálf-bræðrungr, m. a half cousin, K. Á. 140. hálf-búinn, part. half done. hálf-dauðr, adj. half dead, Sturl. ii. 54, Magn. 530, Hkr. iii. 366. hálf-daufr, adj. half deaf. hálf-deigr, adj. damp. hálf-dimt, n. adj. half dark, in twilight. hálf-drættingr, m. a fisher-boy, who gets half the fish he catches, but not a full ‘hlutr.’ hálf-ermaðr, part. half sleeved, Sturl. iii. 306. hálf-etinn, part. half eaten, Al. 95. hálf-eyrir, m. half an ounce, Fms. x. 211. hálf-fallinn, part. half fallen, K. Á. 96; h. út sjór, of the tide. hálf-farinn, part. half gone. hálf-fertrugr, hálf-fimti, hálf-fimtugr, hálf-fjórði, see above (II). hálf-fífl, n. and hálf-fífla, u, f. half an idiot, Fms. vi. 218, Bs. i. 286. hálf-fjórðungr, m. half a fourth part, Bs. ii. 170. hálf-frosinn, part. half frozen. hálf-fúinn, part. half rotten. hálf-genginn, part. halving. hálf-gildi, n. half the value, Gþl. 392. hálf-gildr, adj. of half the value, N. G. L. hálf-gjalda, galt, to pay half, N. G. L. i. 174. hálf-grátandi, part. half weeping. hálf-gróinn, part. half healed. hálf-görr, part. half done, only half done, left half undone, Fms. ii. 62; litlu betr en hálfgört, Greg. 24. hálfgörðar-bóndi, a, m. a man who has to furnish half a levy, D. N. hálf-hélufall, n. a slight fall of rime, Gísl. 154. hálf-hlaðinn, part. half laden, Jb. 411. hálf-hneppt, n. adj. a kind of metre, Edda 139. hálf-hræddr, adj. half afraid. hálf-kirkja, u, f. a ‘half-kirk,’ = mod. annexía, an annex-church, district church, or chapel of ease, Vm. 126, H. E. i. 430, ii. 138, Am. 28, Pm. 41, Dipl. v. 19; distinction is made between al-kirkja, hálf-kirkja, and bæn-hús, a chapel. hálf-kjökrandi, part. half choked with tears. hálf-klæddr, part. half dressed. hálf-konungr, m. a half king, inferior king, Fms. i. 83. hálf-kveðinn, part. half uttered; skilja hálfkveðit orð, or hálfkveðna vísu = Lat. verbum sat, MS. 4. 7. hálf-launat, n. part. rewarded by half, Fms. ii. 62, Grág. i. 304. hálf-leypa, u, f. a half laupr (a measure), B. K. passim, hálf-leystr, part. half loosened, Greg. 55. hálf-lifandi, part. half alive, half dead, Mar. hálf-litr, adj. of a cloak, of two colours, one colour on each side, Fms. ii. 70, Fas. iii. 561, Sturl. ii. 32, iii. 112, Fær. 227, Bs. i. 434. hálf-ljóst, n. adj.; pá er hálfljóst var, in twilight, Sturl. iii. 193. hálf-lokaðr, part. half locked. hálf-mætti, n. ‘half might,’ opp. to omnipotence, Skálda 161. hálf-mörk, f. half a mark, Vm. 80, 126. hálf-nauðigr, adj. half reluctant, Fms. xi. 392. hálf-neitt, n. adj. ‘half-naught,’ trifling, Fas. i. 60. hálf-níð, n. half a lampoon, Fms. iii. 21. hálf-níræðr, see above (II). hálf-nýtr, adj. of half use, Rb. 86. hálf-opinn, adj. half open. hálf-prestr, m. a ‘half-priest,’ a chaplain to a hálfkirkja, Sturl. ii. 178. hálf-pund, n. half a pound, Gþl. 343. hálf-raddarstafr, m. a semivowel, Skálda 176, 178. hálf-reingr, a, m. a half scamp, Bs. i. 517. hálf-rétti, n. a law term (cp. fullrétti, p. 177), a slight, a personal affront or injury of the second degree, liable only to a half fine; e. g. hálfréttis-orð is a calumny in words that may be taken in both senses, good and bad; whereas fullréttis-orð is downright, unmistakable abuse, Grág. ii. 144; hence the phrases, mæla, göra hálfrétti við e-n, i. 156, 157, ii. 153. hálfréttis-eiðr, m. an oath of compurgation to be taken in a case of h., N. G. L. i. 352. hálfréttis-maðr, m. a man that has suffered hálfrétti, Gþl. 105, 200. hálfréttis-mál, n. a suit of a case of h., N. G. L. i. 314. hálf-róinn, part. having rowed half the way, half-way, Fms. viii. 312. hálf-róteldi, n., prob. corrupt, Fms. xi. 129. hálf-rými, n. a naut. term, half a cabin, one side of a ship’s cabin, Fms. viii. 138, ix. 33, x. 157, Hkr. i. 302. hálfrýmis-félagar, m. pl. messmates in the same h., Edda 108. hálfrýmis-kista, u, f. a chest or bench belonging to a h., Fms. viii. 85. hálf-rökit (-rökvit, -rökvat), n. adj. half twilight, in the evening, Grett. 137, 140 A; hálf-rökvat is the mod. form, which occurs in Grett. 79 new Ed., Jb. 176, Al. 54; vide rökvit. hálf-sagðr, part. half told; in the saying, jafnan er hálfsögð saga ef einn segir = audiatur et altera pars, Grett. 121. hálf-sextugr, see hálfr II. hálf-sjauræðr, adj. = hálfsjötugr, Stj. 48. hálf-sjötugr, see hálfr II. hálf-skiptr, part. = hálflitr, Fms. ii. 170, Sturl. iii. 112. hálf-sleginn, part. half mown, of a field. hálf-slitinn, part. half worn. hálf-sofandi, part. half asleep. hálf-sótt, n. part. half passed; hálfsótt haf, a half-crossed sea. hálf-systkin, n. pl. half brother and sister, cp. hálfbróðir. hálf-systur, f. pl. half sisters. hálf-tíræðr, see hálfr II. hálf-troll, n. half a giant, Eg. 1, Nj. 164 (a nickname). hálf-tunna, u, f. half a tun, Vm. 44. hálf-unninn, part. half done, Fas. ii. 339. hálf-vaxinn, part. half grown. hálf-vegis, adv. by halves. hálf-virði, n. half worth, Jb. 403, Glúm. 347, Sturl. ii. 132. hálf-visinn, part. and hálf-vista, adj. half withered, and medic. palsied on one side. hálf-viti, a, m. a half-witted man. hálf-votr, adj. half wet. hálf-vætt, f. half weight (a measure), Dipl. iv. 8, Fas. iii. 383. hálf-þrítugr, see hálfr II; spelt half-ðritogr, Js. 79. hálf-þurr, adj. half dry. hálf-þverrandi, part. half waning, Js. 732 (of the moon). hálf-þynna, u, f. a kind of small axe, Gþl. 103, 104, Lv. 35. hálf-ærinn, part. half sufficient, Fms. viii. 440. hálf-ærr, adj. half mad, Sks. 778. II. in mod. usage hálf is freq. used = rather, e. g. hálf-kalt, adj. rather cold: hálf-feginn, adj., eg er hálffeginn, I am rather glad: e-m er hálf-íllt, hálf-bumult, hálf-óglatt, n. adj. one feels rather ill: hálf-hungraðr, hálf-svangr, hálf-soltinn, hálf-þyrstr, adj. rather hungry, rather thirsty, etc., and in endless compds.

hálf-skák, f. a triangular kerchief, a square one cut in two, Ísl. i. 7.

hál-ka, u, f. slippiness; flug-hálka, gler-hálka.

HÁLL, adj., fem. hál, neut. hált, [different from hallr, q. v.; O. H. G. hâli; mid. H. G. hæli]:—slippery, of ice, glass, or the like, Eb. 120, 238, Fms. viii. 405, Nj. 144, Fb. ii. 327, Fs. 38, passim.

hál-leikr, m. gliding, slippiness, Clar.

HÁLMR, m. [A. S. healm; Engl. haulm; Germ. and Dan. halm; Gr. κάλαμος; Lat. calamus]:—straw, Stj. 201, 390, 560, N. G. L. i. 38, Eg. 205, 213, 560, Fms. ii. 3, 208, vi. 153, ix. 44; mar-hálmr, seaweed.

hálm-strá, n. haulm-straw, Fas. iii. 412.

hálm-visk, f. a wisp of straw, Fms. ii. 208, vi. 212.

hálm-þúst, f. a flail, Þorf. Karl. 422.

HÁLS, m., prop. hals, [Goth., A. S., etc. hals; North. E. hause; cp. Lat. collum]:—the neck; dúkr á hálsi, Rm. 16; bjartr háls, 26, Fms. viii. 77; falla um háls e-m, to fall on one’s neck, embrace one, Luke xv. 20; leggja hendr um háls e-m, or taka höndum um háls e-m, id., Nj. 10, passim: phrases, beygja háls fyrir e-m, to bend the neck to one, Fms. ix. 446; liggja e-m á hálsi, to hang upon one’s neck, i. e. to reprove one, xi. 336, O. H. L. 36; standa á hálsi e-m, to put the foot on one’s neck, Hkv. 2. 28; and more mod., tapa hálsi, to forfeit one’s neck, Rétt. 61. COMPDS: háls-beina, n. the neck-bone, Fb. iii. 195. háls-björg, f. a gorget, Sturl. ii. 84, Bs. i. 541. háls-bólga, u, f. bronchitis. háls-brotna, að, to break one’s neck, Fms. iii. 171. háls-digr, adj. thick-necked, Eg. 305, Fms. iii. 129. háls-faðma, að, to embrace, Str. 31. háls-faðman, f. an embrace, Str. 53. háls-fang, n. embracing, Bret. 116, Sks. 513, Stj. háls-fengja, ð, to embrace, Barl. 29. háls-gjörð, f. a necklace, Edda 84. háls-högg, n. a cut or stroke on the neck, Fms. viii. 318, Bs. i. 174, Fb. i. 139. háls-höggva, hjó, to behead, Stj. 265, Hkr. i. 8. háls-járn, n. a neck-iron, iron collar, Stj. 519, Dipl. v. 18, Fb. iii. 560. háls-klútr, m. a neck cloth. háls-langr, adj. long-necked, Fms. vii. 175, Sd. 147. háls-lausn, f. ‘neck-loosing,’ i. e. giving a bondman freedom, (cp. frjáls, frihals,) the rite is described in N. G. L. i. 212. háls-liðr, m. a neck vertebra, Finnb. 344. hálsliða-mjúkr, adj. smooth-necked. háls-men, n. a necklace, Am. 44. háls-sár, n. a neck wound, Sturl. iii. 115. háls-slag, n. = hálshögg, Fms. viii. 318. háls-spenna, t, to clasp the neck of another, Stj. 53. háls-stefni, n. the throat; hann lagði í hálsstefni framan fyrir hóstinn, Finnb. 314. háls-stig, n. treading on one’s neck, Anecd. 30. háls-stuttr, adj. short-necked.

B. Metaph., I. naut. part of the forecastle or bow of a ship or boat, (höfuð, barki, háls, the head, weasand, neck, are all naut. terms); Hýmir reri í hálsinum fram, Edda 35; Þórðr Köttr sat á hálsi ok hélt vörð, Ísl. ii. 76; reri Þormóðr í hálsi en Þorgeirr í fyrir-rúmi en Grettir í skut, Grett. 125; Þorkell reri fram í hálsi en Þórðr í miðju skipi, Falgeirr í austr-rúmi, Fbr. 158; hence háls-rúm, n. = háls, Fms. ii. 252. 2. the front sheet of a sail, the tack of a sail, (cp. Swed. hals på ett segel):—Edda (Gl.) distinguishes between hefill (q. v.), háls, hanki, höfuðbendur (stays); þá kom áfall svá mikit at frá laust vígin ok hálsana báða (brustu báðir hálsar in the verse), Fas. ii. 77; en ef sax brotnar, bæti tvær ertogar, ok svá fyrir háls hvern, ok svá tvær ertugar, N. G. L. ii. 283: in mod. usage, in tacking, the foresheet is called háls, the other skaut,—háls heitir á seglum skautið eðr skaut-klóin (sheet clew) hvor um sig, sú er niðr liggr í hornunum, ok venjulega er fest í skipinu þar sem hentast þykkir fram eðr aptr, svo sem nú kalla sjómenn horn segla þau sem niðr horfa hvort sem aptr eptir skipinu er borit og þar fest, skaut (i. e. sheet), en hitt seglsins horn, sem fram eptir skipinu borit verðr, háls (i. e. tack), Skýr. 214. hálsa-skaut, n. pl. the front sheet, the tack, Vtkv. II. the end of a rope; þar sem jörðin lægist millum hálsanna, leitar vaðrinn at jörðunni, Fms. xi. 441. 2. the tip of a bow to which the string is attached, Gr. κορώνη; þeir höfðu handboga, en jörðin var svá blaut, at bogahálsinn beit í jörðina niðr, Al. 142; báðir hrukku í sundr bogahálsarnir, Fas. ii. 88; hann dregr svá bogann, at saman þótti bera hálsana, Fb. iii. 406. 3. one end of a drag-net (net-háls). 4. the neck of a bottle, mod. III. the phrase, góðir hálsar, fine fellows! good men! is almost synonymous with drengr, q. v.; no doubt analogous to frjáls, frihals, see p. 174, qs. freemen, gentlemen; vil ek nú biðja yðr, góðir hálsar! at þér leggit til þat er yðr þykkir ráðligast, Sturl. iii. 71; séð nú, góðir hálsar! Fms. viii. 116; gefit til gott ráð, góðir hálsar! Stj. 437; hugsit um, góðir hálsar! 460; munda ek heldr þegja, góðir hálsar! Al. 97; sigrat hafit ér Serki, góðir hálsar! 119. IV. a hill, ridge, esp. in Icel. of the low fells dividing two parallel dales, cp. Lat. collis, Nj. 21, Eg. 544, Hrafn. 7, 11, Al. 93, Róm. 134, very freq.: as also in local names, Háls, Hálsar, Glýstaða-háls, Reynivalla-háls, Landn.: háls-brún, f. the edge of a hill, Eb. 176; cp. Fr. col. V. a pr. name, Landn.

hálsa, að, poët. to embrace, Gkv. 1. 13, 3. 4. II. to clew up the sail (cp. hálsan); þá mælti hann til sinna manna, at hálsa skyldi seglin, Fagrsk. 86. III. to cut boards uneven so as to leave waves (hálsar) on the board.

hálsaðr, part. hilly, Stj. 94.

hálsan, f. a clewing up the sail, N. G. L. ii. 282 (Jb. 400).

háls-bók, f. a book to swear upon; the commentators explain it from its being worn round the neck, but no doubt erroneously; it is derived from A. S. hæls = salus, qs. hâls-bôc = healing book, holy book, Grág. i. 70, Fms. ix. 219, Nj.

háls-stefni, n., naut. term, the prow, Edda (Gl.): metaph., Finnb. 314.

hámetta, u, f. (for. word), an amice, in church service, Vm. passim.

HÁR, adj., fem. há, neut. hátt, vide Gramm. p. xix; compar. hæri or hærri, superl. hæstr; hæðstr and hærstr, which are found in old printed books, are bad forms; for the inflexions, (which vary much, sometimes inserting f or v, sometimes not,) see the references below; in mod. usage the v is usually dropped, but the cases are bisyllabic, e. g. háir, háar, háa, háum, instead of the old hávir, hávar, háva, háfum or hám; the definite form in old writers is hávi or háfi, in mod. hái: [Ulf. hauhs = ὑψηλός; A. S. heah; Engl. high; O. H. G. hoh; Hel. hoh; Germ. hoch; old Frank, hag or hach; Swed. hög; Dan. höj; all of them with a final guttural, which in mod. Dan. has been changed into j; the final labial f or v, which in olden times was so freq. before a vowel, may be compared to laugh, rough, etc. in mod. Engl.; the g remains in the cognate word haugr]:—high; stiga sex álna háfan, Vm. 129; í hám fjalla-tindum, Edda 144 (pref.); á háfum fjöllum, Skálda 181; há fjöll, Getsp.; á hám gálga, Fsm. 45; á bekk hám, Akv. 2; hár bylgjur, Edda (Ht.); á borg inni há, Am. 18; á há fjalli, Gm. 17, Bs. i. 26 (in a verse); enar hæstu fjalla hæðir, Stj. 59; hár turn, Hkr. iii. 63; skaptið var eigi hæra, en …, Eg. 285 (of a spear); hátt hlaup, a high leap, i. e. from a high place, Fms. i. 166; hæri en grön er vex á hæsta fjalli, Hom. 152; hávar bárur, Gh. 13: hávar unnir, Skv. 2. 16; háfan garð, Fms. vi. (in a verse); hávu grasi, Hm. 120; but há grasi. Gm. 17; upp-háfa skúa, high boots, Fms. vii. 321: phrases, bera hæra skjöld, hlut, to carry the highest shield, lot, Fas. i. 383, Ld. 322. 2. tall; hárr maðr vexti (tall of stature), manna hæstr, very tall, Fms. i. 155; hárr maðr ok harðvaxinn, vii. 321. 3. a metrical term; syllables in rhyme having the same consonants and quantity of vowels are jafn-háfar, in the same strain; kvattú svá? ‘gröm skömm’ eigi eru þær hendingar jafn háfar; ‘hrömm skömm’ þat væri jafnhátt, Fms. vi. 386. II. metaph. high, sublime, glorious; hærri tign, Fms. i. 214; enir hæstu Guðs postular, 625. 82; í hærra haldi, Fms. vii. 112; margar ræður þvílíkar eða enn hæri, or still sublimer, Sks. 635; hljóta háfan sigr, a glorious victory, Merl. 2. 69; háfan ávöxt, Mar. kv. 17; hæstu daga, hæstu hátíðir, the highest days or feasts (hátíð), Fms. x. 22. 2. at the highest pitch; meðan hæstir eru stormar um vetrinn, Sks. 46; at hann væri kyrr meðan hæst væri vetrar, in the depth of winter, Fms. ix. 480; meðan hæst væri sumars, in the height of summer, Lv. 43; hátt vetrar megin, Sks.; cp. há-degi, há-vetr, há-sumar (below). 3. loud; blása hátt (a trumpet), Vsp. 47; brestr hár, Fms. xi. 10, Glúm. 375; mæla hátt, to speak loud, Nj. 33; ok söng í hátt, it gave a loud sound, 83; kveða við hátt ok öskurliga, Fms. v. 164; þó þetta væri eigi hátt talat í fyrstu, ix. 250; æpa hátt, Sks. 653; hafa hátt, to make a noise; cp. gráta hástöfum (below), há-vaði (below); hón verðr há við, she became clamorous, excited, Ísl. ii. 350; hlæja hátt, to laugh loud, Skv. 2. 15. III. a mythol. pr. name, both Hár and Hávi, Edda; Hávi and Hár are names of Odin the High, whence Háva-mál, n. pl. the name of a poem, the Sayings of the High. 2. prefixed in the pr. names Há-kon, Há-leygr, Há-rekr, Há-mundr, Há-steinn, Há-varðr, Há-varr; and in local names, Háfa-fell, etc. IV. neut. as adverb; geisa hátt, Edda 146 (pref.); skín hann nú því hærra, Fms. v. 241; unna e-m hærra en öðrum, to love one higher (more) than another, Sturl. i. 198; taka e-n hátt, to make much of one, Bs. i. 727; stökkva hátt, to make a high leap, look high, Fær. 57; sitja skör hærra en aðrir, a step higher, Fms. i. 7.

B. COMPDS: há-altari, n. a high altar, Symb. 24, Hkr. iii. 293, Fb. ii. 376, Fms. v. 107, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18, passim. há-bakki, a, m. a high bank: hábakka-flæðr, f. a ‘high-bank tide,’ very high tide. há-beinn and há-beinóttr, adj. high-legged, long-legged, Ísl. ii. 194, v. l. há-bjarg, n. a high rock, Bs. i. 49. há-bogaðr, adj. high-curved, as a saddle, Sks. 403. há-borð, n. a high table; in the phrase, eiga ekki upp á há-borðit, not to be tip at the high table, to be held in small repute. há-brók, f., poët. name of a hawk, Edda (Gl.), Gm.: a nickname, Hkr., Eb. há-brókan, f. prudery, Karl. 239. há-brókask, að. dep. to puff oneself up, Fms. x. 200, Karl. 181. há-degi, n. high day, about twelve o’clock (vide dagr), Nj. 208, Grett. 121, Landn. 94 (v. l. to miðdegi), Stj. 447; hádegis sól, the midday sun, Pass. 37. 13. hádegis-skeið, n. the midday time, Sturl. ii. 199: in many local names, hádegis-varða, -bunga, denoting the point in the horizon under the hádegi. há-eyrr, f. high-bank, a local name, Nj. há-feti, a, m. a high-stepper, poët. a racehorse, Edda (Gl.) há-fjall, n. a high fell, Eg. 58, Stj. 87, Þm. 45, Hým. 22, Róm. 129, Bs. ii. 5. há-flæðr, f. a high flood-tide, Fbr. 181, þorf. Karl. 420. há-fæta, u, f. high-leg, a nickname, Hkr. há-fættr, adj. high-footed, Konr. há-hestr, n. a high, tall horse. há-kirkja, u, f. a ‘high-kirk,’ cathedral, Magn. 420. há-leggr, adj. high-leg, a nickname, Fb. iii. há-leikr (há-leiki), m. height, Sks. 47, 173. há-leitliga, adv. highly, gloriously, Sks. 623, Stj. passim, Fms. i. 331, Barl. 6. há-leitligr, adj. sublime, Bs. i. 48. há-leitr, adj. high-looking, looking upwards; metaph. sublime, Fms. i. 96, Sturl. ii. 15, Th. 21. há-liga, adv. highly, Hom. 21, Ó. H. L. 7. há-ligr, adj. high, sublime. há-limar, f. pl. the high branches, Stj. 534. há-messa, u, f. high-mass, Fms. ii. 37, vii. 144, 188. hámessu-mál, n. high-mass time, Fms. viii. 291, Bs. ii. 24. há-mælgi, f. loud talking, Fms. iii. 153. há-mæli, n., in the phrase, komask í hámæli, to get out, of a rumour, Fms. iv. 80. há-mæltr, part. loud-voiced, Sturl. i. 167. há-nefjaðr, adj. high-nebbed, Fas. i. 73. há-nefr, m. high-neb, a nickname, Rd. há-pallr, m. the daïs in a hall, Fms. vi. 440. há-reysti, f. a din, noise, Nj. 83, Fms. i. 34, Gþl. 16. há-reystr, adj. loud speaking, Greg. 54. há-salir, m. pl. the high halls, Eg. (in a verse). há-segl, n. the ‘high-sail,’ mainsail, Fas. ii. 494, Hkv. I. 29. há-seymdr, part. studded, of a bridle, Grett. 129, Stj. 564. há-skeptr, part. high-handled, of an axe, Eb. 186, Fbr. 14. há-skóli, a, m. a high school, (mod.) há-staðr, m. a high place, Fms. x. 417. há-stafir, m. pl., in the phrase, gráta, hljóða … hástöfum, to weep, cry aloud, Nj. 27, Stj. 421, Grett. 171 new Ed. há-steint, n. adj. (= staksteinott), with rough boulders; var hásteint í ánni, Fms. ix. 404. há-stigi, a, m. = háfeti, Edda (Gl.) há-sumar, n. ‘high-summer,’ midsummer, Bs. 5. 32, Grett. 156 new Ed., Sks. 200. hásumar-tími, a, m. midsummer time. há-sæti, n. a ‘high-seat,’ Dan. höjsæde, throne, for a king or earl; the high-seat at a commoner’s table was called öndvegi, q. v., cp. Nj. 175—hvárki em ek konungr né jarl, ok þarf ekki at gera h. undir mér, ok þarf ekki at spotta mik, Eg. 43, Nj. 6, Fms. i. 7, iv. 108, vi. 439, ix. 254; in a ship, iv. 39. hásætis-borð, n. a high-seat table, Hkr. ii. 188. hásætis-kista, u, f. a ‘high-seat chest,’ a daïs or chest near the high-seat, in which weapons and treasures were kept, Fms. vii. 185, viii. 444, x. 360, xi. 220. hásætis-maðr, m. the man in the chair, Ísl. ii. 438. hásætis-stóll, m. a throne, Stj. há-talaðr, part. = hámæltr, Bs. i. 819. há-timbra, að, to build high, Vsp. 7, Gm. 16. há-tíð, f. [Germ. hochzeit; Dan. höjtid], a ‘high-tide,’ a high day, festival, Bs. i. 38, passim, Nj. 157, Fms. xi. 425, K. Á. 164: proverb., hátíð er til heilla bezt, Ld. 176 (Fms. ii. 39): very freq. esp. in eccl. sense, Jóla-h., Páska-h., Hvítasunnu-h., fæðingar-h.; Í dag þá hátíð höldum vér, Hólabók. hátíðar-aptan, m. the eve of a feast, Bs. i. 170. hátíðar-dagr, m. a high day, Fms. ii. 198, Sturl. i. 130. hátíðar-hald, n. the holding a feast, Hom. 83, Fms. i. 260: gen. hátíðis also occurs in compds, hátíðis-dagr, m., Fms. x. 13 (v. l.), Sturl. i. 30; hátíðis-kveld, n. = hátíðaraptan. hátíð-liga, adv. with festivity, Hkr. i. 287, Fms. x. 149, Sks. 48. hátíð-ligr, adj., festive, Sks. 465, Stj. 48, 110, 471, Hom. 97, 145, Fms. x. 280. há-vaði, a, m. a noise, tumult, Bs. ii. 182, Fas. ii, 230; í hávaða, aloud, Rd. 252, Fms. i. 289, Sturl. ii. 246: the greatest number, main part of a thing, hann náði hávaðanum, he caught the main part; missa hávaðan af því, to lose the main part. hávaða-maðr, m. a haughty person, Ísl. ii. 203, Nj. 61, passim. hávaða-mikill, adj. haughty, boasting, Fms. ii. 154, vi. 106, Finnb. 292. hávaða-samr, adj. boisterous, Dropl. 7. há-varr, proncd. háværr, adj. loud, noisy: há-værð, f. noisy, making a noise. há-vegir, m. pl. highways; in the phrase, hafa e-n í hávegum, to make much of one. há-vella, u, f. a sea-pheasant, phasianus marinus. há-vetr, n. ‘high-winter,’ mid-winter, Orkn. 110, Thom. 333, Hkr. ii. 47, Bs. ii. 22, 27. há-vetri, n. = hávetr, Fms. viii. 247 (v. l.), Fb. iii. 231, Stj. 78, Fas. iii. 371.

HÁR, mod. háfr, m. [Germ. hai], a dog-fish, squalus acanthius, Skálda 162. In compds há- marks fish of the shark kind, as há-karl (q. v.), a shark, carcharias, Ann.: há-kerling, f. = hákarl: há-meri, f. squalus glaucus: há-mús, f. chimaera monstrosa, Linn.; also called geirnyt, Eggert Itin. 360: há-skerðingr, m. = hákarl, Edda (Gl.), Grág. ii. 337, 359, Pm. 69: háskerðinga-lýsi, n. shark’s oil, H. E. i. 395: háfs-roð, n. shark’s skin, shagreen.

HÁR, m., acc. há, pl. háir, a thole, Am. 35, Grett. 125, Fas. i. 215, Þiðr. 313; whence há-benda, u, f. = hamla, q. v.; há-borur, f. pl., q. v.; há-reiðar, f. pl. rowlocks, prop. ‘thole-gear,’ synonymous with hamla; inn féll (sjór) um söxin ok háreiðarnar, Sturl. iii. 66, (Cd. Brit. Mus., Cd. Arna-Magn. háborurnar); leggja árar í háreiðar, to lay the oars in the rowlocks, Fms. xi. 70 (v. 1. to hömlur), 101, x. 285; lágu þar árar í háreiðum, Eg. 360 (v. l. to hömlu-böndum), Lex. Poët.: há-seti, a, m. a ‘ thole-sitter,’ oarsman, opp. to the captain or helmsman, Grág. i. 90, N. G. L. i. 98, Landn. 44, Fbr. 62 new Ed., Fms. vi. 239, 246: há-stokkar, m. pl. the gunwale, Bs. i. 385, 390. β. in poetry a ship is called há-dýr, n., há-sleipnir, m. the horse of rowlocks.

HÁR, n. [A. S. hær; Engl. hair; Germ. har; Dan.-Swed. hår; Lat. caesaries]:—hair, including both Lat. crines and capilli, Skálda 162, Nj. 2, Sks. 288; fara ór hárum, to change the hair, of beasts, passim; eitt hár hvítt eðr svart, Matth. v. 36; höfuð-hár, the hair of the head; lík-hár, the hair on the body, breast, or hands of men, opp. to the head; úlfalda-hár, iii. 4; hross-hár, horse-hair; hunds-hár, kattar-hár. COMPDS: hára-lag, n. the fashion of the hair. hárs-litr, m. the colour of the hair, Nj. 219, Fms. xi. 8, Ld. 274. ☞ For the hair of women, see Nj. ch. 1, 78, 117, Landn. 2, ch. 30, Edda 21, passim; of men, Nj. ch. 121, Ld. ch. 63, and passim.

hár-amr, m., proncd. hárramr = hárhamr (cp. Ivar Aasen haaram), the hairy side of a skin, Fas. i. 289.

Hár-barðr, m. Gray-beard, a myth. name, Edda (Gl.): Prof. Bergmann, in his ‘Graubarts-lied,’ has conclusively shewn that the ‘Hárbarðr’ of the lay (Hárbarðs-ljóð) is not Odin, but Loki.

hár-beittr, adj. = hárhvass.

har-bjartr, adj. bright-haired, Fas. ii. 365.

hár-dregill, m. a hair ribbon, Stj.

há-reiðar, f. pl. rowlocks; see above, under hár, a thole.

hár-fagr, adj. fair-haired, a nickname of king Harold.

hár-ferð, f. the fashion of the hair, Sturl. iii. 83.

hár-fletta, u, f., and hár-fléttingr, m. a plait of hair, Str. 40.

hár-greiða, u, f. a wide-toothed comb.

hár-hvass, adj. hair-edged, as a rasor, Eg. 715.

har-kambr, m. a hair comb.

hár-klæði, n. a haircloth, Fms. v. 160, Rb. 368, Hom. 105.

hár-knífr, m. a hair knife, rasor, Bs. i. 306, Dipl. v. 18, Fms. v. 185, Stj. 409, 418, Þiðr. 122, Str. 77.

hárr, adj. [A. S. hear; Engl. hoar], hoary; hárir ok gamlir, Haustl. 10; háran ok skeggjaðan, 655 xiv. B, Fms. vii. 321, Ýt. 13, Fin. 34, Hým. 16; hárr í skeggi, Ld. 274; hárr þulr, Hm. 135; hárir menn, old men, Sighvat: in compds, fagr-hárr, fair-haired; dökk-harr, dark-haired; rauð-hárr, red-haired; hvít-hárr, white-haired; þunn-hárr, thin-haired; strý-hárr, bristly-haired; hrokkin-hárr, curly-haired; slétt-hárr, sleek-haired; mjúk-hárr, soft-haired; laus-hárr, loose-haired, with floating hair, of women: in mod. usually hærðr (q. v.), fagr-hærðr, etc.

hár-rætr or hárs-rætr, f. pl. the line on the scalp, esp. on the forehead, where the hair begins, [cp. Ivar Aasen baargard]; upp í hársrætr, upp í hársrótum, Eg. 305, Sturl. iii. 283.

hár-sárr, adj. having sensitive hair.

hár-skurðr, m. the cut of the hair, N. G. L. i. 345, Fms. ii. 189.

hár-taug f. a string of horse-hair, Sturl. iii. 206.

hár-toga, að, to pull by the hair: metaph. to twist or split a hair.

hár-vara, u, f. fur, Fms. x. 202.

hár-vöxtr, m. hair-growth.

há-seti, a, m. a mate; see above, under hár, a thole.

há-sin, f. [the há- answers to A. S. hôh, Engl. hough; cp. A. S. hohsin, Engl. hough sinew, O. H. G. hahsa or hasina, Bavar. hächsen, mid. H. G. hahse, Dan. hase, with a dropped n; see Grimm’s Gramm. iii. 405]:—a hough sinew or tendon, Hrafn. 20, Eb. 242, passim.

HÁSKI, a, m. [akin to hætta, q. v.; in North. E. hask is used of a cold, stormy wind], danger, K. Þ. K. 82, Al. 30, Fms. vii. 220, 252, passim; lífs-háski, life’s peril; sjávar-h., danger on the sea; salar-h., soul’s peril. COMPDS: háska-för, -ferð, f. a dangerous exploit, Fms. viii. 50. háska-lauss, adj. without danger, 623. 40, Hkr. i. 488. háska-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), dangerous. háska-samliga, adv. dangerously, Fms. ii. 16, ix. 512, Stj. 189. háska-samligr, adj. perilous, Eg. 73, Fms. i. 76, viii. 328, Gþl. 199. háska-tími, a, m. time of danger, Sks. 45. háska-ván, f. danger to come, Sks. 182.

hás-mæltr, adj. hoarse speaking, Íb. 13.

HÁSS, adj. [A. S. hæs; Engl. hoarse; O. H. G. heis; Germ. heiser; Dan. hæs]:—hoarse, Fms. i. 283, passim.

há-stokkar, m. the ‘thole-beam,’ gunwale; see hár, a thole.

há-sæti, n. a high-seat; see hár, high.

há-tíð, f. a feast; see hár, high.

HÁTTA, að, [akin to hagr, haga, q. v., qs. hagta], to dispose, contrive, with dat., Bs. i. 170, Fms. vi. 149, Hkr. i. 120, Sks. 286: with adv., hátta svá, þannig, Al. 104, Fms. i. 57. 2. impers. it happens; háttar svá, at hann kom, Fms. x. 404: so also in neut. part., with the auxiliary verb, Dana-virki er svá háttað, the Dannewerk is so constructed, of that nature, Germ. so beschaffen, Fms. i. 123; hversu háttað er, iv. 274; honum er svá háttað, at hann fjarar allan at þurru, Eb. 236; svá er háttað, at þú ert með barni, Anal. 137; þar er svá háttað lands-legi, Fms. vii. 56; yðr frændum er svá háttað, you are of that mould, Nj. 252; svá er háttað, 73; hvernig var jörðin háttuð, how was the earth shapen? Edda 6. 3. háttaðr, part. mannered; vel, ílla h., Mar.: treated, sá hann hve bogi hans var til háttaðr, Fb. i. 532.

B. To go to bed; þar vóru góð híbýli ok heldr snemma háttað, Fs. 131; hann háttar snemma, ok er þeir höfðu sofit svefn, 143, Fas. ii. 428, freq. in mod. usage; cp. hætta, to leave work.

hátt-góðr, adj. well-mannered, Eb. 258, Fms. ix. 4.

hátt-lausa, u, f. a kind of metre, Edda 137.

hátt-prúðr, adj. well-mannered, Fms. viii. 4.

hátt-prýði, n. good manners, courteousness, Fms. x. 75.

HÁTTR, m., gen. háttar, dat. hætti, pl. hættir, acc. háttu, [akin to hagr, qs. hagtr], manner, habit: I. a mode of life, habit; ríkra manna háttr, Nj. 268; fara vel með sínum háttum, to conduct oneself well, Eg. 65; ráða sjálfr háttum sínum, to be one’s own master, Fms. vii. 199; fornmennis-háttr, ii. 59; riddaraligr háttr, x. 230; víkinga-háttr, Fb. i. 412; þat er háttr skálda at (it is the fashion of poets to) lofa þann mest er þá eru þeir fyrir, Hkr. (pref.): hátta-góðr, adj. well-mannered, Eb. 258: halda teknum hætti, to go on in one’s usual way, persevere, Fb. ii. 85, Eb. 77. 2. conduct; vanda um háttu manna, Fb. ii. 37. II. a mode, way of doing a thing; kunna hátt á e-u, to know how to do a thing, Barl. 101:—answering to Lat. hoc modo, hunc ad modum, hann reist örn á baki honum með þeima hætti, at …, Hkr. i. 108; hann stóð upp ok svaraði erendi konungs með þessum hætti (as follows), Fms. i. 33; með hverjum hætti, in what manner? how? með ymsum hætti, etc. 2. appearance, manner; hversu vóru þeir menn í hátt, how did those men look? Stj. 396; jörðin ok dýrin ok fuglarnir höfðu saman eðli í sumum hlutum, en þó ólík at hætti, but unlike in manners, Edda 144 (pref.): manner, kind, sá er annarr háttr jarldóms, N. G. L. ii. 403. 3. moderation, measure; ágirni kann engan hátt, Hom. 18; hófsemi er háttr alls lífs, 28. 4. adverbial usages answering to Lat, -modi in hujusmodi, ejusmodi: α. gen., mikils háttar, Fms. vi. 20, 144, 229, viii. 198, x. 234; lítils háttar, insignificant, vi. 7, 229, viii. 198; minna háttar, i. 160; alls-háttar, of every kind, iii. 184; nokkurs háttar, in some way, Stj. 178; þess-háttar, of that kind, Edda 149 (pref.), passim; engis-háttar, in nowise, Stj. 81; margs-háttar, of many kinds, Stj. passim. β. acc., á allan hátt, in every respect, Bs. i. 857; á engan hátt, by no means; á ymsan hátt, in various respects; á hvárigan hátt, etc. γ. eptir hætti, duly, tolerably, as may be expected. III. a metre; þenna hátt fann fyrst Veili, Edda (Ht.) 131; þeir létu vera fimm vísur með hverjum hætti, Orkn. 304, cp. Edda (Ht.) passim; eptir hætti, in the proper metre, Edda 131. Names of metres, Kviðu-háttr, the epic metre (as the Völuspá), Skálda; Ljóða-h. or Ljóðs-h., the trimeter in old saws and didactic poems (as the Háva-mál); Mála-h., Ref-hvarfa-h., Orðskviða-h., Draugs-h., Flagða-h., Dýri-h., Nýi-h., Álags-h., Hátt-lausa: derived from the names of men, Egils-h., Braga-h., Torf-Einars-h., Fleins-h.; Núfu-h., Edda; of countries, Grænlenzki-h., expounded in Edda (Ht.) and Háttat. Rögnvalds, Skálda: a saying is called máls-háttr. COMPDS: hátta-föll, n. pl. a flaw in a metre, Edda (Ht.) 134, 135, Skálda 210. hátta-lykill, m. a key to metres, the name of an old poem on metres, Orkn. 304 (printed at the end of the Skálda, Reykjavík 1849). hátta-skipti, n. a shifting of metre, Edda 129. hátta-tal, n. a number of metres, the name of a poem on metres, = Hátta-lykill, Edda 192; also in the title of Edda (Ub.) ii. 250.

hátt-samr, adj. conducted, Stj. 206.

hátt-semi, f. conduct.

háttung, f. danger, risk, Fms. vi. 206, Fas. i. 178, Bs. ii. 120; cp. hætting.

há-vaði, a, m. a noise; see hár, high.

há-vaði, a, m. a roaring water, a rapid, i. e. something less than a cascade; móða féll með miklum hávaða, Fas. ii. 230; þá spennti fram í hávaðana, Safn i. 80.

há-varr, adj. loud, noisy; see hár, high.

héðan, adv., hieðan in an old vellum, 655 x. 2, which shews that the pronunciation was the same then as now, [A. S. heonan; North. E. hein and hine; cp. Germ. hin]:—hence, from this place, Gm. 28, Ls. 7, Skm. 38, Hbl. 13, Am. 36, Nj. 32, Jb. 10, Grág. i. 150, Edda 8; fyrir héðan e-t, on the hither side, Symb. 30; fyrir héðan hafit, on the hither side of the sea, Fas. ii. 240. II. temp. henceforth, Fms. vi. 279, xi. 84; héðan frá, héðan í frá (mod. héðan af), hereafter, Nj. 83, Ísl. ii. 237. héðan-kváma, u, f. departure from hence, Fas. ii. 121 (in a verse).

HÉÐINN, m., dat. héðni, [akin to haðna, q. v.], a jacket of fur or skin, Hm. 72; úlf-héðinn, wolf-coat, Fs. 77, the name of a berserker, 17; geit-héðinn, a goat’s skin coat, Nj. 211; bjarn-héðinn, a bear’s skin coat; the phrase, veifa héðni at höfði e-m, to wrap a skin round one’s head, to hoodwink one, Eb. 32 new Ed., Grett. ch. 66, Ó. H. 139: héðin-stykki, n. a piece of fur, D. N. II. a mythical pr. name, Edda, Lex. Poët.: in compds, Bjarn-héðinn, Úlf-héðinn, Skarp-héðinn, Bs., Landn., Nj.

héðra, adv. [Ulf. hidre = ωδε], hither or here; héðra nær, Landn. 146; mönnum héðra, the men here, Dropl. 22; hann ferr héðra at heimboðum, Boll. 346, Fms. vi. 428 (in a verse).

HEFÐ, f. [hafa, to take, = Lat. usu-capere], a law term, loss or gain of claim by lapse of time; hefð ok land, Bs. i. 689; hefð lands-laga, 720; með réttri ok löglegri hefð, 730, Rétt. 230, D. N. passim, H. E. i. 456, cp. Jb. s. v. tuttugu ár, pp. 142, 251, 351. COMPDS: hefðar-maðr, m. a claimant by possession, Bs. i. 731. hefðar-vitni, n. a witness in a case of hefð, Gþl. 300. hefða-skipti, n. a change of hefð, D. N. II. [hefja], reputation: hefðar-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), fine, grand: hefðar-maðr, m. an eminent man, Fms. iii. 134.

hefða, að, to take, by way of usucaptio, D. N., Mar.

HEFILL, m. [from hefja, to heave; from this Norse word are no doubt derived the Engl. to haul and halyard, ‘hel’ or ‘hal’ being contracted from hefill], a naut. term, the clew-lines and bunt-lines of a sail; láta síðan síga ór heflum (to unfurl the sail), ok sækja eptir þeim, Fb. iii. 563; lét hann þá hleypa ór heflunum segli á skeiðinni, Ó. H. 182 (Fb. l. c. homlu wrongly); N. G. L. i. 199 distinguishes between hefill, sviptingr (reefs), hanki (blocks): hefil-skapt, n. a boat-hook to pull the sail down; þá þreif Ingimundr hefilskapt ok vildi kippa ofan, Bs. i. 422: hefla-skurðr, m. = heflan, q. v.; mínka skal sigling með hálsan ok heflaskurð, N. G. L. i. 282. II. a plane, (mod., from Germ. hobel.)

HEFJA, pret. hóf, pl. hófu; part. hafinn, but also hafiðr (weak); pres. indic. hef; pret. subj. hæfi, with neg. suff. hóf-at, Korm.; [Ulf. hafjan; A. S. hebban; Engl. heave, pret. hove; O. H. G. hafan; Germ. heben; Dan. hæve; Swed. häfva; cp. Lat. capere, in-cipere.]

A. To heave, lift, raise; hefja stein, to lift a stone, Eg. 142; ok munu nú ekki meira hefja fjórir menn, 140; (hón) hóf hann at lopti, hove him aloft, Ýt. 9; hefja e-n til himins, Edda 61 (in a verse); hóf hann sér af herðum hver, Hym. 36; þá er hefja af hvera (mod. taka ofan pott, to take the pot off), Gm. 42; hóf sér á höfuð upp hver Sifjar verr, Hým. 34; hón hófat augu af mér, she took not her eyes off me, Korm. 16; hann hóf upp augu sín, he lifted up his eyes, 623. 20; hefja sik á lopt, to make a leap, Nj. 144. 2. phrases, hefja handa, to lift the hands (for defence), Nj. 65, Ld. 262; h. höfuðs, to lift the head, stand upright, be undaunted; sá er nú hefir eigi höfuðs, Nj. 213: h. sinn munn í sundr, to open one’s mouth, Sturl. iii. 189: hefja graut, skyr, etc., to lift the porridge, curds, etc., eat food with a spoon, Fms. vi. 364; Rindill hóf (Ed. hafði wrongly) skyr ok mataðisk skjótt, Lv. 63. 3. hefja út, to lift out a body, carry it from the house (út-hafning), Eg. 24; er mik út hefja, Am. 100; var konungr hafiðr dauðr ór hvílunni, Hkr. iii. 146. The ceremony of carrying the corpse out of the house is in Icel. still performed with solemnity, and followed by hymns, usually verses 9 sqq. of the 25th hymn of the Passíu-Sálmar; it is regarded as a farewell to the home in which a person has lived and worked; and is a custom lost in the remotest heathen age; cp. the Scot. to lift. β. hefja (barn) ór heiðnum dómi, to lift (a bairn) out of heathendom, is an old eccl. term for to be sponsor (mod. halda undir skírn), Sighvat (in a verse); N. G. L. i. 350 records three kinds of sponsorship—halda barni undir primsignan, önnur at hefja barn ór heiðnum dómi, þriðja at halda á barni er biskup fermir: to baptize, skal þat barn til kirkju færa ok hefja ór heiðnum dómi, 12; barn hvert er borit verðr eptir nótt ina helgu, þá skal haft vera (baptized) at Páskum, id. 4. to exalt, Ad. 20, cp. with Yngl. S. ch. 10; hóf hann Jóseph til sæmðar, Sks. 454; hafðr til ríkis, 458; upp hafðr, 451; önd hennar var upp höfð yfir öll engla fylki, Hom. 129; hann mektaðisk mjök ok hóf sik of hátt af þeim auðæfum, Stj. 154; at hann hæfi upp (exaltaret) Guðs orð með tungunni, Skálda 208; konungr hóf hann til mestu metorða, 625. 31: er hans ríki hóf, 28. II. impers., 1. to be heaved, hurled, drifted, by storm, tide, or the like; þá hóf upp knörr (acc.) undir Eyjafjöllum, a ship was upheaved by the gale, Bs. i. 30; hóf öll skipin (acc. the ship drifted) saman inn at landinu, Hkr. i. 206; þetta hóf (drifted) fyrir straumi, iii. 94; þeir létu hefja ofan skipin forstreymis, let the ship drift before the stream, Fms. vii. 253; Birkibeina hefr undan, the B. went back, ix. 528. 2. medic., en er af henni hóf öngvit (acc. when she awoke, of one in a swoon), Bjarn. 68; þá hóf af mér vámur allar (acc. all ailments left me), svá at ek kenni mér nú hvergi íllt, Sturl. ii. 54; ek sé at þú ert fölr mjök, ok má vera, at af þér hafi, I see thou art very pale, but may be it will pass off, Finnb. 236; hóf honum heldr upp brún (acc. his face brightened), Eg. 55. III. reflex. to raise oneself, to rise; hefjask til ófriðar, to raise war, rebel, Eg. 264. β. to be raised; hefjask til ríkis, to be raised to the throne, Fms. i. 99; hefjask hátt, to be exalted, Fs. 13; hann hafði hafisk af sjálfum sér, he had risen by himself, Eg. 23; féll Hákon en hófsk upp Magnúss konungr, Sturl. i. 114; Þórðr hófsk (rose) af þessu, Landn. 305, Hom. 152. 2. phrases, hefjask við, to lay to, a naut. term; lét þá jarl hefjask við ok beið svá sinna manna, Fms. viii. 82; hefjask undan, to retire, draw back, Sd. 144: in the phrase, hefjask af höndum e-m, to leave one; hefsk nú aldregi af höndum þeim, give them no rest, Fms. xi. 59. 3. part., réttnefjaðr ok hafit upp í framanvert, Nj. 29.

B. Metaph. to raise, begin, Lat. incipere: 1. to raise; hefja flokk, to raise a party, a rebellion, Fms. viii. 273; h. rannsókn, to raise an enquiry, Grág. ii. 193; h. ákall, to raise a claim, Eg. 39; h. brigð, to make a reclamation, Gþl. 295. 2. to begin; hefja teiti, Fms. vii. 119; h. gildi, Sturl. i. 20; h. Jóla-hald, to begin (keep) Yule, Fms. i. 31; h. boðskap, ii. 44: of a book, þar hefjum vér sögu af hinum helga Jóni biskupi, Bs. i. 151; h. mál, to begin one’s speech, Ld. 2; h. ferð, to start, Fb. ii. 38; h. orrustu. β. with prep. upp, (hence upp-haf, beginning); hóf Helgi upp mál sitt, Boll. 350; Egill hóf upp kvæðit, E. began his poem, 427; hann heyrði messu upp hafna, Fms. v. 225; hefja upp sálm, to begin a hymn, 623. 35; Flosi hóf upp suðrgöngu sína, F. started on his pilgrimage, Nj. 281; h. upp göngu sína, to start, Rb. 116. γ. hefja á rás, to take to one’s feet; síðan hefr hann á rás ok rann til bæjarins, Eg. 237; hinir Gautsku höfðu (thus weak vide hafa C. 2) á rás undan, Fms. iv. 120. δ. absol., hann hóf svá, he began thus, Fms. i. 33; þar hef ek upp, vii. 146; þar skal hefja upp við arftöku-mann, start from the a., Grág. i. 62. II. impers. to begin; hér hefr Þingfara-bólk (acc.), Gþl. 5; hér hefr upp Kristindóms-bólk, 39, 75, 378; hér hefr Landnáma-bók, Landn. 24; hér hefr upp landnám í Vestfirðinga fjórðungi, 64, 168 (v. l.), 237 (v. l.); hér hefr Kristni-Sögu, Bs. i. 3; nú hefr þat hversu Kristni kom á Ísland, id.; hér hefr sögu af Hrafni á Hrafnsevri, 639; hér hefr upp ok segir frá þeim tíðindum, er …, Fms. viii. 5; áðr en hefi sjálfa bókina, Gþl.; hér hefr sögu Gísla Súrs-sonar, Gísl. (begin.), v. l.: with upp, ok upp hefr Skáldskapar-mál ok Kenningar, Edda (Arna-Magn.) ii. 427; hér hefr upp Konunga-bók og hefr fyrst um þriðjunga-skipti heimsins, Hkr. Cod. Fris. 3; hann kom til Túnsbergs er upp hóf Adventus Domini, Fms. ix. 338. III. reflex. to begin; þar hefsk saga Harðar, Landn. 62; hvaðan hefir hafizk sú íþrótt, whence originates that art? Edda 47; hér hefjask upp landnám, Landn. 275; hófsk ríki Haralds konungs, king H.’s reign began, Ld. 2; áðr Rómverja-ríki hófsk, Rb. 402; hófusk (höfðusk, Ed. wrongly) þá enn orrostur af nýju, Fms. xi. 184; hvernig hafizk hefir þessi úhæfa, Al. 125; nú hefsk önnur tungl-öldin, Rb. 34; þá hefsk vetr, 70–78, 436.

HEFLA, að, to furl the sail by hauling in the bunts and clews; látum vér Hrapp nú í seglit, þat var heflat upp við rána, Nj. 135; þá lét hann h. ok beið liðs síns, Ó. H. 182; síðan var heflat á konungs-skipinu, ok var sagt á önnur skipin, at öll skyldu sigla jafn-framt, Fms. ix. 285; þá bað jarl hefla ok bíða þeirra er síðarr færi, Fb. ii. 563; þá hafði Erlingr heflat á skeið sinni, at eigi skyldi hón ganga hvatara en önnur skip, Fagrsk. 86, (heflið á skeiðinni, at hón gangi eigi undan öðrum skipum, v. l.) II. to plane, (mod.)

heflan, f. a hauling in the clews and bunts of a sail, N. G. L. i. 282, v. l.

HEFNA, d, also spelt hemna, N. G. L. i. 19, [Dan. hævne; Swed. hämna]:—to revenge, with dat. of the person and gen. of the thing, or ellipt. omitting either the gen. or the dat., or adding an adverb: I. gener. to avenge, take vengeance; hefna Grími sinnar svívirðingar, Fms. ii. 172; vildi jarl nú gjarna h. Þorleifi þessar smánar, Fb. i. 213; á ek at h. honum mikillar sneypu, Fms. x. 341; sagði hvers honum var at hefna, Bret. 50; áttú honum at hefna frænda-láts, Fb. ii. 350; at hann mundi henni þess sárliga h., 381; eða hverr er hér sá ríkis-manna, er eigi muni honum eiga at h. stórsaka? Ó. H. 213; ek skal fara með þér ok skulu vit hefna honum, Eg. 189; því mæli ek eigi í móti, at þér farit við liði ok hefnit þeim, Fms. ix. 306; hón hefnir ok þeim er brigða, Edda 21. β. with gen., þó skal ek þessa hefna, Nj. 19; Guð hefnir svá reiði sinnar, Sks. 338; goð hefna eigi alls þegar, Nj. 132: h. sín, to avenge oneself; sá maðr er á er unnit á at hefna sín, Grág. ii. 17; hefnit yðar eigi sjálfir, Rom. xii. 19; ok blóðs sinna þjóna hefir hann hefnt, Rev. xix. 2; þeir menn, er þeir áttu minna í at hefna, those men who had less to avenge, Eg. 86; verðr þeim því ekki skjótt hefndr sinn ósómi, Fbr. 22. γ. with prep. á; hefna e-s á e-m, to avenge a thing upon one, Eg. 425, Fb. i. 471, Sks. 719, Sturl. ii. 148; this also is the mod. usage, og hefnir vors blóðs á þeim, Rev. vi. 10: singly, hefna á e-m, en ef hann vill eigi bæta, þá megu frændr hins dauða h. á honum, N. G. L. i. 122. II. with a single gen. and referring to the blood revenge; hversu Hákon jarl hefndi föður síns, Fms. i. 56; hefna Rögnvalds, ix. 306; h. myndi Höskuldr þín, Nj. 176; at þú hefnir þeirra sára allra, er hann hafði á sér dauðum, id.; hefndú (imperat.) vár, en vér þín ef vér lifum eptir, 198; þat hlægir mik, segir Skarphéðinn, ef þú kemsk brott, mágr, at þú munt h. mín, 202; sverja þann eið, at hverr skal annars h. sem bróður sins, Gísl. 11; nú vilda ek til þess mæla, at hvárr okkarr hefndi annars, sá er lengr lifði, ef vit höfum líflát af vápnum eðr manna-völdum, Barn. 58; þó er þér meiri nauðsyn at h. föður þíns en spá mér slíkar spár, Mj. 182; en þó væri honum eigi úskyldra at h. föður síns, en at kasta únýtum orðum á mik—konungr mælti, er þat satt, Halli, at þú hafir eigi hefnt föður þíns? Fms. vi. 367; þat var þá mælt, at sá væri skyldr at h. er vápni kipti ór sári, Gísl. 22. For the old blood revenge see the Sagas passim, e. g. Ld. ch. 60, Gísl., Fbr., Grett. (fine), Heiðarv. S., Orkn. ch. 8. But even in the Saga time a more law-abiding spirit began to prevail, and a settlement (görð) took place in many cases instead of the old practice of taking life for life; and so the law distinguishes between mann-hefndir and sektir, i. e. blood-vengeance and temporary exile or the like; indicative of this better spirit is the old saying, jafnan orkar tvímælis þó at hefnt sé, revenge always causes dissension, Nj. 139: revenge amongst kinsmen was forbidden, síðr þú hefnir, þótt þeir sakar göri | þat kveða dauðum duga, Sdm. 22, cp. ætt-víg, cp. also Ld. ch. 53 sqq. and many other passages; a touching instance is recorded in Nj. ch. 146, p. 248; it is characteristic of the old times, that bloodshed might be atoned for, but not slander, calumny, or imprecations, cp. annars dags láttu hans öndu farit, Sdm. 24, 25, and many passages in the Sagas, e. g. Glúm. ch. 7, 18, Lv. ch. 13, Nj. ch. 44, 92, Þorst. Síðu H., cp. also Hm. 28, 72. III. impers., e-m hefnir e-t, to pay dearly for; svá hefndi honum þat mikla mikillæti, at hann gékk í braut fullr af harmi, Edda 22; þá hljóp Ólafr í fen eitt báðum fótum … því bar svá til, at mér hefndi, Fms. x. 261. IV. reflex. to take revenge; at hefnask á e-m, to take revenge on one, Bær. 5; leituðu Norðmenn at hefnask, Fms. i. 108; fóru þau orð um, at Dana-konungr mundi þess hefnask, 29; hefnask sinnar svívirðingar, Gþl. 183; hefnask sín, hefna sín, 184: with gen. of the person, ok svá þeir er hemnask þessara úbóta-manna, as also the persons who take revenge on these miscreants, N. G. L. i. 19 (rare). 2. reflex. impers. (see III. above), to come to make retribution (of Nemesis); e-m hefnisk e-t or e-s, hvárt mun Gunnari aldri hefnask þessi újafnaðr? eigi mun þat segir, segir Rútr, hefnask mun honum víst, the day of retribution will come to him, Nj. 38: very freq. in mod. usage of just retribution, mér hefndisk fyrir það; þér hefnist fyrir það, used even of slight matters. V. part. as adj. hefndr, revenged; compar., era slíks manns at hefndra sem Gregorius var, þótt þeir komi allir fyrir, Hkr. iii. 399; þótt föður várs sé eigi at hefndra (viz. though he be slain), Fs. 40. 2. hefnandi, part. act. a revenger, Greg. 41: poët. = sons, as the duty of revenge devolved upon the nearest heir, Lex. Poët.

hefnd, f. revenge, vengeance; mun oss verða í því engi hefnd né frami, Nj. 38; mikil, lítil hefnd í e-m, Fas. i. 523; guðlig hefnd, divine vengeance, Nemesis, Fms. v. 224; drepa menn í hefnd eptir e-n, Ísl. ii. 118. 2. esp. in plur. blood revenge; leita hefnda, Ld. 260, passim; mann-hefndir, life for life revenge; bróður-hefndir, föður-hefndir, revenge for a brother’s or father’s slaughter. COMPDS: hefnda-laust, n. adj. without retribution, Fms. x. 33, Sturl. i. 153. hefndar-dagr, m. a day of vengeance, Barl. 37. hefndar-dómr, m. Nemesis, retribution, Greg. 24. hefndar-gjöf, f. a gift of revenge, ill-fated gift, donum Danaorum. hefndar-hönd, f. a hand of retribution, Pass. 37. 13. hefndar-maðr, m. an avenger, Bær. 3. hefndar-orð and hefndar-yrði, n. pl., read hermdar-yrði, q. v.

hefni-leið (hefnileit, Fær. 254, wrongly), f., in the phrase, róa á h. e-s, to set about taking revenge, to take vengeance, Sturl. iii. 118, 149, Fas. iii. 540, Fær. 254.

hefnir, m. an avenger, heir, son, Lex. Poët.

hefni-samr, adj. revengeful, Hkr. ii. 96, Bs. i. 810.

hefni-semi, f. revengefulness, Hom.

Hefring, f., mythol. one of the northern Nereids, Edda.

hegat, vide hingat.

HEGÐA, að, [hagr]; hegða e-u, to arrange a thing (= haga e-u), Stj. 131, Mar.: hegða sér, to conduct oneself, Bs. i. (Laur.)

hegðan, f. arrangement, H. E. i. 246: mod. usage eccl. conduct, freq.

hegeitill, m. a flint; spelt hegeitel, Bs. i. 674, ii. 56, 134, Karl. 321, Barl. 181 (see note); hegettill, Flov. 41; the true form is prob. heggeitill, Ivar Aasen heggjeitel, which in Norway is used of nodules (eitill, q. v.) in stones; the word is still used in western Icel. (Ísafjarðar-sýsla).

Heggnir, m. pl. the men of the county Hæggen in Norway, Fms.

HEGGR, m. [Ivar Aasen hegg; Swed. hägg; Engl. hedge, Germ. hecken, from this tree being used for hedging], a kind of tree, the bird-cherry, Edda (Gloss.): freq. in old poetry, Lex. Poët.: whence Dan. hægge-bær, hægge-blomst, etc.

hé-gilja (or hé-gylja), u, f. a ‘vain song,’ nonsense, tittle-tattle, = Lat. nugae; þeir tala drambsöm orð hégyljunnar, 2 Pet. ii. 18.

hegja, u, f. [from hagr], fate, condition, Ód. 20, Rekst. 23, Merl. 2. 20, as also Orkn. 188, v. l., where the probable reading is emk hegju jarla trauðr at segja, I am unwilling to tell the earl’s fate.

hegla, ð, [hagl, cp. Dan. hegle], to hail, Art., Lex. Poët.

HEGNA, d, [A. S. hegjan; Engl. hedge; Germ. hegen; Dan. hegne]:—to hedge, fence, with acc.; allt þat aldin er menn hirða ok hegna með görðum eðr gæzlum, Jb. 429. 2. metaph. to protect; at hegna lönd sín, Fas. i. 376 (Skjöld. S.); allir menn eru skyldir við at hegna Kristni, N. G. L. i. 352; þá hegni þeir selver sín, sem menn hegna eignir sínar á land upp, með laga-kefli, 252;—in this sense the word is obsolete in Icel., but 3. is freq. in eccl. usage, α. hegna líkam sinn frá munuðum, to keep one’s body from lusts, Hom. 85; h. oss (acc.) at syndum, to keep us from sin, 74. β. to punish; hann hegndi harðliga allar lögleysur ok úsiðu, Magn. 472. II. to chastise, with acc., but in mod. usage with dat.; hegna íllþýði ok ráns-menn, Fms. vii. 16, (but dat. v. l. of the Hrokkinskinna, a MS. of the 15th century); the dat. seems to be due to an ellipse, e. g. Haraldr Hárfagri fór á einu sumri vestr um haf at h. víkingum (for hegna land víkingum, to clear the land of vikings, pacify it), Orkn. 10.

hegnaðr, m. defence, Gþl. 56: chastisement, hegnaðar-hamarr, hammer of punishment, Mar. 200. hegnuðr, m. a chastiser, is the name of a staff borne in court, Vd. ch. 44.

hegnari, a, m. an avenger, Fms. v. 241.

hegnd, f. castigation, punishment, Stj. 40, 67, Bs. i. 288.

hegning, f. = hegnd, K. Á. 46, Valla L. 209, Fms. iii. 89, v. 320. hegningar-vöndr, m. a rod of chastisement, Stj. 653.

hegnir, m. a defender, chastiser, Lex. Poët.

hégóma, að, to speak falsely, vainly; Þorbjörn kvað eigi hégómað frá, Th. said it was not untrue, Háv. 45; h. ok ljúga, Stj. 34, 131, 150, Bs. ii. 137; h. á e-n, to slander one, Mag.

hé-gómi, a, m. [the prefixed syllable hé- in hégómi and hégilja has no independent existence, but seems to be identical with Goth. hivi (by which word Ulf. renders the Gr. μόρφωσις, 2 Tim. iii. 5), A. S. hiv, Engl. hue, denoting outward appearance, with a notion of falseness; thus hégómi literally denotes whatever is false to the touch or taste, hé- and gómr, q. v.]: I. a cobweb, litter, dust, esp. within doors; reykr, hégómi, fölski, fys, fjúkandi lauf og strá, Hallgr., freq. in mod. usage; it can only be accidental that the word is not found in old writers. II. metaph. falsehood, folly, nonsense; var þat ekki nema hégómi vándra manna, Fms. ix. 449 (v. l. to lygi ein); sumir lásu bækr fyrir honum til þessa hégóma (nonsense), 460, v. l.; en Svíar mæla þessu í mót ok telja hégóma at þar hafi menn farizk, Ó. H. 18; en vér höfum setið hér at hégóma hans ok ginningum, Ld. 322; mikill h., great nonsense, Fms. vi. 445; af alvöru eðr af hégóma, Eg. 729; mæla tál ok hégóma, Nj. 358; h. ok uppslátta, Fms. ix. 285; þú segisk elska mik, en þat er þó ekki nema h. þinn, Stj. 417; hyggja hégóma, to think foolishly, Hom. 69; ekki sinni ek hégóma þínum, Ísl. ii. 214; verða at hégóma, to be set at naught, Barl. 8. 19, Stj. 433; heimsins h., Barl. 91; segja hégóma á e-n, to slander one, Karl. 57; eigi skal þú hafa nafn Drottins í hégóma, Pr. 437; mod., þú skalt ekki leggja nafn Drottins Guðs þíns við h., Exod. xx. 7. 2. mod. vanity, vain things; hégómi hégómans og allt er h., Eccles. i. 2, 14; skepnan er hégómanum undir gefin, Rom. viii. 20; í hégóma síns hugskots, Ephes. iv. 17. COMPDS: hégóma-dýrð, f. vain-glory, Bs. i. 373, Stj. 146. hégóma-líf, n. a vain life, Hom. 93. hégóma-maðr, m. a charlatan, liar, Karl. 274: mod. a vain, idle person. hégóma-mal, n, a vain speech, Fms. iv. 258, xi. 248. hégóma-nafn, n. an empty name, sham name, Hkr. ii. 268. hégóma-starf, n. vain labour, Stj. 298.

hégómliga, adv. vainly.

hégómligr, adj. vain, false, Stj. 142; h. dyrð, Al. 130; h. kenning, 623. 19, Sks. 620; h. guðir, Stj. 449; h. fortala, Anecd. 3; heimsk ok h., MS. 673. 46; h. draumar, Bret.: h. viðrlagning, superfluous addition, Skálda 187.

HEGRI, a, m. [A. S. higora; Germ. heher; Dan. hejre; Swed. hägar], a heron or hern, Lat. ardea, Edda (Gl.), Hm., Fms. ix. 9: in local names, Hegra-nes, Landn.; Hegranes-þing, Fms. x. 113.

hei, exclam. ey! Sturl. iii. 188.

HEIÐ, n. brightness of the sky; heið ok sólskin, Ó. H. 108, Bs. i. 339; sólina, ef í heiði mætti sjá, K. Þ. K. 96: in plur., frost fylgði mikit veðrinu, ok vóru stundum heið í himininn upp, the gale was followed by sharp frost, and now and then there were bright spots up in the sky, Bjarn. 54; veðr var bjart ok skein sól í heiði, Fms. v. 77; tunglið þá það skín í heiði, Rb. 108; sem þá er roðar fyrir upprennandi sólu í hinu fegrsta heiði, Karl. 111, v. l.; sem röðull renni upp í heiði, Arnór: in poetry the heaven is called heiðs há-rann, the high hall of brightness, Lex. Poët.

HEIÐ, f. a fee, stipend, payment, an obsolete word only found in poets; the phrase, haptsœnis heið, the atoning fee of the gods = poetry, a song, in a verse of Kormak, seems to refer to the tale in Edda 47 (Skáldskapar-mál, ch. 3); whence heið-fé, n. a fee, stipend, Edda (Gl.): heið-frömuðr, m. an epithet of a king: heið-gjöf, f. a gift of fee: heið-launaðr, part. paid, granted in fee, N. G. L. i. 91: heið-maðr, m. a king’s man, who holds land in fee from the king: heið-menningr, m. a nickname, Landn.: heið-mærr, adj. open-handed: heið-sær, adj. sowing gold, open-handed, Lex. Poët.: heið-þegi, a, m. = heiðmaðr, esp. of a king’s man, answering to the mod. soldier; for all these words vide Lex. Poët. II. hence metaph. worth, value; lítils heiðar, of small worth, of small repute, Fms. vi. 130 (in a verse); Daniel sá einskis heiðar á Bel, D. saw naught of worth in Bel, Blanda: whence the mod. compds, heiðar-liga, adv. worthily; heiðar-ligr, adj. worthy, honourable; vide heiðr below.

heiða, dd, to brighten, dispel the clouds, Skáld-H. R. 3. 1.

heið-birta, u, f. brightness of the sky.

heið-bjartr, adj. serene, Lex. Poët., freq. in mod. usage.

heið-gulr, adj. yellow, jaundiced, (mod.)

heiðin-dómr, m. heathendom, Hkr. ii. 65, freq. in mod. usage, but originally in two words.

heiðingi, a, m. [heiðinn], a heathen, gentile, Ó. H., Nj., Bs. (Kristni S.) passim. II. poët. a wolf, either metaph. from heiðingi, or from heiðr, a heath, one who lives on heaths and wildernesses, Edda (Gl.), Akv. 8; it occurs besides twice or thrice in poems of the time of king Harald Harðráði, 11th century.

heiðingligr, adj. heathen, Fms. i. 137, passim.

HEIÐINN, adj. [A. S. hæðen; Engl. heathen; O. H. G. heidan; Germ. heide and heidnisch; Dan. hedensk; this word is prob. derived not from heiðr, a heath, but from Gr. ἐθνικός as used in the N. T.; Ulf. in a single passage, Mark vii. 26, renders γυνὴ Έλληνίς by qino haiþno; it is even possible that the eccl. paganus, which, according to Du Cange, only appears after A. D. 365, may be merely a translation of the Teutonic word under the notion that haiþan was derived from haiþi = a heath, open country (Gr. ἀγρός, Lat. pagus): then, as haiþi was pronounced much like ἔθνος, the true etymology of heiðinn was lost; and so the long vowel and the aspirated initial may be accounted for. To the worshippers of Thor and Odin the name heathen was unknown; Christians were the first that used the word, and we meet with it first in Hkm. of Eyvind, who speaks of heiðin goð, heathen gods; heiðinn stallr, a heathen altar, Kristni S., by the missionary Þorvald, A. D. 982; it is also used by Hallfred and Sighvat; heiðinn dómr, heathendom, Sighvat; heiðnar stjörnur, heathen stars, Sól.: the verse in Ísl. ii. 50 is spurious (as are all the verses of that Saga); so also the verses in Landn. 84 (Hb.), and in Bergbúa-þáttr, where the word heiðinn is put into the mouth of a ghost and a giant, in songs which are merely a poetical fiction of later times. The word heiðingi for wolf is curious: probably it is merely a metaph. phrase from heiðinn, gentilis, and if so, it gives an additional evidence to the age of the poem Atla-kviða; which poem, from its nickname the ‘Greenlandish,’ cannot be older than the discovery of Greenland, A. D. 985]:—heathen, gentilis, ethnicus, the Sagas passim, esp. Nj. ch. 101–106, Kristni S., Ó. T., Ó. H., etc.: a child not christened was in olden times called heathen, N. G. L. i. 340; heiðit morð, the murder of an infant not christened, 339: in mod. Icel. usage, a boy or girl before confirmation is called heathen; this improper use of the word is caused by a confusion between baptism and confirmation: so in Norway a woman between child-birth and churching is called heathen (Ivar Aasen).

heiðir, m., poët. a hawk, Edda (Gl.)

heiðnask, að, dep. to become heathen, Fms. x. 313.

heiðneskr, adj. heathen, H. E. ii. 91 (rare). II. from Heiðmörk, f. a county in Norway, D. N.

heiðni, f. heathendom, Fms. i. 47, passim: heathen worship, heathen practice, fremja h., N. G. L. i. 182; en síðar fám vetrum vas sú heiðni af numin sem önnur, Íb. 12, Nj. 160: the heathen age, Friðrekr kom í heiðni hér, Íb. 13: a heathen country, Fb. i. 343.

HEIÐR, adj. [vide heið, n.; Germ. heiter], bright, cloudless, only of the sky, in the allit. phrase, heiðr himin, a clear sky, Hbl. 19, Stj. 305, Eb. 48 new Ed., Fms. v. 81: in poetry, heiðar stjörnur, bright stars, Vsp. 57; heiðr dagr, a bright day, Skv. 3. 53.

HEIÐR, f., dat. and acc. heiði, pl. heiðar; mod. nom. heiði, vide Gramm. p. xxvii, col. 2, and p. xxviii; [Ulf. haiþi = ἀγρός, Matth. vi. 28, 30, Luke xv. 15, xvii. 7, 31; and haiþivisks = ἄγριος; A. S. hæð; Engl. heath; O. H. G. haida; Germ. heide; Dan. hede; Swed. hed]:—a heath; in Icel. particularly heiðr (or heiði) is chiefly used of a low barren heath or fell; thus in local names heiðr is a common name for the barren tracts of fell between the foot of one fjord or dale and another, see the map of Icel. passim, Nj. 158, Eg. 137, 275, Grág. i. 440. COMPDS: heiðar-brekka, u, f. and heiðar-brún, f. the brink or edge of a heath, Hrafn. 28, Fbr. 39, Sturl. i. 33, 84. heiðar-hæna, n, f. a heath-hen, moor-fowl, Orkn. (in a verse). heiðar-vegr, m. a road through a heath, Bs. i. 318. Heiðar-víg, n. a fight on the Heath, Ísl. ii. 259, Landn. i. 70; whence Heiðarvíga-saga, u, f. the name of a Saga, Eb., cp. Sturl. i. 122: freq. in local names, Heiða-bær, Fms. xii. II. a pr. name of a sybil, Vsp., as also freq. in compd names of women, usually dropping the h, Ragn-eiðr, Baug-eiðr: Heið-rekr, m. name of a king.

heiðr, m., gen. heiðrs, [akin to heið, f. above, q. v.; Dan. hæder; Swed. häder]:—honour; it does not occur in very old or class. writers; til heiðrs ok sæmdar, Stj. 95; stórr heiðr, Fs. (Vd.) 21; heiðr ok tign, Fb. i. 564; h. ok hamingja, 566; Guðs heiðr, Fms. vii. 172 (v. l. of the Hrokkinskinna), Mar. passim: freq. in mod. usage, halda í heiðri, to honour, etc. COMPDS: heiðrs-maðr, m. a man of honour, Bs. i. 823. heiðr-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), worshipful, Stj. heiðrs-vel, adv. honourably, Stj. 26.

heiðra, að, to honour, Bs. i. (Laur. S.); freq. in mod. usage, heiðra skaltú föður þinn og móður, the Fifth Commandment.

heiðran, f. worship, honouring, H. E. i. 477.

heið-ríkja, u, f. brightness of the sky.

heið-ríkr, adj. bright, serene, of the sky; h. veðr, Ísl. ii. 409, Gísl. 33.

heiðr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), honourable, befitting, Stj., Mar., H. E. passim, Fs. 5.

heiðr-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), = heiðrligr, Stj. passim.

heið-skírr, adj. bright, cloudless, of the sky, = heiðríkr; h. veðr, Stj. 17; h. himinn, Art.; í heiðskíru, in bright weather, Bret. 46.

heið-vanr, adj. epithet of a tree, shady (?), Vsp.

heið-verða, ð, [heið, f.], to honour, Hom. 160: this and the following three words are derived from heið, f., q. v.

heið-verði (heið-virði), n. honour; dýrð ok h., Hom. 157, 160.

heið-verðliga (mod. heið-virðiliga), adv. respectfully, Hom. 150.

heið-viðri, n. bright weather, Nj. 143, Fms. iv. 246, ix. 482, xi. 132.

heið-virðiligr and heið-virðr, adj. honourable, worthy.

heið-þornir, m., poët. the sky, Edda (Gl.)

heigull, m. a kind of onion growing on the thatches of houses, Norse taklög, Björn. II. metaph. a laggard. heiguls-ligr, adj., heiguls-skapr, m.

heikil-nef, n. ‘hook-nose’ (?), a nickname, Fms., Fb, iii.

heila, að, to make whole; h. e-m skaða sinn, to make good one’s scathe, N. G. L. i. 387.

heilag-leikr, m. holiness, Fms. x. 319, xi. 207, Bs. passim.

heilag-liga, adv. holily, inviolably, 623. 53, Magn. 480, passim.

heilag-ligr, adj. ‘holy-like,’ holy, Bs. i. passim, Hkr. ii. 338.

HEILAGR, adj., usually contracted before a vowel, whereby the root vowel becomes short, thus helgan, helgir, helgum, helgar, and the definite helgi, helga; but also uncontractcd, esp. in mod. usage, heilagir, heilagan, heilögum, definite heilagi; [Ulf. seems not to have known the word, and renders αγιος etc. by veihs; so also in Dan. and Swed. local names, holy places and temples are marked by a prefixed or suffixed vi-, e. g. Vi-borg, Odens-e (= Óðins-vé): heilagr is derived in a metaph. sense from heill, whole, and is consequently not so old as the primitive vé, veihs; so A. S. hâlag; Engl. holy; Hel. hêlag; Germ. heilig; Dan. hellig; Swed. helig]: I. holy in heathen usage, helgar kindir, holy beings, Vsp. I; hár baðmr heilagr, 19, v. l.; heilög goð, holy gods; ginnheilög goð, Vsp.; heilakt land, Gm. 4; heilög (grind) fyrir helgum dyrum, 22; heilög vötn, 29, Hkv. 2. 1; heilög fjöll (hélug?), Fm. 26; helgu fulli, the holy toast of Odin, i. e. song, poetry, Edda (in a verse); af helgu skutli, from the holy table, Haustl. 4; þat vatn er svá heilakt, at …, Edda 11; brunnr mjök heilagr, 10: in local names, þat fjall kallaði hann Helga-fell, Holy-fell, Eb. 10; at þeir görði lönd sín helgari en aðrar jarðir, 20; ok kallar þá jörð nú eigi helgari en aðra, 24:—heilagir fiskar (mod. heilag-fiski), a halibut, Dan. helle-flynder, Bs. i. 365. 2. as a law term (and this is no doubt the original sense of the word), inviolable, one whose person is sacred, who cannot be slain with impunity, esp. within certain boundaries; hann (fjörbaugs-maðr, q. v.) skal heilagr vera at þeim heimilum ok í örskots-helgi við á alla vega, etc., Grág. i. 89; hann er heilagr á þeirri götu ok í örskots-helgi við þá götu, 132; hann verðr eigi heilagr ef eigi var sagt til heimilis hans at féráns-dómi, ok eigi verðr hann heilagr ef eigi gelzk fé þat er þar skyldi gjaldask, 133; hann er jamheilagr á götu er hann ferr til skips, 90, vide Þ. Þ. ch. 33 sqq.; falla óheilagr, to fall unholy, to be slain as an outlaw for whom no weregild was to be paid, Grág. and Sagas passim, cp. the interesting passages in Landn. 5. ch. 4, Sturl. 1. ch. 14; frið-heilagr, ‘peace-holy,’ protected, a term for birds and animals protected by law; úheilagr, outlawed, exlex: closely akin are the above phrases, in which heilagr is used as an epithet of places, h. land, fjöll, etc. II. eccl. holy, Lat. sanctus, Bs. passim, N. T., hymns, sermons, etc.; Heilagr Audi, the Holy Ghost; helgir dagar, holy days; halda heilagt, vide halda; helgir dómar, holy relics; but helgi-dómr, holidom, sanctuarium; heilög orð, holy words; helgir siðir, holy rites; helgar bækr, holy books; helgar tíðir, horae canonicae; helgir menn, saints of the Roman church; Heilagir = Άγιοι, i. e. Christians, N. T. 2. of special feasts, Helga Vika, the Holy Week, the week after Whitsuntide, Dipl. iii. to; Nóttin Helga, the Holy Night, cp. Germ. Weihnachten; Helgi Þórs-dagr, Holy Thursday, Fms. ix.

heilan, f. healing, Fms. v. 217.

heil-brigði, f. [bragð], health, freq. in mod. usage.

heil-brigðr, adj. hale, healthy, Fas. iii. 319, 644, freq. in mod. usage.

heil-brjóstaðr, adj. ‘hale-breasted,’ sincere, Fas. i. 23.

heild, f. wholeness, totality, (mod.)

heil-eygr, adj. ‘hale-eyed,’ Nj. 165, Grág. 1. 433, Fms. v. 143, Bs. i. 376.

heil-fættr, adj. ‘hale-legged,’ sound, Grett. 83.

heil-hjartaðr, adj. ‘hale-hearted,’ sincere, Sks. 90, v. 1.

heil-hugaðr, adj. ‘hale-minded,’ sincere, Sks. 90, Fagrsk. 14.

heil-hugi, a, m. sincerity; heilhuga ráð, Fms. vii. 319; heilhuga friðr, Orkn. 2. a. sincere person; þetta líkaði Magnúsi jarli sem fullkomnum heilhuga, Orkn. 162; þvíat hann er heilhugi, Fms. v. 32; nú skal af slíku marka hversu mikill h. hann var, Sks. 730.

heil-hugliga, adv. sincerely, Barl. 10, Str. 87.

HEILI, a, m. the brain, Gm. 40, Edda 6, Hkr. i. 42, Grág. it. 11, Nj. 114, Fbr. 137, passim. COMPDS: heila-brot, n. beating the brain, (mod.) heila-bú, n. the cerebellum, (mod.) heila-böst, n. pl., medic. the brain membrane; fyrir framan ok aptan h., denoting the forehead and occiput, N. G. L. i. 172; þá er maðr heilundi er kora (a probe) kennir inn til heilabasta, Grág. ii. 91. heila-köst, n. pl. = heilabrot.

heilindi, n. health, Hm. 67 (heilyndi), Hom. 149, 160, K. Þ. K., Grág. i. 278, ii. 134. COMPDS: heilindis-far, n. state of health, Mar. 125. heilindis-kveðja, u, f. a wishing one health, Stj. 482, Karl. 93, v. 1.; van-heilindi, bad health, illness.

heilindr, adj. wholesome; vötn hrein ok heilend, Stj. 609; værir þú heilendr sem Moyses, Eluc. 49.

heili-vágr, m. healing liquor, balm, Trist.

HEILL, n. and f. [Dan. held], good luck; the gender of this word varies.

A. Neut., which seems to be the older gender, an omen, auspice, foreboding; hver’ro bözt heill (pl.), which are the best auspices? the answer, mörg eru góð heill, there are many good auspices, Skv. 2. 19, 20, cp. 22; giptusamlegt heill, a favourable omen, Al. 13; the neut., which is obsolete elsewhere, has remained in the phrases, góðu heilli (bono augurio), íllu heilli (malo augurio), in a good, evil hour; íllu heilli bauð ek þér barnfóstr, Ísl. ii. 141; íllu heilli vartú skapað, Hom. 153; íllu heilli höfu vér hér dvalizt, Nj. 241; fórtú fá heilli heiman, with small luck, Ó. H. 107; verstu heilli, Heir. 4; góðu heilli, in a good hour, Fms. ix. 236, x. 18 (in a verse): talismans, of hidden magical runes written on ‘gumna heillum’ (on talismans?), Sdm. 16.

B. Fem. good luck, happiness: 1. plur., with the notion of being the gift of auspices or of an oracle, esp. in pl., so that the gender is dubious; fékk Ingólfr at blóti miklu ok leitaði sér heilla um forlög sín, Landn. 33; skal Þórólfr blóta ok leita heilla þeim bræðrum, Eg. 257; hefir þessi flokkr leitað sér heilla at tilvísan fjölkunnigra manna, at þeir skyldi um nætr berjask, Fms. vii. 296; Hallsteinn skaut setstokkum fyrir borð í hafi til heilla sér eptir fornum sið, Fs. 123, Landn. 34; þá skaut Steinþórr spjóti at fornum sið til heilla sér yfir flokk Snorra, Eb. 228 (an old heathen rite); þótti þat líkast til langlífis ok heilla, 126 new Ed.; ok var brugðit heillum sverðsins, the spell of the sword was broken, Korm. 84; áttú, Sigmundr, af þeim hring heillir at taka, Fær. 103. 2. esp. (also in pl.) with the personal notion of a good spirit or angel, cp. hamingja; eigi veit ek hvárt vit eigum heill saman, i. e. if we shall have luck together, of two persons having one life and one heart, Nj. 3; þótti stór heill til hans horfit hafa, Fs. 194; Leifr kvað hann enn mundu mestri heill stýra af þeim frændum, Fb. i. 538; hann bað þeim heill duga, he wished them good speed, Gullþ. 14; fær þú braut bú þitt ok vestr yfir Lagarfljót, þar er heill þín öll, Hrafn. 1; heillum horfinn, forsaken by luck, Grett. 150. 3. sayings, íllt er fyrir heill at hrapa, ’tis ill to rush on and leave one’s good luck behind, Skv. 2. 25; hátíðir eru til heilla beztar (mod. hátíð er til heilla bezt), denoting that high feasts ought to be chosen for momentous affairs, Ld. 176 (of one being christened at Yule time); fall er farar-heill, a fall is a good omen (in departing), Fms. vi. 414: the phrase, vera e-m lítil heilla-þúfa, to be a stumbling-block to one, the metaphor prob. taken from the popular lore as to mounds with hidden hoards, ek heft orðit lítil heilla þúfa um at þreifa flestum mönnum, Grett. 143. 4. in mod. usage as a term of endearment, heillin, heillin mín, dear! my dear! the address of a husband to his wife; the bride asks, hverjum ætlarðú at bjóða í veizluna okkar, hjartað mitt? the bridegroom answers, eg veil það nú ekki, heillin mín! Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 243; getrþu ekki gefið manninum hressingu, heillin? Hrólfr. 8; hann (our son) er svo kargr, heillin mín! hann nennir ekki neitt að gera, látum við strákinn stúdiera, Grönd. 72; cp. Bb. 3. 21—hún (the wife) kyssir og með klappi segir, komdú blessaðr, heillin mín!—heillin góð! is in many Icel. houses the address of the servants to the mistress: æ! hvernig getið þér nú farið að tala, heillin góð? Piltr og Stúlka, 36; sælir og blessaðir, Auðun minn! sælar og blessaðar, heillin góð! Hrólfr. 6. COMPDS: heilla-brigði, n. pl. a turn of luck, Fs. 151. heilla-drjúgr, adj. fortunate, Grett. 150. heilla-lauss, adj. luckless. heilla-leysi, n. ill luck, Nj. 206. heilla-maðr, m. a lucky man. heilla-ráð, n. good advice or a lucky deed, Sks. 670, Fms. ii. 208. heilla-vænligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hopeful, promising, Grett. 93 A. heilla-vænn, adj. promising, Fms. xi. 235: mann-heill, orð-heill, q. v.

HEILL, adj. [Ulf. hails = ὑγιής, ὑγιαίνων, χαιρε, etc.; A. S. hâl; Engl. hail and hale are of Scandinavian origin, whole of Saxon; O. H. G. heil; lost in mod. Germ.; Dan. heel; Swed. hel]:—whole: I. hale, sound; ílla heill, in ill health, Hm. 68; heilir hildar til, heilir hildi frá, fara þeir heilir hvaðan, hale, unscathed, 157; heilar hendr, Gkv. 3. 10; heilar sjónir, hale eyes, Lex. Poët.; spurði Þorsteinn hvernig þar væri heilt, hann sagði at þar var vel heilt, Th. asked how they were in health, and he said that they were well, Eg. 743; heilir, opp. to sárir, Am. 56; heilan (unbroken), Hvm. 29; heill hjálmstofn, hale skull, 31; hvergi var heilt hold á líkam hans, 623. 44; græða at heilu, to cure so as to be hale and well, 655 xi. 3; Önundr var svá frækinn maðr at fáir stóðusk honum þótt heilir væri, that few men were a match for him, though they were hale and sound, Grett. 87; sjórinn var hvergi heill, the sea was nowhere hale, i. e. the waves rose high, Vígl. 22; silki-ræma heil ok ú-sökuð, Fms. iv. 110. 2. healed, of wounds, illness, in gen. pl.; verða heill sára sínna, Eg. 35; Helga dóttir bónda var þá á fouun ok heil meina sinna, 586; ok var þó eigi heill sársins, Fbr. 164. 3. phrases, gróa um heilt (see gróa), Fms. xi. 87; binda um heilt, to bind up a hale limb; er um heilt bezt at binda, ‘tis better to bind a hale than a hurt limb, Ld. 206; betra heilt en gróið, better hale than healed; með heilu ok höldnu, safe and sound, Fms. x. 376; þar skal hverr heill verða sem haltr varð, he that was halt must be made hale, a law phrase, he that has a blemish upon him must clear himself of it, N. G. L. i. 326: cp. the phrase, svelta heill hungri (mod. svelta heilu hungri), to starve, Ls. 62: a guest is asked, hvað er í fréttum, what news? to which the reply is, mannheilt og ósjúkt, all hale and ‘unsick,’ i. e. all well! eigi heil, not hale, i. e. enceinte, þú ert kona eigi heil, Fas. i. 52; húsfreyja þín er eigi heil, ok mun hón fæða meybarn, Ísl. ii. 196; Freydís vildi fylgja þeim ok varð heldr sein, því at hón var eigi heil, Þorf. Karl. 428. 4. answering to Gr. χαιρε, in exclamation; njótið heilir handa, ‘bless your hands!’ well done! Nj. 71; mæl drengja heilastr, well spoken, Fms. viii. 97; báðu hann tala konunga heilstan (i. e. cheered him), vi. 240; mæltu, at hann skyldi mæla allra höfðingja heilastr, viii. 290. β. in greeting, Vþm. 4, 6, Sdm. 3, 4; kom heill, welcome! hail! Blas. 42; far heill, farewell! Fms. vii. 197; heill, Magnús frændi! 171; sít heill, sit hail! Glúm. 391, Fms. x. 201; heill svá! Stj. 621; heilir svá! 475; heilar svá! 124, Karl. 507; ek svá heill, by my soul! forsooth! Fms. v. 230; svá vil ek heil! Grett. 170 new Ed.; bað þá heila fara ok heila hittask, Fms. iv. 171. 5. whole, entire, Lat. integer; sjau hundruð heil, full seven hundred, Íb. 16; heil vika, 7, K. Þ. K. 102; heil dægr (opp. to half), Rb. 16; heil alin, N. G. L.; heilt ár, Bs. ii. 152. II. metaph. true, upright; allit., heilt ráð ok heimilt, a hale and good bargain, without fraud or flaw, Grág. i. 317; með heilum fortölum, Dipl. i. 3; ráða e-m heilt, to give wholesome (good, wise) advice to one, Nj. 31, (heilræði); með heilum hug, sincerely, cp. Hm. 106; heilum sáttum, Háv. 50 new Ed., Al. 60. β. safe; prestinum þótti eigi heilt at setja hann annat sinn undir sama váða, Fms. x. 417.

heilla, að, [heill, f.; cp. Dan. hilde = to allure], to bewitch, enchant, spell-bind one; Ketill kvað þær heillaðar, Fms. vi. 110; síðr þik (?) um heilli halir, Hm. 130; ok muntú vera heilluð af úvætti þessum, Fas. iii. 177; heilluð ertu (thou art infatuated) ef þú ætlar minn hug grimman við þik, i. 194; sprota er hann heillar með augu þeirra manna er hann vill, Od. v. 47.

heilleikr (-leiki), m. health, Fms. ii. 230: uprightness, Fas. iii. 160, Karl. 213.

heilliga, adv. fairly, candidly, Sturl. ii. 67, Bs. i. 736.

heilligr, adj. looking hale, whole.

heil-mikill, adj. considerably great.

heil-næmi, f. wholesomeness.

heil-næmiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), wholesome, Hkr. i. 269.

heil-næmr, adj. wholesome, Fas. i. 411.

heiló, f., qs. heið-ló, [heidelo, Ivar Aasen], a sandpiper.

heil-ráðr, adj. giving wholesome counsel, Nj. 30, Fms. ix. 262, Grett. 110.

heil-ráðugr, adj. = heilráðr, Hom. 109.

heil-ræði, n. wholesome, wise counsel; ráð þú mér h. nokkur, segir Gunnarr, Nj. 85 (Gunnar to Njal); Gunnarr mælti til Njáls, heilræði em ek kominn at sækja at þér um eitt vanda-mál,—Makligr ertú þeirra, segir Njáll, ok réð honum ráðin, 71, Landn. 117, Sks. 548, Fb. ii. 52.

heilsa, u, f. [Dan. helsen; Swed. helsa], health, Fms. vii. 241, x. 215, Sks. 620. Al. 24, Hom. 10, Bs. i. 337; sterk, góð h., strong, good health; veyk, lin, tæp h., poor, weak health, passim. COMPDS: heilsu-bót, f. health-bettering, healing, Hkr. ii. 386; til heilsubótar, Magn. 414, Bs. heilsu-bragð, n. a cure, ek skal sýna þér öruggt h., Fb. i. 439. heilsu-drykkr, m. a potion, draught, Al. 24, 656 B. 12. heilsu-far, n. state of health, Grett. 153. heilsu-gjafari, a, m. a healer, eccl. heilsu-gjöf, f. a ‘gift of health,’ cure, Fas. iii. 277, Magn. 532: eccl. salvation, Stj. 141. heilsu-góðr, adj. in good health. heilsu-gæði, n. strong health. heilsu-lauss, adj. ‘health-less,’ in bad health. heilsu-leysi, n. bad health. Mar. heilsu-linr, adj. = heilsulítill. heilsu-lítill, adj. in weak health, Sturl. iii. 34. heilsu-orð, n. a word of salvation, (MS.) 656 and 555 heilsu-ráð, n. counsel whereby to recover health, Fms. ii. 229. heilsu-samligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), wholesome, salutary, Bs. heilsu-samr, adj. wholesome, Sks. 96. heilsu-sterkr, adj. strong in health. heilsu-tapan, f. perdition, eccl., K. Á. 76. heilsu-tæpr, adj. in poor health. heilsu-veiki, f. weak health. heilsu-veykr, adj. having weak health.

heilsa, að, [Dan. hilse], to say hail to one, greet one, with dat.; it was an ancient custom for the host to welcome (heilsa) the stranger, as may be seen from the following references:—Osvífr (the guest) kvaddi út Höskuld ok Rút (the master of the house), þeir gengu út báðir ok heilsuðu Osvífi, Nj. 21; hann (the master) gengr út ok heilsar Gísla (dat. the stranger), Gísl. 83; kona ein gékk til hurðar ok heilsar þeim ok spyrr þá at nafni, Fbr. 44 new Ed.; Þorsteinn gékk þegar til búðar Þorkels, en hann (Thorkel) heilsar honum vel ok spyrr hvat hann árnar, Lv. 33; Ólafr gengr inn á gólfit … en enginn heilsar honum ok þögðu allir, Háv. 39; in case the host was a great personage (a king, earl, or the like), the stranger used in token of honour or homage to walk up to him and greet him, ‘sit hail!’ ok er hann kom inn, heilsaði hann konungi, konungr tók kveðju hans, Eg. 63; jarlinn (the guest) gékk fyrir hann (the host in his high-seat) ok heilsaði honum, Ó. H. 66; Haukr heilsaði konungi, Fb. i. 47: h. á en, id.; Ásgrímr (the guest) gékk at honum ok heilsaði á hann, Nj. 182, Fms. i. 16; ok er hann kemr á fund Knúts konungs, gékk hann fyrir hann ok heilsar upp á konunginn, konungr tók ekki kveðju hans, xi. 264. In mod. usage a coming guest is said ‘heilsa,’ a parting guest ‘kveðja,’ q. v.

heil-samligr, adj. wholesome, salutary, Stj. 69, K. Á. 20, Fms. i. 141.

heil-samr, adj. salutary, Sks. 96, Skálda 210.

heilsan, f. [Dan. hilsen], greeting, salutation, Fb. iii. 309, Fbr. 62, Hkr. iii. 79, Bs. i. 755. COMPDS: heilsanar-kveðja, u, f. greeting, Stj. 482. heilsanar-orð, n. id., Bs. i. 707.

heil-smiðliga, adv. uprightly, Bs. i. 522.

heil-spen and heil-spenuð, f. adj. ‘hale-teated,’ of a cow, Gþl. 503.

heil-und, f. a law term, a brain wound, Grág. ii. 11, passim. heilundar-sár, n. = heilund, Nj. 217.

heilundi, a, m. one with a brain wound, Grág. ii. 91.

heil-vita, adj. indecl. ‘hale-witted,’ sane, Greg. 45, Bs. i. 755, N. G. L. i. 145.

HEIM, adv. (prop. an acc. of heimr), home, homewards, Lat. domum, Nj. 4, 11, Fms. i. 51, Hrafn. 20; fara heim, to return home, Bs. i. 337; síðan fóru þau heim á leið, id.; en er hón var komin náliga heim, 341, and in endless phrases. 2. in phrases as, bjóða e-m heim, to bid one to a feast, heimboð; sækja e-n heim, to visit, attack one, in a hostile sense, passim: bæta heim fyrir sér, to make for one’s soul’s weal, Fms. iv. 63.

HEIMA, adv. I. neut. [Engl. home; Germ. heimath; Dan. hjem and hjemme]:—home, = heimili; en er kaupmenn drifu af skipi hverr til síns heima, Fms. vi. 109; skulu hvárigir öðrum þar íllt gera at heima mínu, Nj. 256; urðu þeir at ganga langa leið til síns heima, Bs. i. 47, Korm. 222, Stj. 393; til þíns heima, 484; ef eigi kemr tröll milli húss ok heima, Fms. viii. 41. 2. the phrase, eiga heima, to have a home, live; Hallfreðr átti heima at Haukagili, Fms. ii. 9; þeim megin árinnar sem hann átti h., Bs. i, Hkv. 2. 4, and passim. II. at home; var Rútr h. at Rútsstöðum til sex vikna, Nj. 10; heima hafðir þú vit þitt, er þú sagðir mér til, Hrafn. 8; fátt var manna heima, Landn. 152; heima glaðr, cheerful, gladsome at home, Hm. 102; h. í görðum goða, Vþm. 2, passim: sayings, dælt er h. hvat, Hm. 5; halr er h. hverr, 35. β. phrases, standa h., to square, be all right, of a measure or the like: the phrase, sitja heima sem mær til kosta (heima-sæta), to stay at home as a maid, Sams. S.; þat þykkjumk ek vita, at eigi munum vit allan aldr okkar úgiptar heima sitja, Sturl. i. 206.

B. COMPDS: heima-alinn, part. home-bred. heima-alningr, m. one home-fed. heima-ból, n. a homestead, mansion, Fms. ii. 90. heima-bóndi, a, m. a franklin or yeoman in a heimaból, H. E. ii. 114. heima-brunnr, m. a home well, Glúm. 390, Sturl. i. 191. heima-bær, m. the home-buildings, homestead, opp. to outlying storehouses and byres, Ann. 1319. heima-dyrr, n. pl. the ‘home-doors,’ the entrance to dwelling-bouses, Fær. 264, Grett. 121 A, Fs. 42 (= mod. bæjardyr). heima-dýr, n. domestic animals, Barl. heima-elskr, adj. ‘home-loving,’ a laggard, afraid to go out in the world, Fs. 4. heima-fastr, adj. having a fixed home, H. E. ii. 85. heima-fólk, n. home folk, Fms. ii. 160, Grett. 140. heima-friðr, m. home-peace, Js. 95. heima-griðungr, m. (heima-naut, n.), a bull kept at home, Vápn. 46, Sturl. i. 78. heima-hagar, m. home-pastures. heima-hestr, m. a ‘home-horse,’ stallion, opp. to úti gangs-hestr, a working horse, Hm. 82. heima-hús, n. pl. dwelling-houses, opp. to out-buildings, Fær. 264. heima-jörð, f. = heimaból, Pm. 53. heima-kominn, part., in the phrase, göra sik h., to make oneself as at home. heima-kona, u, f. = griðkona, a house-maid, Sturl. i. 73, iii. 193, Njarð. 370: medic. erysipelas, cp. farkonu-sótt. heima-land, n. home-land, the home estate, Fms. ii. 90, Bs. i. 287, 841, D. I. i. 240, Vm. passim; an estate on which a church is built. heima-lið, n. = heimafólk, Sturl. i. 196. heima-maðr, m. = griðmaðr, a ‘home-man,’ dweller, servant, Eg. 52, 60, 165, Sturl. i. 72, Nj. 11, Stj. 482, Vm. 23. heima-prestr, m. a resident priest, the parson, Fms. iv. 265, Bs. i. 652, Jm. 24. heima-ríkr, adj. tyrannical at home, Bjarn. (in a verse), heima-seta, u, f. sitting at home, Grág. i. 41. heima-sveit, f. = heimafólk, Sturl. ii. 53. heima-sæta, u, f. a maid ‘sitting at home,’ unmarried. heima-taða, u, f. the hay from the home-field, Finnb. 340. heima-tíund, f. ‘home-tithe,’ i. e. the tithe of the estate on which a church is built, to be paid to the lay landlord, Vm. 19, Am. 90, D. N. heima-vist, f. staying at home, Bs. i.

heima, d and að, to take one in, in the allit. phrase, hýsa ok heima e-n, ef maðr hýsir ok heimir útlagan mann, Gþl. 144; hafa hýst þá ok heimat, N. G. L. i. 123, (rare.)

heim-alinn, part. = heima-alinn.

heim-alningr, m. = heima-alningr.

heiman, adv. from home, Hbl. 2, Nj. 11, 142, passim; cp. héðan, handan, þaðan. β. in the phrase, henni fylgdi heiman Breiðabólstaðr, the estate B. went with her from home, i. e. was her dowry, Landn. 61, 177; gefa heiman, to give from home, i. e. give in marriage, D. N. i. 723; göra heiman, to endow; ek görða þik heiman í þá ferð sem dóttur mína, Fms. vii. 121, Band. 31 new Ed., passim.

heiman-búnaðr, m. preparation for a journey from home, Stj. 366.

heiman-ferð (heiman-för), f. a going from home, Nj. 195, Eg. 10, Jb. 388: = heimanfylgja, Stj. 175, N. G. L. i. 233.

heiman-fylgð, f. = heimanfylgja, N. G. L. i. 233.

heiman-fylgja, u, f. the dowry which a bride brings with her from home, opp. to mundr, Grág. i. 174. 313, Nj. 11, Sturl. iii. 179, Korm. 134, Stj. 570, N. G. L. i. 232, Gísl. 16, Ísl. ii. 9, 378, passim. 2. metaph. of a son, Dipl. iv. 5; but mostly of a church, cp. Engl. endowment, the church being regarded as the bride of Christ; h. kirkjunnar, Bs. i. 287, K. Á. 24. ☞ Fylgja is here prop. akin and another form of the word fúlga, q. v., and heiman-fylgja, qs. heiman-fúlga.

heiman-för, f. = heimanferð, Grág. i. 147, Eg. 23.

heiman-förull, adj. strolling from home, Fas. i. 525.

heiman-gengt, n. adj. in the phrase, eiga ekki h., to be bound to stay at home.

heiman-gjöf, f. = heimanfylgja, Jb. 118.

heiman-görð, f. an endowing, endowment, Grág. i. 336, D. N. passim.

heiman-kvöð, f. a summoning of neighbours, Grág. i. 130.

heim-boð, n. a ‘home-bidding,’ invitation, a feast, Nj. 51, Fms. i. 54, Eg. 66, Orkn. 320: a law phrase, reclamation, N. G. L. i. 41, Gþl. 406, Grág. i. 381, passim.

heim-böllr, m., Lat. orbis terrarum, the globe, world, Eluc. 19.

Heim-dalr, m., with single l, not Heimdallr, as shewn from the gen. -dalar, not -dalls; a later form used in the Rímur was Heimdæl-l, Þrymlur 1. 8:—the god Heimdal, Edda, whence the poem Heimdalar-galdr, m. id. The etymology has not been made out: Heimdal was the heavenly watchman in the old mythology, answering to St. Peter in the medieval legends; respecting him vide Edda 17 (Sksm.) and passim, Gm. 13: he was also regarded as the father and founder of the different classes of mankind, see Rm. and Vsp. 1,—meiri ok minni mögu Heimdalar, the higher and lower sons of H., i. e. all men. II. a ram in Edda (Gl.) is called heimdali.

heim-dragi, a, m. a ‘home-dragger,’ laggard, Fms. vii. 121, Fs. 177 (in a verse), Art. 89, Konr. 10, Lex. Poët.

heim-ferð, f. a going home, Eg. 66, Fms. iv. 269, ix. 474, Jb. 8: an inroad into one’s home = atför, heimsókn, Ld. 262, Eg. 73, Fms. viii. 9, xi. 239. COMPDS: heimferðar-dagr, m. the day for returning home, Magn. 512. heimferðar-leyfi, n. ‘home-leave,’ Fms. ix. 318.

heim-friðr, m. a law term, home-peace, home security, D. N. i. 215, 245.

heim-fúss, adj. longing for home, Fms. vii. 48, vi. 238, Sturl. i. 84, Fb. ii. 360.

heim-fýsi, f. a longing for one’s home.

heim-för, f. a going home, return home, Fms. vii. 48, xi. 60, Hkv. 2. 34: an inroad, Eg. 12, v. l. COMPDS: heimfarar-leyfi, n. ‘home-leave,’ leave to go home, Eg. 31, Fms. viii. 395, Orkn. 284. heimfara-þing, n. a law term, a meeting to settle terms in case of distress for payment of debt; cp. the mod. phrase, undir atför at lögum, D. N. v. 424 (Fr.)

heim-ganga, u, f. a going home, Sturl. i. 43.

heim-gás, f. a home goose, a tame goose, Grett. 90, Korm. 206, Edda (Gl.)

heim-hagi, a, m. [cp. átt-hagi, Dan. hjem-stavn], a home-field, D. N. i. 581; in Hm. 156 we propose to read heimhaga for heimhuga.

heim-hamr, m. ‘home-skin,’ one’s own skin, Hm. 156; vide hamr.

heimila, d and að, to give a title to a thing; þá hefir maðr heimild til ef maðr heimilar honum er forráð á aura sinna, Grág. ii. 191; hvárt sá maðr heimildi honum landit eðr eigi, 209; ef maðr selr manni eðr gefr þat er hann veit at þjófstolit er, ok villir hann heimild at, þó at hann vissi eigi þá er honum var heimildr, ok varðar skóggang, 190; hvar sem þeir kæmi við, heimilaði jarl þeim þat er þyrfti at hafa, Nj. 122; ábúð heimilar tekju, en landskyld heimilar lóð, N. G. L., Gþl. 329.

heimild (heimold, Stj. 134), f. [Dan. hjemmel = authority; undoubtedly derived from Goth. haimoþli, by which Ulf. renders ἀγρός, Mark x. 29, 30, and thus nearly akin to heimili and heimoll; in Icel. only used in law phrases]:—a title, right, jus possessionis; hann seldi síðan þann sama graptar-reit ok heimoldir, Stj. 134; stefna til heimildar, to summon one for h., Grág. ii. 205; villa heimild at e-u, to give out a false account of one’s title to a thing, of stolen things, 190; nú ferr maðr á jörð manns ok tekr eigi heimild af þeim er á, N. G. L. i. 39; þau ríki er konungr hafði þá heimildum á tekit, to which the king had got the title, Fms. x. 45; heimild skal hverr maðr taka af sínum dróttni verka-sveins síns, Anal. 278; en veit ek at hann hefir eigi réttar heimildir á skóginum, Eb. 170. COMPDS: heimildar-kviðr, m. a verdict of neighbours as to right of possession, Grág. heimildar-maðr, m. a man from whom a title is derived, Grág. ii. 205, Gpl. 537. heimildar-tak, n. a taking possession, title; honum þótti eigi at lögum hafa farit heimildartak á skóginum, i. e. he thought it was a bad, unlawful bargain, Eb. 178, N. G. L. i. 324. heimildar-taka, u, f. id., Gþl. 493, 537. heimildar-taki, a, m. = heimildarmaðr, N. G. L. i. 324, Jb. 356. heimildar-váttr, m. a witness in case of disputed title, Grág. ii. 319. heimilda-vandr, adj. fastidious in regard to title, Sturl. ii. 146. II. in mod. usage gener. authority; það er engin heimild fyrir því, there is no authority for it. heimildar-laust, n. adj. without authority.

HEIMILI, n.; for an older form heimi see the compds with heimis-; [originally a compd from heima, home, and óðal, heimiðli, as seen from Ulf. haimoþli = ἀγρός, Mark x. 29, 30]:—a house, homestead, domicile, Eg. 535, Fms. vi. 358, xi. 18, Grág. i. 99, 146, Hkr. i. 184, Nj., passim in old and mod. usage. COMPDS: heimilis-bragr, m. home-life. heimilis-búi, a, m. a law term, a homestead neighbour summoned from the same house, Grág. i. 26, 191. heimilis-fang, n. a law term, a domicile, Grág. i. 19, 146, 147, Nj. heimilis-fastr, adj. having a fixed homestead, Grág. i. 52, ii. 45, Vm. 97, D. I. i. 277, 303. heimilis-fólk, n. folk of the same homestead. heimilis-hús, n. a closet, Stj. 151, 199, Am. 37: a privy, Fb. i. 416, ii. 87, Fs. 183. heimilis-kviðr, m. a verdict given by heimilisbúar; also called heimiskviðr, q. v.: heimiliskviðar-vitni, n. the evidence of h., N. G. L. i. 140, 160, 316. heimilis-maðr, m. an inmate, Grág. i. 145, Fas. i. 380. heimilis-njóli, a, m., a botan. term, rumex acutus, Hjalt. heimilis-prestr, m. a chaplain, Vm. 15, D. I. passim. heimilis-sök, f. a law phrase, a ‘home-charge,’ a charge that can be brought home to one, Valla L. 226. heimilis-tíðir, f. pl. home-service, Am. 37. heimilis-vist, f. a domicile, Hkr. iii. 364, Stj. 94.

heimill, vide heimoll.

heimis-búi, a, m. = heimilisbúi, Grág. i. 191.

heimis-garðar, m. pl. ‘home-yards,’ a homestead, Hm. 8.

heimis-haugr, m. a ‘home-how,’ Hbl. 45 (Bugge’s Emend.); vide haugr.

heimis-kviðr, m. = heimiliskviðr, defined in N. G. L. ii. 505 sqq.: a home-verdict, report made by one’s mates and fellows; in the saying, hættr er h. nema sér góðan geti, Sdm. 25; eigi skal heimiskvið annan at henda eðr ílltyngdir, no notice is to be taken of house-talk or evil tongues, Grág. i. 361.

heim-kváma (heim-koma), u, f. return home, Fms. i. 290, Sturl. i. 213: the phrase, missa heimkvámu, to miss one’s return, be slain in foreign parts, answering to ἀπολέσαι νόστιμον ημαρ, Od.; misti þar margr maðr heimkvámu, Fas. i. 385, (Skjöld. S., which is a paraphrase from an old lost poem); at margr missi heimkvámu í þeima styr, Sighvat, Hkr. iii. 40 (in a verse). heimkvámu-dagr, m. the day of coming home, νόστιμον ημαρ, Lex. Poët.

heim-kynni, n. a home, household, Ísl. ii. 392, Magn. 484, Hkr. ii. 273.

heim-leið, f. ‘home-way,’ going homewards, Mart. 129, Hom. (St.)

heim-leiðis, adv. homewards, Eg. 589, Fms. iv. 278, xi. 55, Fs. 57, Ld. 48, passim.

heim-lenzkr, adj. native, Sks. 375.

heim-leyfi, n. = heimfararleyfi, Fms. vi. 445, vii. 182, xi. 248, Hkr. ii. 261.

heim-ligr, adj. worldly, Magn. 466, Stj. 546, Bs. i. 97.

heim-nár, m. a law term, ‘home-corpse,’ thus defined, sá maðr heitir h. er dreginn er til stokks eða til stumns (= stofns) ok höggnar af bæði hendr ok fætr, en um þat verk verða þrír menn útlagir nema hann vili færum kenna, N. G. L. ii. 506; cp. gálgnár etc.

heimoll, adj., so spelt in Nj. 220, Eg. 163, 199, Fms. vi. 161, 185, Fs. 154, etc.; heimholt (wrongly), Sks. 60 new Ed.; heimull, Fms. vi. 207, vii. 160; later and usually heimill; [cp. Goth. haimoþli and Icel. heimili]:—prop. ‘household,’ homely, domestic, of a thing or property, cp. Germ. ‘heimisch, einheimisch;’ hann lét öngu tortýna þar nema kvikfé heimilu (home cattle); but this sense is rare and obsolete. II. metaph. as a law term, property in one’s full possession, at one’s free disposal; heimöl jörð, appropriated land, Fms. vi. 161 (in a verse); þér varð jörð heimöl, 185 (in a verse):—in the phrase, vera e-m heimill; enda er eigi mundrinn heimill, sá er hann handsalar hinn heimski maðr, i. e. it is not a good, lawful bargain, it is not valid, Grág. i. 177; en hann hirdir aldri, at hverjum hann keypti, ef honum var heimilt selt, Ó. H. 114; því eru borð sett at heimoll er matr þeim er hafa þurfu, the meat is at the free disposal of those who wish to have it, Nj. 220; ok vera öllum matr heimill (heimöll, Hb.), Landn. 193; kvað honum heimilan skyldu sinn styrk nær sem hann þyrfti, his help should be at his disposal whensoever he stood in need of it, Orkn. 86; en heimil munu þar til vár orð, Lv. 36; heimult skal Þórði at vera með mér, Fms. vi. 207; skal þér ok heimilt vera, at hafa fé mitt til styrks þér, Ó. H. 33; þat er heimilt þeim er fara vilja með mér, Fs. 23; nú er þat heimilt at þú sér hér af þú vilt þat, Fbr. 37 new Ed.; segir at þat var skylt ok heimilt, due and just, Ó. H. 156; segir svá, at þat var skylt ok heimolt at hann görði slíkan forbeina sem þurfti, Eg. 163; allt mitt góz er þér heimolt, Fs. 154; allt mitt skal yðr jafnheimolt sem mér, 182; Þórir segir, at þat var heimolt þó at Þórólfr vildi fleiri menn hafa með sér þangat, 199: in a bad sense, at honum sé heimill hæðilegr dauði, i. e. it serves him right, Sks. 280: eiga heimilt, to have a right to, to have at one’s disposal, etc.; mik áttú heimilan til fylgda við þik ok ráða-görðar, Fms. xi. 29; en heimilt á Glúmr at lofa þat, Nj. 23; þvíat konungr á heimult at drepa mik, Fms. vii. 160; hans menn trúðu því at hann ætti heimilan sigr í hverri orrostu, Hkr. i. 6; heimilt á biskup at taka tíund fvrir kirkjum, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 214; nú á ek hér nokkuru heimilla (compar.) at veita nokkura fríon, Ó. H. 205; þat muntú eiga allra heimilast (superl.) at veita öðrum þitt en ekki mitt, Ísl. ii. 137; láta, göra e-m heimilt, to allow, give a right to another; lét Þorvaldr honum heimilan hest sinn, Th. made him free of his horse, placed it at his disposal, Gísl. 20; ok lét honum heimilan sinn vinskap, Fms. v. 183; hann görði sér allar konur jafnheimilar, i. 207. III. cp. Germ. heimlich = private, secret, only in the following derivatives.

heimolleikr (heimull-), mod. heimugleikr (-leiki), m. privacy, intimacy; kærleiki með h., Bs. i. 809; h. ok vinátta, Fms. v. 176 (v. l.), Bs. (Laur. S. passim), Mar. 2. mod. secrecy; þeir töluðu milli sín margan heimuleik, Bs. ii. 54.

heimolliga (heimull-), mod. heimugliga, adv. duly, with full title to possession; hvert er þat land er ek má fá Haraldi heimolliga, ef ek hefi úskert Dana-veldi? Fms. i. 85, cp. Hkr. (l. c.) 197; at þér mættuð byggja h. ok einsliga í þessari laudsins hálfu, Stj. 223. 2. privately, Fb. i. 83, Bs. ii. 28. β. mod. secretly, Fms. xi. 443 (MS. of the 15th century).

heimolligr, mod. heimugligr, adj. intimate, Bs. i. 801 (Laur. S. passim); kærastr ok heimolligastr, Mar. 2. private; h. hús ok herbergi, a private closet, Stj. 105; hans h. fólk, his household folk, id.; h. klerkr, a private clerk or chaplain, Fms. xi. 443; h. vinr, Fas. ii. 490; h. hús, a privy, Grett. 98 A. β. mod. secret, Germ. heimlich.

HEIMR, m. [Ulf. heimos (fem. pl.) = κώμη; A. S. hâm; cp. Eng. home, and in local names -ham; O. H. G. haim; Germ. heim; Dan. hjem; Swed. hem]:—prop. an abode, village, and hence land, region, world: I. abode, land, 1. partly in a mythol. sense, each heimr being peopled with one kind of beings, gods, fairies, men, giants, etc.; níu man ek heima, I remember nine abodes, Vsp. 2, and also Alm. 9 sqq., Vþm. 45, refer to the mythol. conception of nine heavens, nine kinds of beings, and nine abodes, cp. Goð-heimr, God-land, Yngl. S., Stor.; Mann-heimar, Man-land, the abode of men, Yngl. S.; Jötun-heimar, Giant-land; Álf-heimr, Elf-land, Fairy-land; Nifl-heimr, Mist-land, the world below, Edda, Gm.; Undir-heimar, the nether world, Fms. iii. 178, Fas. iii. 391; Upp-heimr, the ‘Up-land,’ Ether, Alm. 13; cp. also Sól-heimar, ‘Sun-ham,’ Sunniside, freq. as a local name, Landn.; vind-h., ‘wind-ham,’ the heaven, Vsp. 62; sá heimr er Múspell heitir, Edda 3; heyrir blástr hans í alla heima, 17: the phrase, spyrja einn í alla heima, to ask one freely; er slíkt harla úhöfðinglegt at spyrja úkunna menn í hvern heim, Fb. i. 211. 2. the region of the earth or sky; Austr-heimr, the East; Norðr-h., the North; Suðr-h., the South; Vestr-h., the West; Jórsala-heimr, Palestine: poët., dvalar-heimr, a dwelling-place, Sól. 35; ægis-h., 33; alda-h., the abode of men, 41; heimar goða, the abode of gods, Hkm. 13; munar-h., a place of bliss, Hkv. Hjörv. 42; ljóð-h., the abode of men, Gg. 2; myrk-h., the mirky abode, Akv. 42; sólar-h., the sun’s abode, heaven, Geisli. 3. a village, in local names, Engl. -ham, Germ. -heim; but in mod. Dan., Norse, and Swed. local names contracted to -om or -um, so that in many instances it is doubtful whether it is from heim or a dat. pl. in um, thus Veom, Viom may be Véheimr or Véum; Sæ-heimr = mod. Norse Sæm; Há-heimr = Hæm; Fors-heimr = Forsum, Munch, Norge’s Beskr. Pref.: in Icel. not very freq., Sól-heimar, Man-heimar (cp. Safn i. 353 note), Vind-h.: the mythical Glaðs-h., ‘Bright-ham,’ Þrym-h., Þrúð-h., Gm. 4, 8, 11. II. this world, opp. to Hel or other worlds; fyrst fólkvíg í heimi, Vsp. 26; segðu mér ór heimi ek man ór Helju, Vtkv. 6, Hkv. Hjörv. 40, Skv. 3, 62, Vþm. 49, Am. 83, Stor. 19, Vsp. 46, Helr. 4; koma í heiminn, to be born, Fas. ii. 513; þessa heims, in this world, 623. 48, Gþl. 42, Hom. 48; opp. to annars heims, in the other world; þessa heims ok annars, Nj. 200, Sks. 354; kringla heimsins, the globe, orbis terrarum, Hkr. (init.); um allan heim, Grág. i. 169; heimr er bygðr, Ísl. ii. 381; spor þín liggja lengra út í heim en ek fæ séð, Orkn. 142; var heimrinn allr greindr í þriðjunga, Al. 117, Sks. 194, Rb. 134; al-heimr, the universe; minni-h., microcosmos, Eluc. 19. 2. phrases, liggja (vera) milli heims ok Heljar, to lie between life and death, in extreme illness, Fb. i. 260 (of a swoon); lá Þorsteinn þá milli heims ok heljar ok vætti sér þá ekki nema dauða, Fas. ii. 437; þá sigaði svá at honum, … ok lá náliga í milli heims ok heljar, Grett. 114; sýna e-m í tvo heimana, to make one look into two worlds, i. e. to treat a person roughly; cp. laust hann svá at hann vissi lítið í þenna heim, he struck him so that he nearly swooned, Karl. 35. 3. eccl. the world, mundus; heims ágirni, Hom. 73; stíga yfir heiminn, to overcome the world, 49, N. T. passim, e. g. John xvi. 8, 11, 20, 33; heims börn, the children of the world, Pass.; heims dýrð, the glory of the world, Post.; heims skraut, the pomp of the world, Hom. 83; hold ok heimr, the flesh and the world, N. T. 4. denoting people, only in the compd þing-heimr, an assembly, cp. Fr. monde. COMPDS: heims-aldr, m. aetas mundi, Stj. 25, Rb. 392, Fas. ii. 13. heims-álfa, u, f. a quarter of the world, Edda 151 (pref.) heims-brestr, m. crash of the world, Nj. 272. heims-bygð, f. the peopled world, Rb. 380, Stj., Hom. heims-endi, a, m. the world’s end, Stj. 68, 92: temp. the end of the world. heims-kringla, u, f. orbis terrarum, Sks. 606, Trist. 7: the name of the work of Snorri, given it by Thormod Torfæus (died 1719), from the first words in one of the vellum MSS., ‘Kringla heimsins,’ etc., whence Heimskringla; as the old name of the Aeneid was ‘Arma.’ This name was for the first time used in the Edit. of Peringsköld 1697. heims-skapan (-sköpun), f. creation, Stj. 279. heims-skaut, n. pl. the poles, Fs. ii. 97 (in a verse); the earth being conceived as a sheet stretched out (mod.), Norðr-h., the North pole; Suðr-h., the South pole. heims-slit, n. pl. the end of the world, Bs. i. 432, Stj. 124. heims-sól, f. the sun, Fms. vi. 422. heims-staða, u, f. aetas mundi, 625. 178, Rb. 82, 84, 88, Fb. i. (pref.), Bs. ii. 3. heims-stjórn, f. the ruling of the world, Mar. heims-stýrir, m. the ruler of the world, Lex. Poët. heims-vist, f. living, dwelling, 625. 93, Magn. 428, Fms. ii. 239: dwelling in a place, N. G. L. i. 391, Hom. 115. heims-þriðjungr, m. = heimsálfa (in the old sense), Hkr. i. 5.

heim-reið, f. a ‘home-raid,’ inroad, attack, Eg. 279.

heim-röst, f. a lane leading up to houses (Icel. traðir), Gþl. 414, 445.

heimska, u, f. folly, Am. 83, Fbr. 142, Fms. ii. 156, Ó. H. 109, Anal. 246, passim. COMPDS: heimsku-liga, adv. foolishly, Sks. 685. heimsku-ligr, adj. foolish, heimsku-tal, n. foolisb talk, heimsku-verk, n. a foolish deed, Karl. 20.

heimska, að, to mock one, 656 C. 35, H. E. i. 505 (impers.)

heimskingi, a, m. a fool, simpleton.

heimsk-liga (proncd. heimsliga, Fb. i. 259), adv. foolishly; láta h., to play silly pranks, behave like an idiot, Fms. iii. 179, vi. 217, Fas. i. 9, Fs. 32, 150; fara h., Boll. 352; hlaupa hart ok heimsliga, Fb. i. 259.

heimsk-ligr (proncd. heimsligr, 623. 19, Sturl. ii. 34 C, Fas. ii. 326), adj. foolish, silly, Sks. 73, 302, Fms. vi. 208; h. orð, foolish (foul) language, Sturl. ii. 34, passim; h. gaman, Fs. 71.

heimsk-máligr, adj. foolish-spoken, 686 B. 2.

heimsk-orðr, adj. = heimskmáligr, Pass. 13. 2.

HEIMSKR, adj. [heima], foolish, silly, prop. ‘homish,’ of one who has never been from home, as in the saying, heimskt er heimalit barn, homish (silly) is the home-bred bairn: heimskr, drill, is opp. to horskr, Hm. 93; h. maðr, 19; heimskir halir, fools, bad men, Sdm. 24: the saying, verðr opt heitum heimskr maðr feginn, fair words make a fool’s heart leap for joy, Þorst. St. 55; heimskir menn, Nj. 33: an idiot, Grág. i. 177; h. ok úráðvandr, Fs. 51; sá skal hýðing valda er heimskastr er á þingi, N. G. L. i. 349: nicknames, Ketill Heimski, Hrafn H., Hreiðarr H., Óttarr H., Landn., Hdl., Fms.; cp. Lat. Brutus.

heim-sókn, f. [cp. Scot. hamesucken], an inroad or attack on one’s home, Nj. 197, Fms. iii. 23, vii. 299. COMPDS: heimsóknar-vargr, m. one who makes an inroad, a burglar, N. G. L. i. 405. heimsóknar-vitni, n. a witness in a case of heimsókn, Gþl. 155. II. a visit, Sturl. i. 72.

heim-speki, f. philosophy, Col. ii. 8; and heim-spekingr, m. a philosopher, now freq. and prob. formed in the 16th century from the Germ. welt-weisheit; a poem Heimspekinga-skóli exists, written at the end of the 17th century.

heim-stefna, u, f. a law term, a citation served at one’s home, Gþl. 264. COMPDS: heimstefnu-váttr, m. a witness in a case of h., N. G. L. i. 217. heimstefnu-vitni, n. testimony in a case of h., Gþl. 475.

heim-stöð, f. a homestead, Vsp. 56.

heim-sækja, sótti, [Dan. hjemsöge], to visit, Lv. 108, Fms. v. 236, Valla L. 218, Glúm. 354, (better in two words.)

HEIMTA, t, [Swed. hämta; akin to heim, prop. to fetch home]:- to fetch: 1. to draw, pull; þá bauð jarl at h. þá at landi, to pull them ashore, 623. 35; taka hendi sinni í stúfinn tungunnar ok h. (to pull) hana, Fb. ii. 386; þá heimtir hann togit hart, Konr. 31 (MS.), 33; þá vildu þeir h. snöruna at hálsi honum, Mar.: metaph., heimti hann sik fram með fégjöfum við konunginn, he made his way with the king by money, Fms. xi. 325; Einarr kom á fund konungs, ok heimti sik fram með fégjöfum, Fb. iii. 445; h. sik í vináttu við e-n, to contract friendship with one, Fms. vi. 52; h. nyt af fé, to milk cattle, K. Þ. K. 78, Bs. i. 189: impers. (rare), þegar er saman heimtir með þeim, when they come up to one another, Al. 143; slíks var ván eigi lítil, at þik mundi þangat heimta (v. l. langa, Fs. 104), that thou shouldest be drawn thither, long to go thither, Fms. ii. 212. 2. to call on one; konungr heimti til sín Sigurð ullstreng, Fms. vii. 17; þá heimtu þeir konung á tal, they had an interview with the king, 273, Lv. 42; þá var Joseph heimtr ór myrkva-stofu, Ver. 17; þá skal hann h. til skipverja, ok segja þeim, Grág. i. 210. II. to claim, crave; mikit var heimt at þeim fyrir sakir föður þeirra, Sturl. ii. 127: to claim a due, debt, or the like, h. föður-arf, Ó. H. 32; móður-arf, Ld. 62; h. fé at e-m, Ísl. ii. 224; h. toll, Gullþ. 11; h. skiptoll. Fs. 153: hann mun ætla at h. erfð sína, Nj. 5; um eignir þær er Ólafr konungr heimti, Fms. i. 287; Rútr átti för í Vestfjörðu at heimta (to claim payment) fyrir varning sinn, Nj. 11; h. verð, fé, Fb. i. 434; skuld, skatt, mund, ii. 49, Fs. 153:—to crave, without the notion of getting, þá heimti hann setstokkana ok náði eigi, Landn. 104; gaf hann þá sök Sigurði, at hann hefði heimt fjárhlut konunganna, Fms. vii. 128; ok á hann þó at h. þingfarar-kaupit, Grág. i. 24; en nú var þar komit, at Steinn heimti þessi vilmæli at Ragnhildi, now St. called on R. to make good her promises, Ó. H. 144; ok mun heimt annat ef annat er veitt, Þorst. Síðu H. 172; þeir heimtu mund móður sinnar, en hann vildi eigi gjalda, Hkr. i. 21. 2. to get back, recover, regain, get in; nema þú þinn hamar þér um heimtir, Þkv. 18; also, h. aptr, 8, 11; h. e-n ór helju, Eg. 533, Grett. 83, Konr. 35. 3. esp. to bring home the sheep in autumn from the summer pastures; nú heimtir annarr-tveggi þeirra fleira en ván átti, … nú heimtir annarr betr en annarr, … hve mart hann hafði óheimt, i. e. how many sheep were still at large, not got in, Grág. i. 424, 425. III. reflex., þá er synir Haralds konungs heimtusk fram at aldri, advanced in years, Fb. i. 576; þá heimtusk Birkibeinar ór þys búandmanna, ok upp í eyna, Fms. viii. 68: h. saman, to gather together, join; heimtusk brátt skip hans saman, x. 396; ok heimtusk svá allir saman, joined to one another, viii. 357; vil ek at menn skiptisk í sveitir ok heimtisk saman frændr ok kunnmenn, Ó. H. 204: of sheep, láta skipta at jafnaði svá sem heimtz hefir til, Grág. i. 424. IV. part. heimtandi, a claimant, Grág. i. 495, K. Þ. K. 154.

heimta, u, f. a claim, demand, of payment due to one, or the like, Sturl. i. 113, Grág. ii. 379, K. Á. 84, Fb. i. 471, (fjár-heimta, arf-h.) 2. esp. in pl. (heimtur), a bringing home sheep from the summer pastures; þat var eitthvert sinn um haust at heimtur vóru íllar á fé manna, ok var Glúmi vant margra geldinga, Nj. 26; haust-heimtur, Band. 4; skaut mjök í tvau horn um heimtur Odds frá því er verit hafði, id.; ok er á leið haustið ferr hann á fjall, verða heimtur góðar, ok missir engis sauðar, 3; al-heimtur, gathering in all one’s sheep, cp. Glúm. ch. 7, Rd. 4, Eb. ch. 18, Nj. ch. 16; very freq. in mod. usage.

heimtari, a, m. a usurer, Stj. 304.

heimting, f. a claim, demand, Grág. i. 97, 334, Ld. 50, Fms. ii. 287.

heimul-leikr (-leiki), heimolleikr, vide heimoll.

heim-ván, f. expectation of coming home; hann sagði sína heimván í efztu viku Föstu, Sturl. i. 25. 2. eccl. departure, Germ. ableben; þat get ek ekki merkja heimván þína, Fms. vii. 108, cp. Fél. vii. p. xiv. pref.; hann svaraði, mér lizt, herra, sem þér munið eigi lengi hér eptir þurfa at berjast við heiminn,—Biskup mælti, því er gott at taka, eg á góða heimvon, taken from Jón Halldórsson’s Lives of Bishops, referring to the death of Jón Vídalín (A. D. 1720).

heim-þegi, a, m. a ‘home-dweller,’ a member of one’s household; this word occurs several times on Danish stones, vide Rafn 184, 185, 197, 217, 218.

heim-þingaðr (-uðr), m. a visitor; hanga h. = Odin (vide haugi), Ísl. ii. 353 (in a verse); herju h., the husband of the ogress, i. e. the giant Hrungnir, Haustl. 19.

HEIN, f. [A. S. hân; Engl. hone; Dan. heen], a hone, Edda 48, 59, Sturl. ii. 62, Fms. vi. 374: a nickname of the Danish king for his meekness, Knytl. S. COMPDS: heinar-brýni, n. = heinbrýni, Fas. iii. 43. heinar-sufl (heinar-smjör, hone-grease, Fb. iii. 425), n. the liquor in which mowers dip the whetstone, Fms. vi. 374: in poetry the sword is called hein-flet, hein-land, hein-vandill, the flat, land, rod of the hone, Lex. Poët. hein-þynntr, part. hone-whetted, of a sword, id.

hein-berg, n. a hone-quarry, Edda 58.

hein-brýni, n. a hone, whetstone, Fas. iii. 43.

Heinir, m. pl. the inhabitants of the Norse county Heiðmörk, Fms. xii. Hein-verskr, adj. from Haðaland, Hkr. i. (in a verse).

HEIPT, better heift, f. [Ulf. haifsts = ἔρις, ἐριθεία, ἀγών, cp. haifstjan = ἀγωνίζεσθαι; akin is Germ. heftig, whence mod. Dan. hæftig]:—the earliest sense is feud, deadly war; vinna e-m heipt, to wage war (do battle) against one, Vkv. 10; deila heiptir, to wage deadly feud, Hkv. 1. 44; senda e-m heiptar-boð, to challenge one to combat, Fas. iii. 27 (in a verse): hereto belong such poët. epithets as, heiptar-nýtr, heiptar-strangr, heipt-bráðr, heipt-fíkinn, heipt-glaðr, heipt-mildr, heipt-minnigr, heipt-móðr, heipt-örr, heipt-snarr, = mighty in war, warlike, all of them used as ‘ornamental’ epithets of praise, vide Lex. Poët.: as also heiptar-hvessir, m. a war kindler, id. β. bane; heipt hrísungs, the bane of a copse, i. e. fire, Ýt. 19: in the old poems Hm. and Sdm. heipt seems used in a peculiar sense, viz. an imprecation, spell, Hm. 136, 152, Sdm. 12, 36, and perh. Eb. in the Máhlíðingavísur. 2. evil doings, injury; eiga e-m heiptir at gjalda, Hkr. i. 85, Korm. (in a verse); gjalda e-m harma ok heiptir, Ó. H. 214. II. deadly hatred, spite; halda heift í hjarta, Hom. 50; heipt ok harðindi, ill-will and tyranny, Fms. vi. 42; meir af h. en ást, xi. 310; hafa heipt á e-m, to hate one. 2. fury; þá svall heipt í Högna, H. swelled with fury, Bragi. COMPDS: heiptar-blóð, n. a law phrase, bloodshed; saurga í heiptarblóði, to stain (a holy place) with bloodshed, Eb. 12; þá kom heiftarblóð fyrst á jörð, Ver. 6 (the blood of Abel). heiptar-fenginn, adj. breathing hatred against one, Ld. 232. heiptar-hugr, m. wrath, Fb. iii. 320. heiptar-hönd, f. a foe’s band; leggja heiptar hendr á e-n, Stj. 486; með sinni heiptar hendi, 436. heiptar-mál and heiptar-orð, n. pl. words breathing hatred, Karl. 438, Fas. i. 191, ii. 358.

heipt-gjarn, adj. spiteful, Bkv. 10.

heipt-kviðr, m. unkind, evil words, Ad. 22.

heipt-mögr, m. a foeman, adversary, Hm. 149.

heipt-rækni, f. (heipt-rækinn, adj.), vindictiveness, Hom. (St.) 49.

heipt-rækr, adj. vindictive, Bs. i. 8.

heiptugr, adj. baneful: in the allit. law phrase, heiptugri hendi, infesta manu, K. Á. 36, 40, Gþl. 378.

heipt-úð, f. deadly hatred, Ver. 26.

heipt-úðigr, adj. vindictive, Eb. 17 new Ed., Fbr. 35, Fms. vi. 42, 295.

heipt-yrði, n. pl. words of hatred, Edda 77, Am. 85, Fm. 9.

HEIT, n. pl. [cp. Ulf. wota = ἀπειλή], threatening words or gestures, threats, Lat. minae; standa undir heitum ok íllyrðum, Bs. i. 728; heit ok harðyrði, Barl. 194; köld heit, Edda (Ht.); þeirra heit dvínuðu, Edda (in a verse); af heitum, from his threatening gestures, Am. 19.

heit, n. a solemn promise, vow; munu yðr heit hans öll föst, Eg. 28, Þorst. St. 55; efnt þykkisk þú hafa heit þín, en nú eru eptir mín heit, Nj. 59; en í engum heitum (engagement) vil ek bindask, Ó. H. 32: in sing. a vow, holy vow, kvað engan hlut batna munu við þat heit, Rd. 248; er honum þótti sem þegit mundi heitið, Glúm. 348; efla heit, to make a vow, Gísl. 90; stofna heit, id., Fms. ii. 16, Sturl. i. 222; festa heit, id., Bs. i. 184: but esp., strengja heit, to make a solemn vow (in the heathen time, whence heit-strenging), Fs. 122, Ísl. ii. 166, Fms. i. 3, xi. 26, Fb. ii. 353, Hrafn. 5; enda heit sitt, Fb. ii. 371: eccl. a vow, offra Drottni heit sín, Stj. 429; heit öll ok testamenta, K. Á. 216: a promise (in marriage), hann bað konunnar ok fékk heitið hennar, Edda 23; bregða föstu heiti, to break a promise, Alm. 5.

HEITA, pres. heit, heitr, and in A. II. heiti, heitir (bisyllabic), in mod. usage heiti through all significations; pret. hét, hétu, 2nd pers. hézt; part. heitinn.

A. [Ulf. haitan = καλειν; A. S. hâtan; Old Engl. hight, pret. hot; O. H. G. haizan; Germ. heissen; Swed. heta; Dan. hede]: I. trans. with acc. to call, give name to; hve þik hétu hjú? Fsm. 47; Urð hétu eina, Vsp. 20; Heiði hana hétu, 25; Grímni mik hétu, Gm. 49; hve þik heitir halr, Hkv. Hjörv. 14; Hnikar hétu mik, Skv. 2. 18; hétu Þræl, Rm. 8; hétu Erna (Ernu?), 36: the naming of infants was in the heathen age accompanied by a kind of baptism (ausa vatni), vide ausa, p. 35. 2. metaph. to call on one; in the phrase, heita e-n á brott, to turn one out, call on one to be gone; þá er maðr á brott heitinn ef honum er eigi deildr matr at málum, Grág. i. 149; Vermundr hét hann á brott ok kvað hann eigi þar lengr vera skyldu, Sturl. ii. 230; so also, ef bóndi heitr griðmann sinn af vist foráttalaust, Grág. i. 157; eða heitið mik héðan, Ls. 7; ek var heitinn út (turned out) fjórum sinnum, Sighvat:—with prep., heita á e-n, to call upon one (for help); hón hét á konur at skilja þá, Landn. 49: to exhort one (in battle), hét á Hólmrygi, Hkm. 2; Úlfr hét á oss, Hkr. iii. (in a verse); Gísli spratt upp skjótt ok heitr á menn sína, at skýli, Gísl. 22: to invoke one (a god, saint), hann trúði á Krist, en hét á Þór til sjófara ok harðræða, Landn. 206; hann heitr nú á fulltrúa sína Þorgerði ok Irpu, Fb. i. 213; ef ek heit á guð minn, Mar.; á Guð skal heita til góðra hluta, Sól. 4. 3. part. pass. hight, called; sú gjöf var heitin gulli betri, Ad. 9; löskr mun hann æ heitinn, Am. 57, Fms. vi. 39 (in a verse); sá maðr mun eigi ílla heitinn (will not get a bad report) í atferð sinni, Sks. 55 new Ed. β. heitinn, the late, of one dead; eptir Odd heitinn föður sinn, Dipl. iv. 13; Salgerðr h., the late S., Vm. 37: very freq. in mod. usage, hann Jón heitinn, hún Guðrún heitin, etc. II. absol. or intrans., in which case pres. bisyllabic heiti (not heit), to be hight, be called, as in Goth. the pass. of haitan; Andvari ek heiti, A. am í hight, Skv. 2. 2; Ólafr heiti ek, Fms. x. 226; ek heiti Ari, Íb. (fine); Jósu vatni, Jarl létu heita, Rm. 31; Óðinn ek nú heiti, Yggr ek áðan hét, Gm. 54; Gangráðr ek heiti, Vþm. 8; Ask veit ek standa, heitir Yggdrasill, Vsp. 19: esp. freq. in an hist. style in introducing a person for the first time, Mörðr hét maðr, hann átti dóttur eina er Unnr hét, móðir hennar hét Þorgerðr, Rútr hét bróðir hans, Nj. 1, 2; þau áttu eptir dóttur er Þuríðr hét, hinn elzti son Bjarnar hét Grímkell, Ísl. ii. 4; Oddr hét maðr, son Önundar breiðskeggs, hann átti þá konu er Jórunn hét; annarr son þeirra hét Þóroddr en annarr Þorvaldr, Þuriðr hét dóttir Odds en önnur Jófriðr, 121, 122; Þorsteinn hét maðr, hann var Egilsson, en Ásgerðr hét móðir Þorsteins, 189; þau gátu son, ok var vatni ausinn ok hét Þórólfr, 146, etc.; and in endless instances answering to Engl. there was a man, and his name was (he was hight) so and so. The ancients said, hve (or hversu) heitir þú, ‘how’ art thou named? Germ. wie heisst du? thus, hve þú heitir? hve þik kalla konir? answer, Atli ek heiti, and hve þú heitir, hála nágráðug? Hrímgerðr ek heiti, Hkv. Hjörv. 14–17; hve sú jörð heitir, hve sá himinn heitir, hversu máni heitir, hve sjá sól heitir, etc., Alm. 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, Vþm. 11, 13, 15, 17; the northern Icelanders still say, hvers’ (i. e. hversu) heitir maðrinn, sælir verið þér, hvörs’ heitir maðrinn? answer, Hrólfr heitir hann, Asgrímsson að norðan, Sig. Pétr. in Hrólfr (a play), p. 4: in mod. usage, hvat (what) heitir þú? hvað heitir þú? Eg heiti Jón, Stef. Ól.: the same phrase occurs now and then in old writers, hvat heitir bær sjá? Ld. 234; hvat heitir hón? Helga heitir hón, Ísl. ii. 201 (Cod. Holm. hvart = hversu?): as also in the poem Fsm. (but only preserved in paper MSS.) 9, 11, 13, 19, 23, 31, 35, 37; but hve, 46, 47. β. of places, often with dat. and prep. of the place; á þeim bæ er á Brjámslæk heitir, Bs. i. 379; land pat er í Hvammi heitir, Gísl. 121; bær hans hét á Stokkum, Fb. iii. 324; á þeim bæ er at Hóli heitir, Hrafn. 5; ok því heitir þat síðan í Geitdal, 3; bær heitir á Bakka, á Meðalhúsum, at Búrfelli, á Auðúlfsstöðum, at Svínavatni, í Vestrhópi, í Sléttadal, Ísl. ii. 322–325. 2. to be called, reckoned so and so; þá heitir hón sönn at sök, then she stands convicted, N. G. L. i. 351; þú skalt frá þessum degi frjáls maðr heita, Ld. 50; heit hvers manns níðingr ella, Nj. 176; heldr en h. kotkarl, eigi er þat nafn fyrir-lítanda, at heita húskarlar konungs, Sks. 270; sá er vill heitinn horskr, Hm. 61. 3. reflex., hétomc, to name oneself or to be called; hétomc Grímnir, hétomc Gangleri, einu nafni hétomc aldregi, hétomc Þundr fyrir þat, Gm. 46, 48, 54.

B. With dat., [cp. Goth. fauraga heitan; A. S. hâtan, pret. het; Germ. verheissen]:—to promise, with dat. both of the person and thing, or the thing in infin., or absol.; heita hörðu, to threaten, Am. 78; h. góðu, Sól.; h. bölvi, Hdl. 49; afarkostum, Fms. i. 75; hann heitr þeim þar í mót fornum lögum, Ó. H. 35; engu heit ek um þat, 167; mantú nokkut hverju þú hézt mér í fyrra, Anal. 190; at lítið mark sé at, hverju þú heitr, Fms. vii. 120; fyrir þau hin fögru fyrirheit er þú hézt þeim manni, er bana-maðr hans yrði—þat skal ek efna sem ek hét þar um, i. 217; kom Þorsteinn þar, sem hann hafði heitið, as he had promised, 72; þú munt göra okkr slíka sæmd sem þú hefir heitið, Nj. 5; Njáll hét at fara, 49. II. to make a vow, the vow in dat., the god or person invoked with prep. and acc. (h. á e-n), cp. A. above; þat sýndisk mönnum ráð á samkomunni, at h. til verðr-bata, en um þat urðu menn varla ásáttir hverju heita skyldi, vill Ljótr því láta h. at gefa til hofs, en bera út börn en drepa gamal-menni, Rd. 248; þá heitr Ingimundr prestr at bóka-kista hans skyldi á land koma ok bækr, Bs. i. 424; ok skyldu menn taka at heita, þeir hétu at gefa …, 483; hét Haraldr því til sigrs sér, at hann skyldi taka skírn, Fms. i. 107; eptir þat hét hón miklum fégjöfum á hinn helga Jón biskup, Bs. i. 201 and passim, esp. in the Miracle-books. III. reflex. and pass. to plight oneself, be betrothed; þá sá hón þat at ráði ok með henni vinir hennar at heitask Þórólfi, Eg. 36; þeim hétumk þá þjóðkonungi, Skv. 3. 36: to betroth, varkat ek heima þá er (hón) þér heitin var, when she (the bride) was given to thee, Alm. 4; kom svá, at Bárði var heitið meyjunni, that the maid was betrothed to B., Eg. 26. 2. to vow, plight one’s faith; þeir hétusk reka Hákon ór landi, Jd.: to vow one’s person to one, at hann heitisk hinum heilaga Ólafi konungi, Hkr. iii. 288: to bind oneself, þá menn er honum höfðu heitisk til föruneytis, Fms. vii. 204.

heita, tt, [heitr], to heat; hón heitti steinana, Lv. 70; hann lét taka sement ok heita í katli, Fms. vi. 153; h. spjót í eldi, Fas. ii. 29; sólin heitir hafit, Rb. 444., 2. to brew; heita mungát, Bs. i. 339, 340, K. Þ. K. 100, Finnb. 294, Eg. 88; heita öl, 148, Hkv. 3; heita til Jólanna, to brew for Yule, Orkn. 112;—the ancients used to drink fresh-brewed ale.

heita, u, f. brewing, N. G. L. ii. 249, iii. 197; öl-heita, ale-brewing, Landn. 215. COMPDS: heitu-gagn, n. a boiler, D. N. heitu-hús, n. a brew-house, Fms. viii. 329. heitu-kerald, n. a brewing-vat, Dipl. v. 18. heitu-ketill, n. a boiler, Dipl. iii. 4, Fb. iii. 447. heitu-kona, u, f. a woman brewer, Rétt. 6. 3. heitu-maðr, m. a brewer, Sturl. ii. 44. heitu-viðr, m. fuel for brewing, Rétt. 59.

heitan, f. a hooting, threatening, Fms. vi. 371, 437, Sturl. ii. 57, Fs. 31. heitanar-orð, n. pl. menaces, Fms. vi. 118, Sturl. iii. 141.

HEITASK, að, dep.; [in mod. usage this word is often used as a strong verb, as if it belonged to the great verb heita above; but wrongly, as they are widely different, the former referring to Goth. haitjan, the latter to Goth. wôtjan, answering to Icel. hóta, hœta, q. v., Old Engl. to wite]:—to hoot, threaten, abuse one; heitask við e-n, with infin. or absol., hann gerir reiðan mjök ok heitask við Odd, Korm. 142; aldrei hallmælti hann úvinum sínum ok aldri heitaðisk hann við þá, and he never spoke evil of or abused his enemies, Nj. 211; hann settisk í bú hans en heitaðisk við bónda, Fs. 157; hverr ert þú svá djarfr, at þú þorir at heitask við höfðingja várn? Fms. i. 75: with infin., heituðusk Danir mjök at fara með her í Noreg, 160; h. e-s, viii. 167; þeir heitaðusk at verja hann, vii. 290; Knútr heitaðisk jafnan at herja til Englands, Ísl. ii. 241; en hjónin heituðusk við í öðru lagi at hlaupa á brott, Bjarn. 27; hann heitask at brjóta þau, O. H. L. 23; h. til e-s, muntú ná goðorði þínu þó at þú heitisk eigi til, Þorst. Síðu H. 173: absol., segir at konungi mundi þat eigi duga at heitask eðr herja á innan-lands fólk, Hkr. i. 144. In mod. language heitast is chiefly used of those who shortly before death curse a man, and after death haunt him, see Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 222.

heit-bundinn part. bound by a vow, Sturl. iii. 240, Rd. 246.

heit-dagr, m. a votive day; heitdagr Eyfirðinga, the first Tuesday in the month Einmánuðr (April), a ‘day of vow’ at the end of the winter when fodder and food began to run short, vide Rd. ch. 7.

heit-fastr, adj. true to one’s word, Sturl. ii. 133, Hkr. iii. 252.

heit-fengi, n. a being heitfengr, Lv. 70.

heit-fengr, adj. able to eat one’s food burning hot, Grett. 91.

heit-fé, n. votive money, Bs. i. 308, 450.

heit-guð, n, a god to whom one makes a vow, Bárð. 108.

heit-hleifr, m. a votive loaf, Vm. 33.

heiti, n. a name, denomination, 623. 62, Fms. i. 23, Hkr. i. 320, Orkn. (begin.); úkennd heiti, simple nouns, opp. to kenningar, circumlocutions or metaphors, Edda (Sksm.); heiti and nafn are used almost synonymously, lands-heiti, staða-heiti.

heitingar, f. pl. threats, imprecations, Lat. dirae, Fas. i. 39, iii. 533, Grett. 203 new Ed., cp. Ísl. Þjóðs; i. 222.

heit-kona, u, f. one’s promised spouse, distinguished from festar-kona, in whose case the ceremony of betrothal has taken place (vide festar); hón skal vera heitkona Gunnlaugs en eigi festar-kona, Ísl. ii. 217, 239, 255, Fb. i. 372, Sturl. iii. 179.

heitleikr, m. heat, Mar.

heit-orð, n. a promise, Sturl. i. 34, ii. 167, Bs. i. 682, Þórð. 21 new Ed.

HEITR, adj. [cp. Ulf. heito = fever, Matth. viii. 14; A. S. hât; Engl. hot; Hel. hêt; Germ. heiss; Dan. heed;; Swed. het]:—hot, burning; heitan eld, Ísl. ii. 152; eldi heitari, hotter than fire, Hm. 50, Grett. 134; heitt skin, hot sunshine, Fms. i. 118, vi. 411; heitt veðr, hot weather, vii. 165; veðr heitt af sólu, Ísl. ii. 193; skaltú eigi þurfa heitara at baka, Nj. 199; heitt siment, hot mortar, Fms. vi. 153; eða hellir hann á hann því nökkvi er svá heitt er, at (of a fluid), Grág. ii. 129; heit mjólk, Lv. 70; heitr grautr, Eb. 198; ekki er heitt, ‘tis not hot, Lv. l. c.; e-m er (verðr) heitt, to be warm, Sks. 63; mér er heitt, I am hot; eld-h., hot as fire; glóð-h., glowing hot; brenn-h., burning hot; fun-h., sjóð-h., etc., q. v.; heitt blóð, heitr sveiti, Korm. II. metaph. hot, ardent; heit ást, hot love; unna (elska) heitt, to love dearly, Lex. Poët., and in mod. usage. 2. hot, angry; göra sik heitan, Bs. i. 717, Stj. 181; verða h. við e-n, 719.

heit-ramr, adj. boasting, braggart, Bs. i. 649.

heit-rof, n. a breach of promise. Thom. 498.

heit-rofi, a, m. (heit-rofa), a promise-breaker, Fms. ii. 55, Fs. 96.

heitsi, adj. indecl.; verða e-s h., to engage oneself to a thing, Þiðr. 151.

heit-strenging, f. a solemn vow of the heathen kind (cp. strengja heit), Fms. i. 4, Hrafn. 8, Ísl. ii. 42, Fms. xi. 26, 109–113, 152, Fs. 122. For descriptions of this heathen custom, esp. at festivals (at Yule time, at funerals), see esp. Hænsa Þ. S. ch. 12, Jómsv. S. ch. 8, 37, cp. Hkr. Ó. T. ch. 39, Hervar. S. ch. 4 (Fas. i. 417), Hkr. Har. S. Hárf. ch. 4, Yngl. S. ch. 40, Harð. S. ch. 14, Flóamanna S. ch. 2 (cp. Landn. 1. ch. 3), Hrafn. ch. 2, Hkv. Hjörv. (prose).

heit-strengja, d, to vow, Fms. xi. 110, Str.; (better in two words.)

heit-söngr, m. a votive song, Bs. i. 307, 354.

heit-yrði, u. = heitorð.

HEKLA, u, f. [akin to hökull, q. v.], a kind of cowled or hooded frock, knitted of divers colours, see Fms. ii. 72, viii. 106; hekla flekkótt, Fas. i. 120, Landn. 319; blárend h., Ísl. ii. 44; h. af skarlati ok saumuð öll brögðum, Fms. ii. 70; græn h., Ó. H. 158. COMPDS: Heklu-fjall, n. ‘Hecla-fell’ the name of mount Hecla, Bs., Ann. passim; in mod. usage abbreviated Hekla, prob. called so from its frock or hood of snow. Fourteen eruptions of mount Hecla are recorded, of A. D. 1104, 1158, 1206, 1222, 1300, 1341, 1389, 1440 (the exact year uncertain), 1510, 1597, 1636, 1693, 1766, 1845, besides earthquakes or partial eruptions in the immediate neighbourhood in 1294 and 1554, see Ísl. Ann., Jón Egilsson (Annals), Björn á Skarðsá (Annals). In the Middle Ages Hecla became mythical in Europe, and was regarded as a place of punishment for the damned; the Danes say ‘begone to Heckenfjæld,’ the North Germans ‘to Hackelberg,’ the Scots ‘to John Hacklebirnie’s house,’ cp. the Sks. 154. heklu-maðr, m. a hooded man, Fms. ii. 70.

Heklungar, m. pl. ‘Frockmen,’ the name of a political party in Norway in the days of king Sverri, Fms. viii. 106 sqq.

HEL, f., gen. heljar, dat. helju or hel (less correct); a nom. helja never occurs in old writers, although a gen. helju is used in the mod. phrase, milli heims ok helju (old and better heljar); [Ulf. halja = αδης, Matth. xi. 23, Luke xvi. 23, 1 Cor. xv. 55; A. S. and Engl. hell; Hel. and O. H. G. hellia; Germ. hölle; cp. Dan. i hjel]:—the abode of the dead: 1. in a heathen sense answering to the Greek Hades, and distinguished from Valhalla; í Helju, Alm. 15, 19, 21, 27, 33; til Heljar, Skm. 27, Vtkv. 6, Vþm. 43; ok létta ekki fyrr en vér höfum Sigmund í Helju, Fær. 166; væntir mik, at hann sé nú í Helju, Fas. i. 233; at þau undr beri fyrir þik at þú sér brátt í Helju ok víst mun þetta þín furða vera, Ísl. ii. 351; fara til Heljar, to fare to Hel. to die, Gísl. 107. 2. phrases or sayings, heimta e-n ór Helju, to draw one out of Hel, i. e. to rescue him from imminent death or peril; þóttusk þeir hafa hann ór Helju heimtan, Eg. 533, Fs. 8, Fms. iii. 80; cp. gráta Baldr ór Helju, Edda 38, 39, Bs. i. 648 (in a verse); búask til Heljar, to busk one for a journey to Hel. i. e. to put him in a shroud; ok er þat því mælt at maðr þykki til Heljar búask, sá er sik klæðir mjök, þá er hann gengr út eðr klæðir sik lengi, Gísl. 107; liggja (vera) milli heims ok Heljar (see heimr II), Grett. 114, Fas. ii. 437, Fb. i. 260; liggja á Heljar þremi, to lie on the threshold of Hel. O. H. L. 71; eigi eru vér svá á Heljar þröm komnir, at þú hafir allt ráð várt í hendi þér, 655 x. 1; rasa í Helina opna, to rush into open Hel. i. e. to seek death, Fms. viii. 437; leysa höfuð ór Helju, to release one’s head out of Hel. Skv. 2. 1. II. death; unnusk þeir Hákon mikit, svú at þá skildi ekki nema hel, Fms. vii. 733; höggr á tvær hendr ok þykkir eigi betra líf en hel, without caring for his life, Ísl. ii. 368; mér er verra líf en hel, Stj. 495; bíða heljar, to bide for death, Stor. 24; nema þeim liggi við hel eða húsgangr, N. G. L. i. 54; þat er vant at sjá, félagsmaðr, hvárt fyrr kemr, hel eðr langframi, Orkn. 466. 2. abverb. phrases, α. til heljar, to death; hafðr til heljar, put to death, Grág. i. 34; drepa mann til heljar, 161; bíta e-u til heljar, N. G. L. i. 341; svelta til heljar, to starve to death, Bret. 8; færa e-n til heljar, to slay one, Fms. vi. 166. β. í hel, to death (Dan. i hjel); sofa í hel, to sleep oneself to death, Rb. 356; vella möðkum í hel, 414; berja grjóti í hel, to stone to death, Landn. 236, Eb. 98, Ld. 152, Gísl. 118; berja e-n í hel, Fms. v. 181; drepa e-n í hel, Hbl. 27, Am. 38. III. the ogress Hel, the Proserpine of Scandin. mythol., Edda 18, 37–39, Gm. 31, Vtkv. 3; með Helju, id.; bjóða Helju útlausn, etc., id.; haldi Hel því er hefir, Edda 38 (in a verse): Hel was represented as of a black, livid hue, whence the phrase, blár sem Hel, black as Hel, Nj. 177; blár sem Hel ok digr sem naut, Eb. 314: Heljar-skinn, n. ‘Hel-skin,’ Black-skin; hann lézk eigi slík Heljarskinn séð hafa, Landn. 121; also as a nickname, id. The inmates of Hel (ghosts called up from below) were supposed to be endowed with a supernatural strength, whence the phrases, heljar-afl, n. strength of Hel, gigantic strength; tók hann þá á sínu heljarafli, Od. ix. 538 (ἐπέρεισε δε ιν ἀπέλεθρον): heljar-karl, m. a ‘hell-carle,’ a person of gigantic strength, Fb. i. 212: heljar-maðr, m. (heljar-menni, n.), a man of Hel, like heljar-karl, Ld. 160; er þat jafnan reynt, at heljarmaðrinn er harðr við at eiga, Al. 109; Oddr kvað eigi hógligt við heljarmann þann, en við fjölkyngi móður hans, Fs. 32; ok er íllt at fásk við heljarmanninn, Grett. 134; görðu eigi þat at hætta þér einn undir vápn heljarmannsins, Þorst. S. St. 52; hann er h. ok ván at íllt hljótisk af, Fs. 36; ekki mun heljarmaðr þessi láta hér við lenda, Od. xxii. 70: Heljar-sinnar, m. pl. the champions of Hel, demons, ghosts, Edda (Sksm.) 41; salir Heljar, the halls of Hel, Vsp. 35: cp. also Heljar-grind, f. the gates of Hel; Heljar-meyjar, f. pl. the maids of Hel; Heljar-reip, n. the ropes of Hel, Sól. 37–39; Heljar-rann, n. the hall of Hel, Vtkv. 6; Heljar-diskr, m. the dish of Hel, Edda (Gl.), Sturl. (in a verse); Heljar-epli, n., Ísl. ii. 351 (in a verse); Heljar-askr, m. the ash of Hel, Sturl. (in a verse), cp. Vsp. 2.

HÉLA, u, f. [Lat. gelu], hoar frost, rime, Hkv. 2. 42, Edda 85, Stj. 292, Barl. 198. COMPDS: hélu-fall, n. a fall of rime, Gísl. 67. hélu-frost, n. a rime frost. hélu-kaldr, adj. rime cold, Sks. 41. hélu-skúr, f. a rime shower, Stj. 292. hélu-þoka, u, f. a rime fog, mist, Sturl. i. 179.

héla, d, to be covered with rime, Edda 3; hlýr hélir, Lex. Poët.: part. héldr, icy, poët. epithet of ships, the sea; héldir húfar, hélt haf, Lex. Poët.

hel-blár, adj. black as death, Fas. iii. 653.

Hel-blindi, a, m. a name of Odin, Edda.

HELDR, adv. compar.; superl. HELZT; [Goth. haldis; Dan. heller; Swed. hellre, heller: only Scandin., not being found in the Teut. dialects.]

A. COMPAR., I. more, rather: 1. with the particle en (an), rather …, than; hann var heldr ljótr an góligr, Eluc. 55; kjós hann heldr til en frá, Bs. i. 480; umbeygilega hljóðs-grein heldr en hvassa, Skálda 182; með margföldu atkvæði heldr en einföldu, Sks. 311; hygg ek at heldr hafi hann helvíti en þessi maðr, Fms. vii. 118; vill hón at honum sé eigi frá vísat … heldr en þeir gefi upp borgina, Fms. i. 157: with a comparative, less than, more than; er þeim sé eigi minni kunnleikr á heldr en nábúum, Grág. ii. 343; bað hann skipa eptir konung-legri miskunn meirr, heldr en eptir hóflausri reiði Amans, Sks. 467. 2. hvart-heldr …, eða, either …, or; whether …, or …; hvárt sem þat yrði heldr kú ildi eðr vaðmál, Dipl. iv. 13; en nú vitum vér eigi hvárt heldr er, … eða muntú …, now we know not which is the case, whether … or …, Fms. i. 33: eða being understood, Gunnlaugi kveðsk vel líka hvárt at heldr er, G. said he should be well pleased whatsoever was done, Ísl. ii. 267. 3. at heldr, not merely …, but rather, all the more, or after a negative, any more; at heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum, not merely for two, but I would gladly yield it to you all, Nj. 117; ok þótti ekki hans hefnt at heldr, þótt (the more, though) þetta væri at gört, Ísl. ii. 273; en eigi er at heldr hefnt göfugra frænda várra, Fms. viii. 136, Hm. 95; ok at heldr þótt (even though) þeir væri frjálsir menn, þá væri þeir þó (yet) óbóta-menn, Eg. 737. II. intens. very; systur fríða heldr, a very pretty sister, Hom. 115; heldr hljóðr, heldr fámálugr, Fms. xi. 78; var brúðrin döpr heldr, Nj. 11; þaer vóru málgar ok heldr íllorðar, 66; heldr ertú fámennr, Glúm. 377; tala heldr harðfarliga, Eb. 256; konungr var h. úkátr, Eg. 44; mér er heldr kalt, I am very cold, Orkn. (in a verse); þat mun mál manna, at görð sjá sé heldr skökk, Eg. 738; Þorólfr fýsti heldr uppgöngu, Eg. 242; var þá svá komit deginum, at heldr tók út eyktina, that the hour of eykt was just passing, Fb. i. 192. III. but, on the contrary, Germ. aber, vielmehr, esp. after a negative; eru þat ekki engla nöfn? answer, heldr (no, but) kenningar-nöfn, Eluc. 12; eigi mælir hann svá …, heldr (but), 40:—eigi, … nema enn heldr, but on the contrary, Stj. 409, 412, 428, 442; hann rak eigi erendi bróður síns, heldr bað hann þeirrar konu sér til handa, Fms. vii. 103; at hyggjandi sinni skylit maðr hræsinn vera, heldr gætinn at geði, Hm. 6; ekki er þat, heldr vill faðir þinn, at …, Glúm. 379; láta þeir sér þat eigi einhlítt, heldr hafa þeir tekið …, Ó. H. 32; hæfir þat ekki, … heldr er yðr þat sæmd, at …, Fagrsk. ch. 16; með lítilli gleði, heldr með miklu angri, Barl. 144. β. but, Lat. sed, at; Rútr mun ámæla þér í öngu, heldr mun hann biðja at allir geymi þín sem bezt, Nj. 14; eru þeir eigi einir saman í ráða-görð sinni, heldr hafa þeir með sér marga vitra menn, Sks. 313: very freq. in mod. usage, but, þar er hvorki kafald né vetrar-ríki né steypi-regn, heldr …, Od. ix; öngvar hafa þeir ráðs-samkomur eða lög, heldr búa þeir í víðum hellrum, 112; ekki hafa hjarðmenn þar yfirför, eða akryrkju-menn, heldr er eyin ávalt óbygð af mönnum, 123; ekki bjuggu Lótofagar bana-ráð mönnum mínum, heldr …, 92; hann vildi ekki aptr snúa … heldr vildu þeir eptir verða, 95; hann var hið mesta tröll, og ekki menskum manni líkr, heldr skógþöktum tindi hárra fjalla, 191; grát eigi lengr svo ákafliga, freista heldr (but try) …, Od. iv. 544. IV. with adverbs; ekki heldr, neither; ekki allnærri, og ekki h. mjög langt undan landi, Od. ix. 117; né heldr, nor either; ekki er þar heldr umgangr af veiði-mönnum, neither is there …, 120; hvorki gróðr-setja þeir nokkra plantan með höndum sínum né heldr (neither) plægja jörðina, 108: ekki … auk heldr, not to speak of, still less, far less; hann vill ekki ljá mér það, auk heldr gefa, he will not lend it to me, far less give it: hitt-þó-heldr, rather the contrary! proncd. hitt-ó-heldr! ironically, e. g. tarna er fallegt, hittó-heldr, how fine, or rather the contrary! i. e. what a shame! with adverb. datives, öngu heldr, no more; öllu heldr, miklu heldr, much sooner.

B. SUPERL., I. soonest; hefi ek þat helzt í hug mér, Nj. 21; kunnu þeir þat helzt at segja til Ástríðar, at …, Fms. i. 68; þeir þykkjask nú helzt menn, Nj. 66: most, nú er þetta fylskni helzt, 133; sem ek veit sannast ok réttast ok helzt at lögum, Grág. i. 75. 2. freq. in mod. usage, soonest, best, most, Germ. am liebsten, am besten; eg vildi það helzt, það væri helzt reynanda. II. with adverbs; einkum helzt, especially; þeir er Guði þjóna einkum helzt, 625. 165; hóti helzt, nökkvi helzt; þeir áttu hóti helzt sér nokkura kosti í fémunum, Ísl. ii. 134; ok þat hefir hann nökkvi helzt, er Búi mælir fyrir honum, Fms. xi. 78; þá hafði nú helzt nökkut munr á fengizt, Edda 32; allra h., above all; allra helzt í lögum, Skálda 162; hvar helzt, wheresoever, Hom. III. helzti or hölzti, with an adjective, very much, very, often with the notion of far too; hölzti varr, Fms. viii. 91; hölzti nær oss! 133; hölzti vaskligir, Al. 37; hann létzk við hölzti mikinn hraustleik, 41; ok kvað Guðrúnu hölzti gott at vefja honum at höfði sér, Ld. 188, cp. Fms. ii. 255; helzti fáráðir, Fær. 37; helzti lengi (far too long) hefir svá farit, Fms. vi. 393; þér sitið heima ok látið vænliga, ok eruð æ hölzti margir, Ld. 216; Þórólfr kvað þræl þann helzti auðgan, Eb. 154; hölzti miklir úgæfu-menn, Nj. 191; hölzti höfum vér verit auðtrygg, Fas. i. 531; þyki mér nú sú ræða helzti löng orðin, Sks. 352; ok er þér hvárr-tveggi helzti góðr, Fms. i. 75; kvað konung hölzti lengi þar hafa kropit um lyng, Hkr. iii. 376.

heldri, adj. compar. the better; and helztr, superl. the best, foremost; í heldra lagi, in high degree, Fms. ix. 262, Alex. 92; í heldrum lögum, id., Fas. iii. 551; þykkir mönnum sá helztr kostr, the best choice, Hkr. ii. 76; finnsk mér þat ráð helzt til …, the best step to be taken methinks is …, Fb. i. 83; beztrar vináttu ok helztrar, of the best friendship and truest, Bs. i. 708; er einn hefir verit helztr lendra manna í Noregi, Eb. 334: in mod. usage, heldra fólk, heldri menn, better sort of people, gentle folk, opp. to almúgi; heldri manna börn, and the like: helztu menn, the best men.

helfingr or helfningr, m., D. N.; vide helmingr.

Hel-fíkr, m. = helgráðr, Fas. i. 385.

helft, f. [hálfr], a half, D. N., Landn. 218, v. l. (paper MS.), freq. in mod. usage: behalf, H. E. ii. 41.

hel-fúss, adj. eager for death, Akv. 43.

hel-för, f. ‘Hel-faring,’ death, burial, Blas. 44.

HELGA, að, hælga, a Norse form, Bret. 34, 96, [heilagr], to make holy, hallow, sanctify: I. a law term, to appropriate land or the like, by performing some sacred rites: komit hefi ek nú eldi á Þverárland ok er helgat landit Einari syni mínum, Glúm. 391; hann skaut yfir ana með tundr-öru ok helgaði sér svá landit fyrir vestan, Landn. 193; hann gerði eld mikinn við hvern vatns-ós ok helgaði sér svá allt hérað, 207; svá helguðu þeir sér allan Öxarfjörð, 234 (interesting): to adjudicate to one, hét hann því at h. Þór allt landnám sitt ok kenna við hann, Landn. 97; hann görði þar hof mikit ok helgaði Þór (dat.), id.; Ásbjörn helgaði landnám sitt Þór ok kallaði Þórs-mörk, 280: hence in mod. usage, helga sér e-ð, to prove a thing to be one’s own, make one’s right to a thing good, e. g. hann skal hafa það ef hann getr helgað sér það, he shall have it if he can prove it to be his, e. g. M. N. er fundinn, … réttr eigandi má helga sér og vitja, Þjóðólfr, passim of property lost and found. β. helga sik, to clear oneself of a charge; þóat hinn helgi sik með heimiliskviðar-vitni, N. G. L. ii. 69. γ. helga þing, h. leið to proclaim solemnly the sanctity of a meeting, fixing the pale or bounds (þinghelgi, q. v.); goði sá er þinghelgi á, hann skal þar þing helga enn fyrsta aptan, Grág. i. 100; með þessum orðum ok þingmörkum helguðu langfeðgar hans alþingi, Landn. (App.) 335; Glúmr átti ok at helga haustþing, Glúm. 394; hann sendi Þórð at helga Þverár-leið, Sturl. iii. 169; leið skal svá h. jafnt sem þing; á leið helgaðri, Grág. i. 122, Band. 2. of a person (in acc.), to proclaim a person’s inviolability; ek helgaða þik á Þingskálaþingi, Nj. 99 (of an outlawed person); hann keypti at Þormóði, at hann helgaði Örn, Landn. 288, i. e. to make out that an outlaw had been slain within a bowshot (örskots-helgi), he being inviolable (heilagr) within that distance. 3. in mod. usage, to protect by law; helga varp, æðarfugl, etc., = friða, q. v. II. eccl. to hallow, sanctify; helga þú þá í þínum sannleika, John xvii. 17; fyrir þá helga eg sjálfan mig, svo að þeir sé og helgaðir í sannleikanum, 19, Ephes. v. 26, 1 Thess. v. 23, Hebr. xiii. 12, 1 Pet. iii. 15; meðal þeirra sem helgaðir verða, Acts xx. 32; helgat fyrir Heilagan Anda, Rom. xv. 16; þér eruð helgaðir, þér eruð réttlátir, 1 Cor. vi. 11, passim; hvort er meira? gullit eða musterit hvert er helgar gullit, … eða altarið það sem offrit helgar? Matth. xxiii. 17, 19. III. reflex. to be sanctified, Hom. 96, Fms. iv. 111; helgisk og styrkisk þessar hendr, Fms. viii. 26.

hel-galdr, m. a death-dirge, Fbr. 24.

helgan (helgun), f. sanctification, Hom. 160, Mar. 13, Stj. 141, 149, 1 Cor. i. 30, 1 Thess. iv. 3, 2 Thess. ii. 13, Pass. 24. 2: sacramentum, þessar helganir, skírn ok ferming, K. Á. 20: consecration, h. holds ok blóðs várs Herra Jesu Christi, H. E. i. 463.

Hel-genginn, part. ‘Hel-gone,’ dead, Eg. (in a verse).

helgi, f., I. a law term, security, inviolability; nema honum væri helgi meiri mælt en fjörbaugs-manni, Grág. i. 98; engir hundar eigu helgi á sér, ii. 119; hann skal segja til þess í þingbrekku hverja helgi hann leggr á, 267; ú-helgi, loss or forfeiture of one’s personal security, i. e. outlawry; frið-helgi, security; mann-helgi, sacredness of the person: also in a local sense, a holy place, sanctuary; örskots-helgi, sanctuary within bowshot; þing-helgi, the holy boundary of a meeting within the pale fixed in the formulary, helga þing; fisk-helgi, the limits within which the right of jetsum is valid, thus a whale is recorded to have been found outside fisk-helgi, Þjóðólfr, July 28, 1869, p. 162. II. holiness, sanctity, 625. 12, Bs. passim, Hkr. ii. 371; helgi Ólafs konungs, Fb. ii. 359, passim. COMPDS: helgi-dagr, m. a holiday. helgi-dómr, m. a halidom, sanctuary, N. T. helgi-hald, n. holiday-keeping, N. G. L. i. 348, Valla L. 213, Fb. ii. 232. helgi-spjöll, n. pl. = helgibrot. helgi-staðr, m. a holy place, Eb. 12, Edda 10, Landn. 98.

Helgi, a, m. (Norse form Hœlgi), the Holy, a pr. name; as also Helga, u, f., Landn.

helgr, f., dat. and acc. helgi, pl. helgar, [Swed. helg], a holiday, feast, the Sabbath; hann vildi eigi berjask um Jólin fyrir sakir helgar, Fms. vii. 183; hefsk sú helgr þváttdag, K. Á. 152; halda Jóla-helgi, id.; hringja til helgar, to ring the bells at a feast, Ó. H. 118; Sunnudags-h., Páska-h., Jóla-h., Hvítasunnu-h.; eptir helgina, after the Sabbath, Orkn. 268. COMPDS: helgar-brigði, n. = helgibrot, Valla L. 209. helgar-brot (helgi-brot, K. Á. 174), n. Sabbath-breaking, N. G. L. i. 371. helgar-friðr, m. a holiday-truce, Fms. vii. 32.

hel-gráðr, m. voracity betokening death (in the case of one who is fey), Fas. i. 372 (in a paraphrase from a poem); cp. hel-hungr, Ivar Aasen.

Hel-grindr, f. pl. the gates of Hel, Edda.

HELLA, u, f., gen. hellna, Bs. i. 204, [hallr, m.; Swed. häll], a flat stone, slate, Þórð. 36 new Ed., Fs. 66, Fms. viii. 9, xi. 241, Orkn. 246: a table-land of rocks, leiddum síðan skipit upp á hellurnar, Fms. xi. 241; þar ól Þóra barn uppi á hellunni, Hkr. i. 118, (Hákonar-hella, the name of a place); sumt féll á hellu ok þornaði, Hom. Matth. xiii. 5; hjálpar-h., rock of salvation; hneyxlunar-h., rock of offence, Rom. ix. 33; þvíat þat var grundvallat á hellu, Matth. vii. 25: a tablet of stone (= steintafla), Ver. 22; gull-hella, q. v.: a local name, Landn.; also Hellu-land, n. the Polar-land north and east of Greenland. 2. metaph. medic. of a tumour, hard to the touch; var þrotinn hlaupinn sundr í þrjár hellur, Bs. i. 178. COMPDS: hellna-grjót, n. slate stones, Bs. l. c. hellu-berg, n. a slate quarry. hellu-bjarg, n. a slate rock. hellu-flaga, u, f. a thin slate. Hellu-flagi, a, m. id., a nickname, Landn. hellu-hnoðri, a, m., botan. the biting stone-crop, sedum acre, Hjalt. hellu-nám, n. a slate quarry, Vm. 36. hellu-steinn, m. a flat stone, slab, Eg. 181, 579, Þorf. Karl. 428, Vápn. 4, Fas. ii. 238: a rock, Matth. vii. 24.

HELLA, t, [halla], to pour out water or the like, with dat.; hella vatni, etc., Grág. i. 129, 133, K. Þ. K. 12, 623. 54; h. silfri yfir höfuð e-m, Fms. vi. 375; h. í kné e-m, Fbr. 33; var hellt í þik mjólk, milk was poured into thy mouth, Fms. vi. 32; hella út, to pour out, spill, Fs. 147; h. e-u niðr, to spill, Al. 55; h. út tárum, to shed tears, 623. 17; h. út blóði, to shed blood, Blas. 47, Nj. 272, Sks. 782; h. í sik, to gulp, guzzle (vulgar), Fas. i. 296. 2. reflex., hellask fram, to be poured forth, to rush forth, Rb. 438.

helling, f. pouring, shedding; blóðs út-helling, bloodshed.

hellin-hagra, u, f. a kind of thyme, Hjalt.

HELLIR, m., gen. hellis, pl. hellar, (mod. pl. hellrar, hellrum, etc., vide Gramm.): [akin to hallr]:—a cave (in rocks), Orkn. 4, 28, Fs. 66, 73, Grág. ii. 131, 134, Fms. vii. 81, Grett.; hann fór upp til hellisins Surts (mod. Surts-hellir) ok færði þar drápu þá, er hann hafði ort um jötuninn í hellinum, Landn. 199, (nauta-hellir, Bs. i. 320,) passim. COMPDS: hellis-berg (-bjarg, Grett. 164), n. a cavernous rock, Fms. x. 174, Fas. iii. 401. hellis-búi, a, m. a ‘cave-dweller,’ a giant. hellis-dyrr, f. pl. the doors of a cave, Fms. i. 211, vii. 82, 83, Orkn. 428. hellis-gluggi, a, m. the window of a cave, Fas. iii. 413. hellis-gólf, n. the floor of a cave, Fas. iii. 414. hellis-menn, m. pl. cave-men, outlaws, Landn. 61, 67, 182. Hellismanna-saga, u, f. the story of the cave-men, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 300 sqq., cp. also 104 sqq. hellis-munni, a, m. the mouth of a cave, Orkn. 428, Fb. i. 245. hellis-skúti, a, m. a jutting cave, Glúm. 363, Eb. 206, Bret. 104, Fas. ii. 354, Grett. 101, Stj. 124. II. in local names, Hellis-dalr, m., Hellis-fitjar, f. pl., Hellis-hraun, n., Hellis-ey, f., Hellis-fjörðr, m., Orkn., Landn.: Hellis-firðingar, m. pl.

helli-skúr, f. a pouring shower, helli-rumba, helli-demba, u, f. id.

helma, u, f. [hálmr], a haulm, straw, Stj. 397 (ax-helma).

helminga, að, to halve a thing, Karl. 56.

helmingr, m. and helming, f., Grág. ii. 370; helfingr, Anecd. 102; helfuingr, D. I. i. 280, [hálfr]:—a half, Nj. 189, Fms. i. 22, Anecd. 102; at helmingi, by half, Nj. 98, Fms. vi. 183, Grág. i. 171, D. I. l. c.; skipta til helmingar, to share in two equal portions, Grág. ii. 370; or skipta í helminga, id., Fms. viii. 43. COMPDS: helmings-auki or helmingar-auki, a, m. a doubling, N. G. L. i. 328, Fms. viii. 270. helmings-ávöxtr, m. id., N. G. L. i. 328. helmingar-félag, n. a law term, a joint company with equal rights (e. g. between husband and wife), Nj. 3, Ld. 164, Sturl. ii. 83. helmings-kaup, n. a bargain by way of helmingarfélag; jörð er fallit hafði henni (the widow) í h. eptir Skapta bónda sinn, Dipl. v. 7. II. poët. a host, Lex. Poët. passim, Edda (Gl.)

hel-nauð, f. = helstríð, Lex. Poët.

hel-pallr, m. the daïs of Hel, Lex. Poët.

hel-reið, f. ‘Hel-ride,’ name of a poem, Sæm.

HELSI, n. [háls], a collar, Grág. ii. 119, Hkr. i. 136, Þiðr. 16, Korm.

helsingr, m. the barnacle or tree-goose, so called from its white collar (helsi), anas erithropus L., Edda (Gl.), Eggert Itin. 548: a nickname, Fms. iv. 314. ☞ For the popular tales of this bird see Max Müller’s Lectures, 2nd Series. Helsingjar, m. pl. the name of the people of Helsingja-land in Sweden, Ó. H.

hel-skór, m. pl. ‘Hel-shoes,’ put on the dead to enable them to walk to Hel; for this heathen burial rite see Gísl. 24 (107).

hel-sótt, f. [Dan. helsot], the last sickness, Grág. i. 201.

hel-stafir, m. pl., poët. baneful characters, Hkv. Hjörv.

hel-stríð, n. the death-strife, last agony, Greg. 31; hann bað Gest at hann legði ráð til at föður hans bættisk helstríð, er hann bar um Ögmund son sinn, Landn. 146; þá féllu honum þau (the tidings) svá nær at hann dó af helstríði, Fær. 371.

heltask, t, [haltr], to become halt, Fas. iii. 204, freq.

helti, f. lameness, Bs. ii. 184, Hm. 86 (Bugge).

hélug-barði, a, m. a ‘hoary-prow,’ poët. a ship, Edda (Gl.): of a horse, Nj. (in a verse).

hélugr, adj. [héla], hoary, Lex. Poët., freq.

Hel-vegr, m. ‘Hel-way,’ the way to Hel (Hades), Edda, Fas. i. 333: mythol., Sæm. 156 (Helr, prose).

hel-víti, n. [from A. S. hellewite, whence Swed. helvete, Dan. helvede, prop. the fine (víti) of Hel. q. v.]:—hell, the abode of the damned, Stj., Rb., N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim, but only in Christian writers; it appears first in Hallfred. COMPDS: helvítis-búi, a, m. an inmate of hell, Niðrst. 4, 5. helvítis-byrgi, n. pl. the gates of hell, Rb. 380. helvítis-eldr, m. hell-fire, Hom. 35. helvítis-kvalir, f. pl. hell-torments, Nj. 273, Hom. 35. helvítis-logi, a, m. the low (flame) of hell, Al. 154. helvítis-maðr, m. a man doomed to hell, Bs. i. 111. helvítis-myrkr, n. hell-darkness, Post. helvítis-pína (-pinsl, -písl), u, f. ‘hell-pine,’ hell-torments, Stj., Hom. helvítis-virki, n. the stronghold of hell, Niðrst. 107.

hel-vízkr, adj. hellish, infernal, cursed, Th. 16.

hel-vænn, adj. fast sinking, = banvænn, Jb. 324 B.

hem, n. [him, Ivar Aasen, and North. E. ime = a hoar frost], a thin film of ice.

hema, að, impers. to be covered with rime; það hemaði ekki á poll.

hemill, m., prob. a leg-tether, only used in the phrase, hafa hemil á e-m, to restrain one.

hemingr, m. (hömungr, N. G. L. ii. 511), [höm = a shank], the skin of the shanks of a hide; eigi vilda ek sjá þá húð er þú ert einn h. af, Fb. iii. 405; in N. G. L. i. 208 referring to a curious old ceremony of adoption:—the adopted son himself and his nearest heirs were to put their feet into a shoe made from the skin of the right leg of a three years old ox, cp. Ruth iv. 7, and Deut. xxv. 9. II. a pr. name, Fb. iii, prob. derived from this mode of adoption.

HEMJA, hamdi, to restrain one, hold one back from roving about, freq. in mod. usage; eg gat ekki hamið þær, I could not hold them together; óhemjandi, unruly; cp. also óhemja, a wild and furious person.

hemlir, m. a kind of boat, Edda (Gl.)

hemnd, f. revenge, and hemna, að, vide hefnd, hefna.

hempa, u, f. [hampr], a priest’s gown; missa hempuna, to be unfrocked, forfeit one’s priesthood. hempu-lauss, adj. without a priest’s gown.

HENDA, d, mod. henti, [Old Engl. hente, to seize; cp. hönd], to catch with the hand: 1. to catch; hann kastaði heininni í lopt upp, en allir vildu henda, Edda 48; hann lék at þremr handsöxum senn, ok hendi æ meðal-kaflann, Fms. ii, 169; Grímr hafði þá hent böllinn, Eg. 189; en hón hendi allar með hváptunum, Fb. i. 530. 2. to pick up or out, of sheep, deer, etc.; hann var verra at henda en aðra sauði, Ísl. ii. 330; menn fóru ok vildu henda skjarra sauði, Bs. i. 330, Fms. vii. 218; h. svín, Fs. 26; h. hrein í fjalli, Hm. 89: in pursuing one, en er Egill hafði hent þá sem hann vildi, Eg. 300; þeir hendu þræiana enn fleiri, 596; hendu þá hvárir menn fyrir öðrum, Fms. viii. 168; hann lét eigi henda börn á spjóta-oddum sem þá var víkingum títt, Landn. 308; hann hendi þá sker frá skeri þau er á leiðinni vóru (of one swimming), Fbr. 183; þessir stafir göra allt mál ok hendir málit ýmsa, Skálda 172; fara eptir sem vér skerum akrinn, ok henda (to pick up, glean) ef nokkut stendr eptir, eðr fýkr frá oss, Stj. 422; henda mula, to pick up crumbs, Mkv.: with prep., h. saman, to pick up and put together; h. saman orð, to compound words, Anecd. 1, Sks. 637. II. metaph., 1. phrases, henda e-t augum, to catch with the eyes, Fms. v. 140; h. reiður á e-u, to take notice of, Nj. 133; h. mörk af e-u, to draw an inference from a thing, Sks. 498; h. mið á eu, to observe; spakir menn henda á mörgu mið, the wise catch many things true, a saying, Fs. 140; henda griplur til e-s, to fumble after a thing, Eluc. 22; henda til smátt ok stórt, to pick up small and great alike, look closely after, Glúm. 390; henda smátt, to pick up every grain, to keep one’s ears and eyes open; hér er maðr á glugganum, hann er vanr að h. smátt, og hylja sig í skugganum, a ditty; h. gaman at e-u, to take interest in a thing; hann var gleðimaðr mikill ok hendi at mörgu gaman, 385; hann hendi skemtan at sögum ok kvæðum, ok at öllum strengleikum, ok hljóðfærum, Bs. i. 109; h. atvinnu af e-u, to live away from a thing, Fs. 143; h. sakir á e-m, to pick up charges against one (cp. Engl. to pick a quarrel), Lv. 40. 2. to touch, concern one; þú sagðir tíðindi þau er mik taka henda, í aftöku frænda míns, Fms. vi. 370; en mik taka henda (not enda) þung mein, Edda 94 (in a verse); skal ek sjá um fémál hans ok þat annat er hann (acc.) tekr at henda, and whatsoever concerns him, Nj. 5; tíðindi þau er bæði okkr henda, Fs. 10. 3. e-n hendir e-t, to be caught in, be overtaken by a sin, by ill luck, or the like; mik hefir hent mart til afgerða við Guð, I have happened to commit many sins against God, Fms. vii. 108; þá hafði hent glæpska mikil, they had committed great folly, Ó. H. 232, Fb. ii. 233; ef hana hefir fyrr slíkr glæpr hent, N. G. L. i. 233; mun engi sá hafa verit er jafnmikit happ hefir hent sem hann (acc.), Fms. vi. 328; hvat íllt sem mik hendir, Fs. 93; hann kvað þat dugandi menn henda (it happened to brave men) at falla í bardögum, 39; sú skömm skal oss aldregi henda, Fms. xi. 270; má, at hana hendi eigi slík úgipta annat sinn, Nj. 23: sometimes, but less correctly, used impers., the thing in acc., hverja skyldu þá henti at (how they were committed to) taka við konungi, Fms. viii. 238, v. l., cp. þá skömm (= sjá), Eg. 237; glæp mikinn, Fms. v. 113 (but nom. Ó. H. v. l.), iv. 367 (but nom. Fb. l. c.), cp. also Stj. 454 (v. l.), 471. III. recipr. to bandy; hendusk heiptyrði, Am. 86.

B. To fling, throw, with dat.; it seems not to occur in old writers, (for in Anal. 193 the original vellum Fb. iii. 405 reads hann ‘skýtr’); but freq. in mod. usage, hann sveiflaði honum (the stone) í kring og henti, Od. ix. 538; thus tvíhenda, to hurl with both hands: reflex., hendask, to throw oneself forward, rush forward, to dart; hendast ór háa lopti.

henda, u, f., metric. a metre, in compds, Aðal-henda, Dun-h., Lið-h., Skjálf-h., Rún-h., all names of metres defined in Edda (Ht.) 121 sqq.

hendi-langr, adj.; vera e-m h., to be one’s hand-servant, cp. Dan. haandlanger = Lat. calo; allt þat lið er biskupi var hendi-langt, Sturl. ii. 49; þeir skyldi honum fylgja ok vera honum hendi-langir bæði um þjónustu ok svá ef hann vildi þá senda, Hkr. ii. 80, cp. 283 (in a verse).

hending, f. a catching, in the phrase, var í hendingum með þeim, they came to close quarters, of pursuit, Sturl. ii. 66; varð hann skjótastr ok var þá í hendingum með þeim Sveini, Orkn. 336, Grett. 136 new Ed. 2. adverb. hendingum, by chance; veita ansvör sem hendingum væri, Barl. 143; whence the mod. af hendingu, by hap, by chance, cp. Dan. hændelse = a chance, hap. II. metric. rhymes; the ancient double rhymes were both placed in the same line, so as to ‘catch’ one another: distinction is made between an aðal-henda (a full rhyme) and a skot-henda (a half rhyme), thus in Fastorðr skyli fyrða | fengsæll vera þengill,—‘orð fyrð’ are half rhymes, ‘feng þeng’ full rhymes; the first rhyming syllable in the verse (as orð feng) was called frum-hending, head-rhyme, the second (as fyrð þeng) viðr-hending, after-rhyme; if the head-rhyme (as feng in the second verse line above) was placed as the initial syllable it was called odd-hending, edge-rhyme; if in the middle (as orð in the first line), hlut-hending, chance-rhyme, see Edda (Ht.) 121, Skálda 178; the phrase jafnháfar hendingar refers to the final consonants, Fms. vi. 386, Skálda 190: end rhymes, as in mod. poetry, were called Run-henda (or Rím-henda?), but they are extremely rare in old poets: alternate end rhymes began to appear in the Rímur or Rhapsodies of the 14th century, and since that time in hymns; β. verses gener.; mælti hann (Odin) allt hendingum, svá sem nú er þat kveðit er skáldskapr heitir, Hkr. (Yngl. S.) 10: in mod. usage hending often means the line of a verse or stanza, and hence poët. verses; héðan fagna eg hendingar heim að senda yðr, Núm. 8. 8: names of metres, odd-hending, al-h., used differently from the old sense. COMPDS: hendingar-laust, n. adj. blank verse, Edda 138, Skálda 192. hendingar-orð, n. a rhyming syllable, Edda 134. hendinga-skipti, n. change of rhyme, Edda 129.

hendi-samr, adj. picking (i. e. thievish), Glúm. 364.

hendr, adj. only in compds: I. mod., fagr-hentr, fair-handed; harð-h., hard-handed; lag-h., handy, etc. II. metric. in this or that metre; neut. al-hent, skot-hent, hryn-hent, draug-hent, ná-hent, hnugg-hent, stúf-hent; or masc., háttr being understood, skot-hendr, dett-hendr, rún-hendr háttr, etc.: see Edda (Ht.), where these metres are defined.

hengi-, a prefix, hanging: hengi-flug, n. a precipice: hengi-kjöftr, m. hang-jaw, name of a giant, Edda (Gl.): hengi-skafl, m. a jutting heap of snow, Bs. i. 640: hengi-tjöld, n. hangings, Jm. 21: hengi-vakr, m. a kind of bird, prob. the kittywake: hengi-vígskörð, n. pl. jutting ramparts, Sks. 417.

hengill, m. a pendulum, (mod.) 2. name of an overhanging mountain, a beetling crag: also Hengla-fjöll, n. pl., Fb. iii. 559: hengil-mæna, u, f. a ‘droop-chine,’ laggard: hengil-mænulegr, adj.; hengilmænu-skapr, m.

HENGJA, d, [hanga], to hang up, suspend, Sks. 406, Am. 5: to hang (on a gallows), Grág. ii. 131, Fms. passim; h. sik, to hang oneself, Landn. 64: pass., Hom. 23: phrases, h. hálsinn, to hang the neck, Fbr. 52; h. höfuðit, to hang the head, Bs. ii. 178.

henta, t, (mod. hentaði, hentar, Fb. i. 434, Trist. 14, Ísl. ii. 12), [an iter. from henda], to fit: eigi hentir svá, it will not do so, Nj. 4; sárum mönnum hentir betr mjólk en mungat, Fms. iv. 82, 147; ok miklu á leið koma því er þar hentar til, Ísl. ii. 12; hentar annat en dvelja við, Trist.

henti-liga, adv. in fitting manner, Grett. 100 A.

henti-ligr, adj. befitting, Fms. v. 346, Grett. 111 A, H. E. ii. 201.

henti-semi, f. convenience, opportunity.

hent-leikr, m. opportunity, Bs. i. 218.

hentr, adj. fit, suited for one; eigi eru mér fjárleitir hentar, Nj. 26, Grett. 23 new Ed.; hvat er þér hentast at vinna? Nj. 54, Fms. i. 127; er slíkum mönnum bezt hent þar, there is the right place for such men, Orkn. 322.

hentug-leikr, m. opportunity, Fb. iii. 254.

hentug-liga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), fitly.

hentugr, adj. befitting, convenient, Ísl. ii. 13, Fb. i. 209; ó-hentugr.

heppi-fengr, adj. making a good catch, Grett. 138 A.

heppi-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), fortunate; ó-heppilegr.

HEPPINN, adj. [happ, cp. Engl. happy], lucky, Symb. 14, Grett. 90 new Ed., Fb. i. 541; orð-h., ready-tongued.

heppnast, að, [Engl. happen], to have good luck, freq. in mod. usage.

heppni, f. good luck, freq. heppnis-maðr, m. a lucky man.

HEPTA, better hefta, t, [hapt or haft], to bind, fetter, Grág. ii. 131; h. hross (hesta), to tether a horse, i. 383, Glúm. 368, Fs. 5, Vápn. (Ný Fél. xxi. 123): metaph. to hinder, impede, h. ferð (för) e-s, Lv. 76, Grág. ii. 110: to hold back, restrain, Fær. 229, Nj. 141; h. fyrir e-m, id., Grett. 134 A: in the saying, íllt er flýjanda at hepta, Fms. ix. 370, cp. Sturl. iii. 23; en lendir menn heptu þá, Fms. ix. 389; vera heptr, to be hindered, iv. 132: h. sik, to restrain oneself, forbear; at þú hept þik at (forbear) héðan af at glepja Þuríði, Eb. 252; hann bað Jökul h. sik (be quiet), Fs. 37, Karl. 54: reflex. to be thwarted, heptisk ferð þeirra, Fms. x. 291, Fs. 4; ok heptusk Skotar við þat, 120.

hepti, n. [Germ. heft], the haft or hilt of a dirk, Gísl. 18, Fas. i. 56, ii. 358, Eb. 250, cp. Grett. 153 new Ed., Landn. 248. hepti-sax, n. a kind of dagger, Grett. 141; knífa-h., Sks. 127. II. [Germ. heft; Dan. hefte], a part, fasciculus of a book, (mod.)

hepting, f. a tether, Gþl. 395: tethering, freq.: impediment, Sturl. iii. 220.

HÉR, adv. (spelt hier, Greg. 79), [Ulf. her = ωδε, hirjiþ = δευτε, hidre = ωδε; A. S. he; Engl. here; Germ. hier; Dan. her; the long root vowel indicates a contraction, cp. heðra, Engl. hither]:—here; mun þín sæmd þar meiri en hér, Nj. 10; á landi hér, in this county here, Íb. 5, 12, 14–16; as also, hér í sveit, hér í bæ, hér á þingi, etc., hér í héraði, Fs. 33; þeir vildu eigi vesa hér við heiðna menn, Íb. 4; vetri fyrr en Kristni væri hér lögtekin, 15; mönnum hér, people here, 10; áðr vóru hér slík lög of þat sem í Noregi, 13; hér út, out here, i. e. here in Iceland, Grág. i. 215; hér ok hvar, here and there, Fms. ix. 362, Sks. 192, Fs.; hér eru nú höfðingjar margir á þingi, Nj. 3. 2. for hither, cp. Engl. come here! nú er hann hér kominn, Niðrst. 6; fyrr en Kristni kom hér á Ísland, Íb. 9; margir þeir er hér koma, Fs. 100; hér eru ok tignarklæði er hón sendi þér, Nj. 6; er þér hér nú minja-griprinn, 203. II. metaph. here, in this case; hér er þó betr á komit, Nj. 91; mun hér ok svá, 76. 2. with prep.; hér af, here-from, henceforth; at þú mundir unna öllum hér af góðs hlutar, Ld. 206; en þó man hér hljótask af margs manns bani,—mun nokkut hér minn bani af hljótask, Nj. 90: hér at, með öðru fleira gabbi er þeir görðu hér at, Sturl. i. 155, Fs. 9: hér eptir, hereafter, Fms. ix. 313; according to this, hér eptir mun ek velja kvæðis-launin, vi. 217, x. 177: hér fyrir, for this, therefore, Fas. ii. 125; hér til, hitherto, Fms. vi. 279, viii. 92, x. 337: hér um, in this, of this, as regards this, Stj. 524, Dipl. v. 22; er þú ert svá þráhaldr á þínu máli hér um, Fms. i. 305: hér á (í) mot, again, in return, Dipl. ii. 12, v. 2.

B. COMPDS: hér-alinn, part. ‘here-born,’ in-born, N. G. L. i. 84. hér-kváma, u, f. arrival, Fms. i. 281. hér-lands, adv. here in this county. hérlands-maðr, m. a native of this county, Hkr. ii. 266. hér-lendr, adj. native, home-made, Pm. 109. hér-lenzkr, adj. from this county, native of this county, Fms. i. 78, x. 226, Gþl. 87, Stj. hér-na, see below. hér-rænn, adj. = hérlenzkr, N. G. L. ILLEGIBLE. 88. hér-villa, u, f. superstition; see heimskr: hérvillu-ligr, adj. hér-vist, f. dwelling here, Fms. vii. 26, Fas. i. 182; h. Drottins, the Lord’s life on earth, 625. 92.

HÉRAÐ or hierat, n., pl. héruð or héröð, spelt hieroþ in the vellum, 656 C. 9, 673 A. 53, and in O. H. L. Cod. Upsal. hærað, see p. 113: [hérað is undoubtedly derived from herr (A. S. here), a host, and not from hér, here; the long vowel (é) is prob. caused by the characteristic j in her-r (herj-); so that hierað (hérað), through the after effect of the i sound, stands for heriað; cp. Dan. herred, Swed. härad: the Old Engl. and Scot. law term heriot may also be connected with the Scandin. word, in which case the original sense of hérað might be a tax to be paid to the lord in lieu of military service: the inflex. -að is derived from auðr, óðal, as has been suggested by the old commentators, e. g. Björn á Skarðsá]:—a county, district: 1. in Sweden esp. the word had and still has a fixed legal sense, county, jurisdiction, or the like, cp. Swed. härads-höfding = justice of peace, härads-ting = assize, härads-fogde = bailiff: so in local names, e. g. Dan. Thy-herred in Jutland, Kvenna-hérað, Vetta-h., in Norway, Hálfs. S., Fb. iii. 2. in Norway hérað, country, was usually opp. to bær, town, and answers to Icel. sveit in mod. usage; í bæ ok í héraði, D. N. iii. 35, 101; hérað eðr kaupstaði, Fms. vii. 187; í héraði né í kaupangi, N. G. L. ii. 39; allt þat er í kaupangi er gört þá skal þat at kaupangrs-rétti sækja, en allt þat er í héraði er gört millum héraðs-manna ok bíar-manna, þá skal þat allt at héraðs-rétti sækja, N. G. L. ii. 88 and passim; ef maðr á hús í kaupangi en bæ í héraði, id.; cp. héraðs-dómr, -höldr, -kirkja, -menn, -prestr, -réttr, -þing, etc., below. 3. in Icel. the sense varies, but is for the most part merely geographical, a district, valley, fjord, country, as bordered by mountains or within the same river-basin; thus the Skaga-fjörðr, Eyja-fjördr are each a hérað, and the former is specially so called, see Sturl. passim, Grett. 153 (hann sendi þegar eptir mönnum upp í Hérað); whence Héraðs-vötn, n. pl. Herad water, a river of that county, Landn.; so Fljótsdals-hérað, in the east of Icel., Hrafn. 2, 3; cp. þeir riðu ór héraði, Sturl. iii. 158; ef maðr ríðr um fjöll þau er vatnföll deilir af á millum héraða, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 61, 65; í héraði því (dale) er Reykja-dalr heitir, Sturl. i. 130. β. gener. a neighbourhood; Gunnarr reið um héraðit at bjóða mönnum, Nj. 49. 4. generally a district; í Svíþjóð eru stór héruð mörg, Hkr. i. 5; í héraði því er Mesopotamia heitir, 623. 52; fjarlæg héruð, Fms. x. 374; sam-héraðs, within the same district; utan-héraðs, outside the district; innan-h., inside, passim; í öllum héruðum Gyðinga, 656 C. 9; í héraði því er á Fjóni heitir, Fms. xi. 43; Galilea-hérað, Campania-h., Cappadokia-h., Post., etc.

B. COMPDS: héraðs-bóndi, a, m. a franklin, Eg. 516, Sturl. iii. 259. héraðs-bót, f. a bettering the affairs of a district, Lv. 45, Fs. 51 (where = mod. landhreinsun). héraðs-brestr, m., for the pun see Glúm. 375. héraðs-bygð, f. a county and its people, Lv. 49, Sturl. iii. 81. héraðs-deild, f. a county quarrel, Sturl. ii. 154. héraðs-dómr, m. a county court, Grág. i. 117, 452. héraðs-fleygr, adj. (-fleyttr, N. G. L. i. 352), rumoured abroad, of news; þá eru sakir héraðfleygjar er meiri hlutr hefir spurt þingheyjanda í þeim hrepp er sakir koma upp ok hyggi menn at satt sé, Grág. ii. 101. héraðs-flótti, a, m. flight or exile from a district, Korm. 48. héraðs-fundr, m. a county assize, Nj. 120, Sturl. iii. 160. héraðs-færsla, u, f. a passing on the poor from one district to another, Grág. i. 229. héraðs-hæfr, adj. = héraðsvært, N. G. L. ii. 454. héraðs-höfðingi, a, m. a chieftain, = goði (q. v.), Eb. 156, Fs. 80; cp. yfirmaðr héraðs, 4. héraðs-höldr, m. a Norse term, a country franklin (= Icel. sveitabóndi), Fagrsk. ch. 16. héraðs-íseta, u, f. = héraðsvist, Sturl. iii. 260. héraðs-kirkja, u, f. a parish church (Norse), N. G. L. i. 344, Fms. x. 153. héraðs-kona, u, f. a woman of the county (Norse), N. G. L. i. 234. héraðs-konungr, m. a kinglet, Hkr. i. 46. héraðs-lýðr, m. people of the district, 625. 72. héraðs-menn, m. pl. men of the district, Grág. i. 253; in Norse sense country-people, as opp. to bæjarmenn, town-people, Gþl. 264, N. G. L. ii. 88, passim. héraðs-prestr, m. a parish priest, N. G. L. i. 346. héraðs-réttr, m. = héraðsdómr, N. G. L. ii. 88. héraðs-riddari, a, m. a knight of the district, Róm. 309. héraðs-ríkr, adj. of influence in one’s district, Ld. 298, Grett. 121 A, Ísl. ii. 402. héraðs-rækr, adj. banished from the district, Grág. i. 501. héraðs-sekr, adj. a law term, exiled from a district or jurisdiction, opp. to exiled from the country, Nj. 156, Sturl. i. 145, ii. 92; hann var görr h. svá víða sem vötn féllu til Skagafjarðar, Fs. 34; hann var h. ok skyldi búa eigi nær en í Hörgár-dal, Glúm. 390, cp. Landn. 286. héraðs-sekt, f. exile, the being héraðs-sekr, opp. to utanferðir, Nj. 189, 256, Grett. 120, Sturl. ii. 255. héraðs-sókn, f. a county action (suit), opp. to a suit in alþingi, Grág. i. 452, Jb. 10, 353. héraðs-stefna, u, f. a county assize (Norse), D. N. iii. 120. héraðs-stjórn, f. county government, Ísl. ii. 125; talaði Einarr langt erindi um h., Glúm. 372 (public affairs). héraðs-takmark, n. the borders of a territory, Grág. ii. 404. héraðs-vist, f. abiding within a certain h., Eb. 252; láta h. sína = to be héraðssekr, Grett. 120, Nj. 228. héraðs-vært, n. adj.; eiga h., being at liberty to reside within a district, Glúm. 382, not being héraðssekr. héraðs-þing, n. a county assize (cp. Swed. härads ting), Eb. 12; used as synonymous with várþing, in opp. to alþingi, Grág. ii. 96, Fms. i. 77, Jb. (Norse), N. G. L. ii. 138.

her-bergi, n. (her-byrgi, Gþl. 139, Stj. 204), [A. S. hereberga or herebeorga; Old Engl. herberowe, harbrough, and herber (Chaucer); mod. Engl. harbour, arbour; mid. H. G. herberge; Germ. herberge; Swed. herberge; hence Ital. albergo and Fr. auberge]:—a harbour (prop. ‘host-shelter’): 1. an inn; herbergi þar er menn drukku inni, Fb. i. 347: allit., hús ok herbergi, Fms. i. 104, Edda 147 (pref.); var þeim vísat í gesta-hús til herbergis, Edda 60; vera at herbergi (to lodge) í húsum e-s, Clem. 35; taka sér h., to take lodgings, Sks. 31. 2. a closet, room, Stj. 1, 204, 520, Fms. xi. 117, Eg. 525; konungs h., a king’s closet, Ó. H. 117, Gþl. 139. COMPDS: herbergis-maðr, m. a groom of the chamber, Fms. vii. 203, x. 123. herbergis-sveinn, m. id., Fb. i. 347, ii. 284, Hkr. iii. 324, Stj. 518, 641, Fas. i. 317: in mod. usage, room, svefn-herbergi, a bedroom; gesta-h., an inn, Luke ii. 7.

her-bergja, ð, (her-byrgja, Str. 12, passim), [cp. Fr. heberger]:—to harbour a person, Str. 24: allit., hýsa ok h. e-n, Stj. 152; h. fátæka, Mar. 11; h. e-n ríkulega, to treat one sumptuously, Str. 14. II. to lodge, take in; hann herbyrgði um kveldit at nunnu-setri, Str. 19, 80, Karl. 10: reflex. to lodge, Rétt. 78.

HERÐA, ð, mod. herti, [harðr; Ulf. ga-hardjan; Engl. harden]:—to harden: 1. of iron, to temper; h. járn, sverð, kníf, ljá …, Nj. 203; þegar járnsmiðr herðir stóra bolöxi eðr handöxi, og bregðr henni í kalt vatn, Od. ix. 392. 2. phrases, herða knúa, hendr, at e-u, to clench the fist, Fms. vi. 106, Edda 28. 3. to fasten, tie fast; þeir herða þá seglit með sterku bandi, Fas. iii. 652; herða á, to bind tighter, or metaph. to push on. II. metaph., 1. to exhort, cheer; hann talaði langt, ok herði alla í ákafa, and bade them be of good comfort, Sturl. iii. 33; herða hjörtu sín, to make one’s heart firm, Stj. 437; herði hann þá huginn, Eg. 407, Fb. ii. 322; h. sik, to take heart, Nj. 103: to work briskly, hertú þig þá, mannskræfan, segir Stórólfr, Fb. i. 523: to harden, in a bad sense, Stj. 639. 2. absol. to follow closely, pursue vigorously; Birkibeinar sá þá, ok herðu eptir þeim, Fms. ix. 15; herðu þeir Kolbeins-menn á þá, Sturl. iii. 33; skulum vér víst herða áfram. push on, Fms. xi. 256; en er Ormr herti fast at, but as O. insisted, pressed hard, Fb. i. 523; herðu þeir þá biskupar báðir at Gizuri, Fms. x. 59; herðu bændr at konungi ok báðu hann blóta, Hkr. i. 144; Þorkell herðir nú á Guðríði, en hón kvaðsk göra mundu sem hann beiddi, Þorf. Karl. 378; tók þá sótt at herða at honum, Fms. x. 73. III. impers. to become hard; veðr (acc.) herti, it blew up a gale; herti seglit (acc.), the sail was strained hard by the gale, Fas. iii. 652; svörð tekr heldr at herða, Fs. (in a verse). IV. reflex. to take heart; bað konungr menn vel við herðask, Fms. viii. 34; er þó einsætt at menn herðisk við sem bezt, xi. 137.

herða, u, f. hardness:—a hardening or tempering of steel, Karl. 173: tempered steel, muðrinn (of the axe) rifnaði upp í gegnum herðuna, Eg. 181. herðu-góðr, adj. well tempered, Fbr. 141. II. metaph. hardihood, but also hardness, Fms. vi. 38, x. 406, xi. 217, Gísl. 71 (in a verse).

HERÐAR, f. pl. the shoulders, the upper part of the back, distinguished from öxl = shoulder in a special sense, Nj. 185, Eg. 289, Fms. vii. 55, Sks. 166, Fb. i. 396, Þiðr. 9, passim, cp. Matth. xxiii. 4, Luke xv. 5: so in the phrase, hafa hofuð og herðar yfir e-n, to be higher than another from the shoulders and upwards, cp. 1 Sam. ix. 2, x. 23. COMPDS: (old form herði-, mod. herða-): herða-drengr, m. a hump on the back, a pun, Fms. viii. 404. herða-kambr, m. the withers, of a horse. herða-kistill, m. a hump. herða-klettr, m., poët. the ‘shoulder-knoll,’ the head, Skm. herða-lítill, adj. narrow-shouldered, Grett. 165. herða-munr, m. the difference from the shoulders and upwards, metaph. of one who is no match for another, Fms. xi. 442. herða-sár, n. a shoulder sore or wound, Sturl. i. 85. herða-toppr, m. a shoulder tuft, the part of a horse’s mane next the saddle, Sturl. i. 152, Bær. 16. herðar-blað, n. the shoulder blade, Nj. 70, Sturl. i. 152. herði-breiðr, adj. broad-shouldered, Fms. x. 151, Finnb. 324, Sturl. iii. 122, Fbr. 80 new Ed. herði-lútr, adj. with stooping or round shoulders, Barl. 15, Bs. i. 312. herði-mikill, adj. broad-shouldered, Sturl. iii. 122, Eg. 305, Ísl. ii. 203. herði-þykkr, adj. thick-shouldered, Ld. 298, Fbr. 40 new Ed.

herði, f. hardihood, Fms. xi. 151.

herði-maðr, m. a hardy man, Nj. 270.

herðsla, u, f. hardening, tempering, of iron.

heremiti, a, m. a hermit (for. word), Sks.

herfa, u, f., prop. a skein, Swed. härfua. 2. metaph. a limp, lazy fellow, a coward; hann er mesta herfa. herfu-skapr, m. cowardice.

HERFI, n. [Dan. harv; Engl. harrow], a harrow, Akv. 16 (hervi), Gþl. 358, 359.

herfi-liga, adv. ‘harrowingly,’ wretchedly, Fms. x. 253, Fb. i. 93.

herfi-ligr, adj. ‘harrowing,’ wretched, ragged, Eluc. 21, Fms. vii. 157, x. 222, Stj. 20, 39, Nj. 197.

her-fjöturr, vide herr.

HÉRI, a, m. [A. S. hara; Engl. hare; Germ. hase; Dan. hare]:—a hare, Karl. 518, Pr. 479, Orkn. 426, Sks. 186, MS. 1812. 18: in the phrase, hafa héra hjarta, to be hare-hearted, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 314, Bs. i. 782. héra-fótr, m., prop. a herb, hare’s foot, trefoil: nickname of a Danish king, Harefoot. II. in the saying in Fms. vii. 116 the word héri seems to be = hegri (q. v.), a heron.

HERJA, að, [A. S. hergian; Scot. to herry or harry; Dan. hærge]:—to go harrying or freebooting, Nj. 127, Eg. 78, 228, Fms. i. 10, Grág. i. 135, passim. II. trans. with acc. to harry, despoil, waste; Haraldr konungr herjaði landit ok átti orrostur, Fms. i. 5; herja land, Mirm.; at herjuðu helvíti, having harried hell, Karl. 279; borgir ok þorp er aðrir höfðu herjað (harried, taken by force) af hans eign, Fms. x. 231; (whence the mod. phrase, h. e-ð út úr e-m, to harry a thing out of one, press him till he yields it up); herja mönnum til Kristindóms, to harry, drive people to Christianity, N. G. L. i. 344; Fjandinn herjar menn ór Kristninni, Rb. 400. III. reflex., herjask á, to harry (wage war on) one another, Hkr. ii. 75.

herjan, f. a harrying, Magn. 464.

Herjan, m. [herr], Lord of Hosts, a name of Odin, Edda. II. the evil one, a term of abuse. COMPDS: herjans-kerling, f. a hag, Bs. ii. 134. herjans-liga, adv. wickedly, Clar. Herjans-sonr, m. a ‘Devil’s limb,’ Lv. 58, Fb. i. 256, Fas. i. 107, iii. 607, 655, Þiðr. 106, 111.

herkinn, adj. enduring hardness, 2 Tim. ii. 3.

herkja, t, to do with the utmost difficulty; herkja þeir þá í annat sinn norðr fyrir Langanes, Bs. i. 483.

herkja, u, f. [harki], dearth (?), a nickname, Landn.: the name of a giantess, Edda (Gl.): in the phrase, með herkjum or með herkjumunum, with the utmost difficulty.

her-ligr, adj. [from herra; Germ. herrlich; Dan. herlig], lordly; herlegra mann undir vápnum né tíguligra, Fms. vii. 69; h. höfðingi, 603 (non habent isti dominum, of the Vulgate); h. kerrur (currus), Stj. 573. 1 Kings x. 26; herligt kaprún (stuff), Sturl. iii. 306, v. l.: unclass. and not much used, except in poetry, háðir eitt herligt stríð, Pass. 19, 13; herligt er æ hermanns stand, Bjarni.

HERMA, d, [the root uncertain], to relate, prop. perhaps to repeat, report; en ef nokkurr maðr hermir þessi orð eðr vísur, Nj. 68; hann spurði þá, hvárt hann hermdi rétt, whether he reported true, 24; h. frá orðum e-s, Fms. vii. 73, Sks. 557; h. orð e-s, id.; hann hermdi hversu hann hafði talat, Stj. 65. β. herma eptir e-m, to imitate another’s voice, to mimic, esp. in a bad sense, Gísl. 49, Ísl. ii. 346; cp. the saying, sjaldan lætr sá betr er eptir hermir.

HERMASK, d, dep. [harmr], to wax wroth, be annoyed; henni hermdisk við líkaminn ok blótaði honum, Hom. 150. II. n. part. hermt; e-m verðr h. við e-t, to wax angry with a thing; bóndi sprettr þá upp ok verðr hermt við, Ísl. ii. 175; honum görði mjök hermt við þessu, it annoyed him much, Grett. 23 new Ed., Þiðr. 115, 355; for the mod. phrase,—e-m verðr hverft (hermt) við e-ð, to be startled, mér varð hverft víð, of sudden emotion (fright or the like),—see hverfr.

hermd, f. vexation, anger, Barl. 115 (v. l.), Hkv. i. 47. COMPDS: hermdar-orð (Fagrsk. 153) and hermdar-yrði, n. angry words, spiteful words, Nj. 281. hermdar-verk, n., dub. a deed of revenge, or perhaps rather a deed of renown, a feat; mikil verða hermdarverk, ek hefi spunnit tólf álna garn en þú hefir vegit Kjartan, Ld. 224; vide herma.

hermi-kráka, u, f. an ‘aping-crow,’ a mimicker, Gísl. 51.

hermi-liga, adv. (hermila, Hallfred), right angrily, Barl. 184, Al. 144, Fms. ii. 279, Clem. 36; hefna hermila, to take a fierce revenge, Hallfred.

herming, f. [hermask], indignation, Lv. 75. II. [herma], a report, D. N. (Fr.)

Hermskr, adj. Armenian, Grág., Bs.

hermsl, n. = hermd, Barl. 115.

hermur, f. pl., in eptir-hermur, q. v., aping, mimicry.

hérna, adv., herno, Fms. (Ágrip) x. 409:—here (see Gramm. p. xxviii, col. 2, signif. II), Fms. vii. 197; sé hérna, see here now! behold! Ísl. ii. 364, Stj. 22, 62: hérna, instead of hér, is very freq. in conversation; herno, konungr (behold, O king!), fögnuðr er oss á, attú ert svá kátr, Fms. x. 409.

hernaðr (hernuðr), m. a harrying, plundering, as a law term, Grág. ii. 134–136; hefja hernoð ok rán, Bs. i. 493; hafa e-t at hernaði, to rob, N. G. L. i. 344. II. warfare, a raid, foray; fara í hernað, Nj. 41, Fms. i. 144; hefja hernað, to wage war, vii. 7, passim. COMPDS: hernaðar-fólk, n. pl. plunderers, Hkr. iii. 67. hernaðar-menn, m. pl. forayers, Fms. vii. 18, xi. 226. hernaðar-ráð, n. pl. a planning for plunder, Grág. ii. 135. hernaðar-sök, f. a case of raid, Sturl. ii. 79.

herneskja, u, f. [from the Fr. harnois, Engl. harness], armour, Stj. 287, 466, Gullþ. 11, Þiðr. 100, Barl., N. G. L. ii. (Hirðskrá, ch. 32): men of war, Barl. passim.

HERPA, u, f. [harpa II], in munn-herpa, mouth-cramp, a contraction of the lips by cold.

herpast, t, to be contracted as with cramp.

herpingr, m. chilling (cramping) cold, herpings-kuldi, herpings-frost, n. a nipping, bitter frost.

HERR, m., old gen. herjar, pl. herjar, herja, herjum; later gen. hers, dropping the characteristic j and without pl.; the old form however often occurs in ancient poets, herjar, Hkr. i. 343 (in a verse), Fms. xi. 311 (in a verse), Fas. ii. 38 (in a verse); eins herjar, Hm. 72; as also, allt herjar, Hom. 39; herjum, in herjum-kunnr. famous, Háttat. R.; in prose the old j has been preserved in alls-herjar, Fms. v. 106, see pp. 16, 17; the pl. -jar occurs in Ein-herjar, see p. 121: in compd pr. names with initial vowel, Herj-ólfr (A. S. Herewulf), Herjan; [Goth. harjis, by which Ulf. renders λεγεών, Luke viii. 30, and στρατιά, ii. 13; A. S. here; O. H. G. and Hel. heri; Germ. heer; Dutch heir; Swed. här; Dan. hær]:—prop. a host, multitude: 1. a host, people in general, like στρατός in Homer; herr er hundrað, a hundred makes a herr, Edda 108; allr herr, all people, Fms. i. 194, vi. 428 (in a verse); allr herr unni Ólafi konungi hugástum, vi. 441; whence in prose, alls-herjar, totius populi, general, universal, passim; dómr alls-herjar, universal consent, v. 106; Drottinn alls-herjar, Lord of Sabaoth (hosts), Stj. 428, 456; allt herjar, adv. everywhere; lýsti of allt herjar af ljósinu, Hom. 39; Sænskr herr, the Swedish people; Danskr herr, the Danish people; Íslenzkr herr, the Icelandic people, Lex. Poët.; land-herr (q. v.), the people of the land; en nú sé ek hér útalligan her af landsfólki, a countless assembly of men, Fms. xi. 17; þing-herr, an assembly, Sighvat; Einherjar, the chosen people (rather than chosen warriors); þegi herr meðan, Eb. (in a verse); herjum-kunnr, known to all people, Lex. Poët.; and in compds, her-bergi (q. v.), etc. 2. a host; með her manns, with a host of men, Eg. 71, 277; úvígr herr, an overwhelming host, Fms. viii. 51; himin og jörð og allr þeirra her, Gen. ii. 1, passim; cp. her-margr, many as a host, innumerable. β. an army, troops, on land and sea, Fms. i. 22, 90, Nj. 245, and in endless instances; cp. herja, to harry, and other compds: of a fleet, þrjú skip þau sem hann keyri ór herinum, Fms. x. 84; cp. hers-höfðingi: so in the phrase, hers-hendr, leysa e-n ór hers-höndum, to release one out of the hands of war, N. G. L. i. 71; vera í hers höndum, komast í hers hendr, to come into a foe’s hands. 3. in a bad sense, the evil host, the fiends, in swearing, Gþl. 119; herr hafi e-n, fiends take him! Fms. vi. 278; herr hafi hölds ok svarra hagvirki! Ísl. ii. (in a verse); hauga herr, vide haugr; and in compds, her-kerling, her-líki. II. in pr. names: 1. prefixed, of men, Her-brandr, Her-finnr, Her-gils, Her-grímr, Herj-ólfr, Her-laugr, Her-leifr, Her-mundr, Her-rauðr, Her-steinn, Hervarðr; of women, Her-borg, Her-dís, Her-gunnr, Her-ríðr, Her-vör, Her-þrúðr, Landn.: in Har-aldr (Harold) the j is dropped without causing umlaut. Herjan and Herja-föðr, m. the Father of hosts = Odin, Edda, Hdl. 2. suffixed, -arr, in Ein-arr, Agn-arr, Ótt-arr, Böðv-arr, Úlf-arr, etc., see Gramm. p. xxxii, col. 1, signif. B. 1.

B. COMPDS: her-baldr, m. a prince of hosts, Bkv. her-bergi, see the words. her-blástr, m. a blast of trumpets, Eg. 88, 284, Fms. vii. 70, 288, Stj. 394. Her-blindi, a, m. one who strikes the hosts with blindness, a name of Odin, cp. Yngl. S. ch. 6. her-boð, n. a war summons, Eg. 9, Fms. xi. 244; herboðsör = herör, Gþl. 83. her-borg, f. a castle, Hervar. (in a verse). her-brestr, m. an explosion chemically contrived, Bs. i. 798 (Laur. S.), mentioned or perhaps invented by Albertus Magnus. her-búðir, f. pl. a camp, Al. 4, Eg. 291, Fms. iii. 51, xi. 85, Róm. 265, Stj. passim. her-búinn, part. armed, Str. 12. her-búnaðr, m. an armament, Eg. 286, Nj. 273, Fms. iv. 82, x. 49. her-drengr, m. a warrior, Edda (in a verse). her-drótt, f., poët. war-hosts. her-fall, n., poët. an onslaught, Sighvat. her-fang, n. booty, Nj. 43, Fms. ii. 2, vii. 8, Fb. ii. 46, Rb. 386, Sks. 782, passim. her-fenginn, part. captured, 625. 66, Hom. 118, Sks. 631. her-ferð, f. warfare, a military expedition, Róm. 264, Fms. vii. 148, xi. 244: a host, Mar. her-fjöturr, m. a mythical term, ‘war-fetter:’ a valiant man who in the stress of battle feels himself spell-bound, and unable to stir, was in old lore said to be caught in a ‘war-fetter;’ this was attributed to the weird sisters of battle (the Valkyrias), as is shewn by the fact that one of them was called Herfjöturr, Shackle, Edda (Gl.); they were the messengers of Odin, by whom the warriors were doomed to death (kjósa val); the passages referring to this lore are Fms. viii. 170, Sturl. ii. 233, Ísl. ii. 104 twice (Harð. S.):—a similar belief appears in the Greek, see Od. xxii. 297 sqq., Iliad xiii. 358–360, xxii. 5 sqq. her-flokkr, m. a battalion, Fms. i. 92, ix. 379. her-floti, a, m. a war-fleet, N. G. L. i. 103. her-foringi, a, m. a commander. her-fólk, n. war-people, men of war, Bs. ii. 106, Stj. 295. her-fórur, f. pl. harness, Stj. 287, Mag. 82, 92, 97. her-færr, adj. able for war service, Gþl. 269, Fms. i. 55, xi. 291, Ó. H. 87. Her-föðr, m. Father of Hosts, a name of Odin, Edda. her-för, f. = herferð, Eg. 5, Fms. i. 151, Fb. ii. 84. her-gammr, m. a bird of prey, vulture, poët. the eagle, Ýt. her-ganga, u, f. a march, Fms. v. 74. Her-gautr, m. a name of Odin. her-gjarn, adj. warlike, Bkv. 2. 20. her-glötuðr, m., poët. a destroyer of hosts, Skv. her-gopa, u, f. a bondwoman, Hornklofi, an απ. λεγ. her-grimmr, adj., poët. fierce, Edda. her-hlaup, n. a rushing to arms, Nj. 265, Eg. 10, Fms. i. 55, 210, vii. 270, x. 180. her-horn, n. a trumpet, Al. 35, Stj. 394. her-kastali, a, m. a castle, stronghold, Bs. ii. 113, Mar. her-kerling, f. a monster-hag, Sturl. i. 36. her-klukka, u, f. an alarm bell, Fms. ix. 369, 510, 529. her-klæða, dd; h. sik, to put on armour, Bær. 13: reflex., Fms. i. 43, Eg. 287, Ó. H. 107. her-klæði, n. pl. armour, Eg. 49, Fb. ii. 71, Barl. 98, passim. her-konungr, m. a king of hosts, in old writers almost used = sea-king, warrior-king, Eb. 4 (of king Olave the White), Fms. i. 24, Fb. ii. 282, Edda 105, Magn. 412. her-kumbl, n. a war token, arms (on shields, helmets), Nj. 231, Fms. v. 53. her-land, n. a harried land, invaded and in a state of war, Fms. vi. 38. her-leiða, dd, to lead off into captivity, Stj. 49, 385, 489, Mart. 130, Ver. 30. her-leiðing, f. captivity, Fms. x. 224; esp. of the Babylonian captivity, Al. 166, Rb. 382, 386, Ver. 30, Stj. 26, 49, passim. her-leiðsla, u, f. = herleiðing, Mar. her-lið, n. war-people, troops. Eg. 10, Fms. i. 98, iv. 213. her-liki, n. a monster, N. G. L. i. 376, 395. her-lúðr, m. a trumpet, Stj. 392. her-maðr, m. a man of war, a warrior, Fms. i. 8, xi. 160, 373, Nj. 268, passim. hermann-liga, adv. gallantly, Eg. 383. hermann-ligr, adj. warlike, gallant, Ld. 110, Nj. 39, Fms. viii. 436, xi. 245, Stj. 495. her-margr, adj. like a host for number, Lex. Poët. her-megir, m. pl., poët. warriors, Hkv. 2. 4. Her-móðr, m. a mythol. pr. name, Edda. hernaðr, see the word. her-nam, n. = herfang, Sks. 614. her-numi, adj., 655 x. 2, Greg. 17, and her-numinn, part. captive, Eg. 41, 343. her-næma, d, to capture, Bær. 13. her-óp, n. a war-whoop, war-cry, Eg. 80, Nj. 245, Orkn., Stj. 312, Ó. H. 107, Fb. ii. 125, passim. her-saga, u, f. war-news, Fms. i. 41, N. G. L. i. 102; hersögu-ör, f. = herör, Gþl. 82, v. l. her-skapr, m. warfare, harrying, Fms. v. 344, x. 231, 234, 392, xi. 226, Fas. i. 375, Fs. 4, Stj. 385, Róm. 264, passim. her-skari, a, m. a host. her-skár, adj. (herská, herskátt), a land exposed to raid or in a state of war; landit var þá herskátt, lágu víkingar úti, Eg. 241, Fms. xi. 217, Hkr. i. 44; í þann tíma var mjök herskátt (unruly time), Orkn. 64; þar var herskátt af víkingum, Hkr. i. 106, Bjarn. 15, Ld. 82, Fas. i. 374: of a person, martial, warlike, Fms. i. 198, vii. 16, x. 413, Orkn. 22. her-skip, n. a ship of war, Fms. i. 7, Nj. 8, Ó. H. 16, N. G. L. i. 100, 102. her-skjöldr, m. a war shield, a red shield, opp. to the white shield of peace (friðar-skjöldr), used in phrases as, fara (land) herskildi, to harry (a land), Eg. 246, Fms. i. 62, 116, 131; fara við herskildi, id., Hkr. i. 233, cp. Stj. 542, 619 (2 Kings vi. 14), 641. her-skrúð, n. (her-skrúði, a, m., Fms. x. 234, Stj. 570), harness, Bjarn. 11. her-spori, a, m. a ‘war-spur,’ caltrop, Fms. vii. 183, Al. 74, Sks. 392. her-stjóri, a, m. a commander, Edda 93. her-stjórn, f. command of troops, Hkr. i. 211. her-sveitir, f. pl. hosts, margfjöldi himneskra hersveita, Luke ii. 13. her-taka, tók, to capture, esp. in part. pass., Fms. i. 28, vii. 129, Eg. 234, 344, Stj. 495. her-taka and her-tekja, u, f. captivity, Stj. 75, Barl. 114. her-tekning, f. captivity, Stj. 52. her-togi, a, m. [A. S. heretoga; Germ. herzog], originally a leader, commander, and often used so in old poets, Lex. Poët.: as a nickname, Guthormr hertogi, Hkr. Har. S. Hárf.: as a title, a duke (e. g. of Normandy); the first Norse duke was the earl Skuli, created duke A. D. 1237, vide Edda 104, Sks. 788, Gþl. 364: eccl. = prince, hertogi myrkranna, Satan, 623. 31. hertoga-dómr, m. a dukedom, Fms. xi. 312, 326. hertoga-dæmi, n. a duchy, Fms. xi. 319, Fas. ii. 475. hertoga-efni, n. a duke to be, N. G. L. ii. 399. hertoga-inna, u, f. a duchess, Ann. 1326. hertoga-nafn, n. the title of a duke, Fms. ix. 46. her-turn, m. a turret on wheels, a war engine, Fms. x. 358. her-tygð, f. = hertýgi (?), an απ. λεγ., Hallfred. her-týgi, n. pl. armour, harness, Germ. heerzeug. her-týgja, að, to put armour on, freq. in mod. usage. her-váðir, f. pl. ‘war-weeds,’ armour, Hkm., Konr. 39. her-vápn, n. pl. weapons, Hkr. ii. 7, Fms. vii. 147, Jb. 389. her-vegir, m. pl., poët. war-paths, Gh. 2. her-verk or her-verki, n. ravage, plunder, Stj. 598, Hkr. i. 85, Fms. ii. 156, ix. 396. her-vígi, n. battle and ravage, thus defined: it is hervígi when three or more persons are slain or wounded on each side, Grág. ii. 114, 124, Fms. viii. 300: mod. a stronghold. her-víkingr, m. a plunderer, pirate, Fms. i. 225, v. 238, x. 282, Fas. i. 449, Stj. 573. her-væða, dd, to put armour on, Edda 25. her-þing, n. a council of war, Eg. 357, Finnb. 262; but v. l. húsþing is better. her-þurft, f. want of troops, Fagrsk. ch. 32. her-ör, f. a ‘war-arrow,’ to be sent round as a token of war: the phrase, skera upp h., to summon to arms, Eg. 9, Fms. i. 92, vi. 24, x. 388, Fb. ii. 172, 188, Gþl. 82, cp. 433: for these customs see the remarks s. v. boð, p. 71, as also Scott’s Notes to Marmion, Canto III, on the Fiery Cross of the Scottish Clans.

HERRA, m. (herri, a, m., Clem. 36), irreg. and indecl. in sing., pl. reg. herrar, [derived from herr, as dróttinn from drótt, þjóðan from þjóð; Germ. herr; Dan. herre, etc.]:—gener. a lord, master, Fms. i. 218, x. 45, 159, xi. 381; in olden times herra was used in addressing a king or earl, as Fr. sire, Engl. sir, see the Sagas passim: I. as a title; in A. D. 1277 knights and barons were created in Norway, to whom the title of Herra was given; Herra Rafn, Herra Þorvarðr, Herra Sturla, etc., Árna S., Laur. S., Ann. passim: the bishops and abbots were also so styled, e. g. Herra Arngrímr (an abbot), Bs. ii. After the Reformation, Herra became an integral part of the style of bishops, as Sira of priests, Herra Guðbrandr, Herra Þorlákr, Herra Oddr, etc., and can only be applied to the Christian name; cp. the ditty in which the old woman addresses the bishop bv Sira, and is rebuked for her rudeness, Sælir verið þér, Sira minn, | sagða eg við Biskupinn; | ansaði mér þá aptr hinn, | þú áttir að kall’ ‘ann Herra þinn. In mod. usage Herra is often applied to any person whatever, but only in writing; for in conversation the Icel. has no equivalent to the Engl. Mr. or Germ. Herr, and a person is simply addressed by his name or other title, Sira if a clergyman, and the like. In the N. T. dróttinn, herra, and lávarðr (from Engl.) are used indiscriminately. II. COMPDS: herra-dómr, m. dominion, lordship, Bs. i. 728, Fb. i. 81; yðarr h. in addressing, as your lordship in Engl., D. N. passim. herra-dæmi, n. = herradómr, H. E. ii. 73, Fb. i. 247. herra-liga, adv. in lordly fashion, Karl. 148. herra-ligr, adj. lordly, Fb. i. 90. herra-maðr, m. a lord, a knight, a lordly man, Fms. x. 445, Bs. i. 736, 780 (Lv. 59 looks as if corrupt). herramann-liga, adv. in lordly manner, Finnb. 276. herramann-ligr, adj. lordly. herra-nafn, n. the title of a herra, Ann. 1277. herrasam-ligr, adv. in lordly way, Fas. iii. 70. herra-sæti, n. a lordly seat, Magn. 502.

herra, að, to confer the title of herra upon a person, Ann. 1294.

herran, m. = herra, a name of Odin, vide Herjan, Edda.

hers-borinn, part. born of a hersir, Hdl.

hers-höfðingi, a, m. a commander, Stj. passim, Fms. vi. 151.

HERSIR, m. [akin to hérað and herr], a chief, lord, the political name of the Norse chiefs of the earliest age, esp. before the time of Harold Fairhair and the settlement of Iceland: respecting the office and authority of the old hersar the records are scanty, as they chiefly belonged to the prehistorical time; they were probably not liegemen, but resembled the goðar (vide goði) of the old Icel. Commonwealth, being a kind of patriarchal and hereditary chiefs: in this matter the old Landnáma is our chief source of information;—Björn Buna hét hersir ágætr í Noregi, son Veðrar-Gríms hersis í Sogni, móðir Gríms var Hervör dóttir Þorgerðar Eylaugs-dóttur hersis ór Sogni, Landn. 39; Arinbjörn h. ór Fjörðum, 66; Ási h., 76, 303, and another of the same name, 109; Ketill Veðr h. af Hringaríki, 94; Hrólfr h. af Ögðum, 48, 126; Ketill Raumr hét h. ágætr í Raumsdal, 173; Gormr h. ágætr í Svíþjóð, 195; Grímr h., 204; Þorsteinn Höfði h. á Hörðalandi, 228; Þórir Hauknefr h., 237; Úlfr Gildir h. á Þelamörk, 292; Veðr-Ormr h., 314; Arinbjörn h., Eg., Ad. 3; Vigfúss h. af Vörs, Glúm.; Klyppr h. á Hörðalandi, Fb. i. 19; Dala-Guðbrandr h., Ó. H. 106; Björn h. á Örlandi, Eg. 154; Þórir h. í Fjörðum, 155, cp. Rm. 36; hann var sem konungr væri yfir Dölunum, ok var þó h. at nafni, Ó. H. l. c., cp. Fb. i. 23; hersar hafa verit fyrri frændr mínir, ok vil ek ekki bera hærra nafn en þeir, Fms. i. 299: it is also prob. that by ágætr and göfugr (q. v.) the Landnáma means a hersir. At the time of Harold Fairhair the old hersar gradually became liegemen (lendir menn) and were ranked below a jarl (earl), but above a höldr (yeoman), the scale being konungr, jarl, hersir, höldr, búandi, see the record in Hkr. i. 80 (Har. S. Hárf. ch. 6), as also Edda 93; the name then becomes rare, except that hersir and lendr maðr are now and then used indiscriminately, heita þeir hersar eða lendir menn, Edda l. c. The old Norse hersar were no doubt the prototype of the barons of Normandy and Norman England. COMPDS: hersis-heiti, n. the title of a h., Edda (Ht.) hersis-nafn, n. id., Fb. i. 23.

her-skapr, vide herr.

her-skár, vide herr.

herstask, t, dep. [= mod. hasta, q. v.], to speak harshly to one; hann herstisk á fjándann með reiði ok mælti, Greg. 50, Eb. 118 new Ed., Hom. 16 (= Lat. exasperare), Blas. 31.

hersti-liga, adv. harshly, Greg. 55, (mod. höstuliga.)

hersti-ligr, adj. harsh-spoken; h. mál, sermo durus, Hom. 22.

her-togi, vide herr.

HES, f. (spelt his, Gþl. l. c.), pl. hesjar:—a wooden frame attached to the tether of an animal, to prevent it from strangling itself; þat er ok hans handvömm ef af ofmegri verðr dautt eðr klafi kyrkir, en ef hæs (his, Gþl.) er í bandi … þá er þat eigi hans handvömm, N. G. L. i. 25, (Gþl. 502, Jb. 364, Js. 121.) 2. metaph., in mod. usage, a cow’s dewlap. 3. in mod. Norse usage hæsje (hesjar) are frames or rails on which hay or corn is put for drying; and hæsja is to dry on hæsje, vide Ivar Aasen, cp. Ný Fél. xv. 33; hence comes the provincial Icel. hisja (a verb): hisjungr and hisjungs-þerrir, m. of a soft air good for drying hay spread out on hesjar.

hesja, að, mod. hisja, to dry hay on a hes: það hisjar í það, to be aired.

heskr, adj. = hastr, haughty, harsh, Band. 31 new Ed.: [in parts of North. E. they speak of a hask, i. e. harsh, wind.]

HESLI, n. [hasl], a hasel, Str. 20. COMPDS: hesli-kylfa, u, f. a hasel-club, Hkv. 2. 20. hesli-skógr, m. hasel-wood, Art. hesli-stöng, f. a hasel-pole, Str. 66. hesli-vöndr, m. a hasel-wand, Str. 66.

HESPA, u, f. a wisp or skein (of wool), Grág. ii. 401, K. Þ. K. 140. II. a hasp, fastening, Fms. ii. 84, v. 120, Grett. 98, Sturl. i. 120, Bs. i. 424.

hesta, að, to mount one; vel, ílla hestaðr, well, badly mounted.

hest-bak, n. horse-back, Grág. ii. 171, Ísl. ii. 382, Fms. xi. 400.

hest-birgr, adj. provided with a horse, Sturl. iii. 238.

hest-brynja, u, f. horse harness, Sks. 403.

hest-búnaðr, m. horse gear, Sks. 374.

hest-færr, adj. able to ride, Gþl. 269, Fms. x. 73.

hest-gangr, m. horse-shoes, Fms. ix. 55.

hest-gjöf, f. a gift of a horse, Njarð. 368.

hest-hús, n., proncd. hestús (as fjós = fé-hús), a horse-stall, stable, Karl. 3, Grett. 113 A, Þorst. S. St. 50, and in many compds.

hest-höfði, a, m. horse-head, a nickname, Landn.

hest-klárr, m. a back, Glúm. 356.

hest-lauss, adj. without a horse, Sturl. iii. 293.

hest-lán, n. the loan of a horse, Bs. ii. 30.

hest-leysi, n. the being without a horse.

HESTR, m. a horse, [this word is a contr. form of hengist, qs. hengstr; A. S. hengest; O. H. G. hengist; Germ. hengst, whence Swed.-Dan. hingst; again, contr. Swed. häst, Dan. hest: in old writers hestr mostly means a stallion, whereas hross (Engl. horse) denotes a gelding or any horse]:—a stallion, opp. to merr, a mare, Grág. i. 503, Gþl. 190, Hrafn. 5, Ám. 98 (hestar þrír ok mer-hross eitt); h. grár með fjórum merum, Ísl. ii. 213; sá hestr var sonr Hvítings, var alhvítr at lit en merarnar allar rauðar, en annarr sonr Hvítings var í Þórarínsdal, ok var sá ok hvítr en merarnar svartar, Bjarn. 55: a steed, Fms. ii. 224: a horse gener., Nj. 4, 74; lið á hestum, horsemen, Fms. x. 31, passim. The ancients valued high breeding and variety of colour in their horses, which were favourite gifts, see Gunnl. ch. 5, Bjarn. l. c., Finnb. ch. 23, Fms. vi. 383, 384; for steeds and horsemanship see Þkv. 6, Yngl. S. ch. 23, 33, Landn. 3. ch. 8, Gullþ. S. ch. 9, Harð. S. ch. 3, 4, Rm. 32, 34, cp. also Lv. ch. 6, 7, Grett. ch. 16, Dropl. 13, Finnb. ch. 23, Fms. vi. 323: mythol. the horse was sacred to Frey (the god of light and the sun), Hrafn. 5, Vd. ch. 34, Fb. i. 401 (Ó. T. ch. 322), cp. Freyfaxi: for the steeds of the Sun, Day, and Night, see Gm. 37, Vþm. 12, 14: for the steeds of the gods, Gm. 30: for poetical and mythical names, Edda (Gl.) and the fragment of the poem Þorgrímsþula, Edda, Bugge 332–334: for Sleipnir, the eight-legged steed of Odin, Edda, Gm. 44: for horse-fights see the references s. v. etja, to which add Grett. ch. 31, Sd. ch. 23:—vatna-hestr, a water-horse, = nykr in popular tales, Landn. 2, ch. 10, and Ísl. Þjóðs.; but also a good swimmer, góðr vatna-hestr; skeið-h., reið-h., a riding horse; klár-h., púls-h., áburðar-h., a hack, cart-horse, pack-horse; stóð-h., a stud-horse: sækja, beizla, gyrða, söðla, járna hest, to fetch, bridle, gird, saddle, shoe a horse; also, leggja á, to saddle; spretta af, to take the saddle off; teyma hest or hafa hest í togi, to lead a horse; flytja h., to put a pony out to grass; hepla h., to tether a pony: a pony is gúðgengr (q. v.), vakr, þýðr; and the reverse, íllgengr, hastr, klárgengr, harðgengr. II. metaph. phrases, há-hestr, a high horse; ríða háhest (a child’s play), also called ríða hákúk, to ride on one another’s shoulders, ride ‘pick-a-back;’ kinn-hestr, a ‘cheek-horse,’ a box on the ear; lýstr hana kinnhest, hón kvaðsk þann hest muna skyldu ok launa ef hón mætti, Nj. 75; þá skal ek nú, segir hón, muna þér kinnhestinn, þann er þú laust mik, 116, cp. Gísl. 27: the gallows is called the horse of Odin, whence gefa e-m hest, to give one a horse, hang one, Fb. i. 238, cp. the verse in Yngl. S. ch. 26. β. the local name of a horse-shaped crag, see Landn.; cp. Hest-fell in Cumberland. COMPDS: either hesta- or hests-: hesta-at, n. a horse-fight, see etja. hesta-bein, n. horse bones (cp. Engl. horse-flesh), Grett. 96. hesta-fóðr, n. horse foddering, a law term, Gþl. 77. hesta-fætr, m. pl. horses’ feet, Edda 77, Fas. i. 226, Fms. iii. 111. hesta-garðr, m. a horse-pen close to a churchyard, wherein the horses of the worshippers are kept during service, D. N. hesta-geldir, m. horse gelder, a nickname, Landn. hesta-geymsla, u, f. horse keeping, Fas. i. 80. hesta-gnegg, n. a horse’s neigh, Stj. 621. hesta-gnýr, m, noise of horsemen, Fms. iii. 74. hesta-hlið, n. a horse gate, Stj. hesta-járn, n. pl. horse-shoes, Sturl. iii. 152. hesta-keyrsla, u, f. driving the steed in, in a horse-fight, Rd. 261. hesta-korn, n. [Swed. hestakorn = oats], a nickname, Fb. iii. hesta-lið, n. horsemen, Fms. vii. 188. hesta-maðr, m. a horse boy, groom. hesta-rétt, f. in Icel., = Norse hestagarðr. hesta-skál, f. a stirrup-cup. hesta-skipti, n. a change of horses; hafa h., Ld. 202, Fs. 51. hesta-stafr, m. a horse staff, to be used in a horse-fight, Nj. 91, Þorst. S. St. 49, cp. Rd. ch. 12, Arons S. ch. 18. hesta-stallr, m. = hesthús, Flóv. hesta-steinn, m. a stone to whicb a horse is tied whilst the horseman takes refreshment. hesta-sveinn, m. a horse boy, groom, Sturl. ii. 218, Fas. i. 149, Þiðr. 205, Þorst. S. St. 50. hesta-víg, n. a horse-fight, Nj. 90, Sturl. ii. 100, Glúm. 366, Rd. 261. hesta-þing, n. a meeting for a public horse-fight, Glúm. 366, 367, Nj. 92, Lv. 37, Sd. 176, Fs. 43, 140.

hest-skeið, n. a race-course, Bs. ii. 182.

hest-skór, m. a horse-shoe, Fms. ix. 55, 56. hestskó-nagli, a, m. a horse-shoe nail.

hest-tönn, f. a horse’s tooth, Vígl. 20.

hest-verð, n. a horse’s worth, Karl. 10.

hest-verk, n. work done by a horse, Gþl. 392.

hest-víg, n. = hestavíg, Rd. 177.

hest-vörðr, m. a mounted guard, Fms. vii. 178, ix. 350, 351.

HETJA, u, f. a hero, champion, a gallant man, Nj. 64, Lv. 36, Ld. 26, 132, Fms. xi. 89, Glúm. 367, Jd. 40. COMPDS: hetju-diktr, m., hetju-ljóð, n. a heroic poem, Jón. Þorl. hetju-móðr, m. heroism. hetju-skapr, m. championship, Fas. i. 24, Ld. ch. 11; this word, which in old writers is rather scarce, is freq. in mod. usage: also eccl., trúar-hetja, a champion of faith; hetja Guðs, a champion of God; striðs-h., a hero.

hetju-ligr, adj. heroical.

HETTA, u, f. [höttr], a hood, Grett. 139, Fms. iv. 359, Band. 16 new Ed., Finnb. 216, Mar.; (koll-hetta, flóka-hetta, lambhús-hetta, a hood to wear in a hard frost.) COMPDS: hettu-lauss, adj. without a hood, Grett. 151 A. hettu-sótt, f., medic. chicken-pox, Dan. faare syge, Sturl. ii. 128: hydrocephalus, Fél. ix. 222. hettu-strútr, m. a cowl, H. E. ii. 113. hettu-sveinar, m. pl. ‘hood-boys,’ a nickname, Hkr. iii. 449.

HEY, n., old gen. heyvi, also spelt heyfi, mod. heyi; e. g. heyvi, Grág. i. 438; heyfi, Eb. 94 new Ed. note, and passim; but heyi, Sks. 416, and so in mod. usage; gen. pl. heyja; [Goth. havi = χόρτος; A. S. hêg; Engl. hay; Hel. houwe; O. H. G. hawi; Germ. heu; Swed.-Dan. hö; Norse höy, Ivar Aasen; akin to höggva, Germ. hauen; thus hey prop. means cut grass]:—hay; mat eðr hey, hey ok matr, Nj. 73, Grág. i. 195, 438, ii. 277, Ísl. ii. 137, Sks. 416, Lv. 18 passim: also used in plur., stores of hay, fodder; beita upp engjum ok heyjum, Fms. vi. 104; gáðu þeir eigi fyrir veiðum at fá heyjanna, Landn. 30; hann hefir rænt mik öllum heyjum, Ísl. ii. 140; hann hefir eingin hey til sölu, 138; en hey fásk lítil, 132: Icel. say, slá, raka, þurka, rifja, sæta, hirða, binda hey, to mow, rake, dry, turn, cock, get in, bind the hay. COMPDS: hey-annir, f. pl. haymaking time (July, August), Edda (Gl.), Hrafn. 25. hey-band, n. a binding hay into trusses. hey-björg, f. stores of hay, Ísl. ii. 131, 138. hey-bruni, a, m. a burning of hay, Ann. hey-deild, f. a distribution of hay, Grág. ii. 275. hey-des, f. a hay-rick (vide des), Sturl. i. 83, 195, Bs. i. 54. hey-fang, n. produce of hay, Sturl. iii. 271. hey-fátt, n. adj. falling short of hay, Rd. 211. hey-fok, n. = heyreki. hey-garðr, m. a stack-yard, Grág. ii. 249, Njarð. 384, Fb. i. 523. hey-gjald, n. payment in hay, Grág. ii. 276. hey-gjöf, f. hay fodder, Boll. 348, Sturl. iii. 292. hey-hjálmr, m. a hay-rick, Fms. vii. 298. hey-hlað, n. a hay-cock, N. G. L. i. 256, Jb. 256. hey-hlass, n. a load of hay, Eb. 188, K. Á. 176. hey-kleggi, a, m. = heydes, Fb. i. 523, Háv. 53. hey-kostr, m. stores of hay, Ísl. ii. 136. hey-lauss, adj. short of hay. hey-leiga, u, f. rent paid in hay, Ísl. ii. 131. hey-leysi, n. a failure in hay, Krók. 37. hey-lítill, adj. short of hay, Bs. i. 873. hey-meiss, m. a hay box, D. N. hey-nál, f. a hay-hook, used instead of a hay-knife. hey-rán, n. plunder of hay, Eb. hey-reki, a, m. the tossing of hay by the wind, = mod. heyfok, Grág. ii. 275. hey-rúm, n. a hay-loft, Grág. ii. 340. hey-sala, u, f. sale of hay, Jb. 223. hey-skapr, m. haymaking. hey-skipti, n. a sharing of hay, Grág. ii. 259. hey-sláttr, m. haymaking, Gþl. 410. hey-sótt, f. hay-fever, a horse’s disease. hey-stakkr, m. a haystack, heystakk-garðr, m. a stack-yard, Grág. ii. 340. hey-stál, n. the middle of a hay-cock, Ísl. ii. 69. hey-tak, n. and hey-taka, u, f. plunder of hay, Eb. 154, Gþl. 545. hey-teigr, m. a strip of a hay-field, Sturl. ii. 29. hey-tjúga, n. [Dan. hötyv], a pitch-fork, Hkr. i. 24. hey-tollr, m. a hay toll, to be paid to a church, Dipl. v. 12, Vm. 115. hey-tópt, f. = heygarðr. hey-verð, n. compensation for h., Fms. iii. 210, Eb. 154. hey-verk, n. haymaking, Gull. 21, Eb. 152, Nj. 103, Bs. i. 46, Glúm. 343. hey-vöndull, m. a wisp of hay, Boll. 348. hey-þerrir, m. a ‘hay-breeze,’ air for drying hay. hey-þrot, n. want of hay, Ísl. ii. 132. hey-þroti, m. a being short of hay, Ísl. ii. 133. hey-þurkr, m. a drying of hay. hey-önn, f. = heyannir, Grág. ii. 261, Edda 103. ☞ For haymaking and hay stores see the Sagas passim, Hænsaþ. ch. 4, Eb. ch. 30, 37, 51, 63, Grett. ch. 50, Orms Þ. Fb. i. 522, Heiðarv. S. ch. 25, Háv. pp. 46, 47, Gísl. 14, 22, Nj. ch. 47, 77, and p. 192, and Mr. Dasent’s remarks on Icel. ‘hayneed,’ Burnt Njal cxii, Grág., esp. the Landbr. Þ. passim.

heygja, ð, [haugr], to bury in a how, Nj. 98, Fms. i. 18, x. 328, passim; vide haugr.

heyja, að, [hey], to make hay, Bs. i. 913, freq. in mod. usage; h. vel (ílla), to get in a good (bad) crop of hay; h. fyrir kýr, ær, hesta, to make hay, as fodder for cows, etc.; and metaph., heyja af fyrir sér, to support oneself, live from hand to mouth.

HEYJA, pres. hey, heyr, heyr, mod. heyi, heyir; pret. háði; pret. pass. háiðr (háinn, Glúm. 394), neut. háit, contr. hát, mod. háðr, háð:—to hold, perform: 1. a law term, to discharge a public duty; heyja þing, dóm, sókn, etc., of any lawful and public duty, as goði, judge, neighbour, witness, and the like, whence every franklin is styled þing-heyjandi; heyja þing, Grág. i. 102, 103, 114; á várþingi því er hann heyr, K. Þ. K. 46; þá skal hann segja til á leið þeirri er hann heyr, Grág. i. 95, 127; á því einu várþingi á hann útlegðir er hann heyr sjálfr, 12; rétt er bónda at senda mann til þings at heyja þing fyrir sik, 102, cp. 103, 114, 115; ok mátti þingit eigi heyjask at lögum, Jb. 8; h. dóm, háði Snorri goði féránsdóm, Eb. 302; háðu þeir féránsdóm eptir klerkinn (høðu MS.), Bs. i. 492 (cp. hðo, Skálda 168), Hrafn. 19; þá er leið háið (fem. part.) er upp er sagt, Grág. i. 165; at háðum dómum, id.; fyrir háða dóma, 161; ok varð eigi háinn féránsdómrinn, Glúm. 394; h. heimting, Grág. ii. 391; h. lög, Bs. i. 692 old Ed., heyra new Ed.; h. sóknir, háðu vér sóknir fyr dauðligum konungi, Blas. 30; h. launþing, to hold a secret meeting, Hbl. 30; h. leik, to play, Korm. (in a verse); h. Freys leik, to play the play of Frey, Hornklofi: phrases, h. gleði, to play, gambol, Fms. xi. 109; h. sér orða-fjölda, to add to one’s phraseology, make phrases, Skálda 154. 2. metaph., heyja orrostu, bardaga, to give battle, the battle being regarded as an ordeal or judgment, 625. 49, Blas. 37, Fms. iv. 243, v. 247; hann hafði margar orrostor háðar, Mork. 216; h. hólmgöngu, to fight a duel, Vígl. 16, Fms. v. 230; jafnan þá er hann hefir hátt (i. e. háit) hólmgöngur, Fs. 134. II. recipr., þeir háðusk þar við um stund, they bandied words for a while, Bs. i. 664: pass., hildr háðisk, was fought, Lex. Poët. passim; þeir skulu heyjask (fight) við Skútu þeir Eyjólfr, Rd. 303.

HEYKJASK, t, [húka, hokinn], to bend, sink, cower down; hestrinn heyktist undir honum, MS. 489. 45; heyktisk hann við ok nær í úvit, Sturl. iii. 177.

HEYRA, ð, in Norse MSS. höyra (eyra, dropping the h, N. G. L. i. 220), [Ulf. hausjan = ἀκούειν; A. S. hyran; Hel. hôrjan; Engl. hear; O. H. G. horan; Germ. hören; Dan. höre; Swed. höra]:—to hear; the notion of hearing being taken to imply motion towards a place, cp. Germ. zu-hören, Icel. heyra til, Engl. hearken to, Scot. hear till; at þeir heyrðu eðr sá atburðina, Fms. vii. 226, Nj. 13, Grág. i. 56, Sks. 554; nú heyra þeir til liðs konungsins hvar þat fór, Fb. ii. 128; hann heyrir þat er gras vex á jörðu, Edda 17; h. messu, tíðir, to hear mass, attend service, Fms. ix. 500; h. húslestr, id.; menn vildu eigi h. (hear, believe) at hann mundi fallit hafa, x. 364; heyrðu þeir snörgl nokkut til rekkju Þóreyjar, Fs. 144; hefir hvárki heyrt til hans styn né hósta, Nj. 2; þeir heyrðu blástr til drekanna, Gullþ. 8; hann heyrði þangat mikinn glaum, Eb. 28; heyrðu þeir hark mikit í búrit, 266; heyrit fádæmi, Háv. 45; heyr endemi (q. v.); sem nú hefir þú heyrt, as thou hast now heard, Sks. 714. 2. to hearken; þeirra bæn var eigi fyrr heyrð, Fms. x. 401; Guð heyrði bæn Moyses, Sks. 575; en ef þú vildir h. bæn mína, Drottinn minn, 596. 3. with prepp., heyra á e-t, to give ear, listen to a thing; en þá er hann hafði heyrt á töluna, Fms. xi. 37; höfðu þessir allir heyrt á (been within hearing, been present) sætt þeirra Þóris ok Bjarnar, Eg. 349; þótt sjálfr konungr heyri á, though within hearing of the king himself, Ó. H. 54. II. metaph. to belong to one, with dat., kirkjan á selveiði alla utan þá er Geithellum heyrir, Vm. 165. 2. heyra til e-s, or h. e-m til, to belong to, concern; (þat) er heyrir til (concerns) dóttur þinnar, Nj. 15; þær sýslur sem til þeirra heyrðu, Fms. ix. 269; þat er til mín heyrir, vi. 118, 133, Bs. i. 742; þat þing er hreppstjórn heyrir til, Jb. 184; hann ágirntisk þat er honum heyrði ekki til, Fms. vi. 301; þótti þeim Haraldi konungi eigi til h. (he had no right) at mínka sinn rétt, 339. γ. so with dat., to behove; hverjum yðr heyrir at þjóna, Fms. i. 281, vi. 349; mér heyrir eigi at þegja við yðr, ii. 268; mér heyrir eigi at giptask, Str. 421; sem því nafni til heyrir, Mar. 617; kjalar-tré þat er þeim þótti heyra (to fit), Fb. i. 433. III. impers. to be heard; ok heyrir blástr (acc.) hans í alla heima, Edda 17; heyrði til höddu þá er Þórr bar hverinn, Skálda 168; þá varð þegar hljótt svá at til einskis manns heyrði, Fms. vi. 374; svá nær læknum, at gerla heyri forsfallit (acc.), 351. IV. reflex. and impers., e-m heyrisk e-t, methinks one hears; en með því at mér heyrisk svá í orðum yðrum, at …, methought I heard you say, that …, Sks. 101; en mér heyrisk svá um þetta haf, ok svá landit, þá …, 192; svá heyrisk mér til sem þeir sé flestir er …, Fms. vii. 280; þá heyrðisk þeim öllum sem sveinninn kvæði þetta, they thought they heard the boy sing, Landn. (Hb.) 293: in mod. usage, mér heyrðisk þú segja, methought I heard you say; mér heyrðist vera barið, methought I heard a knock at the door; mér heyrist barnið hljóða, methinks I hear the child crying. 2. pass. to be heard, H. E. i. 516; þá skulu þeir eigi þar um heyrask síðan (they shall not be heard, heeded), K. Á. 110.

heyrandi, part. a hearer, Grett. 133 (opt er í holti heyrandi nær, vide holt): plur. heyrendr, hearers, at a meeting, church, or the like, Post. 645. 92, Bs. i. 741; hence the law phrase, í heyranda (gen. pl.) hljóði, in the hearing of all, in public, Nj. 15, Grág. i. 19, passim.

heyrari, a, m. = heyrandi, N. T.

heyri-liga, adv. openly, 656 C. 2: fittingly; óheyriliga, cruelly.

heyri-ligr, adj. becoming, Stj. 502: incumbent, Fms. vi. 388.

heyringi, a, m. [akin to heyrum, q. v., and not to be derived from heyra; cp. Engl. hireling; A. S. hyrigman, hyrling = domestic retainer]:—a Norse law term, a neighbour, a domestic; it appears almost to answer to Icel. búi; þá skal hann á þing leiða heyringja sína (as witnesses), N. G. L. i. 21; settu þeir tólf manna dóm eptir ok tvá heyringja, ok létu dæma, D. N. ii. 4.

heyrin-kunnr (heyrum-kunnr, N. G. L. i. 232, Bjarn. 42, both paper MSS., as also in mod. usage), adj. known, reported, Fms. i. 103, Nj. 139, Stj. 421; frægt ok h., famous and well known, 87, passim.

heyrin-orð, n. an old law phrase, which is probably = heyringja-orð, the word or verdict of a heyringi (not from heyra, qs. hearsay); sækja við tylftar-kvið eða við heyrin-orð fimm landeiganda, Grág. ii. 146; skal sækja við váttorð ef hann heyrir á, en ella við fimm manna heyrinorð eða tylftar-kvið, Kb. (l. c.) ii. 182.

heyrn, f. hearing: 1. the sense of hearing, 623. 57; heyrn, sýn, Grág. ii. 16, Eluc. 54; mál, sýn, heyrn, Fms. i. 97, N. T., Pass. 32. 4, 41. 10, passim. COMPDS: heyrnar-daufr, -lítill, adj. rather deaf, hard of hearing. heyrnar-lauss, adj. ‘hearing-less,’ deaf. heyrnar-leysi, n. deafness. 2. hearing; sumt ritaði hann eptir sjálfs síns heyrn eðr syn, something he wrote from his own hearing or sight, Fms. vii. 226. β. í heyrn e-m, in one’s hearing, Stj. 689, Bjarn. 33, 43, Fms. xi. 287; á-heyrn, q. v. 3. metaph. ears, as it seems = hlust; eyra is properly the outer ear, heyrn and hlust the inner part; heyrn eða hlust, Edda (Arna-Magn.) ii. 430; hneigja heyrn at e-u, to incline the ears to, Lb. 3; heyrn er þeim hægri sljó, Pass. 7. 12. COMPDS: heyrna-gnípur, f. pl., poët. ‘ear-crags,’ i. e. the head, Eg. (in a verse). heyrna-spann, n. ‘ear-basket,’ i. e. the ear, Ad. 20.

HEYRUM, dat. pl. of an obsolete heyrar; variously spelt, hörum (i. e. hørum, which seems to be the best form), herum, hærum; even with r inserted, hreyrom, Kb. ii. 178, hrörom, Sb. ii. 389, no doubt erroneously, prob. from the original having eo = ø, which the transcriber read as ro, (see Gramm. p. xxxv, signif. B. I. K.) The word probably means of the homestead or family, domestic (cp. A. S. hyred = family, Engl. hire, Dan. hyre, vide heyringi above): it occurs a few times in the Grág., and is used only of neighbours, in the law phrase, réttir at heyrum; (in Kb. i. 62, the point should stand after hærum, and the new sentence begin with the following word); also, sækja … við heyrinorð fimm landeiganda þeirra er réttir sé í kviðum at hörom við aðilja, Grág. (Sb.) ii. 146; þá skal búa kveðja þá er næstir búa þingvelli þeirra manna er réttir sé at hrom, Sb. ii. 93; þeirra er réttir sé at skuldleikum ok at hreyrum, Kb. ii. 178 (l. c.); búendr skal kveðja fyrr en griðmenn ef til þess eru, þá er næstir eru þar, ok þá er at hærom sé réttir, 85; nema sá teli er réttr væri í kviðnum at hærom, i. 62; kennendr tvá þá er í hrrom sé réttir, Sb. ii. 389; kennendr tvá þá er í heyrom sé réttir, er þat visso at fé þat báru á skip, Kb. l. c.; þá búa er réttir sé í kviðum ok at heyrum, ii. 68.

heyskr, adj. = hveskr, courteous, Art. passim.

hifneskr, adj. = himneskr, Post. 481, 510.

hik, n. faltering, hik-laust, n. adj. without wavering; see hvika.

HIKA, að, to falter, = hvika, q. v.

hildingr, m., poët. a war king, Hm. 154, Hkv. 2. 10, Edda 105, passim: a pr. name, Fas.

HILDR, f., dat. and acc. hildi, [A. S. hild; Hel. hildi; prob. akin to hjaldr, q. v.]:—battle, only in poetry; heilir hildar til, heilir hildi frá, Hm. 157; vekja hildi, to wage war, Hkv. 2. 6; hefja hildi, to begin a battle, Hkm. 2; er hildr þróask, when war waxes, Stor. 13; hörð h., a hard fight; bjóða hildi, to offer battle; ganga í hildi, to go into battle; semja, fremja hildi, to wage war, Lex. Poët. In poetry a shield is called hildar-ský, hildar-vé, hildar-veggr. 2. name of one of the Valkyrias (see Valkyrja), who were regarded as the handmaids of Odin, Vsp. 22, Gm. 36; Hildr is also represented as a daughter of the mythical king Högni and the bride of Héðin, whose life is recorded in the tale of Hjaðninga-víg, Edda 89, 90: hence war is called Hildar-leikr, m. the game of H., Bm. 1, passim. II. in pr. names; it is rare as a prefix in northern names, but freq. in old Germ.: of men, Hildir, Hildi-björn, Hildi-brandr, Hildi-grímr, Hild-ólfr; of women, Hildr, Hildi-gunnr, Hildi-ríðr: again, it often forms the latter part in female names, and often spelt or sounded without the aspirate, Ás-hildr, Bryn-hildr, Böðv-ildr, Dóm-hildr, Ey-ildr, Geir-hildr, Grím-hildr, Gunn-hildr, Hrafn-hildr, Matt-ildr (for.), Orm-hildr, Ragn-hildr, Svan-hildr, Úlf-hildr, Yngv-ildr, Þor-hildr, Landn. III. in pl. hildir, the caul or membrane covering animals, calves, lambs when cast, kálfs-hildir, kýr-hildir, freq. in mod. usage.

B. APPELLATIVE COMPDS. hildi- only in poets: hildi-frækn, adj. mighty in war. hildi-göltr, m., mythic. a helmet, Edda 82. hildi-leikr, m. [A. S. hilde-gelâc], the game of war, a fight, Fm. 31. hildi-meiðr, m., poët. a warrior, pillar of war, Fm. 36. hildi-svín, n. = hildigöltr, Edda 82, Hdl. 7. hildi-tannr, m., gen. hilditanns, Edda i. 464; dat. hilditanni, Fms. ix. 455 (an evidence that tönn, a tooth, was originally masc.); later, Hildi-tönn, f. nickname of the old Danish king, see Skjöld. S., qs. a war-tooth, tusk; cp. A. S. hilde-tux, Beow. 1511.

hilduri, a, h. a kind of hawk, Edda (Gl.)

HILLA, u, f. a shelf, freq. in mod. usage; búr-hilla, a pantry shelf.

hilla, t, in the phrase, það hillir undir e-ð, to be (as it were) upheaved or lifted in the air, e. g. of an object (a person, tree) seen on the edge of a hill against the sky, e. g. það hillir undir hann á brúninni.

Hillar, f. pl. a Norse local name, akin to hilla and hjalli.

hillingar, f. pl. upheaving, esp. of a mirage, when rocks and islands look as if lifted above the level of the sea.

hilmir, m., poët., prop. a helmsman, whence a ruler, king, Ýt., Hkv., Lex. Poët. passim.

hilmr, m. a smell, = ilmr, q. v., Hom. p. 58, Fms. (Ágrip) x. 280 sqq.

hilpir, m. a helper, N. G. L. ii. 343, of a midwife.

himbrin, mod. himbrimi, m. the ember goose, colymbus glacialis, Edda (Gl.), Eggert Itin.; cp. Norse Hymbern, Faroic imbrim, Shetl. immer.

himin-baugr, m. = himinhringr, Jónas 53.

himin-belti, n. a ‘belt of heaven,’ zone.

Himin-björg and Himin-fjöll, n. pl. a mythical local name, Gm., Hkv., Ýt.

himin-blámi, a, m. the blue sky, Jónas 64.

himin-blár, adj. sky-blue, Jónas 137.

himin-blær, m. a breath or whiff of air, Jónas 120, cp. Pass. 25. 10.

himin-bogi, a, m. the arch or vault of heaven, Jónas 99.

himin-bora, u, f. = himinrauf, Skálda 209.

himin-borinn, part. heaven-born.

himin-brjótr, m., mythol. name of an ox, ‘heaven-breaker,’ Edda 35.

himin-búi, a, m. a heaven-dweller, an angel.

himin-fastr, adj. fixed in heaven, of stars, Stj. 12.

himin-geimr, m. the void, the universe, Jónas 167.

himin-geisli, a, m. heavenly beams, Sól. 72.

Himin-glæfa, u, f. one of the northern Nereids, Edda 101.

himin-hringr, adj., poët. the ‘ring’ of heaven, Jónas 53.

himin-hvolf, n. the vault of heaven, the sky.

himin-jöðurr, m. the corner, brim (jaðarr, jöðurr) of heaven, = himinskaut, Vsp. 5 (απ. λεγ.) This, no doubt, is the correct form, not himin-jó-dýr (heaven-horse-beasts) or himin-jó-dur (heaven-horse-doors).

himin-knöttr, m. a heavenly globe.

himin-kraptar, m. pl. the props, pillars of heaven, Ó. H. (in a verse).

himin-ljómi, a, m. heavenly light, Lex. Poët.

HIMINN, m. [the form hifinn occurs rarely, Fms. x. 10 (v. l.), Hb. (1866) thrice; the mod. form is himin, without the inflexive n; the root consonant varies between m and f (or v), the final between n and l, cp. Goth. himins, A. S. heofon, Engl. heaven, Hel. himil, O. H. G. himila, Germ. as also mod. Dan. and Swed. himmel; this interchange of f and m is analogous to ‘of’ and ‘um’ (umb), ‘sofa’ and ‘sömn’ (i. e. svefn), ‘kufl’ and ‘kumbl,’ Lat. sopio and somnus, etc. ☞ The mythol. Gimle (Vsp. 63) is probably dat. of an obsolete himil derived from the time when the initial h was still sounded gutturally]:—heaven; in the old heathen creed the heavenly vault was the skull of the giant Ymir, Gm. 40, Vþm. 21, Edda sub init.; and is called by the poets ‘the giant’s skull,’ ‘the burden of the dwarfs’ (vide dvergr), etc.; the heavens were nine, the names of which are recorded in Edda (Gl.):—Níu eru himnar á hæð talðir, cp. Alm. 12, 13; upp-h., the ether, Vsp. 3; nú heldr jörð griðum upp, en himinn varðar fyrir ofan en hafit Rauða fyrir útan er liggr um lönd öll, Grág. i. 166; jafnhárt upp sem himinn, Edda 60 (in a verse); leikr hár hiti við h., sjálfan, Vsp. 58; hinn slétti h., Vþm. 46: allit., heiðr himin, Hbl. 19, Eb. 48 new Ed., v. l.; haf og h., sea and heaven; himin ok jörð, heaven and earth, Nj. 194; áðr stjarna komi á himin, ere the stars came up in heaven, Grág. ii. 322. β. phrases, undir berum himni, under the bare sky, freq.; hann ann mér eigi at hafa himininn jafnan yfir höfði sér sem hann hefir sjálfr, Vápn. 20; þykjask taka h. höndum, to think one grasps heaven with one’s hands, of high fantastic hopes; þat hugðum vér bændr … at vér hefðim þá höndum himin tekit, en nú …, Hkr. i. 141, Sighvat (Bersögl. vísur), Al. 118; himins-emdi, the end, border of heaven, Vþm. 37, Edda 12. 2. the heathen conception of a plurality of heavens caused the plural to be mostly used by Christian writers, esp. after the Reformation, also, Guð á himnum, God in the heavens; Faðir á himnum, Gr. ἐν τοις οὐρανοις, N. T., following the Gr. text; himnum að, towards the heavens, Pass. 34. 1; hér og á himnum bæði, 24. 7: himna-Guð, God in the heavens, Sól. 6, Stj.; stíga til himna, to ascend to the heavens, Gþl. 40; himna-fagnaðr, heavenly joy, Hom. 30; himna-brauð, bread from the heavens, manna, Post.; himna-fæðsla, id., Stj.; himna-för, ascension to the heavens; himna-ljós, the light of the heavens, Pass. 3. 3; hinma-hallir, the halls of the heavens, 25. 13; himna-konungr, the king of the heavens, Hom., Fms. i. 141; himna-mjöl, the flour of the heavens, manna, Stj., Al. 64; himna-sjón, heavenly sight, Greg. 35; himna-vist, an abode in the heavens, Hom.; himna-ríki, n. the kingdom of the heavens, N. T., in old writers himin-ríki. II. metaph. (like Gr. οὐρανός), a canopy, covering, cp. Germ. trag-himmel; sængr-himinn, a bed canopy: poët., brúna-himinn, heaven of the brows, the forehead, Kormak; ál-himin, the heaven or covering of the deep, the ice, Eyvind.

himin-raufar, f. pl. the sluices of heaven, Skálda 210, Mar. 10.

himin-ríki, n. [Dan. himmerige; Germ. himmelreich], the kingdom of heaven, Gþl. 42, Edda 149 (pref.), Th. 28; himinríkis-dyrr, -hirð, -höll, -innganga, -vist, Hom., Mar., Bs. passim; himinríkis maðr, an heir of the kingdom of heaven, 677. 3; but in mod. usage himnaríki(see himinn 2) is more usual.

himin-roði, a, m. the redness of the sky, Matth. xvi. 2.

himin-runninn, part. = Gr. διϊπετής, Od.

himin-röðull, m. = himinsól, Lex. Poët.

himin-skaut, n. the sheet of heaven, a quarter of heaven, Lat. plaga caeli, Hdl. 14, Skv. 1. 10, passim.

himin-skin, n. a heavenly shining, Jónas 115.

himin-sól, f. the sun in heaven.

himin-stjóri, a, m. (-stýrir, m.), the ruler of heaven, God, Lex. Poët.

himin-stjörnur, f. pl. the stars in heaven, Jónas 122.

himin-targa, u, f. the targe of heaven, the sun, Þd. 4.

himin-tjald, n. a canopy. Am. 106.

himin-tungl, n. pl. the heavenly bodies, Hkr. ii. 288, Rb. 66, 108, passim; himintungla far, h. gangr (ganga), Stj., Rb.

himin-vangi, a, m. the mead of heaven, the sky, Hkv. 1. 15.

himin-vist, f. dwelling in heaven, Lex. Poët.

himneskr, adj. (hifneskr, Fms. x. 392), heavenly, Sks., Bs., N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim.

HIND, f. [A. S. hind; Engl. hind; Germ. hinde; Dan. hind]:—a hind, Lat. cerva, the female of hjörtr, Karl. 45, freq.: hindar-kálfr, m. a hind’s calf, a fawn, Bret. ch. 19; Hindar-fjall, n. Hind’s-fell, a mountain, Fas., Fm. II. [prob. a different word, akin to Goth. hinþan, Swed. hinna = to find], skill, grace; in the phrase, með hind, artfully, gracefully, as in the ditty: Það er að segja af Sigurði Blind | samdi hann ljóð um hverja kind, | sá hann hvorki sól né vind, | seggjum þótt’ ‘ann kveða með hind; esp. freq. in poets of the 16th and 17th centuries.

hindar-dags, gen. as adv. the day after to-morrow, N. G. L. i. 23; see hindri.

hindr, n. = hindran, Stj. 262.

HINDRA, að, [A. S. hinderjan; Engl. hinder; Germ. hindern; Dan. hindra; Swed. hindra]:—prop. to keep behind, hinder, Stj. 138; h. eðr tálma, Dipl. i. 4, Bs. i. 689. II. pass. to be impeded, Fms. vii. 144, xi. 423. 2. to halt, loiter, Stj. 172, Mar.: to go astray, to be wrong, Fbr. 78 new Ed., Bs. i. 820: to lose time, loiter about a thing, meira mun nú annat til framkvaemdar en hindrask eptir þessu, Sturl. iii. 157; cp. hindrvitni below.

hindran, f. a hindrance, Stj. 9.

HINDRI, compar., superl. HINZTR, [cp. Ulf. hindar = ὀπίσω, πέραν, A. S. and Engl. hinder, O. H. G. hintar, Germ. hinter; cp. also A. S. hindan, Engl. be-hind]:—the hinder, hindmost, latter, latest, only in poetry: I. the compar. occurs only as an απ. λεγ. in hindra dags, the day after to-morrow, Hm. 109, and hindar-dags, N. G. L. i. 23. II. superl., hinnzta sinni, for the last time: in prose, vér gengum á land innsta (i. e. hinzta) sinni, Fms. vii. 149; þá er hann fór inzta sinni til Jórsala, 625. 191: in poetry, Sól. 41, Fas. i. 428; hinztr fuudr, the last meeting, Hkv. Hjörv. 40; hinzt kveðja, Am. 45; hinzt bæn, Skv. 3. 62.

hindr-vitni, f. ‘hinder-knowledge,’ idolatry, superstition, nonsense, Bs. i. 165, Hkr. ii. 176; flærð heiðingligrar hindrvitni, Fb. i. 513; ef hann trúir á þat heldr en annat fé, eða ferr hann með h., K. Þ. K. 78.

HINGAT, also spelt higat (Eg. 51, Nj. 227, Fms. i. 189, Stj. 27, 35) and hegat (Ísl. ii. 270, Gþl. 272), prob. only by dropping the mark of abbreviation (¯) above the line (hīgat, hēgat), as seen from old rhymes such as hingat fyrir konu bing, Eb. 73 new Ed.:—hither, Lat. huc, Íb. 5, Nj. 2, Grág. i. 189, Fms. i. 72, x. 18; hingat ok þangat, hither and thither, to and fro, viii. 39, Stj. 35, 284, Blas. 40; hón vissi löngum ekki hingat, i. e. she was in a senseless state, Bs. i. 384. 2. temp., hingat til, hitherto, 619. 73.

B. COMPDS: hingat-burðr, m. the birth of Christ, 625. 82, Skálda 210, Fms. i. 109, xi. 468, Stj. 27 (hegat-burðr), passim. hingat-ferð and hingat-för, f. a journey hither, Eb. 144, Fms. x. 17, xi. 105. hingat-flutningr, m. carrying hither, Fr. hingat-kváma, u, f. a coming hither, arrival, Fms. vi. 394, v. 291: eccl., of Christ, Rb. 84, Stj. passim. hingat-spaning, f. = hingatkváma, Niðrst. 6.

HINKA, að, [Germ. hinken], to limp, hobble, Fs. 159; see hvika.

hinkr, n. a limping, hobbling, Ísl. ii. 147.

hinkra, að, to halt, stop a bit; h. við, to halt, freq. in mod. usage.

HINN, HIN, HIT, the article, an enclitic, which therefore can never serve as an accentuated syllable in a verse, either as rhyme or in alliteration. In good old MSS. (e. g. Cod. Reg. of Sæm.) it is hardly ever spelt with the aspirate, but is written inn, in, it or ið, or enn, en, et or eð, and thus distinguished from the demonstr. pron. hinn; but in the Editions the prob. spurious aspirate has been generally prefixed: an indecl. inu or hinu occurs often in later MSS. of the 14th century, e. g. the Fb.; but as it has not been heard of since and is unknown in the modern language, it simply seems to be a Norwegianism, thus, inu sömu orð, Th. 2; hinnu fyrri biskupa (gen. pl.), H. E. ii. 79; enu instu luti (res intimas), Hom. 57 (Norse MS.); hinu ágæztu menn (nom. pl.), id.; innu óargu dýra, 657 A. ii. 12: [cp. Goth. jains = ἐκεινος; A. S. geond; Engl. yon; Germ. jener.]

A. The: I. preceding the noun: 1. before an adjective standing alone or followed by a substantive; inn mæri, inn ríki, inn dimmi dreki, inn mikli mögr, Vsp.; in aldna, id.; inn góða mjöð, the good mead, Gm. 13; inn mæra mjöð, Skm. 16; inn helga mjöð, Sdm. 18; in forna fold, Hým. 24; in fríða frilla, 30; inn fróði jötum, Vþm. 20; inn gamli þulr, 9; inn hára þul, Fm. 34; inn fráni ormr, 19; opt inn betri bilar þá er inn verri vegr, Hm. 127; in alsnotra ambátt, in arma, Þkv.; enn fróði afi, Skm. 2; in ílla mæra, 32; enn fráni ormr, 27; eð manunga man, Hm. 163; enn aldna jötun, 104; en horska mær, 95; it betra, Stor. 22; ena þriðju, the third, Vsp. 20; inn móður-lausi mögr, Fm. 2; it gjalla gull, ok it glóðrauða fé, 9; ið fyrsta orð, Sdm. 14; enu skírleita goði, Gm. 39; in glýstömu græti, Hðm. 1; in svásu goð, Vþm. 17; enum frægja syni, Hm. 141; at ins tryggva vinar, 66; ennar góðu konu, 100; ins svinna mans, 162; ens dýra mjaðar, 141; ens hindra dags, 109; ens unga mans, Skm. 11; ens deykkva hrafns, Skv. 2. 20; æ til ins eina dags, Fm. 10; ena níundu hverja nótt, Skm. 21: with the ordinals, inn fyrsti, þriði …, Gm. 6 sqq., Sdm. 21 sqq. 2. so also before an adverb; it sama, likewise, Hm. 75, Fm. 4, Vþm. 22, 23, Gm. 15, Hdl. 26. 3. as an indecl. particle ‘in’ or ‘en’ before a comparative; in heldr, the more, Hm. 60, Sdm. 36, Hkv. 1. 12, Skv. 1. 21, Gh. 3, Nj. 219; in lengr, the longer, Am. 58, 61; this has been already mentioned s. v. en (p. 127, B. at bottom, and p. 128), but it is almost exclusively poetical. II. placed between a pronoun and an adjective in the definite form: 1. after a demonstr.; sá inn fráni ormr, Fm. 26; sá inn harði hallr, Gs. 10; sá inn aldni jötun, Skm. 25; sá inn ámáttki jötunn, 10; þat ið mikla men, Þkv. 13; þat ið litla, ‘that the little,’ i. e. the little thing, Ls. 44: þann inn alsvinna jötun, Vþm. 1; þann inn aldna jötun, Fm. 29; þann inn hrímkalda jötun, 38; þess ins alsvinna jötuns, Vþm. 5; þat it unga man, Alm. 6; þann inn aldna jötun, Gm. 50; þau in harðmóðgu ský, 41; sá inn máttki munr, 93; mönnum þeim enum aldrœnum, Hbl. 44; börn þau in blíðu, Og. 9; hrís þat ið mæra, Akv. 5: in prose, fjölmenni þat it mikla, Eg. 46; þetta it mikla skip, Fms. x. 347, passim: with ordinals, segðu þat ið eina, say that the first, Vþm. 20; þat ið þriðja, fjórða …, 20 sqq. 2. after a possessive; síns ins heila hugar, síns ins svára sefa, Hm. 105; þíns ins hvassa hjörs, Fm. 29; minn inn hvassi hjörr, 6; míns ins hvassa hjörs, 28; bækr þínar inar bláhvítu, Hðm. 3. after a pers. pron.: þú hinn armi, thou wretch! Ld. 326; gakk þú hingat hinn mikli maðr! Eg. 488. III. placed between two nouns in apposition: 1. between a proper name and a title or epithet in the definite form; Sigurðr inn Suðræni, Sigurd the Southerner, Skv. 3. 4; Atli inn Ríki, Akv. 29; Högna ins frækna, Hjalla ins blauða, 23; Guðröðr inn Göfugláti, Ýt.; Hamðir inn hugumstóri, Hðm. 25; Kjötva’nn (= Kjötva enn) Auðga, Hornklofi; Svan enum Rauða, Álfr enn Gamli, Hdl.; as also in prose, Ívarr inn Víðfaðmi, Haraldr enn Hárfagri, Ólafr inn Digri, Knútr inn Fundni, Auðr in Djúpauðga, Þorbjörg in Digra, Hildr in Mjófa, Steinólfr inn Lági, Þorkell inn Hávi, Kjarlakr inn Gamli, Björn inn Austræni, Ólafr inn Hvíti, Hálfdan inn Svarti, Sighvatr inn Rauði, Kyjólfr inn Grá, Gestr inn Spaki; Ari inn Fróði (Aren Froðe contr. = Are enn Froðe, Ó. T. 23, line 1), Ketill inn Heimski, Knútr inn Ríki, Eadvarðr inn Góði, Hálfdan inn Mildi, Ingjaldr inn Illráði, Helgi inn Magri, Úlfr inn Skjálgi, Landn., Fb. iii; cp. Gr. Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων, Σωκράτης ὁ φιλόσοφος, Germ. Nathan der Weise, Engl. Alfred the Great, etc.: of ships, Ormr inn Langi, Ormr inn Skammi. 2. between an appellative and an adjective; sveinn inn hvíti, Ls. 20; hendi inni hægri, 61; þengill inn meins-vani, Gm. 16; seggr inn ungi, Skm. 2; skati inn ungi, Hdl. 9; brúðr in kappsvinna, Am. 75; hest inn hraðfæra, Gh. 18; varr inn vígfrækni, gumi inn gunnhelgi, Hðm. 30; auð inn fagra, Skv. 1. 13; orm inn frána, 1, 11; fjánda inn fólkská, Fm. 37; konungr inn Húnski, Skv. 3. 8, 18, 63, 64; orð ið fyrra, Og. 9; mál ið efsta, 16; seggr inn suðræni, Akv. 3; seggr inn æri, 6; mar’inum mélgreypa, 3, 13; borg inni há, 14; sól inni suðrhöllu, 30; veðrs ens mikla, Hkv. 1. 12; handar ennar hægri, Ls. 38, 61; vífs ins vegliga, Am. 54; konung inn kostsama, Hkm.; gramr inn glaðværi, id.; hlut inn mjóvara, Ýt. 13; konungr inn kynstóri, fylkir inn framlyndi, hilmi’nom hálsdigra, konu’na Dönsku, hverr’ enni Heinversku, Hornklofi, Sæm. (Möb.) 228–231; við arm inn vestra, Sighvat; so also in prose passim.

B. When there was no adjective the article became a suffix to the noun (see Gramm. pp. xix, xx), a usage common even in early prose, but extremely rare in poetry; the reason is, not that the poems were composed before the suffixed article had come into use, but that the metres themselves in which all the old poems were composed are older than that usage, and are not well adapted to it, so that the absence of the article became traditional. The old poem Harbarðsljóð makes an exception, no doubt not from being later than all other poems, but from being composed in a peculiar metre, half verse and half prose; thus in that single poem alone there are nearly twenty instances, or about twice or thrice as many as in all the other poems together:—váginn, Hbl. 2, 13, 15; sundit, 1, 3, 8, 13; verðinum, 4; eikjunni, 7; skipit, id.; stöðna, landit, id.; leiðina, 55; höfuðit, 15; bátinum, 53; veggsins, stokksins, steinsins, 56; matrinn, 3: other solitary instances are, goðin öll, Vsp. 27 (prob. somewhat corrupt); eiki-köstinn, Gh. 20; vömmin vár, Ls. 52. II. in prose, old and modern, the suffixed article occurs at every step; only one or two instances are worth noticing as peculiar to the Icelandic: 1. as vocative in addressing; konan, O woman! mjöðnannan, id., Sighvat (in a verse of A. D. 1018, and so in mod. usage); elskan! hjartað! heillin! ástin, my love! dear! heart! þursinn! Fas. i. 385; hundarnir! = ω κύνες, Od. xxii. 35: also with another word, barnið gott, good child! Þrúðnaþussinn, thou monster giant! Miðgarðs-ormrinn! Fas. i. 373. 2. esp. if with a possessive adjective following, as in Gr. οὑμός, τοὐμόν, τἀμά, etc.; elskan mín, ástin mín, hjartað mitt, góðrinn minn! hér er nú ástin mín, here is my darling! Sturl. ii. 78, of a father presenting a darling child to a friend; and so in mod. usage: as abuse, hundrinn þinn, thou dog! Ísl. ii. 176; þjófrinn þinn! Fms. vii. 127; dyðrillinn þinn! ii. 279; hundinum þínum! vi. 323: this use is not confined to the vocative, e. g. konan mín biðr að heilsa, my wife (kona mín is never used); maðrinn minn, my husband; biddu foreldrana þína (ask thy parents) að lofa þér að fara; augun hans, his eyes, Pass. 24. 4; hugrinn vor og hjartað sé, our mind and heart (cp. Gr. τω ἐμω θυμω), 43. 5; svo hjartað bæði og málið mitt | mikli samhuga nafnið þitt, 10. 7; gef þú að móður-málið mitt, 35. 9; bókin mín, my favourite book, my own book; as also, fáðu mér hattinn minn, vetlingana mína, skóna mína, give me my hat, gloves, shoes; tungan í þér, augun í þér, thy tongue, thy eyes; höfuðið á mér, fætrnir á mér, my head, my feet; hendrnar á þér (‘á mér, á þér’ are here equivalent to a possessive, see p. 37, C. IV), thy hands, cp. Homer, τα σα γούνατα; hestana þína, Gr. ϊππους τους σούς: similar is the instance, vömmin vár, the sins of ours, Ls. 52; this may be a remnant of a time when the article was used separately, even with an indefinite adjective. 3. a double article, one suffixed to the noun and the other prefixed to the word in apposition; hirðin sú in Danska, Fms. vi. 323; þau in stóru skipin, viii. 384 and passim: again, when a noun is put in the genitive after another noun the former has no article; as the Engl. phrase ‘the fish of the sea and the fowl of the air’ is in Icel. ‘fiskar sjávarins og fuglar loptsins:’ but this belongs to the syntax; see also Grimm’s D. G. iv. 432.

C. SPECIAL CHANGES, in mod. usage: I. the demonstr. pron. sá, sú, það has in speech generally taken the place of inn, in, it; thus, sá gamli maðr, sú gamla kona, það gamla skáld; sometimes the article is dropped altogether, e. g. á fimta degi, on the fifth day (= á enum fimta degi); á sömn stundu, in the same hour; even in old writers this is found, með sömu ætlan, Bs. i. 289; á níundu tíð dags, Stj. 41, (but rarely); yet the old form is often retained in writing. II. in case A. II. the article may be dropped; þann gamla maim, þá gömlu konu, það gamla skáld, þú armi, etc.; sá ráða-góði, sú goðum-líki, sá ágæti Odysseifr, sú vitra Penelopa, sá Jarðkringjandi Pósídon, Od. passim (in Dr. Egilsson’s translation). III. in case A. III. 1. the article is also dropped, Knútr Ríki, Haraldr Hárfagri; even old writers (esp. in later vellums) omitted it now and then, Hálfdan Svarta, Fms. i. 1; Haraldr Grænski, 90; Haraldr Hárfagri, 192; Óttarr ungi, Hdl.: even in the Sæm. Cod. Reg., Völsungr ungi, Skv. 3. 1, 3. IV. in case A. III. 2. the pronouns sá, sú, það, and hinn, hin, hit may be used indiscriminately, although the former is more usual. V. lastly, in case B. the suffixed article has gained ground, and is in modern prose used more freq. than in ancient.

☞ CONCLUSION.—The old poetical language, with the sole exception of a single poem, had no article in the modern and proper sense; in every instance the ‘inn, in, it’ bears the character of a demonstrative pronoun, preceding an adjective and enhancing and emphasising its sense, like the pers. pron. hann, q. v.; but it is never attached to a single substantive; when the adjective was placed in apposition after a noun, the pronoun came to stand as an enclitic just after the noun, and was sounded as if suffixed thereto; at last it was tacked as an actual suffix to single nouns standing without apposition, and thus the true suffixed article gradually arose, first in speech, then in writing; whereas at the same time the old pronominal enclitic (A. I-III) gradually went out of use, and was either dropped or replaced by the stronger demonstrative pronoun ‘sá, sú.’

HINN, HIN, HITT, demonstr. pron., prob. identical in etymology with the preceding word, from which it is however distinguished, 1. by the neut. hitt, Dan. hint; 2. by the initial aspirate, which is never dropped; 3. by being a fully accentuated pronoun, so that the h can stand as an alliterative letter, e. g. handar ennar hægri | mun ek hinnar geta, Ls.; veitkat ek hitt hvart Heita | hungr …, Hallfred; Hitt kvað þá Hamðir, etc., Hom. 23, 25, Korm. 40; Raun er hins at Heinir | hræ …; Skáld biðr hins at haldi | hjálm …, Sighvat, Hkv. Hjörv. 26: [Ulf. jains = ἐκεινος; A. S. geond; Engl. yon; Germ. jener.]

A. This pronoun is used, I. in a demonstr. sense, emphatically and without being opp. to a preceding demonstr.; raun er hins at …, it is proved that …; skáld biðr hins, at …, Sighvat; veitkat ek hitt hvat (hvárt) …, Hallfred; hitt ek hugða, emphatically, that was what I thought, I thought forsooth, Hm. 98; hitt kvað pá Hróðrglóð, Hðm. 13; hitt kvað þá Hamðir, 25; hitt vil ek vita, that I want to know, Vþm. 3, 6; þó ek hins get, ef …, yet I guess, that if …, Skm. 24; vita skal hitt, ef …, Korm. 40 (in a verse), Ísl. ii. 225 (in a verse); hitt var fyrr = in former times, formerly, Ýt., Fs. 94 (in a verse); hinn er sæll, er …, he is happy, that …, Hm. 8; maðr hinn er …, ‘man he that’ = the man who, 26; hinn er Surts ór Sökkdölum, Edda 51 (in a verse); veitat hinn er tin tannar, hinn er um eyki annask, Kormak (in a verse); handar innar hægri mun ek hinnar geta, er …, the right hand, that hand namely, which …, Ls. 38; this usage scarcely occurs except in old poetry. II. demonstr. referring to another pronoun, denoting the former, farther, the other, = Dan. hiin, hint, Germ. jener, cp. Gr. ἐκεινος, Lat. ille; freq. in prose, old and mod.; fóru þeir með þau skip er þeim þóttu bezt en brenndu hin, Fms. v. 8; Kimbi bar sár sitt engan mun betr en hinir, er hann hafði áðr á fært, 92; en hitt er meira, at hann lætr sér annarra manna fé jafnheimilt, Eg. 47; kemr örvar-oddrinn í strenglag hinnar örvarinnar, Fb. iii. 405; er þú hefir mik fyrir lagt á hinu áðr, 407; hinir frændr þínir, ii. 425; á hinn fótinn, on that, the other leg, Nj. 97; þat er válítið, … hitt er undr …, Ls. 33; hinir hlaða seglunum ok bíða, Fms. x. 347; ef hinn (the other part) er eigi þar við staddr, Grág. i. 52; hvárt hinn (the other one) hefir jafnmikit fé hins (of the other one) er austr er, 220; rétt er at kveðja frá hennar heimili ef hann veit hvártki hinna (gen. pl.), 339; ok vill annarr hluta en annarr eigi … ok verðr sem hinn mæli ekki um er eigi vill hluta, 393; ef maðr sendir annan mann til eindaga, ok erat hinn skyldr við at taka, id.; þess á milli er hón fór at sofa á kveldit, ok hins er hón var klædd, Ld. 14; ærit fögr er mær sjá, … en hitt veit ek eigi hvaðan þjófs-augu eru komin í ættir várar, forsooth she is a beautiful girl, but yet I know not, Nj. 2:—demonstr. in the sense of this (but rare), stjörnur þær er nær eru leiðar-stjöruu ganga aldri undir með oss, en í Blálandi eðr Arabia ganga hinar stjörnur, these very stars, Rb. 468: phrases, hitt ok annat, this and the other, Rd. 235; mod. hitt og þetta.

B. COMPOUND FORMS, hinn-ug, hinn-og, or hins-ig, mod. hins-egin, also hizig, q. v. [from vegr], adv. the other way; þótt Gísl þykki hinsig (hinn veg, v. l.) eigi síðr til vísa, Fms. vii. 46; hinnig værir þú undir brún at líta sem …, Nj. 55: locally, there, in the other place, illic, ok láta bera vætti þat hinneg var nefnt, Grág. i. 90; heimta af erfingja ef hinnig er eigi til, K. Þ. K. 28; brenndi þar ok görði hervirki eigi minna enn hinneg, Fms. vi. 340; ef hinnig mundi kostr, K. Þ. K. 24; eigi er hægra undir þeim at búa fyrir kulda sakir, enn hinnog er fyrir ofrhita sakir, Sks. 196; því at hón er kaldari hér en hizug, 70: temp. the other day, formerly (rare), er ek hinnig mælta, Og. 11. 2. denoting motion, hither, thither; hinnig deyja ór Helju halir, Vþm. 43; renna hinnig, Gh. 18; ríða hinig, Fm. 26: koma hinig, Gs. 18.

HINNA, u, f., mod. himna, [Dan. hinde; Swed. hinna], a film, a membrane, Grág. ii. 91, Edda 12, Clem. 25, Bs. ii. 180, Vígl. 31.

hipsum-haps, adv. by mere chance, from Dan. hips haps.

HIRÐ, f. [akin to A. S. hyred; cp. also Engl. hire], a king’s or earl’s body-guard, the king’s men of olden times: for the hirð, their rights, duties, statutes, see the Laws and Sagas passim; among the Laws, specially the Hirðskrá, N. G. L. ii. 390–450, Sks. ch. 24 sqq.; among the Sagas, the Fms. and Hkr. passim, Eg. ch. 5, 8, Fagrsk. ch. 5, the poem of Hornklofi, and 216, Ó. H. ch. 200 sqq., passim: hann hefir ok hirð um sik sem konungr, Eg. 47; ok hafði sína hirð hvárr þeirra, Fms. vi. 185; þá skipar hann hirðinni í eina fylking (opp. to bændr), Hkr. i. 155. COMPDS: hirðar-dómr, m. a king’s court; synja eiði eptir hirðardómi, N. G. L. ii. 437. hirð-biskup, m. a king’s bishop, Fms. i. 229. hirð-bróðir, m. a comrade among king’s men, El. 14, Barl. 94, Hirðskrá ch. 41. hirð-búnaðr, m. apparel for king’s men, Skálda 181. hirð-drengr, m. a king’s valet, Rétt. 61. hirð-hestr, m. a king’s horse, N. G. L. i. 227. hirð-kona, u, f. a king’s woman, daughter of a king’s man, Fas. i. 193, Art. hirð-lið, n. the king’s troops, Str. 3. hirð-lög, n. pl. the laws and statutes of the king’s men, their community, fellowship, Fms. v. 52; taka e-n í hirðlög, Ó. H. 204; ganga í h., Eg. 29, 112; vera í or segja sik ór hirðlögum, N. G. L. ii. 437. hirð-maðr, m. a king’s man, Hirðskrá, Fms., Eg., Sks. passim, Ó. H. ch. 70, 113, Har. S. Harðr. ch. 110, Hkr. Ó. T. ch. 90, Lv. p. 112 (far þú á fund Eyjólfs Guðmunds sonar, vinar míns ok hirðmanns), Nj. ch. 3, Fbr. hirðmanns-eiðr, m. the oath taken by the king’s men, Fms. ix. 437. hirðmanna-lúðr, m. a trumpet belonging to the king’s men, Sturl. i. 129, Fms. ix. 417. hirðmanna-nafn, n. the name of being a king’s man, Sks. 275. hirðmanna-stefna, u, f. a hustings of king’s men, Fms. ix. 306. hirð-mær, f. = hirðkona, Art., Karl. hirð-pallr, m. the daïs where the king’s men sate, N. G. L. ii. 447. hirð-prestr, m. a king’s chaplain, Fms. i. 151, Fb. ii. 337, N. G. L. ii. 409. hirð-prúðr, adj. courteous, Fms. v. 191, viii. 447, ix. 4. hirð-prýði, n. royal pomp, Fms. iii. 182, x. 178. hirð-riddari, a, m. a king’s knight, Barl. 176. hirð-siðir, m. pl. the customs of the king’s men, Eb. 200, Sks. 320, Hkr. iii. 181. hirð-skip, n. a king’s ship, N. G. L. i. 227, passim. Hirð-skrá, f. the statutes or section of law relating to the king’s men, published in N. G. L. ii. 390–450. hirð-stefna, u, f. a meeting of the king’s men, Fms. ix. 215, 250. hirð-stjóri, a, m. the captain of the king’s men, Fms. iv. 364, ix. 250, 496, Gþl. 58, Eg. 280, Hirðskrá ch. 8, 24; in Eg. 280 used in a peculiar and Engl. sense; in Icel. the governor was, from the 14th to the 16th century, called hirðstjóri, Ann., Espol. passim. hirð-stjórn, f. the dignity of hirðstjóri. Fms. ix. 250; in Icel. sense, Ann. passim, Dipl. ii. 15. hirð-stofa, u, f. a king’s hall, Ó. H. 43. hirð-sveinn, m. = hirðdrengr, Stj. 482. hirð-sveit, f. the host of king’s men, Hkr. i. 24, Fms. i. 36, ii. 17, vi. 46, vii. 279, xi. 244. hirð-vist, f. the being a king’s man, Fms. ii. 55, v. 315, vii. 196, xi. 18, Nj. 6.

HIRÐA, ð, mod. t, (Fms. vii. 290), to herd, tend, keep; hirða fé, to herd sheep, Grág. i. 401. 2. to keep in a box, chest; þá hirði Ásgerðr slæðurnar, Eg. 703; hann tekr burt örina ok hirðir hana svá búna, Fms. xi. 64; ok hirt (imperat.) þat í glerkeri, Pr. 472. 3. hirða hey, to gather in hay, Eb. 150, 152, Gullþ. 20, Sks. 325. 4. to keep safe, hide, conceal; ok er hann (Eliah) nú hirðr öðrum mönnum (hidden from them), Ver. 29; hirða höfuð, to hide one’s head, Grett. (in a verse); þeir vissu eigi hvar Guð hirði andir þeirra, 623. 60; h. sik í djúpum, of fishes, Sks. 47, 49: reflex. to lock oneself up, hide oneself, gangit upp í turn minn ok hirðisk þar, Bær. 2, Fas. i. 8; var hann nú hirðr (save) fyrir öllum úfriði, Fms. xi. 322; hirðir ok haldnir, safe and sound, Karl. 3. II. to mind, care for; eigi hirði ek at lifa, Stj. 168; þótt þeir hirði þat eigi, even though they care not for it, Grág. i. 468; aldregi hirði ek þat, Hrafn. 19; þeir einir munu vera at ek hirði aldri þótt drepisk, Nj. 85; h. um e-t, to care about; ok hirtu ekki um líf sitt, Fms. iv. 147, vii. 290, ix. 243, Ó. H. 114, Þiðr. 142. 2. imperat. with a neg. and an infin. do not! Lat. noli! hirð eigi þú at hræðask! 656 C. 37; hirð eigi þú at þræta, noli contendere, Skálda 164: hirðit eigi ér at hafa íllmælgi, 623. 30; hirð eigi þú at hopa á hæl, Hvítanessgoði! Nj. 170; hirðit eigi at óttask, Stj. 220 passim: esp. in poetry with a neg. suff., hirðattu, Korm. ch. 26; hirða-þú, Gkv. 2. 28, 31, Am. 38; hirðum-at fælask, let us not shudder, Fas. i. 519 (in a verse).

hirði-, a prefix, tending, keeping, wearing, in poët. compds, hirði-áss, -bil, -dís, -draugr, -nauma, -njótr, -sága, -sif, -týr, -þollr, all epithets in poetical circumlocutions of men and women.

hirði-ligr, adj. pastoral, Th. 12.

hirðing, f. a tending, keeping.

hirðingi, a, m. a herd, herdsman, Stj. 106, Gen. xiii. 8.

hirðir, m. [Ulf. hairdeis = ποιμήν; A. S. hyrde; Engl. herd; Dan. hyrde; Swed. herde; Germ. hirt]:—a herd, herdsman, shepherd, Gþl. 400, Grág. ii. 224, Barl. 35, Bs. ii. 91, Stj. 106 (hirðanna, gen. pl.); eccl., Hom., Mar., Bs., Stj. passim, as also N. T. in mod. usage; hirðir is used in a sacred and metaph. sense, smali or smala-maðr only in the proper sense; eg em góðr hirðir, John x. 14; heilagir hirðar, Stj. 9. hirðis-lauss, adj. shepherdless; sauðir h., Stj. 603. hirðis-ligr, adj. pastoral, Stj. 235. hirðis-nafn, n. a shepherd’s name, Bs. i. 280. hirðis-rismál, n. a shepherd’s rising time, a term for day-break; er sól er í miðju austri, i. e. six o’clock, Grág. ii. 224, cp. Hrafn. 20.

hirð-ligr, adj. belonging to the king’s men, Barl. 176, Str. 40; h. málsnild, courtly eloquence, Skálda 199: pastoral, Stat. 281.

hirðu-lauss, adj. careless, freq. in mod. usage.

hirðu-leysa, u, f. (mod. -leysi, n.), carelessness, Bs. ii. 91.

hirðu-samr, adj. (-semi, f.), careful.

hirsa (mod. hissa,) adj. indecl. stunned, amazed, astonished; vera (verða) h. þeir urðu h. við þessi stórmerki, 655 v. 2; very freq. in mod. usage, eg er öldungis hissa, bráð-hissa, quite astonished.

hirsi, n. [Swed. hirs], millet, Edda (Gl.)

HIRTA, t, to chastise one, freq. in mod. usage; hirta sik frá e-u, to refrain from, Hom. 108: reflex., Stj. 23 (twice); hirtr, chastised, Fms. ii. 216; hirtask e-s, to refrain from a thing, H. E. i. 236.

hirting, f. chastisement, Hom. 43, Al. 129, Fas. ii. 447, Bs. passim, freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: hirtingar-lauss, adj. unpunished, N. G. L. ii. 419. hirtingar-leysi, n. want of punishment, Fms. v. 191. hirtingar-orð, n. severe words, H. E. i. 250. hirtingar-samr, adj. severe, Bs. i. 164. hirtingar-vöndr, m. a wand (rod) for punishing, Pass. 34. 5.

hirtinn, adj. [hirða], keeping safely, careful: hirtni, f. carefulness.

hirzla (hirðsla), u, f. a keeping, keeping safe, Grág. i. 400, Stj. 445, Fb. ii. 312, (rare.) 2. a box, chest, 656 B. 1, Ld. 56, Sturl. ii. 11, Fbr. 85, Pm. 10: hirzlu-hús, a store-house, H. E. i. 457, Dipl. v. 10; hirzlu-maðr, a keeper, Sks. 273; fjár-h., a treasury.

his, hisja, vide hes, hesja.

hismi, n. chaff, bran; létt sem h.; akin to hé-, hý-, q. v.

hispr, n. foppery: hisprs-lauss, adj. without foppery, plain, straightforward; eg segi þér það hispurslaust, I tell it you plainly.

historia, u, f. history (for. word), Nik. dr. 75, Pass. 11. 1, and now and then in mod. usage, although saga is the usual vernacular word.

hita, u, f. a heating, Fbr. 149. COMPDS: hitu-eldr, m. a fire for heating, Sturl. iii. 147. hitu-hús, n. a brew-house, Fms. iii. 211. hitu-ketill, m. a boiler, Fms. iii. 211, Safn i. 70. hitu-vatn, n. a hot spring, Mar.

hita, að, to heat.

hitan, f. a heating, Fas. ii. 377.

HITI, a, m. [Engl. heat; Dan. hede; Germ. hitze], heat, Vsp. 51; ór frosti í hita, Edda 39, Sks. 60, Fms. v. 350: metaph. ardour, Mar.

hitna, að, to become hot, Magn. 468, Fms. x. 264, Stj. 648: impers., e-m hitnar, one gets hot, Sturl. iii. 20.

HITTA, tt, [akin to Goth. hinþan, Swed. hinna = to find; Engl. hit; Dan. hitte; Swed. hitta]:—to hit upon, meet with one, Fms. i. 129, xi. 124, v. l.; en er þeir hittu menn at máli, Eg. 405, Fs. 29: hitta ráð, to hit upon a device, Fms. vi. 152; h. á e-t, to hit or light upon, hitti hann þar á Þórólf, iv. 309: to find one’s way, time, opportunity, hann hitti ílla leiðir, Fs. 101; h. vel leiðina, 141; at eigi villumk ek ok hitti aptr til þeirra, 623. 62; þar til er þér hittið inn í váginn, Fms. xi. 124 (twice); eigi hittu þér nú í tíma til, ef þér komut svá at borðin vóru uppi, vii. 197; ok vita ef þú hittir í þann tíma, at vild þín megi fram ganga, hit upon the proper time, Sks. 294; sjaldan hittir leiðir í lið, Hm. 65:—also, h. til, to happen, Bs. ii. 129: h. í vandræði, etc., to get into scrapes; hér kom ek með son minn er hitt hefir í vandræði, Fms. vi. 107; þú hefir hitt í fjártjón, Fs. 100; h. í stórræði, Ísl. ii. 391. 2. to hit; hitta sjálfan sik fyrir, to hit oneself, make oneself smart, for a thing (metaph.), Þórð. 75; spjótið hitti (hit, struck) í brjóst hestsins, Flóv. 16; skýtr snæris-spjóti, ok hittir milli herða þeim er stýrði, Fagrsk. 50. 3. to visit, call on; fóru þá margir menn at hitta Hákon konung, Fms. i. 21; gakk ok hitt (imperat.) Magnús konung, vi. 198; gakk at hitta hana, Fas. i. 193; Auðr gékk út ok hittir Rannveigu, Gísl. 105, Fs. 51; hittú (imperat.) föður Magna, Hbl. 51; ok nú hittr (sic) konungr drottning, Fms. x. 292. II. reflex., 1. recipr. to hit on or meet one another, Vsp. 7, Fms. vi. 107, x. 292; hann bað þá vel fara ok heila hittask, Eg. 22; hittumk (let us meet) í vík Varins, Hkv. Hjörv. 22; þeir hittusk þar sem heitir í Minni (of a battle), Fms. vii. 208; hittask á með vandræðum, Js. 40. 2. pass. to be found; hann hittisk við Sköfnungsey, Ld. 326.

hittir, m. a finder, Lex. Poët.

hixta, t, [no doubt onomatopoetic, to say ‘hick,’ cp. Dan. hikke, Swed. hicka]:—to hiccough, Str. 27, Am. 38.

HIXTI, qs. hiksti, a, m. a hiccough, Bs. i. 847, Mag. 103; it is a popular saying that when people are slandering or gossiping about a person behind his back, he hiccoughs every time his name is mentioned, whence the saying, þar er eg nú að orði sem eg er ekki að borði, about me is the word, when I’m not at the board; þann sama dag sem biskup las bannit at Hólum, þá kom svo harðr hiksti at honum (viz. Daði), svo hann undraði, ok þat var ór hófi, svo at hann hugsaði að öndina mundi slíta af sér, Daði mælti þá, nú er eg þar at orði sem eg er ekki at borði, Safn i. 90,—the bishop was at that moment excommunicating him; cp. the saying, sjaldan kemr hixti af huga góðum, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 552 and 557, l. 1.

hizig, hitzig, hizug, adv., in N. G. L. i. 242 hizcu = hizug, [hinn vegr]:—yonder, there, Lat. illic, heimta at erfingjum, ef hitzig var eigi til, K. Þ. K. 9 (1853), hitze, v. l.; við Útstein hitzig, yonder at U., Sighvat; hitzig (yonder) er heitir Helganes, Fms. vi. 84 (in a verse); hizug í Hafrsfirði, Fagrsk. 8 (in a verse):—above, sem hizig vas tínt, as told above, Grág. ii. 222 A; ok hafa, þat allt er hitzug leifir, whatsoever is left in the other (in the former code, the code of Hafliði), i. 7; en hafa ómagann sjálfr, ef hann festir eigi hizig framfærsluna, unless he shifts the alimentation on to the other part, 254; at hann vill hitzi (= hitzig) í þingi vera, 159:—cp. hinnsig, hinnig, s. v. hinn.

híalin, n. a gossamer (?), Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 539.

hí-býli, n. pl., usually spelt thus or even híbíli (esp. in Cd. B. of Sks. 75, 96, 127 new Ed.); hýbýli, Fms. vii. 148, Fb. i. 254, ii. 238, 314, iii. 404; [the hí- answers to Germ. hei- in heirath; Ulf. heiv- in heivafrauja = a house-lady; A. S. hiwa; Engl. hive (in bee-hive); cp. O. H. G. hiwian and Hel. hiwa = a wife]:—a homestead, home; hús eru þrjú í hvers manns híbýlum, Grág. i. 459, ii. 196, 371; heima at híbýlum sínum, Js. 78; þar í hans híbýlum, Eg. 156, 194; ef þér eru hér kunnig híbýli, 236; í annarra manna híbýlum, Nj. 52; ganga um híbýli, to walk again, Landn. 107: allit., hús ok híbýli, house and home, Sks. 454: nú er par híbýlum á leið snúit, ok fara þeir til hvílu, Fb. iii. 404; þar vóru híbýli heldr dauflig eptir, Eb. 100 new Ed. COMPDS: híbýla-bót, f. bettering of one’s homestead, Bs. i. 129, Gþl. 376. híbýla-bragr, m. home manners, domestic life. híbýla-brestr, m. a home loss, Glúm. 375, Gísl. 79. híbýla-háttr, m. home affairs, Fms. ii. 267, Bárð. 176, Fs. 131. híbýla-prúðr, adj. gentle and well-mannered at home, in one’s daily life, Eb. 88, Grett. 96.

HÍÐ, n. [hi, Ivar Aasen], a lair, den, esp. of a bear, N. G. L. i. 45, 46, Grett. 100, Glúm. 330, Gþl. 444, Korm. (in a verse, of a sword’s sheath). COMPDS: híð-björn, m. a bear in his den, Grett. 100, Fms. ii. 100, Fas. i. 50, Glúm. l. c. híð-byggvir, m., poët. a den dweller, a bear, Korm. II. Híði, a, m. a pr. name, Fms. viii.

híðazk, dep. [híð], to be in its lair, of a wild beast; hann hafði híðz í þessu fjalli, … far nú ok hiðzt þar er þér líkar, Vitae Patrum (Unger).

HÍMA, d, to saunter, loiter; hímir ok hangir … hvat hímir þú … hékk hann af ok hímdi … með himanda hug, Vitae Patrum (Unger).

hímaldi, a, m. a laggard, almost like Germ. aschbrödel, Fas. iii. 18: a nickname, Fb. iii.

HÍRA, ð, [hira, Ivar Aasen, statt ikje dar aa hir! and hiren = lazy]:—híra við, to stand idle, tarry, loiter, Grág. i. 6, 65; öllu var honum betra á Stað, heima að híra, Jón Arason: in mod. usage a reflex., hírast, to sit snug at home; það er og vel að þú hírist (hýrist is a wrong spelling) hér eptir þar sem þú ert nú kominn og etir þar og drekkir, Od. x. 270, 271; hinir hírðu við … ek hírumk hér hjá í yðvarri þjónustu, Vitae Patrum (Unger).

Hísing, f. name of an island, Fms.

HÍT, f. a scrip or bag made of the skin of a beast, Sd. 157, Fb. i. 220, Grett.: as a nickname, Fb. iii: metaph. a vast belly, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 612: the name of a giantess, Bárð.: the local names Hítar-dalr, Hítar-nes (Landn.) were still at the beginning of this century in that neighbourhood sounded Hitar-dalr, Hitar-nes, with a short i, the original form being Hitár-dalr, Hitár-nes, the dale and ness of the Hot river (a volcanic river), opp. to Kaldá, the Cold river, in the same county. The derivation from a giantess Hít is a mere fiction, and not older than the Bárðar S. Hítnesingr, m. one from Hitarnes, Sturl.

hjaðna, að, to sink, dwindle, of froth and the like.

Hjaðningar (Héðningar, Fb. i. 282), m. pl. [A. S. Heodeningas, Hetelinge or Hegelinge of the old German epos, Kudrun (Bartsch’s Edition)], the champions of the mythol. hero Héðinn, Edda 90; whence Hjaðninga-víg, n. the battle of Hedin and his men, supposed to go on for ever; see the tale in Edda 89, 90, and Fb. i. 278–282.

hjakka, að, to hack; akin to höggva, q. v.

hjal, n. chatter, talk, tittle-tattle, Edda 110, Fbr. 58, Fms. x. 333, xi. 19, Vápn. 16, Sturl. i. 22, Niðrst. 4: the saying, opt stendr íllt af kvenna hjali, Gísl. 15. hjals-kona, u, f. a courtesan, Dropl. 19.

HJALA, að, to chatter, talk, Ísl. ii. 330, 332, Ld. 214, Sturl. i. 22; hjala við e-n, Nj. 203, Ísl. ii. 349, 378: recipr., hjalask við, to talk together, 321.

hjald, n. = hjal, Edda 110.

hjaldr, m., gen. rs, [cp. hildr, hjala, as galdr from gala], poët. a din, whence a fight, battle, Lex. Poët. passim: as also in poët. compds, hjaldr-reifr, -gegninn, -móðr, -örr, -ríkr, -snjallr, -stríðr, -þorinn, adj. = martial, warlike; the sword is hjaldr-blik, -íss, -kyndill, -linnr, -skíð; the battle, hjaldr-el, -drif, -ganga; the shield, hjaldr-ský; a raven, hjaldr-gagl, -trani; a warrior, hjaldr-gegnir, -magnaðr, -remmir, -snerrandi, -týr, -viðurr: hjaldr-goð = Odin; vide Lex. Poët.

hjal-drjúgt, n. adj. chattering; verða h., to be chattering all along, Eb. 200, Vápn. 7, 12.

HJALLI, a, m. [akin to hilla, Engl. shelf; cp. also Engl. hill]:—a shelf or ledge in a mountain’s side, Hrafn. 9, Gullþ. 19, Fb. iii. 408, Dropl. 33, Sturl. iii. 246, very freq.: as also in local names, Deildar-hjalli, Landn.; Víðir-hjalli, Þver-h., Litli-h., Langi-h. II. a local name, Landn.

hjallr, m. [akin to hjalli], a scaffold, a frame of timber, Gísl. 31, Mar. 557, Hkr. ii. 175 (of a pedestal); seið-hjallr (q. v.), the scaffold on which witches sat. 2. a shed, esp. for drying clothes, fish, N. G. L, i. 137, H. E. i. 396, Vm. 174; fisk-h., a fish-shed; grinda-h., a shed of rails. COMPDS: hjall-grind, f. the frame of a shed. hjall-viðr, m. timber for a shed, Pm. 133.

HJALT, n. [A. S. and Engl. hilt], the boss or knob at the end of a sword’s hilt; also the guard between the hilt and blade; the former being sometimes distinguished as the eptra or efra hjalt (hinder or upper, accordingly as the sword was held), and the latter as fremra h., the fore part or guard, where blade and hilt join; or else the plur. hjölt is used; í því gékk hjaltið af sverðinu hit efra ok hljóp þá brandrinn fram ór meðalkafla umgörðinni, Sturl. iii. 283; hjölt ok meðalkafli, Þiðr. 114; eftra hjaltið, opp. to fremra hjaltið, Karl. 124, Korm. ch. 9, Ld. ch. 57, Eb. ch. 13, and Gísl. 72, vide gadd-hjalt, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 9, Sdm. 6; hjölt ór gulli, Akv. 7; sverð með gulligum hjöltum, Fms. i. 15; nema hjöltin við neðra gómi, Edda 20; sverðit brotnaði undir hjaltinu, Nj. 43, Fms. ii. 484, Gullþ. 18; skaltú nú vera þegn hans er þú tókt við sverði hans at hjöltunum, Fms. i. 15; Helgi hnauð hjalt á sverð, Nj. 66; hann leggr sverðinu á þessum sama flekk ok fellr á hjöltin, Fb. i. 258. ☞ The Engl. hilt is in Icel, called meðal-kafli, ‘middle-piece:’ the Engl. word is derived from the Scandin., but in a different sense.

hjaltaðr, part. with a hjalt; gull-h., Þiðr. 80.

Hjaltar, m. pl. Shetlanders, Orkn. (in a verse), Sturl. i. 94 C, ii. 44.

hjalti, a, m. [hjalt], a nickname, Landn.: as also a pr. name, id.; Horn-h., name of a sword, Gullþ.

Hjalt-land, n., later Hetland, which occurs in the Fb.; in Engl. corrupted into Shetland or Zetland. COMPDS: Hjaltlendingr, m. a Shetlander, Fms., Fb. Hjalt-lenzkr and Hjalt-neskr, adj. one from Shetland, Ld. 26, Grág. i. 299.

hjalt-uggaðr, part. with ‘boss-fins,’ poetical epithet of a sword, metaph. from a fish, Ísl. ii. (in a verse).

hjalt-vöndr, m. a ‘hilt-wand,’ sword, Lex. Poët.

hjara, u, f., pl. hjörur, mod. = hjarri, a hinge.

HJARA, ð, pres. hjari, part. hjarað, [no doubt akin to híra], to linger, to live (poorly), Pass. 33. 12.

hjarð-hundr, m. a shepherd’s dog, Hkr. i. 226.

Hjarð-hyltingar, m. pl. the men from Hjarðar-holt, Landn., Ld.

hjarð-reki, a, m. a drover, Stj. 257, Mar.

hjarð-rækr, adj. able to drive a drove, of one half blind, Bs. i. 307.

hjarð-sveinn, m. a shepherd boy, Fms. ii. 156, Stj. 482.

hjarð-tík, f. a shepherd’s tyke, Eg. 375.

HJARL, n., only poët. a land, country, Lex. Poët. COMPDS: hjarl-stríðandi, part. a champion fighting for the land, Lex. Poët. hjarl-þvengr, m., poët. a snake.

HJARN, n. hard frozen snow, as also frozen earth covered with snow, Sturl. iii. 147, Fms. i. 8, ii. 228, Lil. 10, Bb. 3. 35.

hjarna, að, [hjara], in the phrase, hjarna við, to shew signs of life, to revive, Lat. vivescere; at kýrin skyldi við h., Bs. i. 335; barn hjarnar við, N. G. L. i. 340; veyklegt afkvaemi við þó hjarni | vilja þau helzt það deyi strax, Bb. 1. 14.

HJARNI, a, m. [Dan. hjerne; Germ. ge-hirn], prop. the brain, Edda (Gl.); whence hjarna-mænir, m. the skull, Haustl.

hjarn-skál, f. [Germ. hirnschale], the brain pan, the skull, Sturl. iii. 283, cp. Vkv. 23, 33.

Hjarrandi, a, m. a mythical name, the Demodokus or Orpheus of the old Teut. legends, Edda 89: A. S. Heorrenda; in old Germ. poems called Horant. Hjarranda-ljóð, n. pl. the lay or tune of H., a charmed tune on the harp, Fas. iii. 223 (Bósa S.): a mod. metre in the Ballads (Rímur) is, if we remember right, still in Iceland called Hjarranda-lag, the tune of H. (see Bartsch’s Ed. of Kudrun, pp. i. x, xvii, and the sixth Aventiure of Kudrun, inscribed ‘wie suoze Horant sanc’ = how sweet H. sang).

HJARRI, a, m. a hinge, Stj. 565, Korm. (in a verse). hjarra-grind, f. a gate on hinges, Grág. ii. 264.

HJARSI, proncd. hjassi, a, m. [Swed. hjesse; Dan. isse], the crown of the head; frá hjassa til ilja, Karl. 342, N. G. L. i. 339, Gísl. (in a verse); hann þreif í hjarsann á Kolbirni en setti knéit í bakit, Bárð. 177, (obsolete.) II. a fabulous beast, whence the saying, verða aldraðr (gamall) sem h., to be as old as a h., Fas. iii. 365; or, hann er afgamall hjassi, an old decrepid h.

HJARTA, n., gen. pl. hjartna, [Goth. hairto; A. S. heorte; Engl. heart; Hel. herta; O. H. G. herza; Germ. herz; Dan. hjerte; Swed. hjerta; Gr. καρδία; Lat. cor, cord-is]:—the heart, Fbr. 137, Nj. 95, passim. II. metaph., gott hjarta, góð hjörtu, með bezt hjarta, ört h., snart h., dyggt h., frækit h., a bold, stout, true heart, Lex. Poët.; glatt h., a glad heart, Em. 1; milt h., a mild heart, id.; hrætt h., a timid heart, Sól.; sárt h., a sore heart; blóðugt h., a bloody or bleeding heart, Hm. 36; viðkvæmt h., a tender heart: denoting courage, Þórr á afl ærit en ekki hjarta, Hbl. 26; h. ok hugr, heart and courage, Ísl. ii. (in a verse):—phrases, hjarta ór leiri, to have a heart of clay, be a coward, Kormak, referring to the tale in Edda 57, 58; or merar-hjarta, the heart of a mare; hjarta drepr stall, the heart beats (see drepa A. 4) or sinks, rudely expressed in Sturl. ii. 42 (in the verse); hjartað berst, beats; but the subst. is hjart-sláttr, q. v. 2. the heart, mind, feeling; snotrs manns hjarta verðr sjaldan glatt, a wise man’s heart is seldom glad, Hm. 54; hugr einn þat veit hvat býr hjarta nær, einn er hann sér um sefa, 94 (cp. 1 Cor. ii. 11): allit., hold ok hjarta, flesh and heart, body and soul, i. e. all, hold ok h. var mér in horska mær, Hm. 95; hugr ok h., soul and heart, Pass. 43. 5; also, minni og h., mind (memory) and heart, 8. 12; h. og hugskot, heart and mind: phrases, af öllu h., with all one’s heart; unna e-m (elska e-n) af öllu hjarta, Lv. 37, Mar.; eg heft ekki hjarta til e-s, I have no heart for it: the gen. as adverb, hjartans feginn, heartily glad, Pass. 4. 15; h. glaðr, göra e-ð í hjartans grannleysi, in the simpleness of heart; hjartans harðúð, hardness of heart. 3. in addressing, hjartað, hjartað gott, sweet heart! dear love! 4. mythol., Hrungnis hjarta, the stone heart, of the giant Hrungnir: the name of a magical character, perh. = Germ. Druiden fuss, see Edda 58: sea pebbles are called the heart of the sea, Ýt.

B. COMPDS: hjarta-blauðr, adj. cowardly, Karl. 124. hjarta-blóð, n. hearts-blood, Edda 74, Fbr. 108, Bær. 11, Fas. i. 163. hjarta-dauðr, adj. dead at heart, Stj. 484. hjarta-friðr, m. heart’s-ease, peace of heart, Mar. hjarta-góðr, adj. kind-hearted, Bs. ii. 178. hjarta-gróinn, part. rooted in the heart. hjarta-hreinn, adj. pure in heart, Pass. 2. 8. hjarta-prúðr, adj. stout-hearted, generous, Eb. 194. hjarta-prýði, f. stoutness of heart, generosity, Bær. 20, Sks. 274. hjarta-ragr, adj. cowardly, Fas. iii. 100. hjarta-rætr, f. pl. the ‘heart-roots,’ heart-strings, Fbr. 216: the phrase, e-m hitnar um hjartarætrnar, to be deeply moved, alarmed, or the like, to feel the blood rushing to one’s heart. hjarta-taugar, f. pl. the heart-strings.

hjartaðr, part. hearted so and so, Bær. 9.

hjarta-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hearty, Bs. ii. 156, Fms. iii. 53, Mar.

hjartan-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hearty, Stj. 186, Th. 7, freq. in mod. usage.

hjart-blóð, n. = hjartablóð, Fm., Sæm. 156 (prose), Gkv. 2. 29.

hjart-fólginn, part. heart-felt, cherished in the heart, Vígl. 22, N. G. L. ii. 481, Col. iii. 12, Vidal., freq. in mod. eccl. usage.

hjart-höfði, a, m. [hjört], a hart’s (stag’s) head, Lex. Poët.

hjart-kolla, u, f. [hjörtr], a hind, Str. 3, Bret.

hjart-kærr, adj. beloved.

hjart-lauss, adi. disheartened, Orkn. 408 old Ed.

hjart-mörr, m. the fat about the heart, Stj. 310, Exod. xxix. 22.

hjart-næmiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), with hearty feeling.

hjart-næmr, adj. heart-touching, 625. 87, freq.

hjart-sára, adj. heart-sore, broken-hearted, Bs. i. 354.

hjart-skinn, n. [hjörtr], deer-skin, Fms. ii. 148.

hjart-skjálfti, a, m. heart-throbbing.

hjart-sláttr, m. a beating of the heart.

hjart-tegn = jartegn, Thom.

hjart-verkr, m. heart-ache.

hjart-veyki, f. heart disease.

hjart-veykr, adj. having a heart disease.

hjart-æð, f. the ‘heart-vein,’ vena mediana, Fél. xi. 142.

HJÁ, prep. [this prep. is peculiar to the Scandin. languages, which in their turn lack the Germ. and Saxon bei, by; the Dan. and Swed. add an s, hos, qs. hiaa’s, haa’s; hjá may be akin to Goth. heiva and Icel. hjú, q. v.; cp. Lat. cum]:—by, beside, with dat.: 1. by, near, at hand, Lat. juxta; setjask niðr hjá e-m, to take a seat by a person’s side, Nj. 3, Fs. 83; Egill setti hana niðr hjá sér, Eg. 249; liggja hjá e-m, to lie by one, Nj. 94; rekkja hjá konu, Ld. 30; hvíla hjá konu, Hbl. 17; sofa hjá e-m, to sleep in the same bed with one, Korm.; hann var jarðaðr (earthed, buried) hjá föður sínum, Fms. x. 111; sverðit stóð hjá honum, i. 16; næsta bæ hjá Rúts-stöðum, Nj. 32; þótti þeim í hönd falla at taka upp land þetta hjá sér sjálfum, this land lying close at hand, Ld. 210. 2. near, close to; gluggar vóru hjá brúnásunum, Nj. 95; hann var heygðr hjá Hofi, 163; hjá þreskeldi, Korm. (in a verse); þar hjá garðinum, Fs. 56; hjá brjóstinu, id.; hjá hvílu búanda þíns, Nj. 19; spjót koma upp hjá hólunum, 95; í hjá Ölvosvatni, Íb. 11; hjá dyrunum, O. H. L. 72: í hjá = hjá, hann stóð í hjá vandbálki nokkurum, id.; þar í hjá, close by, Grág. ii. 338. 3. by, with, Lat. apud; vera hjá e-m, to stay with one; vera í gistingu hjá e-m, to lodge with one, Dropl. 9; þau vóru þar hjá konungi í góðu yfirlæti, Bárð. 178; þeirra manna er í hjá oss vóru, Gþl.; taka upp giptu hjá e-m, Fms. xi. 426; maðr einn var eptir hjá honum, Lv. 63; eru þeir hér ódáða-menninir hjá þér, Hlenni? 64. 4. in the presence of, Lat. coram; svá at Flosi var hjá, in the presence of Flosi, Nj. 259; móðir þeirra var hjá, 214; þeir vóru þá í hjá ok heyrðu, Anal. 294; vera í hjá, Gþl. 287 passim. 5. passing by, Germ. vorbei; mánaði síðar fóru þeir hjá mér kátir, Fb. ii. 288; sneiða hjá, to pass by, Fbr. 70; hann þóttisk eigi sneiða mega hjá slíkum málum, Háv. 55; farask hjá, to pass by one another, Eb. 270; sitja (kyrr) hjá e-u máli, not to stir, remain neutral, 124, Fms. xi. 83: absol., Nj. 97; láta menn sitja hjá kyrra, to let them be unmolested, Ld. 258; vilda ek at þú létir vera ok hjá liða (to let it go by, notice it not) þetta vandræði, 206; leiðir hann hjá sér þessi mála-ferli, Eb. 38 new Ed.; annan veg mun reynask en hann Hrói láti hjá sér líða þat (leave undone) sem hann er heitbundinn í við vini sína, Rd. 246; fara hjá sér, to go beside oneself, go out of one’s mind, Eb. 270; hleypa þeir upp hjá þeim, Nj. 107. β. fram hjá, past, by, Germ. vorbei; en ef þik berr skjótt fram hjá, þá …, Lv. 65, Fs. 108; hann gengr í móti þeim ok hjá þeim, and past them, Valla L. 212; fram hjá Knafa-hólum, Nj. 95; ríða vestr hjá Hallbjarnar-vörðum, 4; þeir riðu hjá fram, rode by, 96. 6. besides; gefa aðrar sakir bóndum hjá fram, Bs. i. 496. II. metaph. in comparison with, to; réttlátir hjá íllum, Eluc. 16; lítils verðr hjá sínum göfgum frændum, Skálda 176; þeim þykir allt lágt hjá sér, Ld. 214; þótti allt barna-vipr þat er aðrar konur höfðu í skarti hjá henni, 122; hin stóru skipin Bagla urðu ekki mjúkræs hjá þeim er Birkibeinar höfðu, Fms. viii. 384; er þá sýkn dagr hjá því sem nú er, iv. 265; höfðu þeir fátt kvikfjár hjá því sem þurfti, Eg. 134; þó at Ólafr konungr hafi eigi lið mikit hjá her þeim er vér höfum, Ó. H. 214; hefir hann nú lítið fjölmenni hjá því sem hann hafði í sumar, 168; þvkir yðr allt lágt hjá yðr Vatnsdælum, Fs. 53; Þórr er lágr ok lítill hjá stórmenni því er hér er með oss, Edda 33.

hjá-brögð, n. pl. tricks, devices; h. heimsins, Mar.

hjá-bú, n. an outlying estate, opp. to heima-ból, Sturl. ii. 229.

hjá-félag, n. an extra partnership, N. G. L. ii. 285 (Jb. 404, 405).

hjá-hliðran, f. a going aside from, evasion.

hjá-hvíla, u, f. concubinage, Fas. ii. 341, iii. 657.

hjá-kátligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), out of the way, odd, queer.

hjá-kona, u, f. a concubine, Karl. 66.

hjá-land, n. an outlying estate, opp. to heimaland, Am. 41, 95.

hjá-legr, n. concubinatus, N. G. L. i. 357.

hjá-leiga, u, f. = hjáland, freq. in mod. usage.

hjá-leikr, m. = hjábragð, Grett. 146 new Ed.

hjá-lenda, u, f. = hjáland: mod. a colony, Germ. beiland.

HJÁLM, f. [A. S. healme; Engl. helm], a helm, rudder; hjálmar-skíð, n. the tiller, Korm. (in a verse); otherwise only occurring in hjálmar-völr and hjálmur-völr (q. v.), m. = hjálm-völr, q. v., N. G. L. ii. 283, v. l.: Hjálmar-dalr, m. a local name, Orkn.

hjálmaðr, part. helmed, Hkm. 11, Fms. vii. 242, 243, Karl. 328.

hjálm-barð, n. [mid. H. G. helmbarte], a helmet-rim, Fas. iii. 355.

hjálm-bönd, n. pl. helmet-strings, Fas. ii. 430, Bret. 56.

hjálm-drótt, f. a helmed host, war host, Gkv. 2. 15.

hjálm-gjörð, f. the rim of a helmet; gylt h., Fms. vii. 323, v. l.

hjálm-hús, n. [hjálmr II. i], a hay-house, barn, Fb. iii.

hjálm-höttr, m. a helm-hood, a kind of cowl put over the helmet, Þiðr. 9, 285, Eg. 407.

hjálm-laukr, m. a kind of leek, garlic, Fs. 146.

HJÁLMR, m. [Goth. hilms; A. S., Engl., Hel., O. H. G., and Germ. helm; Dan.-Swed. hjalm; Ital. elmo; old Fr. heaume; a Teut. word prob. derived from hylja, to hide]:—a helm, helmet; distinguished from stálhúfa, a steel hood; luktr hjálmr, a closed, shut helm, only occurs in very late writers, e. g. D. N. i. 321; steyptir hjálmar, Gkv. 2. 19, cannot mean cast-iron helmets, but must be helmets coming over the face, as cast-iron was unknown in the Middle Ages, see Aarb. for Nord. Oldk. 1868, p. 9; aringreypir hjálmar, helms shaped like an eagle’s beak, Akv. 3; gull-h., a gilt helm; ár-hjálmr, a brazen helmet, Hkm.: the word âr is A. S., since helmets were of English workmanship, as is seen also in Valskir hjálmar, foreign helmets, which are mentioned by Sighvat. 2. in the mythology Odin is called Hjálm-beri, a, m. helm-bearer, Gm.; he and the Valkyrias were represented as wearing helmets, Edda, Hkm. 9, Hkv. 1. 15; whence the poets call the helmet the hood of Odin (Hropts höttr): the vault of heaven is called the ‘helm’ of the wind, sun, etc., lopt-h., vind-h., sólar-h., Lex. Poët.: the head is called hjálm-stofn, hjálm-staup, hjálm-stallr, hjálm-setr, the stem, knoll, seat of the helm: the weapons, hjálm-angr, -grand, -gagarr, -gríðr, -reyr, -skass, -svell, are called the bane, ogre, etc. of the helm: battle is hjálm-drífa, -grap, -hríð, -rödd, -skúr, -þrima, the storm, gale of the helm: a warrior is hjálm-lestir, -njótr, -njörðungr, -rækjandi, -stafr, -stýrandi, -týr, -þollr, -þróttr: it appears in adjectives, hjálm-faldinn, helm-hooded; hjálm-göfugr, -prýddr, -samr, -tamiðr, decked with, wearing a helm, Lex. Poët. 3. metaph. and mythol.; huliðs-hjálmr, a ‘hiding-helm,’ cap of darkness, Germ. tarn-kappe, which in the popular tales makes the wearer invisible, in Alm. the clouds are so called; ægis-hjálmr (ýgrs-h.), cp. the Αιγίς of the Greek, helm of terror, properly used of serpents, Sæm. 13 (prose), Edda 73, Fas. i. 175: in the phrase, bera ægishjálm yfir e-m, to bear the ægis over or before another, i. e. to hold him in awe and submission, Fm. 16, 17, Ld. 130, Fms. viii. 101, Fas. i. 162, Sd. 155, Hrafn. 19, cp. Ad. 4: in mod. usage, hafa ægis-hjálm í augum, to have an ægis in one’s eyes, i. e. a magical overawing power of eye; cp. hjalm = horror, Ivar Aasen: in pr. names, Hjálmr, Hjálmarr, Hjálm-geirr, Hjálm-grímr, Hjálm-gunnarr, Hjálm-týr, Hjálmr-gerðr, not freq., Landn., Fbr. iii, Edda; suffixed in Vil-hjálmr, William. II. of helmet-shaped things: 1. a rick of barley, hay, or the like (bygg-h., hey-h., korn-h., q. v.); hlaða korni í hjálma, Ó. H. 30, Stj. 413, N. G. L. ii. 358: also a hay-house, barn, hjálma ok hús, i. 38; cp. hjálm-hús. 2. kerta-hjálmr, ljósa-h., a chandelier.

hjálm-ræða, u, f. pales or fences for hay-ricks (?), N. G. L. i. 38, (Gþl. 346)—nú skal hann eigi grafa upp hjálmræðr eptir fardaga, höggva má hann fyrir ofan jörð ek færa í brott.

hjálm-röðull, m.—hjálmbarð, Höfuðl.

hjálmun-völr, m. = hjálmvölr, Orkn. 8, Fms. i. 212 (v. l.), vii. 47, x. 267, Sks. 479.

hjálm-vitr, f., qs. hjálmvættr, a ‘helm-wight,’ a Valkyria, Hkv. 1. 53.

hjálm-völr, m. a ‘helm-wand,’ ‘helm-handle,’ the tiller of a helm, Orkn. 152, Korm. 230, Fms. i. 212.

hjálm-þornaðr, part., of corn dried and stacked, Sighvat.

hjálp, f. (hjólp with umlaut, Fms. x. 397, 404), help (esp. in old writers in a stronger sense, saving, help, healing, see hjálpa), Clem. 58, Fms. vi. 106, Fb. i. 337, passim; so in Hm. 147; biðja e-n hjálpar, 200; veita e-m hjálpir, Rd. 309; hjálpar drykkr, a healing draught, Mar.: in plur., Fms. ii. 227, Og. 1: eccl. help, salvation, D. I. i. 231; hjálp ok heilsa, Fb. i. 404, Bs. i. 199; sálu-hjálp, ‘soul’s-help,’ salvation: in mod. usage, help in a general sense. COMPDS: hjálpar-fúss, adj. willing to help. hjálpar-gata, u, f. a way to help, Fms. i. 142. hjálpar-hönd, f. a helping hand; með hjálparhendi, Stj. 202; rétta e-m hjálparhönd, to reach one a helping hand. hjálpar-lauss, adj. helpless. hjálpar-leysi, n. helplessness. hjálpar-maðr, m. a helper in need, Stj. 448, Orkn. 460: one wanting help, Fms. vii. 33. hjálpar-ráð, n. helping advice, Fb. i. 404: eccl. help, salvation, Nú kom heiðinna hjálpar-ráð, Hólabók 1. hjálps-maðr, m. = hjálparmaðr, Sks. 451 B, Barl. 100, 207.

HJÁLPA (prop. hjalpa); in old usage strong; pres. helpr, pl. hjálpa; pret. halp or hjalp (as in mod. Dan.), N. G. L. i. 303, Fms. viii. 129, 306; holp and hjalp, ix. 288; pl. hulpu; subj. hylpi, Bs. i. 703; helpi, Fms. x. 368; imperat. hjálp, Sighvat and Arnór; part. hólpinn: in mod. usage weak (að) and of the 1st conjugation, as it also occurs in old writers, hjálpaðu, Fms. vii. 290, and Mork. l. c.; hjálpa (imperat.), Stj. 122; hjálpaðr (part.), id.; hjálpat, Fs. 92: in mod. usage hólpinn still remains as an adjective, cp. Engl. holpen: [Ulf. hilpan = βοηθειν; A. S. helpan; Engl. help; O. H. G. helfan; Germ. helfen; Dan. hjælpe; Swed. hjelpa]: I. to help, in old writers always denoting to save, save another’s life, but in mod. usage to help in a general sense, with dat.; ok hjalp þeim þat mjök Birkibeinum, at svá var myrkt at þeir kendusk eigi, Fms. viii. 306; kirkjur vóru allar læstar ok hjalp þeim þat ekki, 129; taka fæzlu ok drykk ok hjálpa (infin.) svá yðrum líkama, x. 368; muntú bæði þér í því ok svá mörgum öðrum h., 392; ok svá ef nokkurr helpr þér, xi. 192; en hinn er má, ok vill eigi h. hinum nánustum frændum, Fb. i. 438; hann halp með því lífi sínu at sinni, Hkr. iii. 323 (but hjalpaði, Mork. and Fms. vii, l. c.); ok hjálpuðu svá lífi sínu, Fms. vii. 290 (hulpu, Hkr. iii. 420, l. c.); sá hólp (helped) Inga konungi er hann svamm yfir ána Níð, Fms. ix. 288 (hjalp, v. l.); ef maðr stelr mat ok helpr svá lífi fyrir hungrs sakir, N. G. L. ii. 168 (Js. 128); hjálpa (imperat.) nú lífi þínu, Stj. 122; but hjálp þú, Sighvat in Fms. v. 177 (in a verse), Edda i. 318, Gísl. (in a verse); Guð hjálpi mér en fyrirgefi yðr, Nj. 170; konungrinn sjálfr hafði hjálpat þeim, Fs. 92; en hón helpi svá lífi sínu með einu epli, Fms. x. 368: in the oath, svá hjálpi mér Freyr ok Njörðr ok hinn Almáttki Áss, Landn. 335, whence the Christian ‘so help me God;’ svá hjálpi þer hollar vættir, Og. 10; ok helpr honum eigi sá lengr enn it fyrsta alþingi, Grág. i. 380; enda helpr honum þat ekki, 91: of midwifery, to heal, skal sú kona vitni um bera er hjalp henni, at barnit var dautt alit, N. G. L. i. 303; vittu ef þú hjálpir, Og. 5: in mod. usage to help, hann minnist miskunnar og hjálpar á fætr sínum þjón Israel, Luke i. 54, passim. 2. adding prep. við; hón bað konung hjálpa við konungs-syni þessum, Fms. i. 81, Bs. i. 349; hét hann á menn sína at hlaupa til ok h. við hofinu (of a house burning), Ísl. ii. 410; en þat þér h. (heal) mun við sökum ok sorgum, Hm. 147. II. reflex. to be saved; þá munu vér hjálpask allir saman, Fms. v. 59; þeirra er hjálpask í dómi, Eluc. 37; sálir hjálpisk, H. E. i. 257; þú vilt at allir hjálpisk, Barl. 100; Davíð flýði ok gat hólpit sér, Stj. 469. 2. part. pass. hólpinn, ‘holpen,’ saved, safe; ef þú mátt út komask þá ertú hólpinn, Hom. 120; en Bjarni hefir sik í skóginn ok er nú hólpinn fyrir Þorkatli, Vápn. 25; hann skal vera hólpinn á dóma-degi, Karl. 342; eru þeir þá hólpnir ef þeir fá hann, Fs. 66; væntu þeir at þeir mundi hólpnir verða ef flóð yrði eigi meira en Nóa-flóð, Rb. 402; eigi er þér at hólpnara þó at þú sért hjá mér, Grett. 130; heill ok hjálpaðr, safe and sound, Stj. 122.

hjálpandi, part. a helper, saviour, Greg. 33.

hjálpari, a, m. a helper, saviour, Fms. i. 77, x. 224 (of Christ), Stj. 50, 241, Mar. 5.

hjálp-lauss, adj. helpless, Rd. 308.

hjálp-leysi, n. helplessness, Barl. 147.

hjálpr, m. = hjálpari, N. G. L. i. 317: hjálps-maðr, m. = hjálparmaðr.

hjálp-ráð, n. help, salvation, Stj. 233, 240, Fms. x. 238 (means of saving); mín augu hafa séð þitt hjálpráð, Luke ii. 30.

hjálp-reip, n. a saving rope, Edda (Gl.); en ef h. brestr, gjaldi tvær örtogar, N. G. L. ii. 283: the hjálpreip perhaps resembled the βοήθεια in Acts xxvii. 17.

hjálp-ríkr, adj. rich, mighty in help, Bs. i. (in a verse).

hjálp-ræði, n. = hjálpráð, 655 xv. A. 1; biðja e-n hjálpræða, Fms. ii. 132: helping advice (healing), vi. 198; með dýrð ok hjálpræðum, with glory and help, x. 338.

hjálp-samliga, adv. helpfully, Str. 65, Stj. 23.

hjálp-samligr, adj. helpful, salutary, Stj. 54, H. E. ii. 164, Magn. 492, Bs. ii. 156, Fms. v. 224.

hjálp-samr, adj. helping, helpful.

hjálp-semi, f. helpfulness.

hjálp-vænligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), salutary, promising help. Fms. xi. 334. Bs. i. 648, Fb. i. 510.

hjálp-vænn, adj. = hjálpvænligr, Bs. i. 202.

hjálp-vættr, f. = bjargvættr, Gullk. C.

hjá-máll, adj. speaking-beside the mark, absurd, Skálda 164.

hjá-róma, adj. singing out of tune.

hjá-ræna, u, f. a queer, odd fellow; hann er mesta h. COMPDS: hjárænu-legr, adj. strange, beside oneself. hjárænu-skapr, m.

hjá-seta, u, f. sitting by sheep, watching or tending sheep (from sitja hjá), Piltr og Stúlka 12.

hjá-staða, u, f. a standing by, assistance, Fms. iii. 187, 190, Fas. iii. 548.

hjá-staurr, m. a supporting stake, prop. Gþl. 380.

hjá-stigr, m. a by-path, Þorst. Síðu H. 10.

hjá-stoð, n. [Germ. bei-stand], help, assistance.

hjá-stælt, n. adj. a kind of metre, the intercalary sentence (stál) being placed at the end of the verse, Edda (Ht.)

hjá-trú, f. ‘by-faith,’ superstition, (mod.)

hjá-tækr, adj. missing one’s hold, Nj. 263.

hjá-vera, u, f. a being by or near, pretence, H. E. i. 420, Stj. 219.

hjá-verandi, part. being present, Skálda 202.

hjá-verk, n. by-work; göra e-ð í hjáverkum, to do a thing in one’s spare time.

hjá-vist, f. presence, Bs. i. 351, Barl. 158.

HJÓL, n., a contr. form from hvel, q. v.; hjól rhymes with stól, Hkr. iii. 238 in a verse at the beginning of the 12th century; [Swed. and Dan. hjul]:—a wheel, Sks. 412; vagnar á hjólum, Fms. vi. 145, Stj. 71, 288; vagna-hjól, 287; brjóta í hjóli, to break on the wheel, Fms. xi. 372, Skálda 204 (in a verse); á hverfanda hjóli, on a rolling wheel, Grett. 97 new Ed. (Hm. 83, hvel); leika á hjólum, to turn upon wheels, metaph. of a shifting or sanguine character, hann leikr allr á hjólum: so in the saying, valt er hamingu-hjólið.

hjól-börur, f. pl. wheel-barrows.

hjól-nöf, f. the nave of a wheel, Lex. Poët.

hjól-vagn, m. a wheel-cart, cart on wheels, Fms. vi. 145.

hjól-vakr, adj. running softly as a wheel, of a pony.

hjól-viljugr, adj. easy as a wheel, of a pony.

HJÓM, n. [cp. Ulf. hjuhma = οχλος; akin to hé- in hégámi], any froth-like substance, e. g. the frothy film of half-thawed ice and water.

hjón, see hjún.

hjóna, n. = hjón or hjú; this form seems to be a nom. sing., and not gen. pl., in N. G. L. i. 340 (v. l.), Grág. i. 212, 287, Am. 94, Bs. i. 60, and perh. in Nj. 57; for the references see hjún below.

HJÚ, n. [for the etymology see híbýli, p. 265; the fundamental notion is family, house] I. man and wife; hve þik hétu hjú, how did thy parents call thee? Fsm. 46; hjú görðu hvílu, Am. 9; er vér heil hjú heima várum, Vkv. 14; bæði hjú, man and wife, Pd. 5, 56; ef hjú skiljask (are divorced), Grág. i. 239; ef frændsemi eða sifjar koma upp með hjúm, 378; þau hjú (Herod and his queen) ollu lífláti Joans Baptizta, Ver. 40. II. the domestics, family, household: mér ok mínum hjúm, Glúm. (in a verse), Grág. i. 473; lét Koðran þá skíra sik ok hjú hans öll nema Ormr son hans, Bs. i. 5; hjú ok hjörð, house-people and cattle, Þorf. Karl. 376; slíkt er mælt um hjú at öllu, Grág. i. 143; auka hjú sín, 287; þá skulu þeir ala jafnvel sem hjú sín, 445; Hildir ok hjú hans öll, Nj. 158; tók hann við trú ok hjú hans öll, id. The mod. usage distinguishes between hjú, domestics, servants, and hjón, Lat. conjuges: even in sing., dyggt hju, a faithful servant; ódyggt hjú, a faithless servant; öll hjúin á heimilinu, all the servants of the house, etc.; vinnu-hjú, servants; vinnuhjúa-skildagi (= the 14th of May).

HJÚFA or hjúfra, [Ulf. hiufan = θρηνειν, Matth. xi. 17, Luke vii. 32; A. S. heofjan; Hel. hiovan; O. H. G. hiufan; and no doubt also Engl. to heave = to pant, breathe with pain, which is not to be confounded with heave = to lift]:—to pant, heave, Gkv. 1. 1, 2. 11 (obsolete). II. in provincial Icel. to drizzle; and hjúfr-skúrir, f. pl. a drizzling shower, Lex. Poët.

HJÚKA, mod. hjúkra, að, in the phrase, h. at e-m, to nurse, cherish (a baby, a sick person), 623. 36, Fms. ii. 59, Pass. 44. 6, where it rhymes with sjúka; lífinu hjúkrar hönd, 47. 6: reflex., hón hjúkaðisk lítt við þessa fæðu er til var, Fs. 174.

hjúkan and hjúkran, f. a nourishing, nursing, Fms. vii. 444, Háv. 43.

Hjúki, a, m. a mythical name of the man in the moon, Edda 8. hjúka-timbr, m. a nickname, Grett. 20 new Ed. (hjúki, v. l.)

hjúkólfr, m. [the latter part is prob. borrowed from the Engl. club, qs. hjú-kólfr = people’s club, and is not to be derived from hjúka]:—a club-house, inn, Fms. ix. 453, Sturl. ii. 124: metaph., Bs. i. 137.

HJÚN and hjón, n. = hjú: I. usually in pl., man and wife, Rm. passim; skylt er hvárt hjóna at færa annat fram á fé sínu, ef annat hjóna fær gæzlu-sótt, ef því hjóna batnar heilsa, Grág. i. 287; ok eru þau tvau ein hjún (þau tuau hjúna, v. l.), N. G. L. i. 340; annat-tveggja hjóna, Grág. i. 212; um hjón tvau erlendis, id.; Höskuldr bað hana vinna þeim hjónum, Ld. 34; skamliga stöndum vit nökvið hjún, Sks. 504 (Adam and Eve): in the saying, hús skal hjóna (dat.) fá, i. e. there must be a house for a wedded pair, first a house then a household, Bs. i. 60. COMPDs: hjóna-band, n. matrimony, H. E. i. 453, 463, passim in mod. usage. hjóna-hatr, n. disagreement between married people, 655 xxi. 3. hjóna-ligr, adj. connubial, H. E. i. 475. hjóna-rúm, n. = hjónasæng. hjóna-rýgr, m. = hjónahatr. hjóna-samband, n., -samvist, f. living together in wedlock, H. E. i. 458, Gþl. 230. hjóna-skilnaðr, m. a divorce, Gþl. 224, Grág. i. 325. hjóna-sæng, f. a conjugal bed. hjóna-vígsla, u, f. a wedding (in church), H. E. i. 474. hjúna-lag, n. = hjónaband, N. G. L. i. 340, 350, H. E. ii. 75. II. domestics, household people; Hallr ok hjún hans, Hallr spurði hjún sín hversu þeim þóknaðisk athæfi Kristinna manna, en þau létu vel yfir, Hallr var skírðr ok hjún hans öll, Bs. i. 12; at hjón mín hafi hart, svelta hjón sín, Band. 38; var hann nú í Hólmi ok hjón hans (Ed. kona wrongly), Bjarn. 39; hjónin (the servants) heituðusk við at hlaupa í brott, þá líkar hjónum vel, 27; Þórð ok hjón hans öll, Landn. 134; búandinn ok::ll hjúnin, Edda 28; hann ok hjún hans öll, Eb. 108 new Ed., Skálda 163; ek em kona Njáls ok ræð ek eigi síðr hjón en hann, Nj. 54; þenna aptan enn sama mælti Bergþóra til hjóna sinna, 196; Njáll réð honum hjón öll, 151; hann hafði ekki fleiri hjón en þrjú, Fbr. 35: sing., réðsk hann þá þar at hjóni (hjóna?). then he took service there, Nj. 57. COMPDS: hjóna-lið, n. household folk, Grág. i. 154. hjóna-tak, n. a hiring of servants, Nj. 104. hjóna-tal, n. a tale or number of servants, N. G. L. i. 349, Gþl. 358. hjóna-val, n. a choice of servants, Fas. ii. 351. hjúna-fóstr, n., -fæzla, u, f., -framfærsla, u, f. the maintenance of a household, Gþl. 351.

hjún-margr, adj. having many servants, Ld. 124.

hjúpa, að, to shroud (a corpse), Fas. i. 456.

HJÚPR, m., older form júpr, Fms. x. 415, [a word of for. origin, cp. Germ. joppe, Fr. jupe]:—a doublet, Fr. pourpoint; hafði rauðan hjúp yrir brynju, Fms. vii. 55, 56, viii. 404; silki-h., a silk doublet; skinn-h., q. v. II. in mod. usage freq. in metaph. = dress, clothing.

hjúp-roði, a, m. [from A. S. heope, Engl. heps or hips, Dan. hyben], a hectic red colour caused by blood between the skin and flesh, Fél. ix. 223;—so called from the colour of these berries.

hjú-skapr (hjún-skapr, MS. 671. 6, Gþl. 230, N. G. L. i. 150, 151, 376), m. matrimony, Grág. i. 287, Sturl. ii. 128, Barl. 158: = hjúskaparfar, þyrmask frá hjúnskap, N. G. L. i. 376, Str. 10, 19. COMPDS: hjúskapar-band, n. the bond of matrimony, K. Á. 16, H. E. i. 523. hjúskapar-far, n. the ‘knowing’ one’s wife, cohabitation; eiga h. við konu sína, Fas. i. 250, Fms. ii. 73, Mar. 10. hjúskapar-mál, n. pl. cases referring to marriage, H. E. i. 458, Bs. i. 718. hjúskapar-ráð, n. pl. the contracting of matrimony, K. Þ. K. 164. hjúskapar-samlag, n. wedlock, Stj. 426. hjúskapar-slit, n. a divorce, N. G. L. i. 151.

HJÖRÐ, f., gen. hjarðar, dat. hjörðu, pl. hjarðir, [Ulf. hairda = αγέλη, ποίμνη; A. S. heord; Engl. herd; O. H. G. herta; Germ. heerde; Swed.-Dan. hjord]:—a herd, flock, Hm. 20, 70, Hým. 17 (of oxen), Gþl. 400, Fms. vii. 54, N. G. L. i. 146, Fb. i. 151, Þorf. Karl. 376; gæta hjarðar, to tend flocks, Stj. 460, 462, passim: eccl., Guðs h., Hom. 85, Mar., Post. COMPDS: hjarðar-hundr, m. a herdsman’s dog, Fms. i. 152. hjarðar-sveinn, m. a herd-boy, Fas. i. 518, Stj. 464. hjarðar-tröð, f. a sheep-fold, Magn. 494: in local names, Hjarðar-holt, Hjarðar-dalr, Hjarðar-nes, Landn.

HJÖRR, m., gen. hjarar and hjörs, dat. hjörvi, dat. pl. hjörum, Hm. 159, Hkv. 2. 22; gen. pl. hjörva; nom. pl. does not occur; [Ulf. hairus = μάχαιρα; A. S. heor; Hel. heru]:—poët. a sword, Vsp. 55, Ls. 49, 50: a battle is called hjör-dómr, -drífa, -dynr, -él, -flaug, -fundr, -galdr, -göll, -gráp, -gráð, -hríð, -leikr, -mót, -regn, -róg, -rödd, -senna, -sálmr, -skúr, -stefna, -veðr, -þeyr, -þing, -þrima; a warrior, hjör-drótt, -drífr, -gæðir, -lundr, -meiðr, -móði, -njörðr, -njótr, -runnr; and adjectively, hjör-djarfr, etc.; the blood, hjör-dögg, -lögr; a shield, hjör-vangr, -laut, -þilja: from some of these compds it appears that ‘hjör’ was also used as a kind of missile; in adjectives, hjör-undaðr, part. wounded by a sword; hjör-klufðr, part. cleft by a sword: in poetry the head is called hjörr Heimdala, the sword of H., Landn. 231 (in a verse). II. in pr. names; of men, Hjörr; and in compds, Hjör-leifr: of women, Hjör-dís.

HJÖRTR, m., gen. hjartar, mod. hjörts, dat. hirti, acc. pl. hjörtu, mod. hirti; [A. S. heort; Engl. hart; O. H. G. hiruz; Germ. hirsch; Dan. hjort; Lat. cervus]:—a hart, stag, Gm., Sól., Nj. 143, K. Þ. K. 132, Edda 11, Fas. i. 205, Pr. 410, passim: hjartar-horn, n. a hart’s horn, Edda 23, Str. 3, Sól. 78: metaph. in the phrase, ríða á hirti, to be of importance; hvé mjök þat er kallat at á hirti ríði, hversu til fátækra manna var gjört í þessu lífi, Bs. i. 104, (= ríða á miklu.) II. a pr. name, Landn.

HLAÐ, n. [North. E. lad; cp. hlaða], a pile, stack (= hlaði), N. G. L. i. 136, 257. 2. a barn (= hlaða), N. G. L. i. 137: but in Icel. usually, 3. the pavement or court-yard in front of a homestead, Nj. 197, Ísl. ii. 204, 252, Bs. i. 66, Sturl. iii. 141, 279.

HLAÐ, n. [this word is freq. used in poems and in pr. names of the heathen time, and although it is aspirated (as shewn by allit. in verses) and has a final ð, yet it may be derived, prob. through A. S., from Lat. laqueus; Ital. lazio; old Fr. lacs; Span, lazo; Engl. lace]:—lace, lace-work; feldr búinn hlöðum, a laced cloak, Fas. ii. 70; kyrtill hlaði búinn, O. H. L. 2 and passim; it is also used of bracelets worn on the arms, so in Bjarn. (in a verse), cp. the compd hlað-hönd. From wearing lace and bracelets a woman is in poetry called hlað-grund, hlað-nipt, hlað-norn, hlað-guðr; a distinction is made between gull-hlað, gold lace, which was worn round the head, esp. by ladies, but also by men, Orkn. 280 old Ed., Fms. ii. 264, iv. 72, vii. 34, and silki-hlað, silk lace, a ribbon:—hlað belongs also to a priestly dress, Vm. 31, 38, 77, Dipl. iii. 4.

HLAÐA, hlóð, hlóðu, hlaðit, [Ulf. hlaþan = σωρεύειν, 2 Tim. iii. 6; A. S., O. H. G., and Hel. hladan; Engl. load, lade; Germ. laden]:—to load, esp. to lade a ship; hlaða skip, Nj. 19; hlóðu skipit með hveiti ok hunangi, Eg. 69; skip hlaðit kvikfé, Landn. 194; hlóð hann skip sitt af korni ok malti, Fms. iv. 358, Höfuðl. 1; kistur hlaðnar af gulli, chests laden with gold, Fms. xi. 85; hlaðinn íþróttum, Fær. 157. II. to build up, Lat. struere: 1. prop. to pile; hlaða korni í hjálma eðr hlöður, O. H. L. 30; skera ok h., to cut and stack (corn), Gþl. 406: to pile up, h. köst, Orkn. 112; þeir sá hlaðit skíðum, logs piled up or stacked, Fs. 42; settu hann þar niðr ok hlóðu at grjóti; h. valköstu, O. H. L. 302 (in a verse); reynt mun slíkt verða hvárr grjóti hleðr at höfði öðrum, Nj. 141; má þat eigi víst vita hvárr hellum hleðr at höfði öðrum, Þórð. 36 new Ed. 2. to build; Kormakr hlóð vegg ok barði með hnyðju, Korm. 60, Jb. 212; þeir hlóðu þar varða er blótið hafði verit, Landn. 28, Gísl. 60; hlaða vita, Orkn. 242, v. l.; var hón (the bridge) með lím hlaðin, Karl. 410; hlóð ek lof köst, Ad.; hlaðinn steinum, Hdl. 10. III. to fell, lay prostrate, slay, with dat.; gátu þeir hlaðit honum um síðir ok bundu hann, Grett. 118 new Ed.; drífa þá til verkmenn ok gátu hlaðit erninum, Bs. i. 350; fékk hann hlaðit selinum, Bjarn. 31 (MS.); þeir bera vápn á Finnana ok fá hlaðit þeim, Fms. i. 10: freq. in poetry, Ísl. ii. 268 (in a verse), Orkn. 366, Hkr. i. 131, Eb. 208; frá ek hann at hlœði (subj.) Arnmóði, Jd. 29. 2. naut., h. seglum, to take in sail; nú sigldu þeir at hömrum nokkurum, hlóðu seglum við mikinn háska, Korm. 168; hlóðu þeir þá seglunum sem tíðast, Fms. viii. 134, x. 347, Hkr. i. 333, 336, Sæm. 112 (prose), Sól. 77. IV. reflex., hlaðask at e-m, or til e-s, to pile oneself on, i. e. to throng, crowd, mob one; þeir hlóðusk á hann margir ok báru at honum fjöturinn, Fb. i. 564; vér viljum eigi at fjölmenni hlaðisk at (throng to see) er vér erum afklæddir svá gamlir, Fms. ii. 152, v. l.; ok laðask (sic) allir til Broddhelga, Vápn. 19:—also, hlaðask á mara bógu, to mount a horse, Gh. 7.

B. [hlað, lace], hlaða spjöldum (cp. mod. spjalda-vefnaðr), to lace, embroider, Gkv. 2. 26.

hlaða, u, f. [Old Engl. lathe in Chaucer, still used in North. E.; Dan. lade]:—a store-house, barn (also, hey-h., bygg-h., korn-h.), Eg. 235, Grág. ii. 286, Dropl. 18, Eb. 190, 318, Rm. 19, Rd. 284, 285, Glúm. 357, Ó. H. 30, Sturl. i. 95; hlöðu dyrr, Grett. 112, Ísl. ii. 69; hlöðu-kálfr, for the pun see Glúm. 359; hlöðu vindauga, Sturl. ii. 43; bók-hlaða, a library, (mod.)

hlað-beðr, m. a bed or pillow with lace-work, Fas. i. 427.

hlað-berg, n. a projecting pier, a rock where a ship is laden, D. N. iv. 180; cp. the mod. phrase, hafa e-ð á hraðbergi (sic), qs. hlaðbergi, to have a thing ready at hand, Lat. in promptu.

Hlað-búð, n., see búð, Sturl. ii. 82, Nj. 223.

hlað-búinn, part. ornamented with lace, laced, Nj. 48, 169, Vm. 129, Ísl. ii. 223, Rd. 261, Fms. vii. 225, passim.

hlað-garðr, m. a wall surrounding the hlað, Fas. ii. 419, Safn i. 76.

hlað-hamarr, m. = hlaðberg: a local name.

Hlað-hönd, f. lace-hand, name of a Norwegian lady living at the end of the 9th century, Eg.

hlaði, a, m. a pile, stack; mó-hlaði, torf-h., skíða-h., fisk-h., skreiðar-h., a slack of peat, turf, logs, fish, Gþl. 378, N. G. L. i. 420, Eb. 266, Háv. 53, Fs. 5, 42, Stj. 270; klæða-h., Grett. 160; ullar-h., Fs. 45. 2. = hlaða, a barn, Fb. ii. 228.

Hlaðir, f. pl. a local name in Norway, the seat of a noble family. Hlaða-jarl, m. earl of H., surname of earl Hakon, Fms.

hlað-kross, m. a lace-cross, made of lace, Pm. 124 (in a church).

hlaðsla, u, f. a loading, lading, of a ship, N. G. L. ii. 275.

hlað-varpi, a, m. the grass slope nearest to the court-yard, liggja í hlaðvarpanum.

hlakka, að, [qs. hlag-ka from hlæja], to cry, scream, of the eagle, Vsp. 50, freq. in mod. usage, cp. Landn. 162, where it is used in verse improperly of a raven, for the eagle screams (hlakkar), the raven croaks (krunkar):—metaph., the phrase, h. yfir e-u, to exult over a thing, as an eagle over its prey, Th. 5; ok hlökkuðu nú mjök yfir þessu, Grett. 128; h. yfir sigri, Mar., Al. 178; þú mátt ekki hrína upp yfir þig, það er synd at hlakka yfir vegnum mönnum, Od. xx. 412; hlakka til e-s, one screams with joy at or in prospect of a thing (of children, young people); eg hlakka til að sjá hana, eg hlakka til að fara; cp. börnin hlakka þá ok huggask, Bs. ii. 135; því hjartað mitt er helmingað, | hlakka eg til að finna það, Bb. 3. 17.

hlakkan, f. a screaming with joy; til-hlakkan, joyous expectation.

hlam, n. a dull, heavy sound, Mork. 81, 100, Lex. Poët.; see hlöm.

HLAMMA, að, to give a dull, heavy sound; áttu hafrarnir at renna í greipr honum, ok hlammaði mjök við á hellis-gólfinu, Fas. iii. 386; this giant’s tale is a pendant to that in Od. ix. 440–460.

hlamman and hlömmun, f. a crash, din, Hornklofi.

hlammandi, a, m. a clash, a nickname, Landn. 60.

HLAND, n. [A. S. hlond; Old Engl. land or lant], urine, Nj. 199, Fs. 147, N. G. L. i. 29, Grág. ii. 132, Skm. 35. COMPDS: hland-ausa, u, f. a urine trough, Edda ii. 430. hland-blaðra, u, f. the bladder. hland-for and hland-gröf, f. a sewer, Dropl. 20, Bs. i. 369. hland-skjóla, u, f. = hlandausa, Edda ii. 634. hland-trog, n. = hlandausa, Ls. 34.

hlanna, að, [hlenni], to pilfer; h. e-n e-u, Fms. vii. 114 (in a verse).

HLASS, n. [hlaða; Dan. læss], a cart-load, Ísl. ii. 182, Grág. ii. 337, Dropl. 10, Karl. 196, Fb. i. 522 (hey-h., viðar-h.): the saying, opt veltir lítil þúfa þungu hlassi, a little mound often overturns a cart-load, Sturl. ii. 100 C.

hlass-hvalr, m. a cart-load of blubber, Grág. ii. 362, Vm. 130, 143, Pm. 69.

hlaunn, f. [Lat. clūnis], a buttock, haunch, Edda 238.

hlaup, n. a leap; hann komsk með hlaupi undan, Eg. 12, Fms. xi. 247; hann tók hlaup heim til herbergis, i. 80; hark ok hlaup, Anal. 81: a leap, jump, Egill hljóp yfir díkit, en þat var ekki annarra manna hlaup, Eg. 531; mældu þeir Kári lengd hlaupsins með spjótskeptum sínum ok var tólf álnar, Nj. 145, v. l.; hljóp hann þá út af múrinum, þat var furðu-hátt hlaup, Fms. i. 104; h. kattarins, the bound of a cat, Edda 19: in local names, a leap, Flosa-hlaup, in the chasm in Alþingi, Völks. 1. 220; Hærings-hlaup, Grett. 149:—höfrunga-hlaup, playing like a dolphin; handa-hlaup, hand-leaping, using the hands and feet like a wheel (a boy’s game), Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 243, 246. II. special usages, a sudden rise or flood, of rivers flowing from glaciers, see Eggert Itin.; af Höfðárhlaupi, því at hón hafði tekit marga bæi, Bs. i. 283; hlaup kom í ána, 469: jökul-hlaup, an ice stream or avalanche. β. coagulation, curds; mjólkr-hlaup, curdled milk; blóð-hlaup, curdled blood. γ. procession in brullaup or brúðlaup, a bride’s leap, bridal procession, see brúðkaup. δ. a law phrase, an attack, Grág. ii. 7; frum-hlaup, q. v.; áhlaup, an outburst; áhlaups-veðr, a sudden gale; áhlaupa-verk, q. v.: hlaupa-far, n. = frumhlaup, Bs. i. 658: hlaupa-för, f. an uproar, Sturl. ii. 104, 117: hlaupa-piltr, m. an errand boy, Bs. ii. 108. III. in mod. usage freq. = running, but seldom so, or not at all, in old writers.

HLAUPA, pres. hleyp, pl. hlaupum; pret. hljóp, hljópt, hljóp, pl. hljópum, mod. hlupum; pret. subj. hlypi, hlœpi, Fms. x. 364, hljópisk, Ó. H. 246; part. pass. hlaupinn; subj. hlæpi, Ó. H. 118; læpizk, O. H. L. 82; but hlypi, Hom. 158, Ó. T. 68, l. 24: [Ulf. hlaupan = ἀναπηδαν, Mark x. 50; A. S. hleâpan, pret. hleop; Scot. loup, part. loppen; Engl. leap; Hel. hlôpan; O. H. G. hlaufan; Germ. laufen; Swed. löpa; Dan. löbe]:—to leap, jump, which, as in Engl., is the proper meaning of the word, and hence of any sudden motion, to leap or start up; hann hljóp meir en hæð sína ok eigi skemra aptr en fram fyrir sik, Nj. 29; hann hleypr ór loptinu ofan ok á straetið ok kemr standandi niðr, Fms. xi. 117; hljóp hann þá út af múrinum, i. 104; hlaupa yfir háfar stengr, viii. 207; hljópu þeir þá á hesta sína, they leaped on their horses, Nj. 263; Atli hleypr upp á skip at Rúti, 9; ef fé hleypr löggarð, if cattle leap over a fence, Grág. ii. 262; Kári hljóp upp við lagit ok brá í sundr við fótunum, Nj. 253; h. fyrir borð útbyrðis, to leap overboard, Eg. 124, Fms. x. 363, 364; Egill hljóp yfir díkit, Eg. 530; þat segja menn at á sitt borð hlœpi hvárr þeirra Ólafs konungs, Fms. x. 364; Hrungnir varð reiðr ok hleypr upp á hest sinn, Edda 57; hljópu þeir til vápna sinna, Eg. 121; Kjartan hljóp á sund (leaped into the water) ok lagðisk at manninum, Bs. i. 18; Kári hljóp á spjótskaptið ok braut í sundr, Nj. 253; en þriði hljóp (leaped) á skipit út, Eg. 220; var þar at hlaupa (to climb) upp á bakka nokkurn, id.; hann hljóp at baki Kára, Nj. 253; hann kastar verkfarunum ok hleypr á skeið, and took to his heels, Njarð. 370; hann hljóp báðum fótum í gögnum skipit, Edda 36: of a weapon, bryntröllit hljóp út um bringuna, Ld. 150; hljóp þá sverðit (it bounded) Kára á síðuna Móðólfi, Nj. 262. β. with prepp.; h. upp, to spring to ones feet, start up; þá hlupu varðmenn upp, Eg. 121; þá hljóp Kjartan upp ok afklæddisk, Bs. i. 18; ok eptir örvar-boði hljóp upp múgr manns, Fms. i. 210; h. yfir, to jump over, metaph. to skip, Alg. 262; hlaupa yfir eða gleyma, H. E. i. 486; h. frá e-m, to run away from, desert one, Grág. i. 297; h. af, to be left, remain, Rb. 234, 494 (afhlaup). 2. special usages; a law term, to assault; hlaupa til manns lögmætu frumhlaupi, Grág. ii. 7: of fury, sickness, pain, to burst out, í hvert sinn er æði eðr reiði hljóp á hann, Fms. i. 15; en er hann var búinn hljóp fæli-sótt at honum, iv. 284: of pain, hljóp blástr í búkinn, Grett. 137 new Ed.: of fire, sagði at jarðeldr var upp kominn, ok mundi hann h. á bæ Þórodds goða, Bs. i. 22: of a river, to flood, áðr Almanna-fljót leypi (i. e. hleypi, hlypi) var þat kallat Rapta-lækr, Landn. 266; þessa sömu nótt kom þeyr mikill ok hlupu vötn fram ok leysti árnar, the waters rose in flood and the ice was broken, Sturl. iii. 45: of ice, mikit svell var hlaupit upp öðru megin fljótsins ok hált sem gler, a great hummock of ice rose up, Nj. 144; hljóp upp kúla, a wheal sprung up from a blow, Il. ii. 267; h. saman, sundr, of a wound; var skeinan saman hlaupin svá náliga þótti gróin, Grett. 152; sárið var hlaupit í sundr, the wound had broken out again, id.: of a gale, þá hljóp á útsynningr steinóði, Eg. 600:—of milk, blood, to curdle, coagulate, (cp. North. E. loppert = coagulated; so, leper-blode = clotted blood in the Old Engl. poem Pricke of Conscience, l. 459.) II. to run, but rarely in old writers, [Dan. löbe; Germ. laufen]; eigi hljóp hann at seinna, Ásbjörn hljóp heim, id. (but from a paper MS.); þeir hlaupa eptir en hann kemsk á skóg undan, Nj. 130; jarl eggjar menn at h. eptir honum, 132: freq. in mod. usage. III. reflex. to take oneself off, to run away; ef þræll leypsk, N. G. L. i. 34; þá vildi Uni hlaupask á braut með sína menn, Landn. 246; við þann mann er hleypsk frá ómaga, Grág. i. 297; ef maðr hleypsk á brott af landi er sekr er orðinn, 96; þat var á einhverri nátt at Steinn hljópsk á braut ór bænum, Fms. iv. 317; þar er menn hlaupask til (came to blows) eða verða vegnir, Grág. ii. 83; nú er þat várt ráð at vér hlaupimk með yðr ok sömnum liði, Fms. ix. 248; var hann í fjötri, at hann hljópisk (lypist, Hom. 158, l. c.) eigi frá honum, Ó. H. 246; hlaupask braut, id.: part., hlaupandi menn, h. sveinar, ‘landloupers,’ Finnb. 344, Mag. 6; cp. hlaupingi.

hlaupari, a, m. = hlaupingi, Fas. i. 149: a charger (horse), Gullþ. 13.

hlaup-ár, n. [from A. S. hleâp-geâr], leap-year, Grág. i. 122, Rb. 8, 108, K. Þ. K. 104, Íb. 7, 8, Sks. 56, Bs. i. 85. COMPDS: hlaupárs-dagr, m. leap-year day, the 29th of February, Rb. 90. hlaupárs-messa, u, f. leap-year mass (= Feb. 24), Rb. hlaupárs-nótt, f. an intercalary night, Rb. 88. hlaupárs-stafr, m. an intercalary letter, Rb. 518. hlaupárs-tungl, n. an intercalary moon, Rb. 522. hlaupárs-vika, u, f. feria bissextilis, Rb. 564.

hlaup-framr, adj. precipitate, Sks. 32, v. l.

hlaupingi, a, m. a landlouper, Barl. 114; cp. the Anglo-American loafer.

hlaup-móðr, adj. exhausted from leaping.

hlaup-óðr, adj. in a great flurry, Fms. iii. 146.

hlaup-rífr, adj. = hlaupframr, Sks. 32.

hlaup-stigr, m. ‘leap-path,’ ‘land-louping,’ vagrancy; taka e-n af laupstigi, á þeim hlaupstigi, Hkr. iii. 290; cp. hlaupingi.

hlaup-styggr, adj. ‘leap-shy,’ wild, of a horse.

HLAUT, f. (not n.); the gender is borne out by the genitive tein hlautar, Vellekla; as also by the dat. hlautinni, Landn. (App.) 336, in an old transcript of the lost vellum Vatnshyrna (see Kjaln. S. Ísl. ii. 403, where hlautinn):—the blood of sacrifice, used for soothsaying; this word is prob. to be derived from hlutr (hlautr), as an abbreviated form, for hlaut-blóð = sanguis sortidicus, and refers to the rite, practised in the heathen age, of enquiring into the future by dipping bunches of chips or twigs into the blood, and shaking them; those twigs were called teinar, hlaut-teinar, hlaut-viðr, blót-spánn, q. v.; the act of shaking was called hrista teina, to shake twigs, Hým. 1; kjósa hlautvið, to choose lot chips, Vsp. In Vellekla the true reading is prob. hann (earl Hakon) valdi (from velja, MS. vildi) tein hlautar, meaning the same as kjósa hlautvið in Vsp., an emendation borne out by the words ‘felldi blótspán’ (Fagrsk. l. c.) in the prose text, which is a paraphrase of the verse; the explanation of the passage in Lex. Poët. is no doubt erroneous. It was also called fella blótspán, see that word, p. 71. The walls of the temple inside and out, the altars, and the worshippers were sprinkled with the blood, the flesh of the slain cattle was to be eaten (whereas the blood was a sacrifice, as well as the means of augury, and was not to be eaten); this rite is described in Hkr. Hák. S. Góða ch. 16: en blóð þat allt er þar kom af (i. e. from the slain cattle) þá var þat kallat hlaut ok hlaut-bollar þat er blóð þat stóð í, ok hlaut-teinar, þat var svá gört sem stöklar (bunches); með því skyldi rjóða stallana öllu saman, ok svá veggi hofsins útan ok innan, ok svá stökkva á mennina; en slátr (the meat) skyldi hafa til mann-fagnaðar: the passages in Eb. ch. 4, p. 6 new Ed., in Kjaln. S. ch. 2, and in Landn. (App.), are derived from the same source as the passage in Hkr., but present a less correct and somewhat impaired text; even the text in Hkr. is not quite clear, esp. the phrase, þat var gört sem stökkull, which prob. means that the hlaut-teinar were bound up in a bunch and used for the sprinkling. The blood-sprinkling mentioned in Exod. xii. 22 illustrates the passage above cited; cp. hleyti, hljóta, and hlutr.

hlaut-bolli, a, m. the bowl in which the hlaut was kept, Eb. 10, Hkr. l. c., Landn. l. c.

hlaut-teinn, m., see above, Hkr. l. c., Eb. l. c.; cp. tein-hlaut.

hlaut-viðr, m. ‘lot-twigs,’ ‘rami sortidici’ (= hlaut-teinn), Vsp. 62, cp. also Eb. 132, note 3, new Ed.

HLÁKA, u, f. a thaw, Grett. 140.

hlána, að, to thaw, Fbr. 59, Bs. i. 186.

HLÁTR, m., gen. hlátrar, Dropl. 31; mod. hlátrs: [A. S. hlæhtor; Engl. laughter; O. H. G. hlahtar; Germ. lachter; Dan. latter; Swed. löje]:—laughter, Nj. 16, Fbr. 137, Dropl. 31, Fms. iii. 182, passim; hafa (vera) at hlátri, to be a laughing-stock (at-hlátr), 623. 35, Hm. 41: sayings, opt kemr grátr eptir skelli-hlátr; skelli-h., roaring laughter; kalda-hlátr, sardonic laughter: for characteristic traits from the Sagas see esp. Glúm. ch. 7 (end), 18, Nj. ch. 12, 117, Dropl. 31, Hálfs. S. ch. 7, etc.

hlátr-mildr, adj. prone to laughing, merry, 686 B. 2.

HLÉ, n. [Ulf. hlija = σκηνή, Mark ix. 5; A. S. hleô; Hel. hlea; Engl. lee; Dan. ]:—lee, used (as in Engl.) only by seamen; sigla á hlé, to stand to leeward, Jb. 400: shelter, standa í hlé, fara í hlé, to seek shelter: mod. a pause, það varð hlé á því. hlé-borð, n. the lee side, freq., Lex. Poët.

hlé-barðr, m. a leopard (Old Engl. libbard), from the Greek, but used indiscriminately of a bear, wolf, etc., Edda (Gl.), Fas. i. (Skjöld. S.) 367; the word occurs as early as Hbl., of a giant.

hleði, a, m. a shutter, Ísl. ii. 113; see hleri.

Hleiðr, f. [Ulf. hleiþra or hleþra = σκηνή], prop. a tent; it exists only as the local name of the old Danish capital, Fas., Fms., and in Hleiðrar-garðr, m., Landn.

HLEIFR, m. [Ulf. hlaifs; A. S. hlâf; Engl. loaf; O. H. G. hlaib; Germ. laib; Ivar Aasen levse]:—a loaf, Hm. 51, 140; af fimm hleifum brauðs ok tveimr fiskum, Mirm.; hleifar af Völsku brauði, Bev.; hleifa þunna, ökvinn hleif, Rm. 4, 28, N. G. L. i. 349, Fb. ii. 190, 334 (in a verse), D. I. i. 496; brauð-h., a loaf of bread; rúg-h., a rye loaf: of cheese, Nj. 76, ost-h.: the disk of the sun is called hleifr himins, the loaf of heaven, Bragi.

HLEIN, f., pl. ar, [Goth. hlains = βουνός, Luke iii. 5; akin to Engl. lean, Gr. κλίνειν]:—a rock projecting like a pier into the sea (= hlaðberg), freq. in western Icel.; lenda við hleinina, festa skipið við hleinarnar. hleina-kræða, u, f. a crust of moss on sea rocks, Bb. 2. 13. II. [Engl. loom, qs. loon? the A. S. form would be hlân, which however is not recorded]:—the loom in the old perpendicular weaving, Björn.

hleina, d, to save, protect (?) an απ. λεγ., [A. S. hlænan; Engl. lean; O. H. G. hleinjan; mid. H. G. leinen; Germ. lehnen; Gr. κλίνω]: þaðan af er þat orðtak at sá er forðask (forðar?) hleinir, Edda 21.

hlekkjask, t, in the phrase, e-m hlekkisk á, one gets impeded, suffers miscarriage, Grág. i. 281; ef allt fer vel og mér ekki hlekkist á.

HLEKKR, m., gen. hlekks and hlekkjar, pl. hlekkir: [A. S. hlenca (thrice in Grein); Swed. länk; Dan. lænke; Engl. link]:—a link, a chain of links, Bs. i. 341; handur-hlekkr, a ‘hand-link,’ i. e. a bracelet, Edda (Ht.): freq. in mod. usage, járn-h., iron chains, fetters.

hlemmi-gata, u, f. a broad road.

HLEMMR, m. a lid, cover, as of a pan, cauldron, as an opening in a floor, a trap-door, Eb. 96, 136, Rd. 315, Eg. 236, Sturl. ii. 124, Fas. iii. 415, Grett. 199 new Ed.

HLENNI, a, m. [cp. Ulf. hlifan = κλέπτειν, hliftus = κλέπτης; perh. also Scot. to lift, = to steal cattle, belongs to this root, and is not the same as lift = tollere]:—a thief; hlennar ok hvinnar, thieves and pilferers, Sighvat: a king is in poetry called the foe and destroyer of hlennar, hlenna dólgr, etc., see Lex. Poët. II. a pr. name, Landn.

hlenni-maðr, m. a ‘lifter;’ hlennimenn ok hrossa-þjófar, Hbl. 8.

Hlér, m., gen. Hlés, [hlé; cp. Welsh Llyr = sea], a mythol. name of a giant of the sea, Ώκεανός, Fb. i. 21. Hlés-dætr, f. pl. the daughters of H., the Nereids, Edda.

hler, see hleri below.

hlera and hlöra, að, prop. to stand eaves-dropping, (putting one’s ear close to the hleri), Bjarn. 24: to listen, hón lagði eyra sitt við andlit honum ok hlöraði hvárt lífs-andi væri í nösum hans, Greg. 74; hann hlörar við hliðskjáinn er á var stofunni, Bs. i. 628; at hlýða eðr hlera til þess máls sem hann er eigi til kallaðr, N. G. L. i. 438.

HLERI, a, m. or hlöri, but hleði in Korm. 10, Ísl. ii. 113; that hleri or hlöri is the better form is borne out by the mod. usage as well as by the derived hler and hlera:—a shutter or door for bedrooms and closets in old dwellings, which moved up and down in a groove or rabbet, like windows in Engl. dwellings, and locked into the threshold: the passage in Korm. S. is esp. decisive, where Kormak sees Steingerda’s feet outside between the half-shut door (hleri) and the threshold,—hann rak kerli fyrir hleðann svá at eigi gékk aptr, viz. between the threshold and the shutter, Ísl. ii. 113; hence comes the law phrase, standa á hleri (hlera?), to stand at the shutter, i. e. to stand listening, eaves-dropping, Bjarn. 43: freq. in mod. usage, as also standa of hleðum, id., Hðm. 23: in mod. usage a shutter for a window is called hleri.

hlersi, adj., mod. hlessa, q. v.; sló á hann ótta miklum svá sem hann yrði hlersi (hleyrsi, v. l.), Post. (Unger) 121.

hler-tjöld, n. pl. ‘ear-lids,’ poët. the ears, Ad. 9.

hlessa, adj. indecl. [hlass], prop. ‘loaded,’ i. e. amazed, wondering.

hlessa, t, to load, weigh; h. sér niðr, to sit down heavily.

hlessing, f. a freight, loading, N. G. L. i. 410.

HLEYPA, t, [causal of hlaupa], to make one leap, make one rush or burst forth, to start or put into motion, Fms. vi. 145; þeir skáru böndin ok hleyptu á braut fólki því öllu, Ó. H. 168; Önundr hleypti njósnarmönnum á land upp, to put them ashore, Fb. ii. 280; hleypti (pulled, made sink) hann annarri brúninni ofan á kinnina, Eg. 305; h. brúnum, to knit the brows; h. hurð í lás, to shut a door, Fms. ix. 364; var hleypt fyrir hliðit stórum járnhurðum, i. 104. 2. to make to escape, emit, of anything confined or compressed, e. g. hleypa vindi ór belg, to force air out of a bellows; h. vindi ór segli, to shake the wind out of the sail; h. fé, sauðum, kúm ór kvíum, to turn out sheep, cows; h. til ánna, to put the rams to the ewes: medic., hleypa vatni, vág, blóði, to emit matter out of a sore, etc.; hann hleypir út vatni miklu ór sullinum, Vápn. 17; h. ór e-m auganu, to poke the eye out, Fs. 98: to lead a stream of water or the like, þeir hleyptu saman fleirum vötnum, Fms. iv. 359; h. ánni í farveg, Fb. ii. 280; landsfólkit var á fjöllum uppi ok hleypti ofan (rolled) stóru grjóti, Al. 92; h. skriðu á e-n, an avalanche, Fs. 194. 3. special phrases; h. upp dómum, a law phrase, to break up a court by violence, Landn. 89, Hrafn. 18, Fb. 61, Eb. 48, 58, Lv. 31; h. berki af trjám, to cut the bark off the trees, Hkr. ii. 220; h. heimdraganum, to throw off sloth, take heart, Fms. vii. 121: naut. to run before a gale, þeir hleyptu upp á Mýrar, Barðaströnd; h. akkerum, to cast anchor, Fms. xi. 439; h. stjóra, id.: h. hesti, or absol., to gallop, ride swiftly; hesti hleypti ok hjörvi brá, Rm. 34; Hrungnir varð reiðr ok hleypir eptir honum, Óðinn hleypti svá mikit, at …, Edda 57, Nj. 59, 82, 107, Fms. ix. 364. 4. hleypa mjólk, to curdle milk; hann hleypti helming innar hvítu mjólkr, Od. ix. 246.

hleypi-, in COMPDS: hleypi-dómr, m. prejudice, hasty judgment, (mod.) hleypi-fífl, n. a headlong fool, Nj. 224. hleypi-flokkr, m. a band of rovers, Sturl. iii. 171, 269. hleypi-för, f. a ramble, roving, Sturl. i. 80. hleypi-hvel, n. a ‘roll-wheel,’ war engine, Sks. 420. hleypi-kjóll, m. = hleypiskúta. hleypi-klumbr, m. a ram on wheels (war engine), Sks. 419. hleypi-maðr, m. a rover, landlouper, Lv. 75. hleypi-piltr, m. a landlouper boy, Finnb. 322. hleypi-skip, n. (Hkr. iii. 388) and hleypi-skúta, u, f. a swift boat, Fms. i. 167, vi. 177.

hleyping, f. a galloping, Fms. ix. 357, Gullþ. 31; um-h., a sudden turn of wind.

hleypingi, a, m. a landlouper, Grett. 106; cp. hlaupingi.

hleyt-bolli, hleyt-teinn, m. = hlaut-bolli, hlaut-teinn, see hlaut.

HLEYTI, n., hleti, or hlœti, in Norse MSS. spelt leyti, whence in mod. Icel. usage leiti: I. plur. [for the root see hlaut, hlutr], kin, consanguinity; jöfra hleyti, royal blood, Fms. xi. (in a verse); görva hleyti við e-n, to marry into another’s family, Skv. 1. 34; hvárrgi þeirra Snorra né Arnkels þótti bera mega kviðinn fyrir hleyta sakir við sækjanda ok varnar-aðilja, Eb. 50, viz. Snorri being the brother-in-law to the plaintiff, Arnkell to the defendant; ef hann fengi hennar, heldr en þeim manni er ekki var við þá hleytum bundinn, Sks. 760; nauð-hleytamaðr (q. v.), a near kinsman; eiga hleyti við konu sína (= eiga hjúskap við), 689. 2. a tribe, family; hann var af því kennimaðr at sínu hleyti, 625. 88, ‘in ordine vicis suae ante Deum’ of the Vulgate, Luke i. 8; þá kom at hleyti Zacharias at fremja biskups embætti, Hom. (St.); vil ek at þú gangir í mitt hleyti þó at ek sé nánari, Stj. 425, rendering of ‘tu meo utere privilegio’ of the Vulgate, Ruth iv. 6. II. sing. [hlutr], a share, usually spelt leiti; in the phrase, at nokkru, engu, öllu leiti, for some, none, every part; að mínu, þínu … leiti, for my, thy part, freq. in mod. usage, dropping the aspirate; at sumu leiti, Fas. iii. 159; at mínu leiti, Fb. ii. 204; at nokkuru leiti, iii. 575. 2. of time, a season of the year, mod. leiti; um vetrnátta-leytið, D. N. i. 609; um Hallvarðsvöku-leytið, 392, iii. 206; um Jóla-leiti um Páska-leiti, um Jóns-messuleiti; annat leiti, another time; sögðu at honum þótti annat leiti (sometimes) ekki úfært, en stundum (sometimes) var hann svá hræddr, at …, Orkn. 418; um sama leiti, about the same time; um hvert leiti, at what time? when? COMPDS: hleyta-menn, m. pl. kinsmen; mágar, sifjungar, hleytamenn, Edda (Gl.) hleytis-maðr, m. a disciple, apprentice, a rendering of Lat. vicarius, Post. 36, opp. to meistari, analogous to Goth. siponeis, from sifjar, Skálda 180.

hlezla or hleðsla, u, f. a freight, Jb. 379: a building (of a wall).

HLIÐ, f., pl. hliðar (hliðu dat. obsolete, Gm. 35):—a side, Lat. latus; standa á hlið e-m, to stand beside one, Stor.; komask á hlið e-m, Nj. 262; á hlið hvára, on each side, Rm. 5; á aðra hlið, at one’s other side, Ísl. ii. 363, Ad. 10; á báðar hliðar, á tvær hliðar, on both sides, Fb. ii. 351; á vinstri hlið, on the left hand, Eg. 213, Fms. i. 16; á hægri hlið, on the right hand; snúask á hlið, to turn oneself (in sleep), Fs. 6; skjöldr, sverð á hlið, Gullþ. 64; á allar hliðar, on all sides; veltask á ymsar hliðar, to toss to and fro, Bs. ii. 171, Od. xx. 24; leggja e-t fyrir hlið, to lay beside, Al. 151.

HLIÐ, n. [A. S. hlið; O. H. G. hlit; Dan. led; root no doubt akin to Gr. κλείς, etc.]:—a gate, gateway; hlið á garði ok hjarra-grind fyrir, Grág. ii. 264, Fsm, 10, 44, Rb. 380, Edda 110, Eg. 244, Fms. i. 104, v. 331, passim. 2. a wide gap, Stor. 6, Fms. i. 105, Gþl. 391, N. G. L. i. 344, Orkn. 350, Sks. 398: in law a gap in a fence not above sixty feet long was hlið, if more it was a breach (bálka-brot), Gþl. 391. II. metaph. a space, interval (= bil); hann hafði fyrr við brugðit svá at hlið var í milli þeirra, Fms. vii. 171; þeir görðu hlið í millum skipanna, Nj. 42; ok var hvergi hlið í milli, Ld. 96; hann ríðr fyrst þeirra ok nokkuru harðara svá at hlið var á millum þeirra, Ísl. ii. 360; hús ok hlið í milli ok heima-dyranna, Fs. 42; horfði hann á hliðit (the empty space) þar sem skjöldrinn hafði hangit, Fas. iii. 42; ok nú varð enn á hlið mjök langt, Fms. ii. 302, x. 346: temp., síðan varð á lið (a halt) nokkvot, 345; eptir þat varð hlið (a stop, halt) á orrostunni, vii. 289; hvíldar hlið, Fb. iii. 567 (in a verse).

hliða, að, to give way, go aside, recede, Fas. i. 106, 338, Bs. ii. 132, Karl. 233. II. reflex, to become open, Sks. 384.

hlið-lauss, adj. ‘gateless,’ without a gate, Bret. 34.

hlið-mæltr, part. a kind of metre, Edda (Ht.) 186.

hliðr, m., poët. an ox, Edda (Gl.)

hlið-rúm, n. open space, free passage, Fsm. 43.

hlið-sjón, f. a side glance; hafa h. af e-u, to take a look at.

Hlið-skjálf, f., old dat. hliðskjálfu, Gm. (prose): [prob. rather to be derived from hlið, gate, than hlið, side; the initial h is borne out by alliteration, Sagði hitt er hugði | Hliðskjálfar gramr …, Edda (in a verse); in Akv. 14 the sense and alliteration alike require höll, hall, instead of ‘land’]:—a shelf, bench, a name for the seat of Odin, whence he looked out over all the worlds, Edda 6, 12, 22, 30, Gm. l. c.; Óðinn ok Frigg sátu í Hliðskjálfu ok sá um heima alla, Gm. l. c. The heathen Hlið-skjálf brings to mind the legend in Grimm’s Märchen of the Tailor in Heaven.

hlið-skjár, m. a side window, originally a window or opening from which to keep a look out, Sturl. ii. 85, Bs. i. 628.

hlið-veggr, m. a side wall, Nj. 202, Orkn. 244, Fb. i. 413.

hlið-vörðr, m. a porter, Stj. 622, Gkv. 2, 35.

HLÍÐ, f., in mod. usage pl. hlíðar, but hlíðir in old writers, e. g. Landn. 224, Fms. vi. 197 (in a verse), Hkv. 1. 43, Sighvat: [A. S. hlîð; Norse li; lost in Dan.; cp. Lat. clivus; akin to Gr. and Lat. κλίνω, clino]:—a slope, mountain side, Edda 110; svá at sær var í miðjum hlíðum eða stundum vatnaði land, Ó. H. 149, Landn. 25, v. l.; út með hlíðum, Gullþ. 68; fjalls-hlið, a fell-side, q, v.; fagrar hlíðir grasi vaxnar, Grett. 137; ek mun ríða inn með hlíðinni, Glúm. 361, 362; út með hlíðinni, upp í miðjar hlíðar, etc., passim: hlíðar-brún, f. the edge of a h.: hlíðar-fótr, m. the foot of a h.: hlíðar-garðr, m. a fence on a fell-side dividing the pastures of two farms, Dipl. v. 25. II. local names; Fljóts-hlíð and Hlíð, Landn. passim; Norse Lier, Lie, Landn., Nj.: Hlíðar-sól, f. sun of the Hlíð, nickname of a fair lady, Landn.: Hlíðar-menn or Hlíð-menn, m. pl. the men from Hlíð, Landn. III. freq., in poët. circumlocutions, of a woman; hringa-hlíð, falda-h., bauga-h., and then in dat. and acc. hlíði, e. g. falda hlíði, vella hlíði (feminae), Skáld H. 5. 24, and in a mod. ditty; héðan ekki fer eg fet | frá þér silki-hlíði.

hlíð-þang, n., poët. ‘fell-tang,’ seaweed of the hills, Alm., where the inmates of Hel are made to call the trees by this name.

hlíf, f., pl. hlífar, a cover, shelter, protection (esp. of a shield, armour), Ld. 244, Eg. 507, Bxarð. 165, Hm. 81, passim: esp. in pl. hlífar, Nj. 262, Fms. ii. 319, Eb. 230, Rm. 39. hlífar-lauss (hlífa-lauss), adj. ‘coverless,’ uncovered, Fms. ii. 205, vi. 70, vii. 192, Ísl. ii. 226.

HLÍFA, ð, [Ulf. hleibjan, Luke i. 54; O. H. G. hliban]:—to give cover or shelter to one, with dat.; sem ræfrit hlífir kirkjunni við regni, Hom. 95; (hann) hlífði sér ekki, gave himself (had) no shield or armour, Fms. i. 40; því at baeði hlífir (shelters) innan ok útan, x. 319, Fs. 66; h. e-m við e-u, to give one shelter against a thing, Gullþ. 48; ok hljópu í skóginn, ok létu hann hlífa sér, Fb. ii. 88; hlífa sér með skildi, en vega með sverði, 92. 2. to spare one, Grág. i. 163; síðan hlífði hann messudegi hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, Fms. v. 217; Þorgils hlífir sér ekki, Ísl. ii. 368; mun ek ekki hlifa þér í görðinni, Nj. 21, Finnb. 262. II. reflex, to cover oneself, Eg. 581, Sks. 430. 2. to refrain, hold back, Fms. ii. 135; hann hlífðisk þá við engan mann, Nj. 26; Þiðrandi bað menn sína hlífask við fóstra sinn, Njarð. 370; Þorgils hlífisk ekki við, Ísl. ii. 368.

hlífð, f. protection, defence, Fms. ii. 331; hlífðar vápn, a weapon of defence, Ó H. 79, Fms. x. 407, K. Á. 40, Al. 46, Sks. 329. hlífðar-lauss, adj. = hlífarlauss, Fagrsk. 144.

hlíf-skjöldr, m. (hlífi-skjöldr, Nj. 262, Sks. 472), a shield of defence; esp. metaph., vera h. fyrir e-m, 655 A. ii. 5, Fms. viii. 63, 239, Bret. 104; halda h. fyrir e-m, Hom. 42.

Hlín, f. the goddess of that name (the wife of Odin), she that defends, [for the etym. see hlein], Edda, Vsp., Lex. Poët.: freq. in poët. phrases, hringa-hlín, bauga-h., a lady.

hlít, f. (hlíta, Fms. viii. 91, v. l., Hkr. i. 199), [Dan. lid], sufficiency, full warranty, security; nú skal ek sjálfr halda vörð, hefði þat fyrr þótt nokkur hlít, Fms. viii. 91; ek mun hafa landráð meðan, ok vættir mik þat sé nokkur hlít slíka stund, xi. 22; bar hann sik at nokkurri hlit (tolerably well) meðan vér ruddum skipit, iv. 261, Hkr. i. 199; þann er biskupi þykki full hlít, K. Þ. K. 18 (1853); hlít var at því lítil, of small matter, Dropl. (in a verse). β. adverb. phrases; til hlítar, tolerably, pretty well; árferð var þá til nokkurrar hlítar, Fms. i. 86, vii. 237, Fær. 257, Ó. H. 116; til góðrar hlítar, pretty good, 110, Eg. 590; at goðri hlít, very well indeed, Fms. iv. 250; hlítar vel, well enough, Fas. ii. 268; hlítar fagr, passably fair, Mirm.; skip skipat til hlítar, a ship well manned, Fms. i. 196: in mod. usage, til hlítar, adv. sufficiently, thoroughly, freq.

HLÍTA, tt, [Dan. lide], to rely on, trust, abide by, with dat.; gakk með mér jafnan, ok hlít (imperat.) mínum ráðum, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 116, Fs. 84; ef hann vill eigi þeim váttum hlíta (abide by) er hinir hafa, Grág. i. 114; þá skal hinn hlíta því at lögum, N. G. L. i. 346; þetta þá Guðrún ok kvaðsk hans forsjá hlíta mundu, Ld. 144, Fs. 80, Fas. iii. 70; ek mun hlíta búum mínum ok fara eigi til Hofs, Vápn. 29; hann var kvæntr, ok hlítti þó ekki þeirri einni saman, i. e. he had paramours besides, Dropl. 15; ok hlítir Ástríðr eigi öðrum konum í pvi at þjóna honum í lauginni, A. trusted not to other women, i. e. would let no one do it but herself, Fms. xi. 157; ok skal ekki öðrum mönnum nú at h. at reka nautin, i. e. I will do it myself, Eg. 720, Valla L. 224; þeir hlíttu mér (used me) til bréfa-görða, Fms. ix. 262; ef þú mátt eigi öðrum þar til hlíta, if thou hast no one else to do it, Grett. 107: so in the saying, eigi má því einu h. er bazt þykkir, one must put up with something short of the best, Grett. 2. with prep.; en þó sýnisk mér, sem eigi muni minna við hlíta, less than that will not do, Ísl. ii. 358, Fs. 13; vér höfum skip svá mikit ok lið-skyflt, at þar má ekki litlu liði við hlíta, so large a ship that it requires no small crew, Fms. iv. 297; eigi muntu því einu fyrir hlíta, that is not a sufficient answer, thou shall not get off with that, Hkr. iii. 256; cp. einhlítr, adj.

hlít-styggr, adj. trusting to no one but oneself, daring, Lex. Poët.

HLJÓÐ, n. [Ulf. hliuþ = ἡσυχία, 1 Tim. ii. 11, in Uppström’s edition; cp. A. S. hleoðor = sound; mid. H. G. lût; cp. O. H. G. hliodar; Germ. laut; Dan. lyd; Swed. ljud; akin to it are several Gr. and Lat. words with an initial κλ, cl; the original meaning is hearing or the thing heard, like Gr. ἀκοή and hljóð, hljómr, hlust (q. v.) are kindred words; hence comes the double sense of this word in Icel., sound and silence.

A. Hearing, a hearing, listening, silence; biðja (kveðja) hljóðs, to beg a hearing, chiefly as a parliamentary term, of one about to speak, to recite a poem before a prince or the like; Njáll kvaddi sér hljóðs, Nj. 105; kvæði hefi ek ort um yðr, ok vilda ek hljóð fá, I wished to get a hearing, Ísl. ii. 229; Egill hóf upp kvæðit ok kvað hátt ok fékk þegar hljóð, Eg. 427, cp. Vsp. 1, Höfuðl. 2; vilja ek hljóð at Hárs liði, I ask a hearing for my song, Ht. 1; ek hefi ort kvæði um yðr ok vilda ek fá hljóð at flytja, Fms. ii. 15; gefa h., to give a hearing, Leiðarv. 5; hafit hljóð, be quiet! 625. 72; þá er bæði gott hljóð ok góðir siðir í konungs húsi, Sks. 367:—the ancient meetings were in the open air, amid the hum of voices, loud cries, and the clash of arms, þá var fyrst gnýr mikill af fjölmenni ok vápnum, en er hljóð fékksk, mælti Þorgnýr, Ó. H. 68; en er hljóð fékkst, þá stóð jarl upp ok mælti, 67, cp. Íb. ch. 4; varð at þessu mikit háreysti, en er hljóð fékksk, mælti Sigurðr jarl, Fms. i. 34. 2. adverb, phrases; í heyranda hljóði, see heyra, Nj. 230, Grág. i. 19, passim; af hljóði and í hljóði, in all stillness, silently, Nj. 5, 103, Eg. 723, Ld. 162, Fms. iv. 79, Stj. 355; bera harm sinn í hljóði, to bear one’s grief in silence, a saying; ein kvinna læri í hljóði með allri undirgefni, 1 Tim. ii. 11, where the Gothic text has in hliuþa: þegja þunnu hljóði, to listen in breathless stillness, Hm. 7; í einu hljóði, unanimously, a parliamentary term.

B. The thing heard, sound; allt er hljóð þat er kvikindis eyru má skilja, Skálda 173, 174; greina hljóð, id., 169, 170; í hljóði síns gráts, Mar. 28; Þorfinnr kom öngu hljóði í lúðrinn ok komsk eigi upp blástrinn, Fms. ix. 30; ganga á hljóðið, to walk (in the dark) after a distant sound; klukku-hljóð, the sound of a bell, v. 133; þrumu-h., a clap of thunder; brim-h., the roaring of surf. II. special usages: 1. gramm. a sound, tone; með löngu hljóði eða skömmu, hörðu eða linu, Skálda 159, 160: a musical sound, tune, söng fagran, hljóð mikit ok dýrligt, Bs. i. 454; slá hljóð á hörpu, 155. 2. phrases, koma á hljóð um e-t, to catch the sound of, become aware of, Bs. i. 165; vera í hindar hljóði, to be within a hind’s hearing, i. e. to be whispered about; vera ór hindar hljóði, to be out of a hind’s sound; drepr hljóð ór e-m, to become dumb, lose the wind, Fms. xi. 115; það er komit annað hljóð í strokkinn (metaphor from churning), there is another sound in the churn, of a sudden turn, e. g. from high to low spirits; the ancients also seem to have said, ‘there is another sound in the fells,’ of one who is crest-fallen; see verses in Nj. 249, Háv. 34 new Ed., Dropl. 31, nú kná þjóta annan veg í fjöllum, now the fells resound with another tale; nú þykir henni eigi batna hljóðið í sögunni, the tale began to sound dismal, Clar.: so in the phrase, það er gott (slæmt, dauft) hljóð í e-m, to be in a good (or moody) state of mind. III. plur. esp. in mod. usage: α. crying aloud, a cry, of a child or one in paroxysms of pain; Heyr mín hljóð, hear my cry! Hólabók 276; hljóðin heyrðusk út fyrir dyr (of a sick person); það linnir ekki af hljóðum (of a baby). β. howling, screaming; og þeirra hljóð (pl.) og höfuð-prestanna tóku yfir, Luke xxiii. 23; ó-hljóð, dissonance, i. e. screaming, howling. γ. music. voice; hafa fögr hljóð, a sweet voice; há, mikil, veyk, dimm, hvell hljóð, a high, strong, weak, deep, pealing voice; Syng þú ungr mest sem mátt | meðan hljóð þín fagrt gjalla, … eintóm hljóð úr forfeðranna gröfum, Bjarni 142: the same distinction is sometimes observed in old writers, syngja með fögrum hljóðum, Stj. 606, Bs. i. 155; þar gengr hæst í hljóðunum, there the tune reached the highest pitch, Mar.

hljóða, að, [Germ. lauten; Dan. lyde], to sound; hversu hverr stafr hljóðar, Skálda 159, Mar., Bs. ii. passim; rödd hljóðar í hans eyra, Mar.: to run, of speech and writing, eptir því sem letrið hljóðar, Stj. 29; réttarbót er svá hljóðar, a writ which runs thus, Bs. i; whence the phrase, svo hljóðandi, to this effect, as follows. 2. to scream with pain, of horror; þeir hljóðuðu og fórnuðu til mín höndunum, Od. x. 255; þeir hljóðuðu afskapliga, xxii. 308: also of a child, see hljóð above; farðu að hugga barnið, það er að hljóða.

hljóðaðr, part. sounding, Stj. 90.

hljóðan, f. a sound, Stj. 4, 45, 80, 334: a tune, með fagrlegri h., Bs. i. 155; sam-h., harmony, Stj.: wording, utterance, freq. in mod. usage; eptir orðanna h., according to the exact words, the sound (run) of the words.

hljóð-bjalla, u, f. a tinkling bell, Karl. 157.

hljóð-bærr, adj. rumoured abroad.

hljóð-fall, n. consonancy (metric.), Edda 121.

hljóð-fegrð, f. euphony, Skálda 178.

hljóð-fylling, f., hljóð-fyllandi, a, m., better ljóð-fylling, q. v.

hljóð-færi, n. a musical instrument, Fms. iii. 184, Fas. iii. 220, 221, Vígl. 16.

hljóð-góðr, adj. well-tuned, Bs. ii. 39.

hljóð-greipr, f. pl., poët. ‘sound-tongs,’ i. e. the mouth, Lex. Poët.

hljóð-kyrr, adj. still, quiet, Fms. ix. 23, v. l.

hljóð-lauss, adj. soundless, Pm. 106 (of bells).

hljóð-látr, adj. still, taciturn, Sturl. ii. 185, Dropl. 7.

hljóð-leiki, a, m. silence, sadness, Fbr. 142.

hljóð-liga, adv. silently, in all stillness, Eg. 261, Nj. 33, Fms. i. 204, vi. 179, Fas. ii. 517.

hljóð-ligr, adj. silent; þung ok h. sótt, a heavy and creeping sickness, Sturl. ii. 186.

hljóð-lítill, adj. faintly sounding, Pm. 61 (of bells).

hljóð-lyndr, adj. taciturn, Eb. 42, Nj. 91, Fms. vi. 189, Bs. ii. 155.

hljóð-læti n. stillness, silence.

hljóð-mikill, adj. shrill-sounding, Grett. 111.

hljóð-mæli, n. whispering, secrecy; færa í h., to hush up, Ld. 206, Nj. 51.

hljóðna, að, to become silent, dumb, from surprise, Sturl. ii. 151 (v. l.), Fas. iii. 311: impers., þá hljóðnar um hann, he became silent, ii. 433; þar til hljóðnar um mál þessi, till the noise about it subsides, Grett. 125 A.

Hljóð-ólfr, m. name of a dwarf, Lex. Poët.

hljóð-pípa, u, f. a flute, (mod.)

HLJÓÐR, adj. [cp. A. S. hlûde, Engl. aloud, mid. H. G. lûte, Germ. laut, but all in the opp. sense of aloud; cp. hljóð]:—silent, taciturn, 677. 12, Sks. 367, 370, Hom. 129; menn prúða ok hljóða, Fb. ii. 288. β. melancholy, sad; var hann h. ok mælti ekki við aðra menn, biskup spurði hvat hann hugsaði er hann var svá hljóðr, Fb. ii. 329, Eg. 95, Fms. i. 208, Nj. 9, passim. 2. neut. hljótt, stillness, silence; er hann settisk niðr þá var hljótt, Ó. H. 68; er hljótt var orðit, Fms. xi. 85; göra h. um sik, to keep quiet, Grett. 198 new Ed.; tala hljótt, to speak in a low voice or secretly, Nj. 118.

hljóð-samliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), = hljóðliga, Hkr. ii. 220.

hljóð-samr, adj. = hljóðr, Fms. viii. 81, Hkr. ii. 252.

hljóð-semd, f. silence, Post. 74.

hljóðs-grein, hljóða-grein, f. distinction of sound or a kind of sound, Edda 120, Skálda 160, 170, 175, 179, Stj. 45.

hljóð-skraf, n. whispering.

hljóð-stafr, m. a vowel, litera vocalis, Edda 121, Skálda 161.

hljóma, að, to sound, of a musical voice, Pass. passim.

hljóman, f. sound, tune, Skálda 179.

hljóm-fagr, adj. sweet sounding; h. harpa, Bs. i.

HLJÓMR, m. [Ulf. hliuma = ἀκοή; cp. A. S. hlymman = sonare; Lat. clāmor], a sound, tune, voice, Gs. 2, Hkr. ii. 393; h. engla Guðs, Post. 645. 73; h. ok rödd, Ísl. ii. 170, Rb. 380: chiefly of tunes in music, as in the ditty, Held eg sem helgan dóm | hörpunnar sætan róm | þann til að heyra hljóm | hlypi eg suðr í Róm.

HLJÓTA, pres. hlýt, pl. hljótum; pret. hlaut, hlauzt, hlaut, pl. hlutum; subj. hlyti; part. hlotinn, neut. hlotið: [A. S. hleôtan; O. H. G. hliuzan; mid. H. G. liuze; Ivar Aasen liota]:—to get by lot, have allotted to oneself; þeir tóku at herfangi Álöfu konu hans ok Arneiði dóttur hans, ok hlaut Hólmfastr hana, Landn. 314; hón hlaut at sitja hjá Björgölfi, Eg. 23; þeir lögðu hluti á ok hlaut Þrándr, Fær. 3; var svá til sýst at Sighvatr skáld hlaut at segja konungi, Fms. vi. 38; (Loki) hlaut blása at helgum skutli, Haustl. 4; skal sá reifa mál hans er hlýtr, who gets the lot, whom the lot falls on, Grág. i. 63. 2. to get; vér munum hljóta þunnar fylkingar, Fms. v. 53; menn vegnir eða sárir þrír eða fleiri ok sé hlotnir í hvárn-tveggja flokk, Grág. ii. 114. 3. to undergo, suffer, bide; hljóta högg. Fms. xi. 151; úför, 113; harm, i. 21; vel er, at þú hlautzt slíkt af konungi, Hkr. ii. 319. II. metaph., absol. must needs be, with infin.; svá mun nú hljóta at vera at sinni sem þú vill, Fms. i. 159; hefir margr hlotið um sárt at binda fyrir mér, Nj. 54; hér muntú vera hljóta, 129; þú munt ríða h., Fær. 48; en fara hlýtr þú með mér til Jómsborgar, Fms. i. 159; yðart atkvæði mun standa h., Fas. i. 211, passim; þar hlaut at nötra um, Sd. 169. III. reflex. to be allotted, fall by lot; var síðan reynt lið þeirra ok hljótask af því liði átta tigir manna, Fms. xi. 89; at þess þeirra, er ómaginn hlautsk til handa, Grág. i. 266; Kaleb fór til þeirrar borgar er honum hafði hlotisk, Stj. 361; hann hlutaði með lýðnum um stuldinn, ok hlautsk í kyn Júda, 356. 2. metaph. to proceed or result from, esp. in a bad sense; en þó mun hér hljótask af margs manns bani, Mun nokkut hér minn bani af hljótask? Nj. 90; kann vera at af hljótisk þessu tali, sem þá verst hefir af hlotisk, Sd. 172.

hlotnask, að, dep. to fall to one’s lot, with dat.; en ef honum hlotnuðusk herteknir menn, Fms. i. 258: freq. in mod. usage, Pass. 36. 10; ok þá honum hlotnaðist að hann skyldi veifa reykelsinu, Luke i. 9; hlotuask til, to turn out; hlotnaðisk svá til, Vígl. 57 new Ed.

hlotr, see hlutr, Fms. xi. 128.

HLÓA, ð, [A. S. hlowan; Engl. low], to bellow, roar, of streams or cascades, Gm. 29, an απ. λεγ., but no doubt to be thus explained, and not as in Lex. Poët.

HLÓÐ, n. pl. [hlaða], a hearth, chimney-place, freq. in mod. usage (it can only be by chance that no old reference is on record); setja pott á hlóðir, to set the pot on the fire. hlóða-karl, m. = hadda, q. v.

Hlóðyn, f., gen. hlóðynjar, the mythical name of the Earth, prop. hearth (?), homestead (?), and akin to hlóð, Edda, Lex. Poët.

Hlóra, u, f. the mythical name of the foster mother or nurse of Thor, Edda.

Hlóriði, a, m. [hlóa and reið = thunder], one of the names of Thor, the Bellowing Thunderer, Edda, Hým., Þkv., Ls., Vellekla.

HLUMR, m., pl. ir, proncd. hlummr, the handle of an oar, Fas. i. 215 (hlumir), ii. 355 (where hlummar pl.), Edda (Ht., where hlumr and sumri are rhymed), Sturl. iii. 68, Glúm. 395.

HLUNKA, að, [hlymr], to give a dull, hollow sound, Fms. xi. 280, Skáld H. R. 4. 19.

hlunkr, m. a dull sound, a thump.

hlunnindi, n. pl. [hlunnr], prop. ‘launching,’ but only used metaph., emoluments, esp. attached to an estate or possession, Gþl. 68, 293, Vm. 55, Eb. 40, Fms. ix. 95.

HLUNNR, m. [Shetl. linn; cp. Engl. to launch, which is derived from the Scandin. word]:—a roller for launching ships, Edda 38, Fms. vii. 19, viii. 45: also of the pieces of wood put under the keel of ships when ashore (during the winter ships used to be dragged ashore, called ráða skipi til hlunns), Grág. i. 92, 209, N. G. L. i. 26, Eg. 515, Nj. 10, Lex. Poët. passim: in poetry a ship is called hlunn-dýr, -fákr, -goti, -jór, -vigg, -vitnir, -vísundr, = the deer, steed, bison of h., Lex. Poët.

hlunn-roð, n. reddening the h., so called when a person was killed in launching a ship (in the spring), Fas. i. 264, N. G. L. i. 65: this was taken to be a bad augury, see Ragn. S. ch. 9 (Fas. i. 259, 260).

HLUST, f. [A. S. hlyst; Hel. hlust = hearing; cp. Gr. κλύω], the ear, prop. the inner part of the ear, cochlea auris, Ad. 6, 9, Nj. 210 (v. l.), Fms. ii. 100, Edda 109, Band. 36 new Ed., Sturl. ii. 85, Eg. 758 (in a verse), passim: the ears of beasts, e. g. seals, bears, birds, or the like are usually called hlust, not eyra, Merl. 1. 38, Fb. i. 133, Eb. 99 new Ed. (v. l.), Fas. ii. 237, Fs. 149, 179. hlustar-verkr, m. ear-ache, otalgia, Fél.

hlusta, að, [A. S. hlystan; Engl. listen; cp. hlust], to listen; h. til e-s, 623. 34: in mod. usage, h. á e-ð, freq.

HLUTA, að, [A. S. hluton; Engl. lot; Germ. loosen], to draw lots for a thing, obtain by lot, the thing in acc. or infin.; þar var hlutaðr tvímenningr, Eg. 22; þar skyldi sæti (acc. pl.) hluta, the seats were allotted, 247; þeir eigu at h. með sér hverr reifa skal mál hans, Grág. i. 63; þær sakir skal eigi hluta er um veföng er sótt, 74; þá eigu þeir at h. með sér, hvárr þeirra annask skal (the ómagi), 266; svá lízt mér at annarr hvárr okkarr sæki málit, ok munu vit þá verða at hluta með okkr, Nj. 86; þá vóru hlutaðar framsögur, ok hlaut hann fyrst fram at segja sína sök, 232; vóru menn hlutaðir til skip-stjórnar, Fb. ii. 317; urðu þeir á þat sáttir um síðir, at hlutað var hverr þetta eyrindi skyldi fram segja, Fms. vi. 38; skyldi … hluta með Grikkjum ok Væringjum, hvárir fyrri skyldi ríða eðr róa, etc., 136; þat mál samdisk á þá leið, at konungar skyldi hluta um, hvárr ráða skyldi þaðan í frá, vii. 170: mæltu þá konungar sín í milli, at þeir skyldi hluta um eign þá ok kasta teningum, Ó. H. 90; slítum vér eigi þenna kyrtil heldr hlutum vér hann, Greg. 1. II. reflex.: 1. to be allotted, to fall out, turn out; ok hlutaðisk svá til, it so turned out, Bs. i. 433. 2. with prep.; hlutask til e-s, to meddle with a thing; eigi hlutumk ek til málsverða, Eb. 36; en þú veizt, frændi, at ek hefi til fás hlutask síðan ek kom til Íslands, Hrafn. 17; en þat varð fram at koma er Þorgerðr vildi til hvers er hón hlutaðisk, Ld. 94; ekki hefi ek hlutask til málaferla yðvarra, en nú vil ek vita …, Nj. 101, Þórð. 67; þat er bæði, at ek hefi lítt til ráða hlutask, ok vill þú at ek ráða litlu, Glúm. 324; hlutask til með e-m, to assist one in a case, Lv. 40; at eigi haldi þér sæmdum nema til hlutisk yðr tignari menn, 76, Fas. iii. 46. β. skiptum vér eigi þenna kyrtil, hlutumst heldr um hvers hann skal verða, John xix. 24.

hlutan, f. a drawing or casting of lots, Grág. i. 38, 493, N. G. L. i. 145.

hlut-burðr, m. a chance, lot, D. N.

hlut-deila, d, to meddle, Sturl. i. 196, ii. 42.

hlut-deilinn, adj. meddlesome, Fs. 123; ó-hlutdeilinn, passive.

hlut-deilni, f. meddlesomeness, Rd. 255, Karl. 123.

hlut-drjúgr, adj. lucky, getting the better share, Lv. 24.

hlut-fall, n., chiefly in pl., a casting of lots; leggja til hlutfalla, Fs. 67, Fms. v. 147; fara at hlutföllum, to go by lots, Ver. 4; bjóða til hlutfalla, a law term, to bid one proceed to cast lots, Grág. i. 37, Nj. 232; skipta til hlutfalls, to divide into lots, Gþl. 341. 2. mod. proportion (sing.), Rb. 460.

hlut-felling, f. proportion, Alg. 372.

hlut-gengr, adj. capable, up to the mark, Fb. ii. 329.

hlut-girni, f. meddlesomeness, Glúm. 353.

hlut-gjarn, adj. meddlesome, Ld. 248.

hlut-henda and hlut-hending, f. a kind of metre or rhyme, see hending and henda, Edda 121, 123, 136.

hluti, a, m. a part; í þeim hluta veraldar, Edda (pref.); mikinn hluta af Englandi, Eg. 270; mikinn hluta Skotlands, Ó. H. 131; mikill (mestr, lítill) h. liðs, Fms. i. 110, Eg. 269, Edda 82, Fb. ii. 283; bleikt silfr ok skal vera meiri hluti silfrs, Grág. i. 500: adverb, phrases, at öllum hluta, for the whole lot or share, 245; að mestum hluta, for the most part; að nokkrum hluta, for some part; at mínum (sínum) hluta, for my (her) part, Nj. 250, Fs. 62. II. a share, but the weak form is seldom used in this sense, as in the phrase, göra á hluta e-s, to encroach upon one’s share, wrong one, Fms. vii. 219, Vígl. 25; eptir er enn yðarr hluti, your part, portion of the work, Nj. 144; ok undi hann þó verr sínum hluta, Fms. vii. 176 (v. l. hlut better).

hlut-kesti, n. a casting of lots, N. T.; but does not occur in old writers.

hlut-lauss, adj. ‘lot-less,’ not partaking in, Lat. expers; at yður bók skyldi þeirra umbóta eigi h. vera, Gþl. iv: having taken no part in, h. eðr sýkn af manndrápi, Fms. ii. 225; h. ok afskiptr e-u (void of), Stj. 155; h. allrar undir-hyggju, Bs. i. 723: neut., veiða hlutlaust, to fish without getting a share, D. I. i. 497; ríða hlutlaust, to pass free, unmolested, Sturl. i. 39. In mod. usage, hlutlauss means passive, neutral, of a person; and láta e-ð hlutlaust, to leave a thing alone, not meddle with it.

HLUTR, m., the original form was diphthongal, hlautr, like the Gothic, as is borne out by the kindred and derivative words hlaut, hleyti, q. v.; the acc. was weakened into o, hlotr, Fms. xi. 128; and lastly into u, hlutr; old nom. pl. hlotar, Jómsv. S. l. c., but commonly hlutir; gen. sing. hlutar: [Goth. hlauts = κληρος, Mark xv. 24, Col. i. 12, Ephes. i. 11, Luke i. 9; A. S. and Hel. hlot; Engl. lot; Germ. loos; Dan. lod; Swed. lott; the Goth., Germ., and earliest Scandin. have a long vowel, and prob. also A. S. and O. H. G. (hlôt, not hlot); the Ormul. spells lott with a short vowel, as is the case also in Icel., Dan., Swed., and Engl.]

A. A lot; the ceremony of drawing lots was like that described in Homer; each party marked his lot (skera or marka hluti), which was then thrown into a sheet (lap of a garment, bera or leggja hluti í skaut), and a third person came and drew a lot out; (it was not thrown out by shaking.) This drawing of lots was originally a sacred ceremony; it was used in sacrifices (by way of augury, see below), in sharing booty or an inheritance; in law the order in which suits came on was decided by lot, in banquets the seats of honour were so assigned (e. g. who was to sit next to the daughter of the house), etc. Many words in the language refer to this old rite, and the ceremony is thus described: en hluti skyldi skera ok í skaut bera, Fms. vii. 140; kom þat ásamt með þeim at hluti skyldi bera í skaut, … skyldi því hvárir-tveggju una sem hlutr segði, vóru þá hlutir markaðir; þá mælti Norðbrikt til Gyrgis: ‘lát mik sjá hversu þú markar þinn hlut at vit markim eigi báðir einn veg;’ hann gerði svá; síðan markaði Norðbrikt sinn hlut, ok kastaði í skaut ok svá báðir þeir; síðan gékk sá maðr at er til (upp, v. l.) skyldi taka, ok tók upp annan hlutinn milli fingra sér …; síðan var at hugat þeim hlutinum ok kenndu þar allir mark Gyrgis, vi. 136, 137: hverr maðr er sök hefir með at fara í dóm, þá skal hlut bera í skaut, einn, þótt hann hafi fleiri sakar í dóm þann, hverr maðr skal merkja hlut sinn ok bera alla saman í skaut, ok skal maðr taka fjóra hluti senn upp, Grág. i. 37; bjóða til hlutfalla ok bera þar hluti í skaut, 74; menn báru þá hluti sína í skaut ok tók jarlinn upp; … svá sagði hlutr til, at Egill skyldi sitja hjá jarls-dóttur um kveldit, Eg. 247; en þá er tólfmenningr var skipaðr til at sitja ok settir hlutir til hverr næst skyldi sitja Ástríði, dóttur Vigfúss hersis, ok hlaut Eyjólfr ávalt at sitja hjá henni, Glúm. 331: nú ræða þeir um goðorðit ok verða eigi ásáttir, vildi hverr sinn hlut (case) fram draga; þá leggja þeir hluti í skaut, ok kom jafnan upp hlutr Silfra, Fs. 68; þeir lögðu hluti á, ok hlaut Þrándr, Fær. 2. of sacrifice; vóru þá görvir hlutir af vísinda-mönnum (soothsayers), ok feldr blótspánn til, en svá gékk fréttin, at …, Fas. i. 452; cp. hristu teina ok á hlaut sá, Hym. 1; and, þá kná Hænir hlautvið kjósa (= taka upp hluti), Vsp. l. c.; see also hlaut, hlauttein, p. 270. II. the hlutir were talismans or little images, which people used to wear on their persons; síðan tekr jarl skálar (scales) góðar … ok fylgðu tvau met (weights), annat af gulli en annat af silfri; þar var á líkneskja manns, ok hétu þat hlutar (hlotar sem fornmönnum var títt at hafa, add. in v. l.), ok fylgði sú náttúra, at þá er jarl lagði þá í skálarnar, ok kvað á hvat hvárr skyldi merkja, ok ef sá kom upp (turned up) er hann vildi, þá breylti sá í skálinni svá at varð glamm af. Jarl gaf Einari skálarnar ok varð hann glaðr við ok síðan kallaðr Einarr Skálarglam, Jómsv. S. (1824) 37, 38; hlutr er horfinn ór pússi þínum sá er Haraldr konungr gaf þér í Hafrsfirði, ok er hann nú kominn í holt þat er þú munt byggja, ok er á hlutnum markaðr Freyr af silfri, Fs. 19; ok vili Freyr þar láta sinn hlut niðr koma er hann vill sitt sæmdar-sæti setja, 22; cp. Landn., hann sendi Finna tvá í hamförum til Íslands eptir hlut sínum, 174; hann hefir líkneski Þórs í pungi sínum af tönn gört …; nú fannsk engi sá ‘hlutr’ í hans valdi, Fs. 97: the ‘gumna heillir’ or talismans, mentioned in Sdm., were prob. hlutir.

B. Metaph., without the actual drawing of lots: I. a share, allotment, portion; skal þat þeirra er biskup lofar skilnað, hafa slíkan hlut fjár (portion) við annat, Grág. i. 329: of booty, hann færði Ölvi skip sín ok kallar þat vera hlut hans, Nj. 46: of a finder’s share, heimtir hlut af sauðunum, Háv. 40; halda til hlutar, id. β. esp. of a fisherman’s share of the catch, Band. 4, cp. Höfuðl. 1; a fishing boat has one or two hundred … í hlut, each of the crew (hásetar) taking his ‘hlutr,’ and besides this there was a færis-hlutr (line share) or netja-hlutr (net share), skips-hlutr (ship’s share), and lastly for-manns-hlutr (foreman’s share, he getting double); see the remarks on aflausn. γ. a share, lot, portion, of inheritance, often in early Dan. law, where the daughter received a half, the brother a whole portion, sun til ful lot, oc dotær til half lot, Wald. Sjæll. Lov., p. 1;—whence in Dan. broder-lod, söster-lod, = a brother’s, sister’s portion; en komi jafnmikit fé á hlut hvers þeirra, Grág. (Kb.) i. 220: of duty, kom þat á hlut Andreas postula, 625. 64. 2. metaph. phrases; láta hlut sinn, to let go one’s share, be worsted, Fms. i. 74, Fb. ii. 62; þeirra h. brann við, got singed, Hkr. ii. 178; þinn hlutr má ekki verða betri en góðr, thy case cannot be better than good, is as good as it can be, Nj. 256; ella muntú finna á þínum hlut, thou shalt find it to thy cost, Ld. 98; þeirra h. varð æ minni ok minni, their lot grew ever worse and worse, Fms. x. 250; eigi skyldi hennar h. batna við þat, her case should not mend with that, Nj. 52; sitja yfir hlut e-s, to oppress, weigh a person down, Eg. 512, Nj. 89, Fb. iii. 450; mínka sinn hlut, to yield one’s lot (right), 451; láta sinn (hlut) undir liggja, to let one’s lot be the nethermost, Bárð.; leggja hlut sinn við e-t, to throw in one’s lot with a thing, to espouse a cause, run a risk, Lv. 45 (twice), Fb. iii. 166, Sturl. i. 162 C; eigi mundi svá Sverrir gera, ef hann ætti várn hlut, S. would not do so if he had our lot, our cards in his hand, Fms. viii. 392; eigi mundir þú svá renna frá þínum manni, ef þú ættir minn hlut, xi. 72; hafa (fá) hærra (meira, lægra) hlut, to get the better (less) share, to get the best (worst) of it, to win or lose, Eb. 194, Fs. 32, 113, Nj. 90, 224, Fas. i. 252, Fms. vi. 412, viii. 284, Hkv. 2. 19; hafa allan hlut mála, Bs. i. 82; eiga hlut at e-u, to own a share in, take part (interest) in, interfere (meddle) in a thing, be concerned about, Eb. 124, Nj. 27, 101, 119, Fms. xi. 83; þar er þú ættir hlut at, wherein thou wast concerned, Nj. 54; nú mun eigi mega sitjanda hlut í eiga, to take a sitter’s part in it, i. e. not stir in the matter, 110; hér munu eigi gæfu-menn í hlut eiga, 179; hafa inn vesta hlut af, to behave meanly, Eg. 271. II. a part, Lat. pars; enn efra hlut Hrunamanna-hrepps, Landn. 312: mestr h. liðs, the most part of the body, Eg. 275; meiri hlutr, búa, dómanda …, the majority of the neighbours, judges …, Nj. 237, Grág. i. 79; tíundi h. eyrir, a tenth part of an ounce, 357: byggja jörð til hlutar, to lease an estate in shares, N. G. L. i. 137: sjau hlutum ljósari, seven times brighter, Eluc. 44; tveim hlutum dýrra, twice as dear, Landn. 243; eins hlutar (on the one hand) … annars hlutar (on the other hand), 625. 172. III. a case, thing, Lat. res; hvern hlut, everything, Nj. 53; á engum hlut, in nothing, Fms. ii. 27; í öllum hlutum, in everything, passim; allir hlutir, all things, Edda 147 (pref.); aðra hluti, other things, Fms. i. 213; alla hluti þá er …, all things whatsoever, Ld. 18; allir þeirra hlutir, all their things, Fms. x. 250; fjórir eru þeir hlutir (cases) er menn ber í átt, Grág. i. 361; hverngi hlut (reason) er maðr vill til þess færa, 179; fyrir tengda sakir ok annarra stórra hluta er hér hvarfla í milli, Nj. 147; undarlegr, kynlegr h., a strange thing, Ld. 200, Fms. x. 169; iðna slíka hluti, Grág. i. 149; eru þér stórir hlutir á höndum, Fms. vii. 30: a deed, fact, orðinn h., a bygone thing, Fr. fait accompli, Nj. 20; einn lítill h., a little thing, small matter, Fms. ix. 448. β. with neg. adv. = Engl. naught; görðit hlut þiggja, Am. 94; ekki lyt (lyf MS.), Skv. 1. 9; engi hluta(r), noways, 656 C. 25.

hlut-ræningi, a, m. one robbed of his share; verða h. e-s, or fyrir e-m, to be unfairly dealt with, Eg. 525 (v. l.), Fb. ii. 379, Gullþ. 12; göra e-n h., Orkn. 306, 318.

hlut-samr, adj. meddlesome, Fms. ii. 68, Lv. 27, Karl. 386.

hlut-seigr, adj. holding fast one’s share, tenacious, Bs. i. 716.

hlut-semi, f. meddling.

hlut-skarpr, adj. = hlutdrjúgr.

hlut-skipta, t, to share by lots, Stj. 375.

hlut-skipti, n. a sharing, Eg. 280, Fms. i. 183: a share, lot, of inheritance, Fs. 18, Ld. 222: of booty, Eg. 4, 57, Fms. vi. 86, vii. 278, Bs. i. 37, Barl. 188.

hlut-sæll, adj. getting the best share, lucky, Fs. 143.

hlut-takandi, part. partaking, a partaker, 623. 28, 45, Greg. 12.

hlut-takari, a, m. a partaker, 655 xiv. A. 2, Magn. 432, Greg. 23, Bs. i. 744, Stj.

hlut-tekning, f. a partaking: proportion, Alg. 372: gramm. the participle, Skálda 180.

hlut-vandr, adj. fair about one’s share, upright, honest, Band. 35 new Ed., Lv. 48, Thom. 396, Rétt. 5. 5: ó-hlutvandr, dishonest.

hlut-verk, n. work allotted, Fbr. 130, Háv. 56, Grett. 125.

HLÚKI, a, m. a term of abuse; hrímugr hlúki, Korm. in a verse. (Is the Scot. luckie, used of an old woman, akin to this word?)

hlykkjóttr, adj. crooked, Stj. 78, freq. in mod. usage.

hlykk-lauss, adj. ‘bend-less,’ unbent, straight, Al. 173.

HLYKKR, m., pl. ir, better lykkr (see p. 227), a bend, curve, Sturl. iii. 37, Hom. 115, Fms. i. 145.

HLYMJA, pret. hlumði, pres. hlymr, to dash, Hým. 24; sær hlymr, the sea dashes against the boards, Edda 100 (in a verse).

hlymr, m. [hljómr], a clash, as of hoofs, Skálda 169, Skm. 14, Og. 28.

HLYNNA, t, [hlunnr], prop. ‘to launch,’ but only used metaph. to help a person on; h. fyrir e-m, Fms. viii. 239, v. l.: very freq. in mod. usage, h. að e-u, to cherish, foster, and of persons to nourish.

hlynning, f. a fostering; að-hlynning, id.

hlynninn, adj. fostering; h. á. sigr, victorious, Lex. Poët.

HLYNR, m., pl. ir, [Ivar Aasen lön; Swed. lönn], a maple tree, Lat. acer, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. passim.

HLÝ, n. [Dan. ly = shelter], warmth, as of a bed; þvíat konungr þóttisk þá þurfa hlýs, Fms. vi. 251, Fagrsk. 49 (in a verse).

HLÝÐA, dd, [hljóð A]: I. prop. to hearken, listen; eyrum hlýðir en augum skoðar, Hm. 7: with dat. to listen to one, 623. 27, Fms. vii. 245, Eg. 694; var hann ekki svá mikillátr at eigi hlýddi (to give ear to) hann mönnum er skylt áttu við hann at ræða, Ó. H. 68; h. messu, tíðum, lestri, to hear mass, attend service, go to church, 671 B, 655 xi. 4, Bs. i. 131 passim. 2. with prep.; hlýða á e-t, to listen to a thing, Fms. ix. 472; h. til e-s, a law term, to listen to a pleading, Nj. 36, Grág. i. 76; h. til tals e-s, Fas. ii. 517; sitja menn þar umhverfis ok hlýða til sögunnar, Fbr. 87 new Ed.; h. e-m yfir, to hear a pupil’s lessons, of a teacher holding the book whilst the pupil recites the lesson; hlýða yfir Fræðin, Faðir Vor, Kverið, Lektíuna, etc. 3. to yield to; glöddusk allir er þeir höfðu hlýtt því ráði, Fb. i. 439; þeim er eigi vildu h. hans orðum, ii. 64: to obey, as children their parents, h. föður, móður sinni, h. Guði, freq. in mod. usage, but it seems not to be used in old writers exactly in this sense. II. metaph. to be due, to do, be proper; hlýðir þat hvergi (it will not do), at hafa eigi lög í landi, Nj. 149; má eigi vita hvat helzt hlýðir, Fms. vii. 105: to do, suffice, eigi man h. svá búit, this will not do, something must be done (in an extreme case), Eg. 507, Fms. i. 104; hlýðir þó þeir sé þrír, three will do, Grág. ii. 139; nú hlýðir þat eigi, but if that will not do, K. Þ. K. 88; en með því at þeir höfðu liðs-kost góðan, þá hlýddi, it went off well, Fms. i. 66: e-m hlýðir e-t, it does, is possible for a person, Sinfjötla hlýddi þat, Fas. i. 130. β. to be allowed to a person; engum öðrum skyldi þat h., nobody else should dare to do so, Hkr. i. 209; Einarr lét öngum h. móti at mæla, E. would not hear of any one’s gainsaying, let nobody contradict, Orkn. 40; er þat undr er þér látið honum hvatvetna h., Eg. 71; ella eru mjök aldauða várir foreldrar er eigi létu konungum h. slik úlög, Fms. vi. 37. III. reflex. to listen; hann hlýðisk um hvárt nokkurir vekti, Gísl. 29; þá héldu þeir upp árum ok hlýddusk um, Fas. ii. 517; nema þeir staðar undir búðar-vegginum ok hlýðask þaðan um, Fbr. 87 new Ed.; Sturla bað menn hlýðask um, Sturl. i. 82: to be allowed, dare to do a thing with impunity, margir munu hér eptir taka ef þessum hlýðsk, 36; konungr sagði þeim skyldi þat ekki hlýðask, Fas. i. 45.

hlýða, u, f. [A. S. hleowd; provinc. Dan. lude = a shed], a shed; a part of a ship, a cabin (?); hlýðan skalf, Knytl. S. (in a verse).

hlýðinn, adj. giving ear to one; hann var h. vinum sínum um öll góð ráð, Fms. vi. 30: meek, obedient, hlýðnum syni ok lítilátum, Sks. 11; and so in mod. usage of children, pupils, þjónum þeim og hlyðnir séum, elskum þau og virðing veitum, Luther’s Catech. on the 5th Comm.; var þeim og hlýðinn, Luke ii. 51; ó-hlýðinn, disobedient, naughty. β. yielding homage to one; h. konungi sínum, Sks. 269; áðr en landsfólk hafði honum hlýðit orðit, Hkr. ii. 212.

hlýði-samt, n. adj. proper for one to do (see hlýða II. β); vera h. to do for one, Ísl. ii. 198, Ld. 154, Fms. vi. (in a verse).

hlýðnask, að, dep. to obey one, with dat., Fms. i. 281, Fær. 132 Str. 20.

hlýðni, f. obedience, homage, Sks. 269, Fms. iii. 12, vi. 29, Bs. i. 742 Orkn. 394, Stj. 117; ó-hlýðni, disobedience.

hlýð-skylldi (hluþscylldi) = lýðskyldi, Fms. x. (Ágrip) 398, 399.

hlýðugr, adj. = hlýðinn, N. T.

hlýindi, n. pl. warmth, snugness, Snót (1866): of weather, mild.

HLÝJA (mod. hlúa), pres. hlýr, pret. hløði (mod. hlúði), cp. tøði from týja; part. hlúð:—prop. to cover, shelter, with dat.; hlýrat henni börkr né barr, Hm. 49; to this belongs the poët. pret., serkir hløðut þeim = Homer’s οἱ ἤρκεσε θώρηξ, Il. xv. 529 (cp. οὐδ ἤ. θ., xiii. 371, gave them no shelter against the blow), Edda i. 418; in mod. usage, hlúa að e-m, to cover with clothes (Lat. fovere), to make one warm and snug; hér er sjór kallaðr hlér, þvíat hann hlýr allra minzt, Skálda 198; hlúðu að þér betr, þú hefr ekki hlúð vel að þér, thou art too thinly clad.

hlýna, að, to become warm.

HLÝR, adj. warm, mild; hlýtt veðr, mild weather; hlý húsa-kynni, warm, snug rooms: metaph., e-m er hlýtt til e-s, to have a warm heart, affection, for a person; see hlær below.

HLÝR, n. pl. [A. S. hleor; Hel. hlear; Engl. leer], a cheek, Edda 72; hlýra skúrir, tears, Ísl. ii. 352 (in a verse): metaph. of things, of a vessel, the bows (cp. Gr. παρεία, and kinnungr from kinn, a cheek), Edda (Gl.), Fms. iv. 377, Lex. Poët. COMPDS: hlýr-birtr, adj. stained on the bows, Orkn. 332. hlýr-roðinn, part. = μιλτοπάρηος, Od. ix. 125, = hlýrbirtr: the shield is called hlýr-garðr, hlýr-sól, hlýr-tungl, hlýr-vangr, from the gunwale being fenced with a wall of shields, Lex. Poët.: the cheeks of an axe, Nj. 28, Grett. (in a verse), Edda i. 392 (in a verse): in mod. usage the sides of a knife are called hlýrar, as also the two sides of a bodice.

hlýri, a, m., poët. a brother, frater germanus, only in poets, Lex. Poët. passim; perhaps orig. a ‘twin-brother.’

hlýrn, n. (?), poët. a certain time of day, dœgr, hlýrn, röckr, Edda ii. 569; the exact meaning is not known, cp. Bjarn. 59 (in a verse).

hlýrnir, m., poët. the sky, heaven, Alm. 13, Lex. Poët. passim.

hlæða, i. e. hlœða, ð, [hlaða, hlóð]; h. skip, to lade a ship; h. hest, to load, saddle a horse, Fb. i. 193, Skv. 1. 13, Hdl. 5: hlæðendr, part. pl., Orkn. (in a verse).

hlæðir, m. a loader, Sighvat.

hlægi, n. ridicule, Hm. 19, Fms. vi. 151, Clem. 36, 42. COMPDS: hlægi-orðr, hlægi-máll, and hlægi-máligr, adj. humorous, Fms. ix. 241, 249. hlægi-skip, n. an odd, curious ship, Sighvat.

hlægja, ð, properly hlœgja, [causal of hlæja], to make one laugh; at hundi elskar Andaðr … ok jöfur hlœgir, Fagrsk. 6 (in a verse); at engi maðr mundi sá vera at hann mundi eigi hlœgja með sínum gamansamlegum orðum, Sks. 118 B; at Ægir skyldi þat gera, er hón hugði at þeir skyldi eigi mega, at hlægja hana, to make her laugh, Edda 46: metaph. to gladden one, make one’s heart leap for joy, cheer one; þat hlægir mik, segir Skarphéðinn, áttú munt hefna mín, Nj. 202; þat hlœgir mik nú, at ek sé þat, nafni, at þinn sigr mun eigi langr vera, Fms. xi. 23; oss hlœgir þat eigi, Korm.; drottins-svikar er Djöful hlœgðu, Fms. v. 126 (in a verse).

hlæg-liga, mod. hlægi-liga, adv. ridiculously, Fms. vi. 141.

hlæg-ligr, mod. hlægi-ligr, adj. ridiculous, laughable, Am. 53, Hkv. Hjörv. 30, Glúm. 351 (hl?gligr), Band. 38 new Ed. (see note).

HLÆJA, pres. hlær, pl. hlægjum; pret. hló (qs. hlóg), 2nd pers. hlótt, mod. hlóst; pl. hlógu, mod. hlóu; pret. subj. hlægi; imperat. hlæ, hlaeðu; part. hleginn; [Ulf. hlahjan; A. S. hlihan; Engl. laugh; Hel. hlahan; O. H. G. hlahhan; old Frank, hlaka; Germ. lachen; Dan. le]:—to laugh, Hðm. 20, Skv. 3. 30, Am. 61, Akv. 24; h. hátt, to laugh loud, Skv. 2. 15; Grímr var ekki kátr, ok aldri hló hann síðan Helgi var fallinn, Dropl. 27; Grímr skelldi upp ok hló, 31; hví hlóttu nú? Fms. vi. 390; hló Vigfúss at? Halli mælti, þat er vani þeirra feðga at hlæja, þá er vígahugr er á þeim, Glúm. 367; hón hlaer við hvert orð, Nj. 18; h. dátt, to laugh heartily; skelli-hlægja, to roar with laughter; h. hlátr, Hildigunnr hló kalda-hlátr, Nj.: phrases, þá hló marmennill, then the merman laughed, of a sudden, unreasonable burst of laughter, Fas. Hálfs. S. ch. 7, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 133: as also Merlin (1869), ch. 23; hugr hlaer, one’s heart laughs; at minn hugr hlægja við honum, Fas. i. 195; hlær mér þess hugr, Fms. xi. 96; þau tíðendi er þeim hló hugr við, ix. 494, v. l.; löngum hlaer lítið vit, long laugh, little wit; hleginn, laughed at, Niðrst. 6. 2. with prep.; hlæja at e-u, to laugh at a thing; Hrútr hló at ok gékk í braut, Nj. 10; allt fólk hló at þeim, Fms. ix. 494, Glúm. 366, passim (at-hlægi). II. metaph. of a country, the hills are said to laugh in welcoming a guest and to droop at his going away; Drúpir Höfði, dauðr er Þengill, hlægja hlíðir við Hallsteini, Landn. (in a verse); Há þóttu mér hlaegja … of Noreg allan | klif meðan Ólafr lifði, Sighvat: the blunt edge is said to laugh in one’s face, síðan tók ek hein ór pússi mínum ok reið ek í eggina, svá at exin var svá slæ, at hón hló móti mér áðr en við skildum, Sturl. ii. 62.

hlœkinn, adj. [akin to hlúki], mean, filthy, Fms. ix. 32: as also hlœkendr, part. pl. id., see Eb. 132, note 4 new Ed.

hlær, adj. (hlætt, n.), [akin to hlé, hláka, q. v., cp. hlýr], warm, mild; hlær vindr, Fms. ii. 228; blíðari ok hlærri en aðrir vindar, Sks. 219; veðr var þykt ok hlætt, Fbr. 13; en Ginnunga-gap var svá hlætt sem lopt vindlaust, Edda 4.

hlæ-veðr, n. mild weather, a thaw; heiði ok í hlæveðri, Hom. 127.

hlöðr, m. [hlaða], a destroyer, vanquisher, Lex. Poët.: a pr. name, Fas.

Hlökk, f., gen. Hlakkar, [perh. akin to A. S. hlanc, Engl. lank = thin, slender]:—one of the heathen Valkyriur, Edda, Gm. passim; and in compds, Hlakkar-, Lex. Poët. passim.

hlöm, f. [hlam], a thump, Fms. vi. (in a verse), Höfuðl.

hlömmuðr, m. ‘thumper,’ poët. the wind, Edda (Gl.)

hlömmun, f. a thumping, = hlamman.

hnakk-band, n. (see hnakkr), an anchor cable; heimtu þeir upp akkeri sín, ok brast (sic) hnakkböndin, Lv. 99.

HNAKKI, a, m. [Dan. nakke; Swed. nacke; cp. A. S. hnecca; Engl. neck, although in a different sense]:—the nape of the neck, back of the head, occiput, N. G. L. i. 339, Fms. ii. 272 (v. l.), vii. 192, viii. 77; Nj. 96; setja (snúa) hnakka við e-m, to turn the back on one, Sighvat, Hom. 68; settu hnakkann á bak sér aptr, áðr þeir fengu séð upp yfir, Edda 30; hnakka dyttr, Orkn. (in a verse). COMPDS: hnakka-bein, n. the occipital bone, Orkn. 50. hnakka-dramb, see dramb. hnakka-filla, u, f. the flesh on the nape, Gullþ. 27. hnakka-gróf, f. the ‘nape-pit,’ hollow in the nape of the neck. hnakka-kúla, u, f. the flesh on the head of a fish.

hnakk-marr, m. a saddle-horse, Ýt. 10.

hnakk-mið, m. a buoy fastened to an anchor (?); ef menn draga upp akkeri með sínu akkeri, ok fylgir hvártki strengr né hnakkmiði, Jb. 403; hnykkja hnakkmiða, to move the anchor, change a ship’s berth, Fs. 92 (in a verse of A. D. 996).

hnakkr, m. an anchor-stone, similar to the mod. dreki and stjóri (εὐναί in Homer), whence hnakk-band, hnakk-mið. II. a man’s saddle, freq. in mod. usage, which distinguishes between a söðull (a side saddle) and hnakkr, but it seems not to be found in old writers, except in hnakkmarr above. III. = knakkr, q. v.; stólar fjórir, knakkr, lectari, Pm. 17 (in a church’s inventory).

HNALLR, m. a club or cudgel used by fishermen in killing sharks.

hnappa, að, to huddle together (e. g. of sheep).

HNAPPR, m. [cp. Engl. nape; A. S. cnæp; Germ. knopf], a button; the older form is knappr, q. v. COMPDS: hnappa-gat, n. a button-hole. hnapp-rass, m. a nickname. II. a bevy, cluster, esp. of birds, sheep, as fjár-hnappr. COMPDS: hnapp-sitja, sat, to keep the sheep huddled together instead of being spread over the pasture, of a bad shepherd; þú skalt ekki h. það, því þá dettr úr því nytin, Piltr og Stúlka 9: a local name, Hnappa-fell, n., Landn.: Hnappfellingar, m. men from H., id.

hnarr-reistr, part. rising high, as the stem of a ship (knörr, q. v.)

hnaskr, adj. [cp. A. S. hnæsc], brisk, alert; hann er hnaskr (convers.)

hnauk, n. turmoil; bú-hnauk, household bustle, Bb. 2. 5.

hnauka, að, to bustle, (slang.)

HNAUSS, m. a sod, a flag of turf, Lat. cespes; torf-hnauss, klumbu-h., snið-h.; the old true form is knauss, whence Dan. knös.

hnefa, að, to clasp with the fist, Eb. 90 new Ed., Karl. 356.

HNEFI, a, m., nefi, N. G. L. ii. 223; [Scot. neif or nieve; Dan. næve; Swed. näfve; but the word is not found in A. S. or Germ.]:—the fist, Grág. ii. 14, 133, Stj. 597; reiða hnefann, to clench the fist, Edda 36; láta hnefa skjalla e-m, 54 (in a verse); þá setti Ófeigr hnefann á borðit ok mælti, hversu mikill þykki þér hnefi sjá, Guðmundr? Lv. 67; geta til launa í hnefa e-m, Sturl. iii. 151:—a nieveful. COMPDS: hnefa-högg, n. a blow with the fist, Fms. iii. 78, Fas. i. 446, N. G. L. ii. 223. hnefa-spjald, n. a writing-tablet, πινακίδιον, Luke i. 63.

hnefi, a, m. the king in a kind of chess played by the ancients, Fas. ii. 68: the game was called hnefa-tafl, n., which is variously spelt—nettafl, Gullþ. 20, and hnettafl, Grett. 144 A (which are contracted or assimilated forms); hneftafl, Mork. 186, Fms. vi. 29, Fas. i. 284; hnottafl (a bad form), Fas. i. 476 in a spurious verse, and in Krók. ch. 10; hnefa-tafl (the true form), Fas. i. 67. The game is best described in Friðþ. S. ch. 3, and in one of the riddles in Hervar. S. (where however the rhymed replies are not genuine): ‘Who are the maids that fight about their unarmed lord, the dark all day defending, but the fair slaying?’ The players were two, as in chess; there was only one king (hnefi), here called the ‘unarmed lord;’ the pieces (töflur) were white and red, the white attacking, the red defending the hnefi; þat er hneftafl, enar dökkri verja hnefann, en hinar hvítari sækja, Fas. i. 474; þat er húninn í hneftafli, 476: pieces made of silver are recorded in Gullþ. S., of walrus-bone in Krók. l. c. For the general use of this game, cp. the dialogue between the two brother kings, Mork. l. c.,—teflig hneftafl betr, era þat minna vert en afl þitt; Sigurðr Ormr í auga ok Hvítserkr hvati sitja at hneftafli, Fas. i. 284: whenever tafl is mentioned, this particular game seems to be understood, e. g. the gullnar töflur and tefldu í túni of the Vsp.; cp. earl Rögnvald’s verse in Orkn. ch. 61; and the fatal game of chess between king Canute and earl Ulf in Roeskilde A. D. 1027 was probably a hneftafl. We see from Mork. l. c. that it was still played at the beginning of the 12th century, but in after times it was superseded by the true chess (skák); both games were probably of the same origin. COMPDS: hnefa-tafla, u, f. or hnef-töfl, f. or hnettöfl, f., Fas. i. 463, v. l., or hnettafla, u, f. the piece of the hnefi. ☞ See the remarks s. v. halatafl, p. 234, and húnn, p. 293, but the whole passage in Grett. is obscure.

hneggja, að, to neigh; see gneggja.

hneiging, f. a bowing, bending, Rb. 474: gramm. inflection.

HNEIGJA, ð, [Goth. hnaivjan; A. S. hnægan; Germ. neigen; Dan. neje]:—causal from hníga, to bow, bow down, bend, incline; h. höfuð, Ísl. ii. 274; h. sik, to make a bow; h. sik fyrir e-m, to bow oneself before a person (in greeting), 625. 86, Stj. 185; h. eyru sín, to incline one’s ear, Sks. 275, Ps. xl. 1; h. sik til við e-n, to bow down, pay homage to one, Fms. vii. 17; h. sik ok sveigja, to bow oneself and sway, Stj. 61: h. hugi sínum, to incline one’s mind, Hom. 53; víkja eðr h. hendi né fæti, Stj. 204; h. e-m (sik understood), to bow down to one, Fms. ii. 133, Sks. 291: with prepp., h. af, to decline from, swerve from, Stj. 332; h. eptir e-m, to be biassed towards, Orkn. 134. II. reflex. to lean; konungr hneigðisk at hásætinu, Fms. ii. 139; h. frá e-m, to go away from, Stj. 497; h. undan, to escape, 625. 68; h. til e-s, to lean towards a person, side with him, Fms. vii. 18; h. frá réttum dómi, to deviate from, Hom. 135; h. af villu, to forsake heresy, Fms. x. 301; h. fyrir fortölur e-s, to be swayed by another’s persuasions, Sturl. iii. 136. 2. pass., gramm. to be declined, inflected; grammatica kennir hve öll orð hneigjask, Clem. 33. 3. part. hneigðr, as adj. inclined to, hneigðr fyrir bækr.

hneigjanlegr, adj. declinable.

hneisa, u, f., but better neisa (q. v.), see Hm. [Swed. nesa]:—shame, disgrace, Fms. viii. 20, x. 223, 346, 394, xi. 86, Ó. H. 107. COMPDS: hneisu-liga (neisuliga), adv. disgracefully, Ísl. ii. 367, Fms. vii. 20, x. 222. hneisu-ligr, adj. disgraceful, Ísl. ii. 384.

hneisa, t, to disgrace one; niðra ok neisa e-n, Stj. 67, 248, 512, Fms. x. 256, Bs. i. 392; but hneist, 106.

hneisi, n. = hneisa, Mork. 58.

HNEITA, t, causal from hníta, q. v., to cut or wound (?); síðan kallaði Ólafr sverðit Hneiti, þvíat honum þótti þat hneita önnur sverð fyrir hvassleika sakir, i. e. it was keener than other swords, Fms. iv. 58: the same word is prob. the true reading in Fas. ii. 131 (viz. hneittir for kveittir).

hneita, u, f. the white saline dust covering a kind of seaweed (söl) when dried.

Hneitir, m. [hneita, the verb], Cutter, name of the sword of St. Olave, Lex. Poët. passim, but only after St. Olave’s time; neither can the verse in Gísl. 65 have been composed before that time: a vanquisher, Þd.

hnekking, f. a check, rebuff, Am. 56, Glúm. 337, Greg. 19, Bret. 62, Sturl. i. 217.

hnekkir, m. one who checks another, Lex. Poët.

hnekki-stikill, m. a bump on the head, in a pun, Glúm. 383, Fas. ii. 407.

HNEKKJA, t or ð, [hnakki], to throw back, check; síðan lét Egill hnekkja nautunum út á mýrar, he had the neat-cattle driven back, Eg. 711, 712, Grág. i. 293, Landn. 281, Sturl. ii. 176, Gþl. 460, N. G. L. i. 59; h. för sinni, to halt and go back again, Sturl. i. 167; hnekðumk heiðnir rekkar, the heathen rogues turned me out, Sighvat. 2. to thwart, prevent; Andreas bað lýðinn at þeir hnekki eigi písl hans, 656 B. 1; h. vándu ráði, to prevent an evil deed, Fms. v. 198, viii. 60 (thwarted it); mun þat eigi hér h., iv. 194; ok hnekði þat, 15. 3. with prep.; h. e-m frá, to repel a person, Fms. x. 100, Ld. 186 (of a wooer). II. to fall back, hobble back; hann féll eigi við höggit ok hnekti þá í mot þeim, Gullþ. 29, Landn. 153 (of one maimed in battle); hnekkja Írar nú frá, Ld. 78, Sturl. iii. 205: part. hnektr, abashed, checked; h. ok lútr, 656 B. 1.

hnellinn, adj. [hnallr], brawny.

HNEPPA, t, [Engl. to nip, knap], to cut short, curtail; vilja heldr hneppa við sik þann eina búninginn, to curtail oneself in dress, Hom. (St.): also, hneppa e-n undir sik, to keep one under, a wrestler’s term, Fas. iii. 353; h. í þrældóm, to keep bound in thraldom, Sks. 465:—slóðu upp og hnepptu hann út af borginni, thrust him head-foremost out, Luke iv. 29: metric. a monosyllabic end syllable is called hneppt, Edda (Ht.): part. hnepptr, crippled.

HNEPPA, t, different from the last word, to button; see kneppa.

hneppa, u, f. a being bent or bowed down. hneppu-sótt, f. a kind of disease, Fél. xiv. 100.

hneppiliga, adv. too sparingly, Stj. 25, Ld. 106.

hneppr, adj. [Dan. knap], scant, Hkr. i. 154, Grett. 169; ætla hneppt til Jólanna, to make scant provisions for Yule, Fb. ii. 185, Fms. iv. 235.

hnepta, t, = hnippa; h. höfðum, and stinga saman nefjum, Sighvat.

hnerra, að, to sneeze.

HNERRI, a, m. (older form hnöri or hneri, with a single r, Edda. ii. 430; hneyri, Thom. 308), a sneeze, Orkn. 448. A plague is said to have set in once upon a time with sneezing, therefore when a person sneezes an Icel. says, Guð hjálpi þér! cp. Germ. helf Gott! Engl. Bless you ! see Ísl. Þjóðs. i.

hneyki-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), shameful, Mar.

hneyking, f. shame, rebuff, disgrace; h. eðr svívirðing, Stj. 67, 68 (v. l.); hneyking ok niðran, 25; göra e-m h., Fms. iv. 243; hneykingar staðr, as a rendering of the word Babylon, Mar. 10.

HNEYKJA, ð or t, to put to shame, defeat, confound, with acc.; at berjask við þá er yðr hafa hneykt, Fms. x. 231; þá er hann hafði herjað ok hneykt grimmleik heiðinna þjóða, iv. 66; andskotann hneykðir þú, 623. 35; eigi munu vér þá hneykðir, we shall not then be confounded, 34; hneykjask ok svívirðask, to be confounded, Stj. 241; hverr vætti urn aldr í þinni miskun ok hneykðisk síðan, Th. 25. 2. with prep.; hneykja at e-u, to scoff at a thing; sá er hneykir at því er allir leyfa mun göra sik at fífli (= lastar það sem allir lofa), he who scoffs at what all folk praise is a fool, a saying, Sighvat.

hneykja, u, f. shame. hneykju-för, f. a journey of disgrace, defeat, Hrafn.

hneyxla, often spelt hneixla, að, to offend, eccl., the rendering of Gr. σκανδαλίζω in the N. T.; en ef þitt hægra auga hneyxlar þig, Matth. v. 29, 30, xviii. 6, 8; h. sik, xi. 6, Luke xvii. 2: pass. to be offended, xiii. 21, xv. 12, xxiv. 10, John vi. 61, xvi. 1; hneyxlast á e-m, Matth. xiii. 57, xxvi. 31, 33. ☞ The spirited etymology given by Vídalin in his Michaelmas Sermon, comparing the metaphors of the Greek and Icel. words, is true in sense but not to the letter: þetta á vel saman á vora tungu, því ‘hneixli’ drögum vér af því orði að ‘hníga’ eðr ‘hneigja,’ því sá sem hneixli af sér gefr, hann kemr öðrum til að hníga eðr rasa, og hneigir hann til vondra verka, Vídal. ii. 153, 154.

hneyxlan, f. an offence, = Gr. σκάνδαλον, Matth. viii. 7, xvii. 27, Luke xvii. 1, Rom. ix. 33, 1 Cor. i. 23, Gal. v. 11.

hneyxlan-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), offensive, Matth. xvi. 23.

hneyxlari, a, m. an offender, Matth. xiii. 41.

hneyxli or hneyxl (qs. hneyksli), n. disgrace, dishonour; metnaðr snýsk í hneyxl, 677. 7; af sekðinni getask hneyxlin, 656 B. 7; mál hvert er maðr mælir við annan mann svá at honum horfir til hneyksla, defamation, Gþl. 197 (Jb. 108 A); h. (nœyxl) ok niðran, Barl. 20:—in mod. usage = Gr. σκάνδαλον, Rom. xi. 9.

hneyxli-yrði, n. pl. calumny, foul language; glott ok h., Ó. H. 151.

hnezla, better nezla, u, f. a button-loop.

hniðra, að, = niðra (q. v.), to disparage, pull down.

Hniflungar, m. pl. a mythical pr. name, = Niflungar, Germ. Niebelungen, with an aspirate in alliteration, Hkv. 1. 47, Stor., Gh. 11, Am. 45, 86.

hnigna, að, [hníga], to begin to sink, decline: impers., e-m hnignar, or e-m fer hnignandi, to be in a decline, Grett. 151; þóat honum væri nokkut hnignandi, though he was somewhat stricken in years, Ísl. ii. 29.

hnignan, f. a declining, decline.

Hnikarr and Hnikaðr, m. a name of Odin, Edda 38, Gm.

hnipin, n. a kind of barley, Edda (Gl.)

hnipinn, adj. drooping, desponding; see hnípa.

hniplingr, m. a kind of bird, a pelican, Björn.

HNIPNA, að, [Ulf. ga-nipnan, Mark x. 22; A. S. hnipian], to droop, despond, Gkv. 2. 5, 7, Skv. 3. 13: in Shetl. neebin is nodding drowsily.

hnippa, t, to poke one in the side: in the phrase, hnippa kolli hver at öðrum, to nod with the head one to another, nod significantly, Grett. 147; hnippa í e-n, to poke a person in the side, so as to wake him from a doze, hnippask, to elbow one another, Gullþ. 61, Fs. 152, 153; h. við e-n, id., Fms. vii. 243; lengi hafa vórir frændr við hnippsk, Valla L. 210.

hnipping, f. puny quarrels, Fas. i. 92; orða-h., a bandying of words.

hnipr, n. a crouching position; í hnipri.

hnipra, að, h. sig, to crouch.

hnissa, u, f. [cp. Gr. κνισα], steam or smell from cooking, esp. an ill flavour. hnissu-bragð, n. disflavour.

hnit, n. forging: poët. the clash of battle, Höfuðl.

hnita, að, [cp. Dan. nitte sammen; akin to hníta], to clasp or weld together with a hammer, Gísl. 14, Fas. i. 316.

hnita, að, [see neit], to gleam white like flour, Pál Vídal. (in a ditty).

hnitan, f. the act of welding.

Hnit-björg, n. pl. the ‘clinched crags,’ the mythol. name of the crags where the poetical mead was kept, Edda.

hnit-bróðir, m. a ‘clasp-brother,’ an adversary, Hým. 23, (poët.)

hnitlast, að, dep. to quarrel, kick one another, Rb. 360.

hnit-miða, að, to take near aim at.

hnittinn, adj. hitting, facetious: hnittni, f. a hit, piece of wit, (mod.)

HNÍGA, pres. hníg; pret. hné, hnétt, hné, pl. hnigu; sing. hneig is very rare in old vellum, e. g. Sks. 112, Fms. vi. 280, viii. 21, Mork. 60, Fb. i. 106, Ó. H. 89, else always hné, as also in mod. poets—Jesú blóð hér til jarða hné | jörðin aptur svo blessuð sé, Pass. 3. 10; part. hniginn: with neg. suff., pret. hnék-at, Og. 11; pres. hnígr-a, Hm. 159, Eg. (in a verse); [Ulf. hneivan = κλίνειν, Luke ix. 12; A. S. hnîgan, pret. hnâh; O. H. G. hnîgan; cp. hneig-ja]:—to bow down, sink, fall gently; of a stream, the sun, a felled tree, a dying man, etc., heilög vötn hnigu af fjöllum, Hkv. 1. 1; fóru þar til er vötn hnigu til vestr-ættar af fjöllum, Orkn. 4; tré tekr at hníga ef höggr tág undan, Am. 56: to sink, fall dead, h. at velli, Hkv. 2. 8; Baldr er hné við bana-þúfu, Hdl.; Hamðir hné at húsbaki, Hðm. 32; hnígra sá halr fyrir hjörum, Hm. 159, Skm. 25, Hkm., Nj. 191; hniginn fyrir oddum, Darr.; hniginn í hadd jarðar, Bm.; hné hans um dólgr til hluta tveggja, hendr ok höfuð hné á annan veg, Skv. 3. 23; ok kvað annan-hvárn verða at h. fyrir öðrum, Ísl. ii. 263; sinn veg hné hvárr þeirra af húsmæninum, 195; síðan hné hann aptr ok var þá dauðr, Ó. H. 223; þá hné (hneig Ed.) hann á bak aptr ok var þá andaðr, Lv. 70; Hjálmarr hnígr at (þúfunni) upp, Fas. ii. 216; þá hné hann aptr ok sprakk af harmi, i. 357 (Fb. i. 106); hné margr maðr fyrir honum ok lét sitt líf, Fb. i. 193: the phrase, hníga at velli, h. í gras, h. at grasi, to sink to the ground, bite the grass, Hkv. 2. 8; áðr en ek hníga í gras, Ísl. ii. 366; mann mun ek hafa fyrir mik áðr ek hníg at grasi, Njarð. 378; mannfólkit greipsk í bráða-sótt, svá at innan fárra nátta hnigu (died) sjau menn, Bs. ii. 35; Einarr sat svá at hann hneig upp at dýnunum, ok var þá sofnaðr, Fms. vi. 280, (hneg, Mork. 60, l. c.); hann hné niðr höfði sínu, he drooped with his head, Karl. 489; þá hné Guðrún höll við bólstri, G. sank back in the bed, Gkv. 1. 15. 2. poët., α. of ships, to rise and fall, toss on the waves; skip hnigu um lög, Lex. Poët., Fms. vi. (in a verse). β. hníga at rúnum, Gkv. 3. 4; h. at armi e-m, to sink into his arms, Hkv. 2. 23. 3. with prepp.; h. til e-s, to swerve towards; þeim er hníga vilja til hans vináttu, Fms. viii. 239; sá er yður þjónosta hneig til, whom you served, 21; var jafnan þeirra hlutr betri er til hans hnigu, 47, vi. 414; ok því á hann heldr til vár at hníga en yðar, Stj. 540; allir konungar þeirra landa hnigu undir hans vald, 560: to bow down, pay homage to another, allir menn er þar vóru hnigu þeim manni, Eb. 330; Emundr gekk fyrir hann ok hneig honum ok kvaddi hann, Ó. H. 85; hinir hæstu turnar hafa nú numit honum at hníga, Al. 90; hann hnígr (yields) eigi fyrir blíðu né stríðu, 625. 95. II. metaph., h. til liðs, hjálpar við e-n, to side with one; þessir hnigu allir til liðs við Karl inn Rauða, Lv. 137; hnékat ek af því til hjálpar þér, Og. 11; hneig mikill fjölði engla til hans, Sks. 112 new Ed.: to incline, turn, of a scale in the balance, þá hnígr mannfallit í þeirra lið, of a battle, Al. 134; ok var þat lengi at eigi mátti sjá hvernig hníga myndi, which way the scale would turn (in a battle), Orkn. 70, 148; hnígr nú sýnt á Frankismenn, the day turns visibly against the F., Karl. 193. III. part. act., at hníganda degi, at the fall of day, Sks. 40; vera hnígandi, to be failing, on the decline, Karl. 162; með hníganda yfirbragði, with a falling, drooping face, 542. 2. pass. hniginn, stricken in years; Þorsteinn var þá hniginn, Ld. 24; mjök h., well stricken in years, Fms. ix. 501; hann görðisk þá heldr hniginn at aldri, Eg. 187; hniginn á aldr, id., Orkn. 216, 346; h. í efra aldr, Fb. i. 346. β. of a door, shut; the word hnigin shews that in olden times the door was shut up and down, as windows at the present time, and not moved on hinges; var hurð hnigin, Rm. 23; hnigin á gátt, sunk in the groove, Gísl. 16; h. á hálfa gátt, half shut, half down the groove; hurð h. á miðjan klofa, id., Fms. iii. 74; h. eigi allt í klofa, 125; hnigin er helgrind, Fas. i. (in a verse).

HNÍPA, t, [in Ulf. ganipnan = στυγνάζειν, Mark x. 22; A. S. hnipian = to bow]:—to be downcast, droop; hnípði drótt ok drúpði, people were downcast and drooping, Ód. 25: haukar þínir hnípa, Fas. i. 175; hann (the horse) hnípti í jörðina, 205; hnipaði, pret., 197, (better hnipnaði or hnípandi, part.) II. the part. hnipinn (sitja or vera hnipinn, to sit drooping and downcast; döpr ok h., Ísl. ii. 195, Edda 22, Fms. vi. 236 in a verse, Sól. 43) refers to a lost strong inflexion (hnípa, hneip, hnipu).

HNÍSA, u, f., gen. pl. hnísna, Pm. 69:—a dolphin, delphinus phocaena, Grág. ii. 337, 358, Gþl. 456, Sks. 121, Hkr. iii. 279, Fms. vii. 161. II. a kind of weathercock on a ship; en þat hefir at gengit um daginn á skipi Odds at hnísa hefir gengit af (v. l. to húsa-snotra), Fas. ii. 210.

HNÍTA, pres. hnít, pret. hneit, pl. hnitu, a defect. verb: [akin to hnita; A. S. hnîtan = tundere; Dan. nitte]:—to strike, wound to the death; lér (the scythe) hneit við Hrungnis fóta-stalli (his shield), Kormak; but chiefly used in emphatic phrases, of a heart-wound, hneit þar! við hneit þarna! Gísl. 22, 106; en er hón þreifaði um síðuna þá mælti hón, þar hneit viðna! Fms. iii. 73; hón kvað hvergi stórum við hníta, Korm. 6; hvergi þykki mér við hníta, Ísl. ii. 343; the last three passages refer to a superstition that the touch of a wise woman made one’s body ‘wound-proof;’ in Rd. ch. 5 (at end) the words ‘ok þótti henni þar við hníta,’ or the like, have been dropped by the transcriber: in poetry the allit. phrase, hjörr hneit við hjarta, the steel touched the heart, Korm. ch. 17 (in a verse); or, egg hneit við fjör seggja, Fms. vii. 71; hneit mér við hjarta hjörr Angantýs, Fas. i. 427; hvast hneit (beit MS.) hjarta ið næsta hættligt járn, Fbr. (fine); þar hneit við, sem …, it cut him to the quick, that …, Thom. 397; hnitu reyr saman, the weapons clashed together, Ísl. ii. 353 (in a verse), Fms. ii. 318 (in a verse).

HNJÓÐA, pres. hnýð, pret. hnauð, pl. hnuðu, part. hnoðinn; [cp. Ulf. hnuþo = σκόλοψ, 2 Cor. xii. 7]:—to rivet, clinch; Helgi hnauð hjalt á sverð, Nj. 66; hann þrífr upp nefsteðja einn mikinn, þar hafði Vigfúss áðr hnoðit við sverðs-hjölt sín, Fms. xi. 133; hnjóða rauða, to forge iron, Fs. 177 (in a verse), cp. Fms. i. 177; spjót ok tveir geirnaglar í, eða sá einn er í gegnum stendr, ok hnoðit (noðin, v. l.) at báða vega, N. G. L. ii. 42; ási hnauð hjarta (acc.) við síðu, the yard has clinched ribs and heart together, Fs. 113 (in a-verse); marr hnauð mínum (munar?) knerri, id.

hnjóð-hamarr (mod. hnoð-h.), m. a rivetting hammer, Fb. iii. 446.

hnjóðr, m., prop. rivetting: metaph. blame, censure.

HNJÓSA, hnýs, hnaus; the noun hnöri or hneri (q. v.) refers to a lost pret. hnöri, analogous to fröri from frjósa, köri from kjósa; [Germ. niesen; Dan. nyse; Swed. nysa]:—to sneeze, Orkn. 448, Hbl. 26: now obsolete in Icel., see hnerra.

hnjósa, a different word, to stumble, of a horse against a ‘hnauss’ (q. v.); hann hnýs um hverja þúfu, Snót 157; perh. akin to A. S. hnossian = tundere.

hnjóskr, m. [akin to A. S. hnysc or hnesc, Old and North. E. nesh, = soft, tender; whence prob. Engl. nice]:—touchwood, = fnjóskr (q. v.), Fms. vii. 225, v. l.; hnjósk-þurr = fnjósk-þurr: in local names, Hnjóska-dalr, m., Landn.; Hnjósk-dælir, m. pl. the men from H.; Hnjósk-dælskr, adj., Rd. 259.

hnjósku-lindi, a. m., dub. a belt worn by a wise woman, Þorf. Karl. 374.

hnjóta, hnaut, to stumble; hestrinn hnaut þá á fram, Bs. ii. 449 (16th century); no doubt corrupt for hnjósa.

hnjótr, m. a knob in turf or a field, það sér ekki á hæstu hnjóta, when the ground is covered all over with snow.

hnjúkr and hnúkr, m. a knoll, peak.

HNOÐA, n. [hnjóða], a clew, Ó. H. 152, Pr. 422.

hnoðri, a, m. a fleece or flock of wool; ullar-h., freq.: metaph., ský-h., a fleecy cloud, boding a rising gale: botan., hellu-h., see hella.

hnoð-saumr, m. a clinching nail, rivet, Sks. 30.

hnokki, a, m. the small metal hooks holding the thread in a distaff: metaph., strák-hnokki, an urchin.

hnokkinn, part. [hnúka], bowed, curved.

HNOSS, f. [prob. from A. S. hnossian = to hammer, as smíð from smíða], a costly thing, esp. in plur. of a lady’s ornaments, Hkr. i. 16, Edda 21, Fms. xi. 428 (hnossa-smíði), Am. 53, Gh. 6, 18, Gkv. 2. 20, Harms. 40, Líknarb. 13, Orkn. 154 (in a verse): mythol. the goddess Hnoss, a daughter of Freyja and sister to Gersemi, Edda 21. II. freq. in mod. usage, but usually neuter, and used in sing. as well as in plur.; himneskt miskunar hnoss, Pass. 36. 3; = N. T. βραβειον, einn er sá sem hnossið meðtekr, 1 Cor. ix. 24; eg skunda … eptir því hnossi, Phil. iii. 14; dýrðar-h., the prize of glory. COMPDS: hnoss-fjöld, f. a number of costly things, Sighvat. hnoss-gæti, n. a dainty. hnoss-gætr, adj. dainty.

HNOT, f., pl. hnetr, or better hnötr, mod. hnotir; [A. S. hnyt; Engl. nut; O. H. G. hnuz; Germ. nuss; Dan. nöd; Swed. nöt; Lat. nux]:—a nut, Str. 20, Fms. v. 175, Edda 46. hnotar-skurn, f. a nut-shell, 625. 1.

hnot-skógr, m. a ‘nut-shaw,’ nut-wood; in the phrase, á hnotskóg, to go a-nutting, Nj. 129, Fas. ii. 59, Sams. 8.

hnot-tafl, n. a corrupt form for hneftafl, p. 275.

hnósi, a, m. [nosi, p. 457]; en á meðan önnur var að koma í lag hnósanum sem þær ætluðu að láta í vögguna, of an ungainly changeling swathed and put into the cradle, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 48.

hnuðla, að, to squeeze, (slang.)

hnugg-hent, n. adj. a kind of apocopate metre, Edda (Ht.) v. 75.

hnugginn, part., see hnöggva.

hnupla, að, to pilfer; hnupl, n. pilfering. hnupl-samr, adj.

HNÚÐR, m. [akin to hnyðja; Ulf. hnuþo = σκόλοψ], a knob, ball; borgarmenn veltu á þá steinum ok hnúðum, Róm. 277; ‘saxa et sudes’ of Sallust, B. J. ch. 57: staf-hnúðr, a knob at the end of a stick, a hump, whence hnúðr-bakaðr, adj. hump-backed.

HNÚFA, a defect. strong verb, to chop off; áðr ek hnauf (MS. wrongly hnof) höfuð af Hniflungum, Gh. 12; a απ. λεγ. In old writers and in mod. usage this verb is obsolete, but it still survives in provincial Norse, where it belongs to the 3rd class of strong verbs, nuva, nauv, see Ivar Aasen’s Grammar (1864), p. 203, l. 2; cp. also the following word.

hnúfa, u, f. a law term, used of a female slave who, having committed theft thrice, was to have both ears and nose cut off, and was henceforth called stúfa or hnúfa (spelt nufa), N. G. L. i. 85,—en ef hón stelr hit þriðja sinn þá skal skera af henni nef, þá heitir hón stufa ok nuva ok steli æ sem hón vill. II. a nickname, Ölver h., one of the poets of king Harold Fairhair; cp. Lat. Naso, Silus, Silius, Eg., Landn.

hnúka, ð, to sit cowering, Ls.

hnúkr, m. = hnjúkr: a local name.

hnúska, að, = knúska, q. v.

hnúskr, m. a knot, e. g. in a bed.

hnúta, u, f. = knúta.

hnútr, m. a knot, = knútr, Bs. i. 829.

hnybbast, að, dep. to elbow one another; see hnippast.

HNYÐJA, u, f. [hnjóða], a club, rammer used for beating and smoothing turf or stones in building.

HNYKILL, m., dat. hnykli, [Dan. nögle; Swed. nyckel; prob. a dimin. derived from hnoða]:—a clew of yarn: metaph. a clew-like thing; þoku-hnyklar, ský-h., wreaths of fog and clouds: of a tumor, Fas. ii. 453.

hnykka-stafr, m. a kind of peg, = hnakkr, Ld. 116.

hnykking, f. pulling, Fas. iii. 502.

hnykkja, t, to pull violently by the hair or the like, with dat., Eg. 560; h. e-m til sín, Grág. i. 132; h. e-n af e-m, to snatch at a thing, Nj. 32, Orkn. 182; h. e-u upp, to pull up a thing. Glúm. 338. 2. absol. to pull or tug; sveinninn tók upp í kanp konunginum ok hnykði, Ó. H. 63; en hestr Lögmanns hnykði svá fast at hællinn gékk upp, Hkr. iii. 139; þykkisk sveinninn vel hafa hnykt, he thought he had made a good pull, Ísl. ii. 348: reflex. to box, Grett. 107 A. II. metaph. in mod. usage; e-m hnykkir við, one is amazed.

hnykkr, m. a wrestler’s term, a certain bragð in the Icel. glíma; hence metaph. device.

hnysking, f. = hnykking, Háv. 9 new Ed.

hnyssa, t, [hnoss], to wrap up, prop. to board; vilda ek, at þú græfir mik þá er ek em dauðr ok hnysstir svá um mik … nógliga skal ek at þér hnyssa (= Lat. te induam), … þá er heilagr faðir hafði að honum hnysst öllum-megin, Vitae Patrum (Unger); in mod. usage Icel. say, hnyssa að e-m, to wrap a person up and make him snug, e. g. of a person in bed.

hnýðingr, m. a kind of dolphin, delphinus minimus, Edda (Gl.), Sks. 120.

hnýfil-drykkja, u, f. a carouse, drinking bout (?); vóru fyrst drukknar sveitar-drykkjur, síðan slógusk í hnýfildrykkjur, Sturl. iii. 126.

hnýflll, m. (see knýfill), a short horn, Fb. i. 563; Hnýfill and Hnýfla, lambs with short horns. 2. the peak at the bow of a boat; stakst á hnýfil feigðar-far, Stef. Ól., freq.

hnýflóttr, adj. short-horned; see knýflóttr: metaph. pointed, sharp, in reply.

hnýsa, t, to scrutinise; see nýsa.

hnœfiligr, adj. taunting; h. orð = hnœfilyrði, Hbl.

hnœfil-yrði, n. pl., so spelt in Ölk. 36 C, Fms. iv. 334; but hnýfil-yrði in Sturl. i. 20:—sarcasms, taunts, gibes.

hnöggr, adj., acc. hnoggvan, [A. S. hneaw, Engl. niggard], niggardly, stingy. Hnöggvan-baugi, a, m. niggard of rings, i. e. of money, a nickname, Fb. iii.

hnöggr and hneggr, m. a flail, cudgel (= hnallr); ílla munu þeir kunna hnögginum (hnegginum, v. l.), er heiman hafa hlaupit frá kirnuaskinum, Fms. viii. 350; en Birkibeinar hljópu at þeim ok gáfu þeim hnegginn (v. l.) sem þeir vóru vanir, and gave them a sound thrashing, 405.

HNÖGGVA or hnyggja, a defect. strong verb; pres. hnyggr; pret. hnögg (hnaugg), Thom. 503; part. hnugginn; [akin to hníga]:—to humble, bring down, with dat.; hnyggr þú andskotum, Fms. vi. 175 (in a verse); með hnöggvanda fæti, with staggering feet, Thom. 337; skip nyghðo (i. e. hnuggu, 3rd pers. pl. pret.), the ship lay adrift (?), Fagrsk. 44 (in a verse):—part. hnugginn, bereft; miklu h., bereft of much, Gm. 51; sigri h., Fms. vii. 58 (in a verse); h. hverjum leik, Lex. Poët.: sad, dismal, downcast, svip-h., a sad countenance, freq. in mod. usage.

hnöggvi, f. niggardliness, stinginess, Lex. Poët.

hnökkóttr, adj. piebald (?); hesta tvá hnökkótta, Landn. 154.

hnökra, að, to touch or graze the bottom, in the phrase, það hnökrar, of a boat in shallow water, or of a horse crossing a stream.

hnöllóttr, adj. knobly, pebbly, of stones.

hnöllungr, m. [hnallr], a large round stone, a large pebble, boulder. hnöllungs-grjót, n. pl. round pebbles.

hnöri, see hneri.

hnöttr, m., hnöttóttr, adj., see knöttr.

HODD, n. pl.,—the m. pl. hoddar, which occurs twice in verses of the 13th century (Sturl.), is a false and late form; [Ulf. huzd = θησαυρός; A. S. hord; Engl. hoard; O. H. G. hort]:—a hoard, treasure, only in poetry; hodd blóðrekin, Hkv. 1. 9; hodd Hniflunga, Germ. Niebelungen hort, Akv. 26; hodd (acc. pl.) ok rekna brodda, Fagrsk. (in a verse); góðum hoddum, Fas. ii. 312 (in a verse); granda hoddum, mæra e-n hoddum, Lex. Poët.; kveðja hodda (gen.), Eb. (in a verse); oddar roðnir hoddum, Arnór; halda hoddum fyrir e-m, Ísl. ii. 224 (in a verse). 2. poët. phrases, as hoddum haettr, hodda (gen.) brjótr, njótr, stökkvir, stríðir, þverrir, the breaker … of gold, a princely man: as also poët. cornpds, hodd-brjótr, -beiðandi, -finnandi, -geymir, -glötuðr, -lestir, -lógandi, -mildingr, -sendir, -skati, -spennir, -stiklandi, -stríðandi, -sveigir, -sviptir, -veitir, -vönuðr, all epithets of a lordly, princely man: so of women, hodd-gefn, -grund; the nouns, hodd-mildr, -örr, = liberal; hodd-dofi, a, m. stinginess; and the mythical pr. names Hodd-mímir, Hodd-dropnir, ‘gold-dripping,’ Sdm. II. a holy place, temple, sanctuary, where the holy things are hoarded; of this sense, which occurs in Heliand (Schmeller), the Gm. 27 is the single instance left on record, see Bugge’s note to l. c. in his Edda, p. 81.

HOF, n. [in A. S., Hel., and O. H. G. hof means a hall, Lat. aedes, (whence mod. Germ. hof = a farm, answering to Icel. bær or Norse ból,) and spec. the court or king’s household, (in the old Scandin. languages this sense is unknown); Ulf renders ναός and ἱερόν by alhs; in Danish local names -vé prevails, but in Norse and Icel. Hof still survives in many local names, Hof, Hof-garðr, Hof-staðir, Hofs-fell, Hofs-teigr, Hofs-vágr, Landn., Munch’s Norg. Beskriv.; and as the temple formed the nucleus of the old political life (see goði and goðorð), all these names throw light on the old political geography; cp. Hofland near Appleby in Engl.]:—a temple; distinction is made between hof, a temple (a sanctuary with a roof), and hörgr, an altar, holy circle, or any roofless place of worship: passages referring to hof and worship are very numerous, e. g. for Norway, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 12, Hák. S. Aðalst. ch. 16, Ó. T. ch. 76 (by Odd Munk ch. 41), Ó. H. (1853) ch. 113–115, O. H. L. ch. 36, Fær. ch. 23, Nj. ch. 88, 89, Fas. i. 474 (Hervar. S.); for Iceland, Landn. 1. ch. 11, 21, 2. ch. 12, 3. ch. 16 (twice), 4. ch. 2, 6 (interesting), 7, 5. ch. 3 (p. 284), 8 (interesting), 12, Eb. ch. 3, 4, 10, Glúm. ch. 25, Harð. ch. 19, 37, Vd. ch. 15, 17, Hrafn. ch. 2, Eg. ch. 87, Gullþ. ch. 7, Vápn. pp. 10, 11, Dropl. pp. 10, 11, Kristni S. ch. 2, etc.; cp. also Vsp. 7, Vþm. 38, Hkv. Hjörv. 4: poët., orð-hof, the word’s sanctuary = the mouth, Stor. 2. a hall (as in Germ. and Saxon), Hým. 33 (απ. λεγ.) COMPDS: I. with gen., hofs-dyrr, n. pl. temple-doors, Fms. i. 97. hofs-eiðr, m. a temple-oath, Glúm. 388. hofs-goði, a, m. = hofgoði, Eg. 754. hofs-helgi, f. = hofhelgi. hofs-hurð, f. a temple-door (janua), Fms. i. 302. hofs-höfðingi, a, m. a temple-lord, Post. 645. 90. hofs-mold, f. temple-earth, holy mould, see Landn. 254. hofs-teigr, m. a strip of temple-land, glebe, Landn. 241. II. hof-garðr, m. a temple-yard, a local name, Landn. hof-goði, a, m. a temple-priest (see goði), Landn. 254, Hkr. i. 6, Eb. 12, 14, 16 new Ed. hof-grið, n. pl. asylum in a sanctuary, Landn. 80, v. l. hof-gyðja, u, f. a priestess, Vápn. 10, Landn. 265, v. l. hof-helgi, f. a temple-holiday, feast; halda h., Ísl. ii. 15: the sanctity of a hof, Bret. 38, Eg. 251. hof-prestr, m. a temple-priest, Stj. hof-staðr, m. a ‘temple-stead,’ sanctuary, Eb. 26, Fms. ii. 73. hof-tollr, m. a temple-toll, rate, Vápn. 10, Eb. 6, 12 new Ed., Bs. i. 6, Gullþ. 11, answering to the modern church-rate.

B. A court, almost solely in compds, and not earlier than the 14th century, from Romances: hof-ferð, f. pride, pomp, Bs. ii. 122. hof-ferðugr, adj. proud. hof-fólk, n. pl. courtiers, Thom. 322, 479, Grett. 161, Karl. 51, Pass. 21. 8. hof-frakt, n. pomp, Fas. i. 46, Snót 86. hof-garðr, m. a lordly mansion, Thom., Bév., Rétt. hof-list, f. pomp, Thom. 479. hof-lýðr, m. = hoffólk, Clar. hof-maðr, m. a courtier; in pl. hofmenn, lords; hertogi greifi ok aðrir hofmenn, Ann. 1303; gentry, chiefly in the ballads of the Middle Ages, Ungan leit eg hofmann, Fkv. In the old dancing parties the leader of the gentlemen was styled hofmann (cp. Germ. Hoffmann). Before dancing began, men and maids having been drawn up in two rows, he went up to the ladies, and the following dialogue ensued: Hér er Hofmann, hér eru allir Hofmanns sveinar.—Hvað vill Hofmann, hvað vilja allir Hofmanns sveinar?—Mey vill Hofmann, mey vilja allir Hofmanns sveinar. Then each dancer engaged his lady for the dance; það var hlaup, og það var hofmanns hlaup, Safn i. 689. A plain in the neighbourhood of the alþingi, where the people met, is still called Hofmanna-flöt, f. ‘Gentry’s Lea.’ hof-móðugr, adj. haughty, Pass. 18. 5. hof-tyft, f. urbanity, Clar. hof-verk, n. a great feat, Safn i. 71. hof-þénari, a, m. a court servant, Fas. iii. 408.

hofera, að, for. word, [Germ. hofiren], to be proud, haughty.

hoferan, f. haughtiness.

hogr, m. = hugr (q. v.), mind, occurs in some compds, as hog-værð and hog-væri, f., hogvær-leikr, hogvær-ligr; see hóg.

hoka, að, = hvika (q. v.), to waver; við hokit þér enn, Glúm. 380.

hokinn, part. (of a lost strong verb), bowed, bent, Fas. iii. 501.

HOKRA, að, [North. E. to hocker], to go bent, crouch; h. eða skríða, to crouch or creep, Mirm.; hægt hokrar þú nú, Hornskeggi, sagði jötunn, Fas. iii. 386; h. at honum, Fbr. 12; þat verðr at hann hokrar undir klæðin hjá henni, Háv. 54; h. undan, to slink away, Fms. xi. 61; eigi stoðar at h. undan í hyrningar, Fbr. 168; h. at e-u, Ísl. ii. 405:—in mod. usage hokra also means to live as a small farmer; whence hokr, n., in bú-hokr, small farming.

HOL, n. [A. S. hol; Engl. hole, hollow; Dan. hule; Swed. håla; Germ. höhle, etc.]:—a hollow, cavity; lýstr vindinum ofan í holit verplanna, Fms. xi. 34, Boll. 340 (of a shield), but esp. a cavity of the body, Bs. i. 385: á hol, (piercing) to the inwards, Nj. 60, Fb. i. 146; ef blóð má falla á hol ór sári, if it bleeds inwardly, Grág. ii. 11, Gullþ. 66, Band. 42 new Ed.; í hol, id., 91; inn í holit, of the chest, Edda 76, Fs. 65; hit efra, neðra hol, the upper and nether hollow (i. e. the chest and stomach), N. G. L. i. 172, Sturl. iii. 54: a hole, = hola, stór hol, Bs. i. 321, Rb. 440; grafinn með hol, Thom. 468.

hola, u, f. a hole, Fms. viii. 39, Gullþ. 22, Bs. i. 329, Sks. 148; botn-hola, q. v.; jarð-hola, an earth-hole; moldar-hola, músar-hola.

hola, að, to make hollow, Al. 168, Mar. freq.

hol-barki, a, m. a hollow throat (= holgóma), a nickname, Landn.

hol-blóð, n. blood from the inwards, Eb. 242.

HOLD, n. [A. S. hold; Dan. huld; Swed. hull], flesh; Ýmis hold, Vþm. 21; svörðr ok hold, skin and flesh, Eg. 770; þá var allt hold hans fúit ok öll klæði, Fms. iv. 110; þrútnar hörund eðr stekkr undan hold, Grág. ii. 15; hold né bein, Ephes. v. 30, Luke xxiv. 39; hold ok bein, flesh and bone; hold af mínu holdi, Gen. ii. 23: phrases, hold ok hjarta, flesh and heart, Hm. 95; hold ok hams, q. v. 2. edible flesh, meat = kjöt; beru hold, bear’s flesh, Vkv. 9; bjarnar hold, Sks. 191; lambs hold, lamb’s flesh, Hom. 82; hnísu hold, Fms. vii. 161. 3. plur. fleshiness, stoutness, fatness, esp. of cattle, Fbr. 17 new Ed.; ala fé svá at úhætt sé fyrir holda sakir, Grág. i. 431; at þat standi eigi fyrir holdum, 140; vera í góðum holdum, to be in good condition, freq.; góðu holdi (sing.), Bs. i. 350; hann er mesta holda hnyðja, of a fat person. II. eccl. the flesh, rendering of Gr. σάρξ (whereas κρέας is rendered by kjöt); og þau munu eitt hold vera, Matth. xix. 5, 6; holds breiskleiki, Rom. vi. 19; vera í holdinu, to be in the flesh, vii. 5, 18, 25, viii. 1, 3, 9, 12, 13: opp. to andi, John iii. 6, vi. 63, 1 Cor. i. 26, 29; andinn er fúss en holdið er breiskt, Matth. xxvi. 41; eptir holdinu, after the flesh, John viii. 15, Acts ii. 30, Rom. i. 3, iv. 1, ix. 3, 8, 1 Cor. x. 18, 2 Cor. v. 16, Gal. vi. 12, Ephes. ii. 11; allt hold, all flesh, Luke iii. 6 John xvii. 2; hold og blóð, Matth. xvi. 17: kith, kin, mitt hold, Rom. xi. 14, Fms. x. 110:—in mod. usage also distinction is usually made between hold, flesh, and kjöt, meat. COMPDS: holds-veiki, f. leprosy. holds-veikr, adj. leprous.

hold-bori, a, m., poët. a raven, Edda (Gl.)

hold-borinn, part.; h. bróðir, a natural brother, Flóv. 52.

hold-fúi, a, m., medic. mortification, Bs. i. 190.

holdgan, f., eccl. incarnation, Fms. i. 107, Rb. 84, N. T., Pass., Vídal.

holdgask, að, dep., eccl. to take flesh, be incarnate, Rb. 80, Mar., Stj., N. T., Vídal., Pass. passim: in a profane sense, ok holdguðumk ek svá með þessum hætti, Fms. x. 307.

hold-grannr, adj. lean.

hold-gróinn, part. grown to the flesh, Hðm. 15, Edda 70, Fms. v. 344, Fas. i. 165: metaph. incarnate, inborn, Stj. 87.

holdigr, adj. fleshy, stout, Eb. 258.

hold-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), carnal, 677. 6, Barl. 142, 185, Bs. i. 850; in N. T. = Gr. σαρκικός.

hold-lítill, adj. = holdgrannr, Bs. i. 312.

hold-mikill, adj. fat, stout.

hold-mímir, m. a ‘flesh-cutter,’ chopper, poët. a sword, Edda (Gl.)

holdr, adj. fleshy; vel holdr, well-fleshed, fat, Grett. 125, Vm. 28.

hold-rosa, u, f. (hold-rosi, a, m.), the flesh side of a hide, Fas. i. 289.

hold-tekja, u, f., eccl. incarnation, Hom. 137, 141, Stj. 149.

hol-fenni, n. [fönn], hollow snow, such as has melted from beneath, Sturl. i. 85.

hol-geyfla, u, f. a hollow wave, breaker, Hom. Il. xiii. 798.

hol-gómr, mod. holgóma, adj. with hollow gums, mumbling, Skálda 170.

hol-grafa, gróf, to suppurate, of a boil.

hol-höggva, hjó, to smite to the inwards, Fas. i. 506.

holla, d, with dat., to help, Lat. favere, Eg. 480 (in a verse); a απ. λεγ., whence the participle pl. hollendr, helpers, followers, Grág. ii. 20, 21.

holl-liga, adv. faithfully, Sks. 371, Hom. 63.

holl-ligr, adj. sincere.

HOLLR, adj. [hollari, hollastr; Ulf. hulþs, Luke xviii. 13; A. S. hold; O. H. G. and Germ. hold; Dan.-Swed. huld]:—of kings and chiefs, gracious; hull regin, Ls. 4; hollar vettir, Og. 10, Lex. Poët. passim; holl frændsemi, Eb. 116; vingaðr ok hollr e-m, Fs. 123; of subjects and followers, faithful, loyal; þú ert hollari Agli en Eireki konungi, Eb. 424; e-m hollost, Al. 71; sé Guð hollr þeim er heldr griðum, Grág. ii. 166, in the oath formula, where opp. to gramr; vera e-m h. ok trúr, Bs. i. 817, Lex. Poët. passim; vin-h., vil-h., favouring one. II. of things, wholesome; heil ok holl ráð, 4. 11; hafa skal holl ráð hvaðan sem þau koma, a saying, = fas est et ab hoste doceri; holl forsjá, Fms. vi. 343; holl hirting, Al. 129; sjálfs hönd er hollost, a saying, Hkr. ii. 259. 2. so in medic. sense, þat er ekki hollt; ó-hollr, unwholesome.

holl-ráðr, adj. giving wholesome counsel, Fms. ix. 462.

holl-ræði, n. wholesome counsel, Sks. 329 B.

hollusta (hollosta), u, f. faith, loyalty; vil ek hafa þar til hollostu þína í mót, Fms.: esp. loyalty to a liege lord, h. við konung, Fb. ii. 265, passim. 2. wholesomeness, a wholesome thing; vil ek at þú þiggir at mér litla gjöf, en h. fylgir, Korm. 68. COMPDS: hollostu-eiðr, m. an oath of fealty. hollustu-maðr, m. a friend, partisan, Gþl. 61.

hol-muðr, adj. ‘hole-mouth,’ = holgóma, a nickname, Nj.

HOLR, adj. [A. S. hol; O. H. G. holi; Engl. hollow; Dan. huul; Swed. hol; Gr. κοιλός]:—hollow; var leikit undan bökkunum svá at holt var með landinu, Grett. 131 A; holr steinn, Str. 32; holr innan, hollow within, Ó. H. 108, Njarð. 378; klappa eigi holan baug um e-t, not to hammer a hollow ring, i. e. to be quite in earnest, Fb. iii. 404; cp. hulda.

hol-sár, n. a wound in a vital part. Fbr. 211, N. G. L. i. 67.

HOLT, n. [A. S. holt = sylva; Germ. holz = lignum; in E. Engl. and North. Engl. holt means copsewood, and the word often occurs in local names]:—prop. wood, copsewood, a coppice; but this sense is almost obsolete, though it remains in the saying, opt er í holti heyrandi nær, in a holt a hearer is nigh, answering to the Engl. leaves have ears, in Germ. die blätter haben ohren, Grett. 133: as also in old poems, holt ok hrár viðr, Skm. 32; ösp í holti, Hðm. 4; Hoddmímis holt, Vþm.; fara ór holti, to go from the woods, Vkv. 15: whence holt-skriði, a, m. ‘holt-creeper,’ poët. for a snake, Edda: holta-þór, m. reynard the fox: in laws, yrkja holt né haga, Gþl. 315; h. eða haga eða veiði-staði, 362; but otherwise rare in common prose, holt eðr skógar, Eg.; smákjörr ok holt, Fms. vi. 334: in local names, Holtsetar (Holsetar), m. pl. ‘holt-sitters,’ the men of Holsten; Holtseta-land, n. the land of the Holtsetar (Holstenland), whence the mod. Germ. Holstein. In barren Icel., Holt, Holtar are freq. local names, as also in compds, e. g. Lang-holt, Skála-holt, Geldinga-holt, Villinga-holt, Reykja-holt, Holta-vað, see Landn.; in olden times; all these places were no doubt covered with copse (of dwarf birch). 2. in common Icel. usage holt means any rough stony hill or ridge, opp. to a marsh or lea, Fms. v. 70, 97, Ld. 96, Eg. 713, Fs. 19, 22, 67, passim, as also in mod. usage. COMPDS: holta-rót, f., botan. moss campion, silene acaulis, Hjalt. holta-sóley, f., botan. mountain avens, dryas. holt-barð, n. the rim of a holt (hill). holts-gata, u, f. a path through a holt, Fms. iii. 22. holts-hnjúkr, m., holts-múli, a, m. a crag, Sturl. ii. 210.

holta-þórr, m. a name of the fox, Maurer’s Volksagen.

holti, a, m. a nickname, Bs.

holt-rið, n. a ‘holt-ridge,’ Hým. 27.

hol-und, f. [cp. Ulf. hulundi = σπήλαιον], a wound reaching to the hollow of the body, a mortal wound, = holsár, Grág. ii. 11, Nj. 217. holundar-sár, n. = holsár, Nj. 110.

hol-undi (hol-unda), adj. wounded to the hollow of the body, Grág. ii. 91, N. G. L. i. 172.

HOPA, að, spelt opa, Korm. 60, Ísl. ii. 253 (see v. l.), Bs. i. 551, Gullþ. 19:—to bound backwards, to draw back, recoil; þá hopuðu þeir, Fms. vii. 254; sumir hopuðu sumir flýðu, 324: with prepp., hopaði konungr þá upp á borgar-vegginn, i. 104; hopa aptr, to draw back, vi. 419, Eg. 296; hopa á hæl, id., Al. 5, Nj. 170, Fms. viii. 134: hopa til, to take a leap, = skopa skeið, ix. 56; hopa undan, Ísl. ii. 253, Fbr. 66 new Ed., Bs. i. 551; þeir stóðu upp en hann hopaði út undan, Nj. 130; hopar hann þá hestinum undan, he backed the horse, 205. 2. to bound, of a horse; hestr opaði undir Narfa, Korm. 60; konungr hopaði þá hestinum ok forðaði fótum sínum, Fb. ii. 27. II. metaph. phrase, hopar mér til vánar, it bounds for me to a hope, i. e. I hope or believe, Fms. i. 140; whence prob. Engl. hope, Germ. hoffen, which word is otherwise strange to the old Scandin. tongue. III. reflex. hopask, to hope, Swed. hoppas, D. N. iv. 493 (Norse); unknown in the Icel.

hopp, n. a hopping, skipping, Mar. hopp-danz, m. ‘skipping-dance,’ Bláus S.

HOPPA, að, [Engl. hop], to hop, skip, bound, Stj. 249, Þiðr. 151 (of a dance), passim in mod. usage; h. yfir, to skip over, Alg. 368.

hopp-fögr, adj. fair-skipping, springy, epithet of a girl, Eb. (in a verse).

horaðr, part. pinched, starved; grind-h., skin-h., skin and bone.

horast, að, dep. to become lean and pinched.

hor-blaka, u, f., botan. menyanthes, buck-bean, Hjalt.

hor-dingull, m., see dígull, Fas. ii. 149.

horf, n. a naut. term, direction, course; halda í horfinu, to keep the ship’s head to the wind, etc., opp. to letting her drive.

HORFA, ð, subj. hyrfði, Rb. 470, Skáld. H. 4. 21, Fms. xi. 76, [akin to hverfa, q. v.]:—to turn in a certain direction, Lat. vergere; horfði upp eggin, kjölrinn, the edge, keel, turned uppermost, Nj. 136, Ld. 142; h. frá landi, the ship turns towards the sea, Fms. xi. 101; er eigi veit hvárt söðull skal fram h. á hrossi eðr aptr, eða hvárt hann skal h., Grág. ii. 175; horfa bökum við e-m, to stand back to back, Hkr. iii. 384; horfa höfði til jarðar en fótum til himins, Post. 656 C. 37; hann hljóp æ sem horfði, he ran ever headlong on, Bret. 90; suðr horfðu dyrr, the doors looked south, Vsp., Fb. ii. 138; horfði botninn inn at höfðanum, Landn. 34; þótti honum ílla af sér h. fótrinn, i. e. the leg was awry, Sturl. ii. 63; hann horfði í lopt upp, Fs. 7. II. to turn so as to look on, behold; hann horfði út ór hringinum, Ld. 276: with prepp. to look on, hón horfði þar á löngum, Ísl. ii. 274, passim; h. við e-m, to face one, Eg. 293; þeir bleyðask skjótt ef vel er við horft, Fms. vi. 312; h. öndurðr við, Ó. H. 183: metaph. to set oneself against a person, þeir er heldr höfðu við honum horft í sínum huga, Bs. i. 81; vóru þeir hinir mestu örskipta-menn er þeim tók við at horfa, i. e. they (the berserkers) were great ruffians if any one opposed them, Eb. 38 new Ed.; horfa ekki í e-t, not to turn away from, not to shirk, eg horfi ekki í að göra það. 2. metaph. matters take a turn, look so and so; þetta horfir til úefna, Ísl. ii. 239; at þar horfi til gamans mikils, that things look towards great joy, Fas. i. 317; horfði til landauðnar, 526; h. fastliga, to look bad, difficult, Lv. 94, Ld. 92; h. þungliga, Ísl. ii. 19; h. erfiðliga, Nj. 139; h. úvænt, to look unpromising, Eg. 340, Fms. xi. 76; hvárum horfir vænna, who is more likely to get the better, Nj. 45; e-m horfir betr, Lv. 54; ok horfir mjök í móti oss, 10; h. til handa e-m, to devolve upon one, Grág. i. 269. III. reflex., with prepp.; horfask á, matters look so and so; betri sætt en nú þykir á horfask, Eg. 113; hér horfisk eigi sköruliga á, Fms. vii. 33; Hjalta þótti þá úvænt áhorfask, iv. 141, x. 214; horfask vel á, to look well, promise well; horfðisk á með þeim heldr en eigi, i. e. it looked rather good than not, Bjarn. 56; h. til e-s, to look as if …; eðr til hvers váða horfðisk, Fms. vii. 125; með fíflsku slíkri sem hér horfisk til, Eg. 729, Lv. 10. 2. recipr., horfask á, to face one another, Sturl. i. 176; horfðusk þeir Gizurr at höfðunum, turned the heads together, iii. 189.

horfin-heilla, u, f. loss of luck; h. er mér, luck has left me, Fs. 98; kvaðsk þeim h. at þykkja, Fms. vii. 272.

horfin-heilla, perh. better n., cp. Eirsp. 141 (Ed. 1870), where horfin-heilla occurs as acc.

horfna, að, to disappear, O. H. L. 11, (spelt hormna.)

hor-lopi, a, m. dropsy caused by scanty food.

HORN, n. [A. S., Engl., O. H. G., Germ., Dan., and Swed. horn; Lat. cornu; Gr. κέρας]:—a horn (of cattle), antler (of deer), Gm. 26, Hkv. 2. 36, Sól. 55, Barl. 135, Ld. 120, Fas. ii. 506, Grág. ii. 122, N. G. L. i. 41, passim: metaph. phrases, vera harðr í horn at taka, to be hard to take by the horns, hard to deal with, Fær. 159, Fms. viii. 435, xi. 221, Hkr. ii. 91, Fb. i. 411; hlaupa um horn e-m, to leap round or by one’s horns, i. e. to evade, metaph. from a bull-fight, Sturl. iii. 256, Boll. 346; setja (hafa) horn í síðu e-m, to put one’s horn into a person’s side, i. e. to treat him spitefully, Gd. 49, passim: the phrase, gefa þræli frelsi frá horni ok knappi, to release a thrall from horn and clasp, i. e. to set him free, N. G. L. i. 228, prob. from the thrall’s neck-collar being of horn: horna-brækla, u. f. = brák, q. v., Finnb. ch. 29; horna-fláttr, m. flaying a hide with the horns, Fb. iii. 400; horna-tog, n. tow round the horns, Fb. i. 320. II. the back-fin of a whale, Sks. 128; skera hval frá horni ok aptr í síðu, N. G. L. i. 252, Gþl. 463. III. a drinking horn, Fs. 152, Eg. 206, Edda 32; drekka horn, Hkr. i. 35; horna skvol, a bout, Eb. 28, and passim in the Sagas, see Worsaae, Nos. 319, 320. IV. a horn, trumpet; horna blástr, horna þytr, the blowing, sound of a born, Stj. 621.

B. A corner, nook, angle; lands-horn, the outskirts of a county, Grág. ii. 223; fara lands-horna á milli, to run from one corner of the land to the other:—a nook in a house or building, Lv. 61, Fms. vii. 230, Anal. 186: mathem. an angle, 415. 18, Rb. 470; rétt horn, a right angle. 2. phrases, skjóta í tvau horn, ‘to shoot between two horns,’ of a wide difference; skauzk mjök í tvau horn um búnað þeirra, Eb. 32, Band. 11 new Ed., Fms. vi. 202, Mag. 39; eiga í mörg horn að líta, to have many nooks to look at, have many things to heed. β. when parents get old and infirm, and yield up their fortune and estate to one of their children, they are in popular Icel. phrase said ‘to go into the corner,’ to take their seat in the chimney-corner, fara upp í hornið hjá syni sínum, (dóttur sinni); many sayings refer to this, eigi munu vér eiga úvænna en horn-ván, if the worst happens, we shall have a ‘corner-chance,’ Sturl. iii. 279, cp. Eg. ch. 83 (begin.), and the Sagas passim; Grimm R. A. 489 mentions the same in the Germ. law, and it is touchingly introduced in the Märchen, No. 78; horna-kerling (q. v.) refers prob. to the same. II. freq. in local names, Horn, Cape Horn; Horn-strandir, Horna-fjörðr (whence Hornfirðingar), see Landn.

horna, u, f. a female hornungr (q. v.), N. G. L. i. 206.

hornauga, n. a wry look; líta h. til e-s.

horn-blástr, m. a sound of trumpets, Fms. vii. 202, Rb. 376, 380.

horn-bogi, a, m. a horn bow, Sks. 408, Karl. 352, Þiðr. 283, Fas. i. 502.

horn-fiskr, m. [Dan. hornfisk], a garfish or green-bone: a nickname, Sturl.

horn-glói, a, m., poët. a ram, Edda (Gl.)

horn-gæla, u, f. a kind of fish, esox belone, Dan. horngjæle, Edda (Gl.)

horn-göfigr, adj. proud of his horns, epithet of a he-goat, Hým. 7.

horn-hagldir, f. pl. horn buckles.

horn-ístöð, n. pl. horn stirrups.

horn-ker, n. a horn cup, Dipl. iii. 4.

horn-kerling (horn-kona, horn-oka, horn-reka, u, f. all various readings), f. an old woman in the corner, a term of contempt, Nj. 52: mod. horna-skella, u, f. a term of contempt, one who is pushed about from one corner to another.

horn-klofi, a, m., poët. a raven, Edda (Gl.): as the name of a poet, Hkr.

hornóttr, adj. horned, Stj. 132, passim; hornótt tungl (moon), id.

horn-síl, n. a kind of fish, the stickle-back, Ld. 76.

horn-skafa, u, f. a scraper made of horn, used in the game called sköfuleikr (q. v.), Ísl. ii. 71.

horn-spensl, n. a horn buckle, Gþl. 359.

horn-spónn, m. a horn spoon, Fms. vi. 364 (in a verse), Hungrv. (pref.); mod. Icel., like the ancients, use horn spoons, and the handle is often ornamented with carved work.

horn-stafr, m. a corner pillar in a building, Sturl. iii. 279, Landn. 42, Ld. 326, Hom. 95.

horn-steinn, m. a corner stone, Post. 645. 69, N. G. L. i. 345.

hornum-skali, a, m., poët. a ram, Edda (Gl.)

hornungr, m. [A. S. hornung = bastard; Lex Romana ornongo; cp. Germ. winkel-kind and winkel-ehe = concubinatus; cp. bæsingr and Engl. bastard:—all of them with the notion of a corner for the illegitimate and outcast son, see Grimm R. A. 476]:—an old law term, a bastard son; in the Norse law the son of a freeborn wife, whose mundr has not been paid, and who is therefore illegitimate, N. G. L. i. 48, 228, cp. Hðm. 12; h. ok þýjar-barn, Fas. i. 495. β. in Icel. law the son of a freeborn woman and a bondman, Grág. i. 178. 2. metaph. a scamp, outcast; vera hornungr e-s, Fms. xi. 7; munu margir verða þess hornungar er eigu, hann var görr h. bróður síns, i. 255; nú emk h. hylli hennar, I am her outcast, Kormak (in a verse).

horn-ván, f., Sturl. iii. 279; see horn above.

HORR, m., I. starvation; detta niðr í hor, to starve to death, Bs. i. 875; deyja úr hor, id. hor-dauðr, adj. starved to death, hor-ket, n. meat of a starved beast. II. [A. S. horu = sordes], mucus from the nose, N. G. L. i. 351, Fas. iii. 653: in the saying, aptr sækir horr í nef.

hors, see hross.

horsk-leikr, m. an accomplishment, Hom. 144, Fms. xi. 439.

horsk-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), brave, wise, noble; h. orð, Hom. 143.

HORSKR, adj. [A. S. horsc], wise; thus in the old Hm., horskr and heimskr, wise and foolish, good and wicked, are opposed, 19, 92, 93; horskr is opp. to ósviðr, Fm. 35, 36, cp. 37; h. ok þögull, the wise and silent, Hm. 6 (cp. σοφός και σιγων of Pythagoras); sá er vill heitinn h., Hm. 61; horskir hugir, wise minds, 90; en horska mær, the wise maiden, 95; it horska man, id., 101; horskar konur, Hbl. 17; h. halr, Skv. 3; heill ok h., Akv. 12, see Lex. Poët.; hvít ok horsk, of a maid, Rm. 36. This word is almost obsolete in prose, Sks. 207, Str. 31.

horti, a, m. a ruffian, a nickname, Fms. xii.

hor-tittr, m. a stop-gap, Germ. lücken büsser, Dan. fyldekalk, Fél. x. 286.

hortugr, adj. impertinent, saucy, Fas. ii. 333: esp. used of boys who give rude replies, þú ert hortugr, strákr!

HOSA, u, f. [A. S. hosa; Engl. hose; Germ. hosen; Dan. hose]:—prop. the hose or stocking covering the leg between the knee and ankle, serving as a kind of legging or gaiter; the hose were often of fine stuff, hosna-reim, f. and hosna-sterta, u, f. a garter, Grett. 101, Nj. 214, Orkn. 404, Al. 44, O. H. L. 45, Eg. 602, Sks. 286, 405, Fms. vi. 381, viii. 265, Þiðr. 358, Fb. ii. 34: compds, skinn-hosa, dramb-hosa, leðr-hosa.

hosaðr, part. wearing hose, Sks. 286.

hoson, interj. oho! 623. 16, MS. 4. 1.

hossa, að, to toss in one’s arms or on one’s knees, e. g. a child, with dat.; hossa barni, freq.

hott, an interj. used in driving horses, hotta, að, to say ‘hott.’

hoza, að, = mod. hossa, q. v. [Fr. hausser?]:—to exalt; þeir veita oss niðran … en hinir er oss hoza, veita oss aptrkast, but those who exalt us give us a check, Vitae Patrum (Unger).

hozan, f. [cp. hossa], exaltation, vanity; hníga til hozanar eða hégóma-dýrðar, … til hozsanar (hozanar, v. l.) eða hégómligrar hræsni, Vitae Patrum (Unger).

HÓ, interj. ho! Fms. x. 338, Stj.; also a shepherd’s call.

hóa, að, to shout ‘ho’ or ‘hoy,’ of a shepherd, Grett. 111, Glúm. 311, Snót 221 (1866): also with dat. to call to the sheep, to gather them, þegar forsælan er komin ofan í slakkann þarna, þá er tími til fyrir þig að fara að hóa því (fénu) saman, Piltr og Stúlka 10.

HÓF, n. [from a lost strong verb, hafa, hóf], moderation, measure; hóf ok stilling, Fms. ii. 38; kunna hóf, to shew moderation; allt kann sá er hófit kann, a saying, Gísl. 27; görit þeim þá ina fyrstu hríð, at þeir kunni hóf sín, i. e. give them a good lesson! Fms. xi. 94; Klaufi, kunn þú hóf þitt, K., be not so mad! Sd. 147; ætla hóf fyrir sér, Eg. 21; þeir eru ofsamenn svá at þeir hafa ekki hóf við, 175:—proportion, at því hófi, in the same proportion, equal degree, Grág. ii. 177, Al. 131, Fms. vi. 225; slíkt víti … á sitt hóf, in his turn, Ld. 136; vel er þessu í hóf stillt, ‘tis fairly done, fair and just, Nj. 54; e-t gegnir hófi, it is fair, Fms. vii. 132; þá er hóf at, then it is all right, Fs. 25; nú er nær hófi, 15; at hófi, tolerably, Fms. vi. 102; vel at hófi, pretty well, xi. 11, 48; við hóf, reasonable, Edda 48:—a rule, standard, at þú hafir þar einskis manns hóf við nema þitt, Eg. 714; ó-hóf, excess, intemperance, hófs-maðr, m. a temperate, just man, Hkr. i. 309, Eg. 50, Ísl. ii. 190. II. a feast, banquet; hóf eðr hátíð, Stj. 186; halda mikit hóf, 188, Fas. i. 420, 462; drekka hóf, Fms. xi. 436: in mod. usage esp. of a wedding.

hófa, að, to feast, fare sumptuously, Skíða R. 112.

hóf-hvarf, n. the fetlock or pastern of a horse.

hóf-klæði, n. a festive dress, Stj.

hóf-langr, adj. pretty long, Sturl. iii. 44.

hóf-lauss, adj. immoderate, boundless, Sks. 467, 733, Al. 156.

hóf-látr, adj. moderate, Edda i. 116, v. l.

hóf-leysa, u, f. excess, intemperance, licence, Stj. 626, Bs. ii. 98, 115.

hóf-liga, adv. with moderation, fitly, justly, Fms. viii. 373: fairly, tolerably, Nj. 105, Sturl. iii. 169, Róm. 353 (cautiously).

hóf-ligr, adj. moderate, Fms. x. 295, Barl. 9, Róm. 302.

HÓFR, m. [A. S. hôf; Engl. hoof; O. H. G. huof; Germ. huf; Swed. hof; Dan. hov]:—a hoof, of a horse, opp. to klaufir = cloven hoof, Fms. xi. 280, Grett. 91, N. G. L. i. 41; hófs gangr, a clash of hoofs, 341.

hófr, m. = húfr (q. v.), a trunk; whence hóf-reginn, Haustl.

hóf-samliga, adv. = hófliga, Orkn. 274 (cautiously), Gþl. ix.

hóf-samligr, adj. = hófsamr, Mar. passim, Barl. 161.

hóf-samr, adj. moderate, temperate, Sks. 355, 454, Sturl. i. 107 (v. l.), Orkn. 252, Barl. 142: thrifty (mod.); ó-hófsamr, intemperate.

hóf-semd, f. moderation, temperance, Hkr. iii. 179, Th. 77, Grág. lxvii, Barl. 85.

hóf-semi, f. temperance, Fms. ii. 238, Hom. 27; ó-hófsemi, intemperance.

hóf-skegg, n. ‘hoof-tuft,’ the tuft on a horse’s pastern, Karl. 426, Landn. 94.

hóf-stilling, f. moderation, Fms. iii. 45.

hóf-tunga, u, f. ‘hoof-tongue,’ the frog of a horse’s hoof.

hóf-tölt, n. ‘hoof-tilt,’ a slow trot.

Hóf-varpnir, m. name of a mythical horse, Edda.

HÓG-, [akin to hagr and hœgr, easy; from a lost strong verb, haga, hóg], only found in COMPDS, denoting easy, gentle, soft: hóg-bærr, adj. easy to bear, Bs. i. 94. hóg-drægr, adj. easy to carry, Stor. 1. hóg-dýr, n. gentle deer, poët. name of a ship, Lex. Poët. hóg-látr, adj. of easy temper, Sks. 355. hóg-leiki, m. meekness, Stj. 71. hóg-liga, adv. calmly, meekly, gently; taka h. á, to touch gently, Fb. i. 467, Hkr. ii. 63, Fms. vii. 158, Nj. 219; hóg-ligar, more fitly, Fms. vii. 258; ríða h., to ride gently, Korm. 60; fara h. með, Fms. vi. 353. hóg-ligr, adj. easy, Gísl. 143: gentle, Fs. 32, Fms. vi. 274: meet, hóglig bið, 623. 60. hóg-lífl, n. an easy, quiet life, Ó. H. 214, Fb. i. 37. hóg-lyndi, n., fem. in Mar. 351, 914; an easy temper, gentleness, Mar. hóg-lyndr, adj. easy-tempered, peaceable, Eb. 258, 656 B. 6, Fms. iv. 214. hóg-læti, n. gentleness, Hkr. iii. 169. hóg-reið, f. the easy wain, the wain of Thor, Haustl. hóg-samliga, adv. calmly, 656 A. ii. 11. hóg-samr, adj. gentle, Fms. x. 415. hóg-seta, u, f. = hóglífi, Fs. 183. hóg-settr, adj. modest, Lex. Poët. hóg-stýrt, part. easily steered, Eg. 762. hóg-sætr, adj. living at ease, Greg. 49.

B. In a few words hóg- is no doubt of a different origin, from hog- = hogr or hugr, mind: these words are, hóg-væra, ð, to ease the mind, Sks. 40, 591, Mag. 7. hóg-værð and hóg-væri, f. calmness of mind, equanimity, Bs. i. 45, Fms. x. 408, Hom. 43, Mar. passim, Pass. 6. 5, 34. 4. hógvær-leikr, m. modesty, Stj. hóg-værliga, adv. meekly. hóg-værligr, adj. meek, gentle, Mar. passim. hóg-værr, adj. gentle, pious, meek of mind, Nj. 2, Eg. 702, Sturl. i. 139, Anecd. 11, Ó. H. 92, Hom. 8, 129, Fms. x. 419, Pass. 13. 2, passim: of beasts, gentle, 673. 56, Stj. 83, Karl. 277. In all these words the notion of ‘quietness’ is contained in the latter part of the compd.

HÓL, n. [A. S. hôl], praise, flattery, Hkr. ii. 88, Edda ii. 544, Pr. 110: boasting, vaunting, Nj. 237. hól-beri, a, m. a flatterer, Greg. 23, Fms. v. 194, v. l.

hólf, n. = hválf (q. v.), a vault, Thom. 472: a compartment in a drawer.

hólfa, ð, = hválfa, q. v.

hólfinn, adj. [hválf], hollow, Stj.

HÓLKR, m. [prop. holkr, cp. Engl. hulk], a ring or tube of metal, Dipl. iii. 4, Fas. ii. 259; kníf-h., the ring on a knife’s handle; skúf-h., járn-h., an iron tube.

HÓLL, m. contracted for hváll (q. v.), and the usual form in old MSS.:—a hill, hillock, Eg. 744, Fms. ii. 197, vii. 71, Orkn. 300, Nj. 67, Ld. 154 (see dalr), Gullþ. 28, Al. 28, Karl. 211, Fb. i. 421, Róm. 315, Fs. 27: the phrases, dal og hól, dale and hill; hólar og hæðir; álf-hóll, an elf-hill, fairy mount; orrostu-hóll, víg-hóll, a battle-hill; sjávar-hólar, sand-hills (dunes or denes) on the shore; grjót-hóll, a stone heap, passim: freq. in local names, Hóll and Hólar; Hóla-biskup, Hóla-staðr, etc., the bishop, see of Holar, Sturl.; Reykja-hólar, Staðar-hóll, Landn. passim. The older form remains in a few instances, see that word.

hólm-ganga, u, f. ‘holm-gang, holm-going,’ a duel or wager of battle fought on an islet or ‘holm,’ which with the ancients was a kind of last appeal or ordeal; and wherever a Thing (parliament) was held, a place was appointed for the wager of battle, as the holm in the Axe River in the alþingi. The hólmganga differed from the plain einvígi or duel, as being accompanied by rites and governed by rules, whilst the latter was not,—þvíat á hólmgöngu er vandhæfi en alls eigi á einvígi, Korm. 84. The ancient Icel. Sagas abound in wagers of battle, chiefly the Korm. S. ch. 10 and passim: some champions were nicknamed from the custom, e. g. Hólmgöngu-Bersi (Korm. S.), Hólmgöngu-Starri, Hólmgöngu-Máni, Hólmgöngu-Hrafn, Landn. About A. D. 1006 (see Tímatal), the hólmganga was abolished by law in the parliament, on account of the unhappy feud between Gunnlaug Snake-tongue and Skald-Hrafn, Gunnl. S. ch. 11, cp. Valla L. ch. 5 (þá vóru af tekin hólmgöngu-lög öll ok hólmgöngur), referring to about A. D. 1010; a single instance however of a challenge in the north of Icel. is recorded after this date (about the year 1030–1040), but it was not accepted (Lv. S. ch. 30); the wager in Lv. ch. 17 was previous (though only by a few years) to the fight between Gunnlaug and Rafn. It is curious that Jón Egilsson, in his Lives of Bishops (written about A. D. 1600, Bisk. Ann. ch. 36, Safn i. 64), mentions a wager of battle between the parties of the two bishops, Jón Arason and Ögmund, on the old holm in the Axe River A. D. 1529; but the whole is evidently a mere reproduction of the tale of the Horatii in Livy. Maurer thinks that the two important acts of legislation, the institution of the Fifth Court in 1004 and the abolition of the ordeal of hólmganga a few years later, are closely connected, as the institution of the new court of appeal made the decision by battle superfluous. In Norway, if we are to believe Grett. S. ch. 21 (þá tók Eirekr af allar hólmgöngur í Noregi), the hólmgöngur were abolished about the year 1012. It is very likely that the tournaments of the Norman age, fought in lists between two sets of champions, sprang from the heathen hólmganga, though this was always a single combat. For separate cases see the Sagas, Korm. S. l. c., Gunnl. S. l. c., Eg. ch. 57, 67, Nj. ch. 24, 60, Landn. 2. ch. 13, 3. ch. 7, Rd. ch. 1, 19, Gísl. init., Glúm. ch. 4, Valla L. l. c., Hallfr. S. ch. 10. A curious kind of duel in a tub is recorded in Flóam. S. ch. 17, called kerganga, perhaps akin to the mod. Swed. fight in a belt. For England see Sir Edmund Head’s interesting notes to Glúm. COMPDS: hólmgöngu-boð, n. challenging to h., Valla L. 214, Fas. ii. 475. hólmgöngu-lög, n. pl. the law, rules of h., Korm. 86, Valla L. 213. hólmgöngu-maðr, m. a champion of h., Korm. 54, Fms. i. 149. hólmgöngu-staðr, m. a place where h. is fought, Fms. i. 150. hólmgöngu-sverð, n. a sword used in h., Fas. i. 515.

HÓLMR, prop. holmr, also hólmi, a, m. [A. S. holm; North. E. holm and houm]:—a holm, islet, esp. in a bay, creek, lake, or river; even meadows on the shore with ditches behind them are in Icel. called holms, Haustl. 18, Hkv. Hjörv. 8, Vkv. 38, Fms. vi. 217, Hkr. i. 254, Sd. 181; í vatninu er einn hólmi reyri vaxinn, Fms. i. 71; undir einn hólma, Fas. ii. 535; uppi á hólmanum, Orkn. 402. β. referring to the hólmganga (q. v.), Dropl. 36; falla á hólmi, to fall in a duel, Landn. 80; skora e-m á hólm, to challenge one, Nj. 15, passim; ganga á hólm, to fight a wager of battle; skulu vit berjask í hólma þeim er hér er í Öxará, Nj. 36; leysa sik af hólmi, to release oneself off the holm, viz. the vanquished party had to pay the ransom stipulated in the hólmgöngu-lög, Glúm. passim. II. freq. in local names, Borgundar-hólmr, Hólmr, Hólmar, Landn.; Hólm-garðr, the county of Russia bordering on the lakes Ladoga, etc.: Hólm-rygir, m. pl. a people in western Norway: pr. names of men, Hólm-kell, Hólm-fastr, Hólm-steinn; of women, Hólm-fríðr, etc., Landn. COMPDS: Hólm-búar, m. pl. the men from Bornholm. Hólm-dælir, m. pl. the men from Holm, Sturl. hólm-færr, adj. able to fight in a duel, Gþl. 269, v. l. APPELL. COMPDS: hólm-ganga, q. v. hólm-hringr, m. the circle marked for a duel, Eg. 492. hólm-lausn, f. releasing oneself by paying the ransom after a duel, Dropl. 36, Korm. 88. hólm-staðr, m. = hólmgöngustaðr, Eg. 486. hólm-stefna, u, f. a meeting (duel) on a holm, Eg. 485, 490, Fas. i. 419. hólm-sverð, n. = hólmgöngusverð, Fas. i. 416. hólm-sök, f. = hólmgöngusök, Bjarn. 66. In poetry the sea is called hólm-fjöturr, m. ‘holm-fetter,’ and the rocks hólm-leggr, m. the leg of the holm, i. e. rocks, Lex. Poët.: the sea is hólm-negldr, part. studded with holms, id.

HÓP, n. [A. S. hop; Scot. hope = haven; perhaps connected with A. S. hôp, Engl. hoop, with reference to a curved or circular form]:—a small landlocked bay or inlet, connected with the sea so as to be salt at flood tide and fresh at ebb, Þorf. Karl. 420, freq. in mod. usage. II. a local name, Hóp, Hóps-ós, Vestr-hóp, Landn., Ísl. ii. 387: in Engl. local names as Stanhope, Easthope, Kemble’s Dipl.; Elleshoop in Holstein (Grein); Kirkhope, St. Margaret’s hope, etc., in Orkney.

HÓPR, m. [Dan. hob; Swed. hop; the Engl. heap, Germ. haufen, would answer to Icel. haupr, which does not exist]:—a troop, flock, bevy; mann-hópr, a host of men, Bjarn. 52, Skáld H. 6. 47, Pass. 21. 10: freq. in mod. usage, e. g. í sinn hóp, among one’s own equals; fjár-hópr, a flock of sheep; fugla-hópr, a bevy of birds. hópa-kaup, n. a purchasing in lots.

HÓR, m., acc. hó, gen. hós, [the same word as Goth. hoha = a plough-share; Engl. hoe, though different in sense]:—a pot-hook (= hadda, q. v.), in a nursery rhyme bidding one who has sore lips go into the kitchen, kiss the pot-hook thrice (kyssa hóinn þrysvar), and say these words: Heill og sæll hór minn, | eg skal kyssa snös þína, ef þú græðir vör mína, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 553, which throw a light ou the passage in Hbl. 48 (Sif á hó heima), insinuating that Thor busied himself with cooking and dairy-work. The hós in Ls. 33 seems to be a gen. = hvers, cujus, answering to the dat. hveim, abl. hví. COMPDS: hó-band, n. a pot-hook string, Björn. hó-nef, n. the ‘nose’ or loop into which the hór is hooked, Björn.

HÓR, n. [Goth. horinassus = μοιχεία; Engl. whoredom], adultery, Jb. 448, N. G. L. i. 70, Sks. 693, v. l.

hóra, að, to commit adultery, Stj. 197, Gþl. 136; hóra undir bónda sinn, Jb. 448 B, D. I. i. 262: with acc., K. Á. 122, Sks. 455, 575: reflex., Stj. 398. Jb. 124, Grett. 204 new Ed.

hóra, u, f. [Germ. hure; Engl. whore, harlot], Fas. i. 99, N. G. L. i. 70.

hóran, f. adultery, K. Á. 28, Stj. 517, Sks. 702.

hór-barn, n. a child begotten in adultery, Gþl. 171, Al. 1, Grág. ch. xviii.

hór-dómr, m. [whoredom], adultery, Stj. 301, K. Á. 132, 218, Barl. 134, Jb. 131, Hom. 86, 154. hórdóms-maðr, m. an adulterer, 625. 15.

hór-getinn, part. begotten in adultery.

hór-karl, m. an adulterer, H. E. i. 54.

hór-kerling, f. a strumpet, Stj. 405, Barl. 137.

hór-kona, u, f. an adulteress, Jb. 161, Bs. i. 283.

HÓRR, m., gen. hórs, [Ulf. hôrs = μοιχός; A. S. horing; Engl. whoremonger, etc.], an adulterer, Ls. 30.

hór-vetna, adv. = hvarvetna, everywhere.

hósta, að, [Germ. husten; Dan. hoste; North. E. and Scot. hoast], to cough, Bs. i. 347, 382.

hósti, a, m. a cough, Eluc. 19, Nj. 201, Fms. i. 282, x. 279, Pr. 474, Thom. 308.

HÓSTR, m., usually spelt óstr, without aspiration, Fms. vi. 419, viii. 433, ix. 311, Sturl. iii. 251: in mod. usage óst, f.; but the aspirated initial is borne out by the kindred words hósta, hósti:—the throat, the upper part of the chest and the lower part of the throat, Bs. i. 382, Fms. ix. 311, v. l.; var Haraldr konungr lostinn öru í óstinn svá at þegar stóð blóðbogi út um munninn, vi. 419; í hálsstemnit frammi fyrir hóstinn, Finnb. 214; hafðu ekki bera óstina! (fem.)

HÓT, n., contr. from hvat (q. v.), a whit, bit; hóti heldr, a bit more, i. e. a good deal more, Fms. vii. 141; hóti ráðhollari, a good deal better, Ísl. ii. 347; hóti neðar, Hrafn. 18: hóti mun, a whit, a grain, a hair’s breadth; hóti mun skjótara, a bit swifter, Rb. 106, Fms. vii. 170, cp. Rb. 1812. 66: with superl., hóti helzt, a whit better, Ísl. ii. 134; hóti líkast, most likely, Fms. vi. 351; þat er hóti úmaklegast, i. e. that is least undeserved! iii. 25; endisk því þetta hóti helzt, þótt ekki væri með fullu, Gísl. 136, denoting a slight difference: gen. plur., er nú lítilla hóta ávant, Karl. 96: dat. plur., hótum framar, Clar.: gen., hóts annan veg, quite the other way, Nj. (in a verse). 2. the phrase, ekki hót, not a whit.

hót, n. pl. [Ulf. hwota], threats, Fms. ii. 32, Sks. 525, Fs. 31, Bs. i. 100, Fb. i. 297. II. in the compds, ílsku-hót, wickedness; ástar-hót, marks, expressions of love; vinar-hót, marks of friendship.

HÓTA, að, older form hœta (q. v.), to hoot, threaten, with dat., Hkr. ii. 260, Fms. viii. 359, passim. II. hóta e-u fram, to hold forth (a weapon or the like) with threatening gestures, Rétt. 71; cp. ota and hvata.

hótan, f. a threatening, Fas. iii. 445, Stj. 150.

hót-findinn n, adj. ‘whit-finding,’ i. e. hair-splitting, captious: hót-findni, f.

hót-samr, adj. menacing, Karl. 490.

hót-vitna, gen. pl. = hvatvetna, every wight; see hverr, hvat.

hraða, að, to hasten, speed, with dat., Þórð. 77, Fms. xi. 438.

hrað-berg, n. [hroði], medic. tartar on the teeth, Fél.

hrað-byri, n. a fresh fair wind, Fms. i. 19, iv. 14, vii. 94, viii. 253.

hrað-byrja, adj. sailing with a strong wind, Eg. 94, Bs. i. 121.

hrað-fara, adj. hurrying, Sturl. i. 84.

hrað-feigr, adj. doomed to instant death, Nj. 60.

hrað-fleygr, adj. swift-flying.

hrað-færr, adj. ‘quick-faring,’ fleet, Gh. 18.

hrað-geði, n. a hasty temper, Edda (Gl.)

hraði, a, m. fleetness, swiftness, freq. in mod. usage.

hrað-kvæðr, adj. swift-singing, Ad. 1.

hrað-liga, adv. swiftly, Sks. 629.

hrað-mæltr, adj. quick of speech, Hm. 28, Fms. iv. 91. 374, v. l.

HRAÐR adj. [A. S. hræd, hrad; Engl. rathe, ready]:—swift, fleet; h. byrr, Symb. 15, Bs. ii. 82, Fms. vii. 340; hjálpar hraðr, swift to help, Pass. 15. 17. 2. neut. hratt, as adv. swiftly, Fas. ii. 87; sem hraðast, quickly, Háv. 48, El. Pass. 23. 3; fara hratt, Lv. 63; lífið matins hratt fram hleypr, Hallgr.; hratt úlíkligt, quite unlikely, Band. 25 new Ed.

hrafla, að, to scrape together, (slang.)

HRAFN, often spelt hramn, m. [A. S. hræfn; Engl. raven; Germ. rabe; Dan. ravn, etc.; cp. Lat. corvus, Gr. κόραξ]:—a raven, Nj. 119, Grág. ii. 346, Fms. i. 131, Hkr. iii. 11, Stj. 59, Orkn. 28, 38: allit., bíða hunds ok hrafns, Fms. viii. 210: in the sayings, sjaldsénir hvítir hrafnar, white ravens are not seen every day, of a strange appearance; þá er hart þegar einn hrafninn kroppar augun úr öðrum, it is too bad when one raven picks another’s eyes out; Guð borgar fyrir hrafninn, God pays for the raven, perhaps referring to 1 Kings xvii. and Job xxxviii. 41. The raven was a favourite with the Scandinavians, as a bird of augury and of sagacity, víða flýgr hrafn yfir grund, the raven is a far traveller; cp. the wise ravens Huginn and Muninn, the messengers of Odin, Gm., Edda; whence Odin is called hrafn-blætr, m. raven worshipper (Hallfred), and hrafn-áss, m. (Haustl.); hrafna-dróttinn or hrafna-goð, hrafn-stýrandi, a, m. lord or god of ravens; hrafn-freistaðr, m. raven friend, Húsd., Edda 126; cp. also the interesting story of the ravens of Flóki, Landn. 28 (v. l.),—hann fékk at blóti miklu ok blótaði hrafna þrjá, þá er honum skyldu leið vísa. A raven was the traditional war standard of the Danish and Norse vikings and chiefs, see Orkn. ch. 11, Nj. ch. 158, Þorst. Síðu H. ch. 2, as also the A. S. Chroniclers, e. g. the Saxon Chronicle, Asser, A. D. 878, etc. The croaking of ravens was an omen, Fagrsk. ch. 48, Sturl. 9. ch. 19, cp. Háv. 47: when heard in front of a house it betokens death, Landn. 2. ch. 33, Maurer Volksagen 170, 171: the ravens are said to hold a parliament, hrafna-þing; and metaph. a disorderly assembly was called by that name, see Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 616–621. A black horse is called Hrafn, Edda. In popular lore the raven is called krummi, q. v. Botan., hrafna-blaka and hrafna-klukka, u, f. cardamine pratensis, the ladies’ smock or cuckoo-flower, Hjalt. Pr. names of men, Hrafn, Hrafn-kell; of women, Hrefna, Hrafn-hildr: local names, Hrafna-björg, Hrafna-gjá, Hrafna-gil (whence Hrafn-gilingr, a man from H.), Hrafn-hólar, Hrafn-ista (whence Hrafnistu-menn, an old family), etc., Landn.: in poetry a warrior is styled hrafn-fæðir, -gæðir, -gælir, -greddir, -þarfr, = feeder of ravens, etc.: the blood is hrafn-vín, Lex. Poët.: a coward is hrafna-sveltir, m. raven-starver, Bs. i.

hrafn-blár, adj. raven-black, Bragi.

hrafn-hauss, m. raven-skull, a nickname, Sturl. iii. 176.

hrafn-hvalr, m. [A. S. hran or hren = a whale], a kind of whale, Sks. 123, Edda (Gl.), N. G. L. i. 330.

hrafn-ligr, adj. raven-like, Hom. 13.

hrafn-reyðr, f. a kind of whale; also called hrefna, balaena (medio) ventre plicato, Edda (Gl.), Eggert Itin. 542.

hrafn-svartr, adj. raven-black.

hrafn-tinna, u, f. ‘raven-flint,’ a kind of obsidian or agate, Fas. i. 470; called gagates Islandicus, Eggert Itin.

hrafn-önd, f. a kind of duck.

hragla, að, of the weather; það hraglar úr honum, it sleets; whence hraglandi, a, m. sleet, a drizzling shower.

HRAK-, in COMPDS, denoting wretched, wicked, [for the etymology see hrekja]: hrak-auga, n. evil eye, a nickname, Sturl. hrak-bú, n. a wretched household, Band. 37 new Ed. hrak-dýri, n. a poor, hunted deer, Korm. 60. hrak-fall, n. a wreck, disaster. hrak-för, hrak-ferð, f. a journey ending in disgrace and disaster, Fær. 166, Grett. 153, Mag. hrak-liga, adv. wretchedly, disgracefully, Fs. 35. hrak-ligr, adj. wretched, disgraceful, Korm. 62, Sturl. i. 24, iii. 273, Glúm. 387. hrak-magr, adj. wretchedly thin, Bs. i. 389. krak-mannligr, adj. wretched, mean. hrak-menni, n. a wretched man, wretch. hrak-ólar, f. pl., in the phrase, vera á hrakólum, to be as on the rack. hrak-spá, f. evil prophecy, croaking, hrak-viðri, n. wretched weather. hrak-yrði, n. foul language, Gísl. 86. hrak-æfi, f. a wretched life, cp. Gísl. 63.

hrakning, f. wretched treatment, insult, injury, Korm. 158, Nj. 136, Sturl. ii. 38, Sd. 167, Fms. viii. 78, 136, Grett. 203 new Ed., Hrafn. 20: in mod. usage, hrakningr, m. a being tossed or wrecked at sea; also sjó-hrakningr.

HRAMMR, m. [cp. Goth. hramjan = to nail to the cross], that with which one clutches, a bear’s paw, Finnb. 248, Grett. 101, Ld. 52, Am. 17, Ver. 80, Fb. ii. 289: the palm of the hand, Edda (Gl.); whence hramm-þviti, a, m., poët. for gold, Höfuðl. 17.

hramsa, að, to clutch.

hrandlan, f. tossing about, N. G. L. i. 157.

HRANG, n. a noise, din, tumult, as of a crowd, Grág. i. 5; spelt hrong, Mork. 110 (in a verse).

hrani, a, m. a blusterer; hann er mesti hrani. COMPDS: hrana-legr, adj. rude. hrana-skapr, m. uncivil behaviour. II. a pr. name, Sturl.

hrap, n. ruin, falling down, freq.; stjörnu-hrap, a shooting star.

HRAPA, að, to fall, tumble down, Fs. 70, Ann. 1339, Th. 76, Al. 76: to fall into an abyss, down a precipice, hröpuðu þeir af hæðinni, Landn. 147; h. til helvítis, Hom. 87; eg sá Satan svo sem eldingu h. af himni, Luke x. 18; hann hrapar í pyttinn, Fs. 158; h. ofan, Al. 146; hrapaði hann niðr í fjöruna, Fms. viii. 75; hann er að h. klett af klett, a ditty: of a shooting star, stjörnur munu af himnum h., Matth. xxiv. 29, (stjörnu-hrap.) β. to fall in ruin; hvort hús mun yfir annat h., Luke xi. 17, xiii. 4; but not usual, ‘hrynja’ being used of a house, wall, tower, rock which falls; hrapa of a man who falls from them. II. to rush headlong, hurry; hrapa á fund e-s, Fms. i. 303; er þú hrapar svá til banans, vi. 115: h. í e-t, to rush into, H. E. i. 469; h. at e-u, to hurry on a thing, Fs. 41; ef maðr hrapar svá at grepti at kviðr berr at önd sé í brjósti, K. Þ. K. 26: with dat., eigi skulu þér h. því svá, Ölk. 36; hitt mundi mitt ráð at h. eigi ferðinni, Eg. 577, Fms. v. 43; ok hrapaðir þeim svá til helvítis, vii. 123.

hrapaðr, m. hurry; at hrapaði, hurriedly, Fms. ix. 377, Sturl. i. 83, Ann. 1417.

hrapa-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), mod. hrapar-ligr, hurried, disastrous; mæla h., to bluster, Ísl. ii. 350, Sturl. i. 166 C; fara hrapalliga, to rush headlong like a fool, Hrafn. 15.

hrapan, f. downfall, Fms. ii. 276, Al. 40.

hrap-orðr, adj. using blustering language, Sturl. iii. 113, v. l.

Hrappr, m. a pr. name; see hreppr.

HRASA, but better rasa (q. v.), where the references will be given in full, see introduction to letter H:—to stumble; the aspirated form is only used in a few cases, og hrasaði bland ræningja, Gr. λησταις περιέπεσεν, Luke x. 30; hrasaðr, 36: eccl. to stumble in sin, Pass., Vídal. passim.

hrasan, hrösun, f. stumbling, sinning, N. T., Pass., Vídal.

hrat, n. [Ivar Aasen rat], refuse: esp. the skins, stones, etc. of berries (berja-hrat) which one spits out: the droppings of birds, það er eins hrat úr hrafni.

HRATA, að, better and older rata (q. v.), vrata: [in mod. usage the aspirated form is used in the sense to stagger, stumble, but rata in the sense to find one’s way; but that in both senses rata is the true form is shewn by alliteration, as in Skv. 1. 36, cp. also Vsp. 51; also by the form rati, a headlong fool]:—to stagger, fall, tumble; ok hrataði hann ofan af þekjunni, Nj. 114; þau hrata í gil nokkut ofan, Bs. i. 442, Sturl. ii. 137; hann hrataði af ok kom niðr standandi, 138; þá reið at honum brúnássinn ok hrataði hann inn aptr, Nj. 202; nema menn rati (hrati?) á eðr hrindisk á, Grág. ii. 96: to stagger, Önundr rataði (hrataði, v. l.) við lagit, Eg. 379; hann hrataði við en féll eigi, Fms. vi. 66; hann var hrumr ok hrataði áfram, vii. 22, Fs. 38, 52.

hrati, a, m. rubbish, trash, Bs. i. 601.

HRAUKR, m. [A. S. hreâc; Engl. rick], a small stack, torf-h.; cp. hroki.

hrauk-tjald, n. a rick-formed tent, Fas. ii. 273, Bárð. 178.

hraumi, a, m. [A. S. hreâm], a noisy fellow, Edda (Gl.)

HRAUN, n. [akin to hruni, hrjóna, and hrynja (q. v.), and thus from a lost strong verb jó, au, u; hrjúfr, hrúðr, hreysi, hrjóstr (q. v.) seem all to be akin]:—prop. a rough place, a wilderness, and is used so esp. by Norse writers and in the oldest poems: in Norse local names, Raunen, bare rocks in the sea, as opp. to hólmr, a grassy islet, Fritzner s. v.: a giant is in poetry called hraun-búi, -drengr, -hvalr, -skjöldungr, = the dweller, hero, whale, king of the wilderness, Hým., Hkv. Hjörv., Haustl., Fas. ii. 306.

B. In volcanic Iceland the word came to mean a lava field when cold, a burnt place (not the fresh glowing lava), freq. in the Sagas as well as in mod. usage, Bjarn. 36, 52, Nj. 248, Grág. ii. 282, Landn. 280, Hrafn. 26, Eb. 132–138, Bs. i. 540; um hvat reiddusk goðin, er hér brann hraunit er nú stöndum vér á (Bs. i. 22), the famous words of Snorri in the parliament of A. D. 1000; the place of the alþingi being a burnt out lava field. II. in Icel. local names freq., Hraun, Hraun-dalr, -fjörðr, -gerði, -holt, -höfn, etc., Landn.: esp. in relation to fields of lava, Borgar-hraun, id.; Berserkja-hraun, Eb.; Beruvíkr-hraun, Bjarn.; Staðar-hraun in Mýra-sýsla; Garða-hraun near Reykjavík, etc.: Ódáða-hraun, the wilderness in the inner part of Icel. (see Ísl. Þjóðs.), which was supposed to be peopled by miscreants and outlaws. COMPDS: Hraun-dælir, m. pl. the men from Hraundalr. Hraun-firðingr, m. a man from Hraunfjörðr, Landn. Hraun-gerðingr, m. a man from Hraungerði, id. Hrauns-verjar, m. pl. the men from Hraun, Bs. i. 643. 2. as appell., hraun-gata, u, f. a path through a hraun, Bjarn. 36, Pr. 411. hraun-gjóta, u, f. a lava pit or hole. hraun-grýti, n. lava rocks. hraun-klettr, m. a lava crag, Sks. 127. hraun-skeggi, a, m. a hraun dweller, Fs. 155; cp. eyjarskeggi.

☞ The whole of Icel. may be said to be a burnt out lava field, from eruptions previous to the peopling of the country. The following eruptions which have happened since the settlement, beside those of Hekla (q. v.), are mentioned in writers previous to A. D. 1430:—an eruption in Borgar-hraun in Mýra-sýsla about the beginning of the 10th century, Landn. 2. ch. 5; in Ölfus A. D. 1000, Kristni S. ch. 11; in the sea about Reykjanes A. D. 1211, 1226, 1238, 1240, 1422, Ann. s.a.: but esp. in the southern glaciers in Trölla-dingjur A. D. 1151, 1188; in Sólheima-jökull A. D. 1245, 1262; in Síða A. D. 1332; in Hnappafells-jökull A. D. 1332, 1350; in Herðubreið etc. A. D. 1340; in three places in Skaptafells-sýsla A. D. 1362,—the great eruption which destroyed the church in Rauðilækr; in Höfðár-jökull A. D. 1416, see Ísl. Ann. In later centuries the greatest eruptions are those of the Kötlu-gjá in 1755, and esp. the terrible eruption of Skaptár-jökull on the 20th of June, 1783. In this century that of Eyjafjalla-jökull, 1821.

hraung, f. = hrang, q. v.

hraunóttr, adj. rugged, Orkn. 208 (in a Norse landscape).

hraust-leikr, m. and hraust-leiki, a, m. prowess, gallantry, Bær. 20, Fms. iii. 3, xi. 375; frægða, frama-verka ok hraustleika (gen.), Fb. ii. 136, passim.

hraust-liga, adv. valiantly, doughtily, Fms. i. 88, v. 318, Post. 645. 87.

hraust-ligr, adj. bold, valiant, manly, 655 ii. 1, Nj. 204: medic. strong-looking.

hraust-mannligr, adj. = hraustligr, Hkr. iii. 427, v. l.

hraust-menni, n. a stout, strong man, Fs. 128, Finnb. 326.

HRAUSTR, adj. [Germ. rüstig], strong, valiant, doughty, of a warrior, Ísl. ii. 264, 366, Fms. i. 52, iv. 122, vi. 3, vii. 4, Ld. 46, Ó. H. 218, Anal. 169, Eb. 148, and passim. 2. strong, hearty; hann var þá hniginn nokkut ok þó hinn hraustasti ok vel hress, Ld. 56; gamall ok þó h., Fs. 156; heill ok h., hale and hearty, Grág. i. 163, Fb. ii. 383; var hón þá enn hraust kona, Ísl. ii. 453; mun þá eigi hraust kona íllum manni gefin, Sd. 150; ú-hraustr, weak, invalid.

hrá-blautr, adj. raw, of hides or the like, Fms. iii. 18, Stj. 416.

hrá-fiskr, m. a raw fish, Rb. 348.

hrái, a, m. crudeness.

HRÁKI, a, m. [cp. A. S. hraca = throat; Germ. rachen; also A. S. hræcan, Engl. to retch in vomiting, hawk in spitting]:—spittle, Edda 19, 47 (mythical), Sks. 540, N. G. L. i. 339, K. Á. 6, Stj. 37, Mar. passim. hráka-skírn, f. baptism with spittle in lieu of water, 671. 16.

hrá-leikr, m. rawness, 677. 15.

HRÁR, hrá, hrátt, adj. [A. S. hreow = crudus, whence Engl. rough and raw; Germ. rauh; Dan. raa]:—raw, only of meat or food; eta hrátt, Hkv. 2. 6, Hom. 84, Fbr. 97, Karl. 426; hrán fisk, Al. 171. 2. raw, fresh, sappy; góð jörð ok hrá, Edda 150 (pref.); hrár viðr, a sapling, young plant, Grág. ii. 298, Fb. i. 342, Skm. 32.

hrá-skinn, n. ‘raw-skin:’—but used (it is hard to say why) in the sense of a shelter, refuge; höfðu þeir hráskinn hjá feðrum sínum (v. l. hald ok traust), Fbr. 8; Guð, drottinn er minn styrkr ok stuðning, ok mitt ráskinn ok frjálsari, Stj. 51. hráskinns-leikr, m. a kind of game, ‘hide and seek (?),’ Bárð. 174.

hrá-slagi, a, m. dampness in houses.

hrá-viði, n. saplings, young plants; höggva sem h., Fas. i. 451, Þorf. Karl. (A. A.) 198; allt eins og kvistir af hretviðri hristir, á hráviðar-lauki, Hallgr.

hrá-þefr, m. the smell of a carcase, Barl. 151.

hrá-æti, n. raw food, Fbr. 72.

HREÐA, u, f., mod. form hræða, a bugbear, bogle; at jafnan myndi vera nokkurar hreður í Miðfirði … hefir þar jafnan verit deilu-gjarnara en í öðrum héruðum, Þórð. 59 new Ed.; svá segir mér hugr um, at sjaldan muni hreðu-laust í þessu héraði, 22. 2. in mod. usage in western Icel. hræða or hreða means a scarecrow, whence metaph. hræða, a poor, harmless creature; as also, það sást eingin hræða, not a soul was to be seen. II. a nickname, Þórð.

hreði, a, m., mod. hroði, offal, rubbish, refuse, Eluc. 41 (spelt hröði). II. [A. S. hryðer = a heifer], poët. a bull, Edda (Gl.): in local names, Hreða-vatn, Landn.

HREÐJAR and hreðr, f. pl. [A. S. hreder = viscera], the scrotum, N. G. L. i. 81, Edda 46, Grett. (in a verse); hest-reðr, Fms. vi. 194 (in a verse).

hrefna, u, f. [hrafn], prop. a she-raven. 2. a whale, = hrafnreiðr, q. v. 3. a part of a ship, Edda (Gl.) II. a pr. name, Landn.

hrefni and hremni, n. a plank in a ship, viz. the fifth from the keel, Edda (Gl.); ef (skip) brotnar fyrir ofan hrefnis-skor (spelt refnis skor and v. l. ræfsing, renni skor), N. G. L. i. 283: in poetry a ship is hrefnis goti, hrefnis stóð, the steed of the h. The h is warranted by alliteration.

HREGG, n. storm and rain, Edda 99, Am. 18, Fs. 129; var bæði hregg ok regn, Eb. 266, Fms. vii. 195; h. ok sjádrif, ii. 177; kastaði þá enn hreggi á móti þeim, Fas. ii. 80; h. eða rota, Bs. i. 339, N. G. L. i. 388; hríð með hreggi, Eb. 206, Lex. Poët.; kulda-h., a chilly, rainy wind; kafalds-h., snow and wind: in poetry the battle is the hregg of weapons, Valkyriur, Odin, etc., see the compds in Lex. Poët. COMPDS: hregg-blásinn, part. blown by the gale, Hallfred. hregg-mímir, m., mythol. name of one of the heavens, Edda (Gl.) hregg-nasi, a, m. a nickname, Eb. hregg-rann, n., hregg-salr, m., poët. ‘gale-house,’ i. e. the sky, Leiðarv. 17, 25, Geisli 61. hregg-skár, adj. stormy, Merl. 1. 65. hregg-skúr, f. a tempestuous shower, Sks. 227. hregg-tjald, n. ‘gale-tent,’ i. e. the heaven, Lex. Poët. Hregg-viðr, m. a pr. name, Fas. hregg-viðri, n. a tempest, Fms. ii. 177. hregg-vindr, m. a tempestuous gale, Grett. (in a verse). hregg-þjálmi, a, m. ‘wind-trap,’ i. e. the heaven, poët., Leiðarv. 4.

HREIÐR, n. [Dan. rede, prob. akin to Ulf. vriþus = ἀγέμη; A. S. vræd; Engl. wreath; Swed. vrad; Dan. vraad;—all meaning a wreath, from vríða, to wreath]:—a bird’s nest, Grág. ii. 346, Gþl. 542, Greg. 55, Fms. vi. 153, Merl. 1. 26, Stj. passim; ara h., an eagle’s nest, Fagrsk. 146: the saying, sá er fuglinn vestr er í sitt h. drítr: hreiðr-böllr, m. a ‘nest-ball,’ an egg, Krók. 64 (in a pun), and hreiðr-balla, að, = eggja = to egg on, id. (a pun).

hreiðrask, að, dep. to nestle, Stj. 81, Fms. vi. 153: mod. hreiðra sig.

HREIFI, a, m. the wrist, Edda 110, Fms. i. 167, Sturl. ii. 104, Bs. i. 658:—sels-hreifi, a seal’s fin, Eb. 272; and so in mod. usage.

hreifingr, m. good cheer, high spirits; better reifingr.

HREIFR, adj., old form reifr (q. v.), merry, gladsome.

HREIMR, m. [cp. A. S. hreâm = noise, hrêmig = noisy, hrêman = to cry; Hel. hrôm, to cry out; ream or reem is still used in Lancashire; cp. Engl. sc-ream]:—a scream, cry; óp né (h)reimr, Hom. 29; íllr h. armra sálna, 31; íllr h., Fms. vii. 84 (in a verse); orða h., Lil. 72: a nickname, Sturl. hreim-samr, adj. noisy, peevish, Fas. iii. 156.

hreina, d, causal from hrína: to make to squeal, of swine, Al. 171; ef svín eru hreind, made to squeal, Konr.

hreinask, að, to be cleaned.

hrein-bjálbi, a, m. a reindeer’s skin, Fær. 42, Ó. H. 198, 218.

hrein-braut, f. the reindeer’s track, Egil; see hreinn, m., sub init.

hrein-drif, n. a snow-drift, Sks. 230, v. l.

hrein-dýri, n. a reindeer, Fær. 42, Sks. 62 new Ed.

hrein-ferðugr, adj. pure and chaste, Bs. i. 241, ii. 43, Karl. 553, Lil. 33, 68.

hrein-gálkn, n. a απ. λεγ., Hým. 24; no doubt falsely for hraun-gálkn = a monster of the wilderness: hraun and hölkn are twin words used alliteratively.

hrein-getning, f. the immaculate conception, Magn. 468.

hrein-görr, part. made bright, of a shield, Bragi.

hrein-hjartaðr, adj. pure of heart, Sks. 90, Bs. ii. 61, Matth. v. 8.

hrein-látr, adj. cleanly, clean: metaph. pure, Sks. 435, Barl. 18.

hrein-leikr (-leiki), m. cleanliness: metaph. purity; h. hjartans, Hom. 11, Mar.: chastity, Al. 58, K. Á. 74.

hrein-liga, adv. cleanly, Bs. i. 711, Sks. 134, 436: metaph. with purity, sincerity, Fms. v. 241, Hom. 86, Best. 48: with chastity, 671. 6.

hrein-ligr, adj. cleanly, clean, Bárð. 171, Dipl. v. 10, passim: metaph. pure, chaste, Mar.

hrein-lífi, n. a clean, pure life, chastity, Hom. 67, Lil. 27, N. T., Vídal., Pass, passim. 2. in Roman Catholic times esp. of monastic life, Hom. 93, Bs. i. 269, passim. COMPDS: hreinlífis-kona, u, f. a nun, Mar. hreinlífis-maðr, m. a friar, Sks. 96, Fms. x. 408, Hom. 93.

hrein-lífr, adj. clean-living, pure of life, Bs. i. 275, Hom. (St.) 3, Nikd. 34, passim; opp. to saurlífi and saurlífr.

hrein-lyndr, adj. (hrein-lyndi, n.), upright, Leiðar. 4.

hrein-læti, n. cleanliness, Edda ii. 246, freq.

hrein-mannligr, adj. clean and manly, of noble bearing, stout-looking; h. á hesti, Karl. 234:—mod. hrefmannlegr, adj., in the same sense.

HREINN, adj. [Ulf. hrains = καθαρός; A. S. hrân; lost in Engl., except in the verb to rinse; O. H. G. hreini; Germ. rein; Dan.-Swed. ren]:—clean; h. líndúkr, Hom. 138, Fs. 1; hrein klæði, Fms. vi. 207; gott korn ok hreint, Sks. 326; hreint vatn, Gd. 22; h. lögr, Alm. 35; hrein munnlaug, H. E. i. 489; h. mjöll, fresh snow, Rm. 26. β. bright; hreinir kyndlar, bright candles, Sól. 69; hreint bál, a bright flame, Lex. Poët.; h. sól, the bright sun, id.; h. ok gagnsær, Hom. (St.) 15. 13; hreint sverð, hrein vápn, Fms. x. 360, Rétt. 120; h. rönd, a bright shield, Lex. Poët. γ. eccl., hrein kvikendi, clean beasts, Hom. 29. II. metaph. clean, pure, sincere; hreint hjarta, h. hugr, hrein iðran, hreint líf, Bs. i. 270, Sól. 7, Barl. 93, N. T., Vídal., Pass. passim. β. = Gr. καθαρός in the N. T. of the cleansed leper; ú-hreinn, unclean; tá-hreinn, quite clean.

HREINN, m. [the word is prob. of Finnish origin. From the words of king Alfred, (þa deor he hâtað hrânas, Orosius i. 1, § 15, Bosworth’s Ed.), it seems that the king knew the name only from Ohthere’s tale; and when Egil in his poem on king Athelstân (if the verse be genuine) calls Northern England hreinbraut, the reindeers’ track, the phrase is prob. merely poët. for a wilderness. There is however a curious passage in Orkn. (448) where the hunting of reindeer in Caithness is recorded; the Icel. text is here only preserved in a single MS.; but though the Danish translation in Stockholm (of the year 1615) has the same reading, it is probably only a mistake of the Saga; for it is not likely that the Norsemen carried reindeer across the sea; the present breed was introduced into Icel. by the government only a century ago]:—a reindeer, Hm. 89, K. Þ. K. 132, Fas. iii. 359; hreins fit, Hkr. ii. 250; hreins horn, Ann. Nord. Old. 1844, 1845, p. 170; hreina hold, Sks. 191. The finest deer were called stál-hreinar (the stæl-hrânas of king Alfred), cp. tálhreinn, Haustl. In northern poetry, ships are freq. called hreinn, see Lex. Poët., byr-hreinn, haf-h., hún-h., unnar-h., hlýrvangs-h., Gylfa-h., all of them meaning ships, Lex. Poët.: a giant is called gnípu-h. = ‘crag-rein,’ Þd.: the wilderness is myrk-rein hreins = the mirk-field of the reindeer, Haustl. Hreinn is an old pr. name, Landn. COMPDS: hrein-braut, f., hrein-vastir, f. pl., hrein-ver, n. a wilderness, Edda (in a verse).

hreinsa, að, [Ulf. hrainsjan; Engl. rinse; Dan. rense], to make clean, cleanse, Sks. 583, 605, Fms. ii. 261, Nj. 270, passim: to purge, clear, h. land af víkingum, Fms. i. 93, vii. 18, Anal. 249; h. líkþrá, to cleanse (heal) leprosy, Post., N. T.; líkþráir hreinsast, Matth. xi. 5, Johann. 95, Fms. xi. 309: metaph. to purify, Post. 645. 77, 94, Hom. 97, N. T., Vídal., Pass.

hreinsan, f. cleansing, purification, K. Á. 20, Hom. 64, 65, passim. hreinsunar-eldr, m. the cleansing fire, purgatory, Fms. vii. 38; land-h., clearing the land of miscreants.

hrein-skilinn, adj. sincere: hrein-skilni, f. sincerity, uprightness.

hrein-staka, u, f. a reindeer cloak, Hkr. ii. 250.

hrein-viðri, n. bright, clear weather.

HREISTR, n. scales, of fish, 656 C. 13, Sks. 168, Anecd. 6, passim. hreistr-kambr, m. a scaly comb, Stj. 98.

hreistra, að, to cover with scales: hreistraðr, part. scaly.

HREKJA, pret. hrakti; part. hrakiðr, Orkn. 424, mod. hrakinn, neut. hrakt, Sturl. ii. 169: [akin to Goth. vrikan, A. S. wrecan, Engl. wreak, wreck, see introduction to letter H]:—to worry, vex; h. e-n í orðum, to scold and abuse one, Fms. vii. 319, Fs. 173; þau bityrði er Skarphéðinn hrakti yðr Ljósvetninga, Nj. 223; ámæla þær honum í hverju orði ok hrekja, Finnb. 228: to confound, mér þaetti bezt við þann at eiga, er allir hrekjask fyrir áðr, by whom all people are confounded, Hrafn. 16; Sigmundr sagðisk heldr vilja h. þá sem mest, Fær. 165, Fs. 33, 129, Sturl. ii. 169, Bs. ii. 143; hann eyðir málit fyrir Erni ok hrekr hann sem mest af málinu, Fs. 125: víghestrinn hafði hrakit hrossin, Eb. 36 new Ed. β. a naut. term, of ships driven out of their course, freq. in mod. usage; either impers., e-n hrekr, one is driven and wrecked; or reflex., þeir hröktust fimm vikur sjávar, they were driven for five miles on the sea: also of a ship, skipið (acc.) hrekr, the ship has drifted, cp. Bs. i. 817; of sheep in a snow storm.

hrekkja, t, to tease or play tricks on one.

hrekkjóttr, adj. tricky, mischievous, e. g. of a bad boy; hann er h. bæði við menn og skepnur.

HREKKR, m., pl. ir, gen. pl. ja, [Dan. rænke], a trick, piece of mischief, Mag. 9, Fas. ii. 372, Nikd. 40; hrekkir ok slægðir, Stat. 273.

hrekk-vísi, f. trickiness, mischievousness, Róm. 254, 347.

hrekkvís-ligr, adj. = hrekkvíss.

hrekkvíss, adj. tricky, mischievous, Eluc. 28, Fs. 46, Róm. 293, 299 (= factiosus of Sallust).

HRELLA, d, [cp. slang Engl. to rile], to distress, with acc., Bs. i. 438, Stj. 364: pass. to be distressed, grieved, 625. 75, Stj. 325.

hrella, u, f. a nickname, Rd.

hrelling, f. anguish, affliction, Hrafn. 17, Bs. i. 184, Ísl. ii. 417, Rom. ii. 9, N. T., Vídal.

HREMMA, d, [hrammr; Ulf. hramjan = σταυρουν, i. e. to nail to the cross; cp. O. H. G. ramen; Dan. ramme = to hit]:—to clutch, Bjarn. 12, Sturl. ii. 203, Fas. ii. 231, Or. 35: part. hremmdr, Sturl. iii. 90, 103.

hremsa, að, = hremma, Fs. 45.

hremsa, u, f. a clutch, Konr. 25: poët. a shaft, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.

hreppa, t, [A. S. hreppan = tangere], to catch, obtain; nú fæ ek eigi þat af þér tekit er þú hefir hreppt, Grett. 114 A; þá hét hann á hinn sæla Þorlák biskup at hann skyldi skipit hreppa, that he might catch up the lost boat, Bs. i. 338; en er hann hreppti áverkann, when he caught the blow, was hit, Gullþ. 51; margr veit hverju hann sleppir en ekki hvað hann hreppir, a saying.

HREPPR, m.:—this word remains in ‘the Rape of Bramber’ in Sussex, and is undoubtedly Scandinavian, being probably derived, as Pal Vídalín suggested, from hreppa, and thus originally meaning a share, allodium; it may be that the proper name Hrappr (Landn.) is akin (= a yeoman, master of a Rape?); for the bad sense of that name (= a traitor) is a metonyme, borrowed from the person of that name in the Njála. After the introduction of Christianity, all Icel. was, for the maintenance of the poor, divided into poor-law districts called hreppar, which still exist, being in most cases, though not always, identical with the sókn or parish; and it is remarkable that the district round the Bishop’s seat at Skalholt bears the local name Hreppar, indicating that this division had the Bishop’s house as its nucleus. The occurrence therefore of this name in the Landn. is an anachronism; as probably are also the few instances in which hreppr is used as an appellative in records of the heathen age, e. g. Lv. l. c. It is not known when the division into Rapes took place; perhaps it took place gradually during the 11th century; vera á hrepp, koma á hreppinn, to be or become a pauper. In the Grágás a special section (and as it seems one of the oldest) is called ‘um Hreppa-skil,’ Kb. ii. 171–180; ‘um Hreppa-lög,’ Sb. i. 443–458. Twenty franklins at least constituted a lawful Rape, Kb. ii. 171. (These remarks are partly due to Konrad Maurer.) COMPDS: hreppa-dómr, m. a Rape court, Grág. i. 245, 448. hreppa-lög, n. pl. the laws and rules of a Rape, Grág. i. 443. Hreppa-maðr, m. a man from the district Hreppar, Sturl. ii. 248. hreppa-mál, n. Rape affairs, Grág. ii. 178 new Ed. hreppa-mót, n. pl. the march or border of two Rapes, Grág. i. 444. hreppa-skil, n. pl. Rape business, Lv. 17; in mod. usage, the autumn meeting held in every Rape. hreppa-tal, n. the census of a Rape, Grág. i. 443. hrepps-fundr, m. a Rape meeting, Grág. i. 296, 446, 448. hrepps-maðr, m. a franklin of a certain Rape, Grág. i. 248, 256, 262, 295, 445. hrepps-sókn, f. the management of a Rape, the office of the Rape councils, = mod. hreppstjórn, Grág. i. 445. hreppsóknar-menn, m. pl. the members of the five Rape councils, Grág. i. 295, 455, passim. hrepps-stjóri, a, m. = hreppstjóri, Grág. i. 262. hrepps-úmagi, a, m. a pauper.

hrepp-stefna, u, f. = hreppsfundr, Sturl. i. 185.

hrepp-stjóri, a, m. a ‘Rape-steerer,’ overseer, Jb. 186, Vm. 116: in each Rape in Icel. the best yeoman is chosen as hreppstjóri by the sheriff (amtmaðr) or, as in former days, by the parishioners, but he is not paid; he has, jointly with the parish priest, to manage the business of the Rape, esp. to see to the maintenance of the poor, fix the poor-rate of each franklin, and, as there are no poor-houses, to arrange the distribution of the poor (úmagar) among the parishioners. In the days of the Commonwealth there was a committee of five members, called hreppstjórnarmenn (q. v.), which discharged the duties of the present hreppstjóri; með ráði heima-prests ok hreppstjóra, Vm. 116. This word does not occur in the Grágás, but only after A. D. 1281; for the reading hreppstjóri in the D. I. i. 199 (in a deed supposed to be of A. D. 1150) is only found in a mod. transcript, and the original prob. had hreppstjórnarmenn (pl.)

hrepp-stjórn, f. the office of a hreppstjóri, Jb. 184: the management of a Rape, K. Á. 96, Jb. 178. hreppstjórnar-þing, n. = hreppa-skil or hreppsfundr, Jb. 182.

HRESS, adj. [cp. A. S. and Hel. hrôr, and prob. akin to hraustr, qs. ‘hrers;’ cp. Germ. rührig, rüstig]:—hale, hearty, in good spirits; hann var af æsku-aldri ok þó maðr inn hressasti, Eg. 202; en þó var Kveldúlfr hress maðr ok vel færr, 84; hraustr ok vel hress, Ld. 56; en er allr herrinn hafði drukkit, þá vórum vér hressir, Al. 167; hann var hinn hressasti, he was quite well (after a sickness), Sturl. ii. 182; ú-hress, low, sickly, Stj. 374.

hressa, t, to refresh, cheer; hressa kararmenn, 655 xiii. B. 3; h. halta, Mar.; hón lét gera honum laugar ok h. hann, Bret. 164; tökum nú til fæðu ok hressum oss, 656 C. 22; hann bað hann hressa sik, he bade him be of good cheer, bade him cheer up, Eg. 102: with prepp., h. upp, to restore a building, 623. 14; at hann skyldi ráðask norðr til Múnka-þverár ok h. staðinn, Sturl. i. 223. II. reflex. to recover one’s strength or spirits, be refreshed, Fms. ii. 59, 270, vi. 303, Finnb. 234, Bs. i. 319, Fas. ii. 356, Eg. 645.

hressing, f. recovery of strength, refreshment.

hress-leiki, a, m. good health, heartiness, Fms. iv. 13.

HRET, n. a tempest, storm, Edda 99, Hkr. i. 282: freq. in mod. usage, esp. of a lasting storm and tempest, viku-hret, hálfs-mánaðar-hret, a tempest lasting a week or fortnight; Þorra-hret, Jónsmessu-hret, a tempest in the month of Thorri, on St. John Baptist’s day; kafalds-hret, a snow storm.

hret-viðri, n. a tempest, Þd., Sturl. (in a verse).

HREYFA, ð, [Ivar Aasen royva], to stir, with acc., (but in mod. usage, with acc. of a person, and dat. of a thing); nú varðar eigi þótt sá seyðr rjúki er þeir hafa hreyft, Fms. vi. 105; engi knút fékk hann leyst ok engi álar-endann hreyft, Edda 28. II. reflex. to put oneself into motion, stir, Mag. 93: of a bird (= beina flug), rœyfðisk inn hösfjaðri, Fagrsk. (Hornklofi), of the raven, to shake his feathers, cp. Fms. x. 130 (in a verse); hann hreyfðisk at fljúga, Konr.; feldr nokkurr liggr þar—mér þykkir sem hræfisk (i. e. hrœyfisk) stundum er ek lít til, Fas. ii. 167. 2. metaph., hefsk upp ok hreyfisk í farsælligum hlutum, Stj. 376. III. this word, which in old writers is of rare occurrence and limited in sense, has in mod. usage become one of the general terms for to move, stir, and is usually, though erroneously, spelt with ei, hreifa; hreifa við e-u, to touch on a thing; hreifa sig, to stir the limbs; hann hreifir sig ekki, he does not stir:—also with dat., h. e-u máli, to move, bring forward a case; hann hreifði því ekki, he did not even mention it; hvar sem ófriðr hreifir sér, Pass. 21. 13.

hreyfing, f. motion, movement, (mod. and spelt hreifing.)

hreykja, t, [hraukr], to puff up; h. sér, þeir sem hreykjast heldr hátt hrapa fyrri vonum, Grönd.

hreyrar, see heyrar.

HREYSI, n. and hreysar, f. pl., Fms. v. 70, Jb. 211, N. G. L. i. 14, 431; [Ivar Aasen rös; cp. Dunmail Raise (i. e. Dunmail’s Cairn) in Westmoreland]:—a heap of stones (= Icel. urð), where wild beasts abide, Hým. 35; holt ok hreysar, Fms. v. 70; hölkn eða hreysar, Jb. 211; hangar eðr hreysar, N. G. L. i. 14, 431; þeir drógu í burt líkama hans ok reyrðu í hreysi nokkuru, Fms. vii. 227; skríða í hreysi, to slink into a den, Hkv. 1. 33, Lv. 61; í hreysum eðr holum, Bárð. 168; liggja í hreysum, Fms. vi. 425; þú liggr þá í hreysum eðr fylgsnum, viii. 157, Konr. 22. 2. in mod. usage = a poor wretched cottage, a hovel. COMPDS: hreysi-köttr, m. a wild cat, Stj. 93. hreysi-vísla, u, f. a weasel, Rb. 356.

hreysingr, m. in íll-hreysingr, a savage ruffian.

hreysta, t, to make valiant, Finnb. 332; h. sik, to comfort oneself, cheer oneself up, Grett. 138.

HREYSTI, f. [hraustr], valour, prowess, Eg. 16, Nj. 266, Fs. 55, Gullþ. 65, Fms. i. 34, vi. 58, vii. 326, Eb. 116, Fas. iii. 144, passim. COMPDS: hreysti-bragð, n. a feat of prowess, Karl. 417, 451. hreysti-maðr, m. a valiant man, Eg. 73, Edda 16, Fb. ii. 72. hreysti-mannliga, adv. gallantly, Fms. vii. 289. hreysti-mannligr, adj. gallant, bold, Fms. ii. 120. hreysti-orð, n. a word of prowess, Fms. i. 180. hreysti-raun, f. a trial of valour, Fms. vi. 260. hreysti-verk, n. a deed of prowess, a deed of derring-do, Fms. ii. 105, Finnb. 330.

hreysti-liga, adv. stoutly, boldly, Fms. i. 42, Ísl. ii. 369.

hreysti-ligr, adj. stout, bold, Nj. 200.

HREYTA, t, [hrjóta], to spread, scatter, throw about, with dat., Rm. 35, Am. 43, Sks. 226, 229, Eb. 200 new Ed.

hreyting, f. a spreading, Lv. 75.

hreytir, m. a sprinkler, Lat. sparsor, Lex. Poët.

hreyti-speldi, n. a top, as a child’s toy, Fms. iii. 227.

hriflingr, m. a kind of shoes or stockings (?), Parc. (thrice), a part of Percival’s dress when he left his mother. hriflinga-björg, f. a hand to mouth life, Fas. iii. 538.

hrifs, n. robbery; rifs ok rán, Stj. 236, Fms. xi. 252, Fb. i. 363.

hrifsa, að, or older rifsa, [cp. A. S. reafian; Engl. to rob, rifle; Scot. reif, reff = plunder, reiver = robber; Germ. rauben, etc.]:—to rob, pillage; rifsa ok grápa, Stj. 78, 154; rænt ok rifsat, 236; hripsa ok ræna, Thom. 534.

hrifsan, f. a robbing, pillaging, Fb. ii. 412.

hrifsing, f. = hrifsan, Fas. i. 92.

HRIKI, a, m. a huge fellow, Fas. ii. 378, freq. in mod. usage: a giant, Edda (Gl.) COMPDS: hrika-legr, adj. (-lega, adv.), huge. hrika-leikr, m. a game of giants, Bjarni 34.

hrikta, t, to creak, Am. 36 (of door hinges), where spelt hricþo, as if from hrika, which seems the true old form; but the mod. form is hrikta.

hrina, see hrinur.

HRINDA, pres. hrind; pret. hratt, 2nd pers. hratt, mod. hrazt, hraztu, Ó. H. (in a verse); pl. hrundu; subj. hryndi; imperat. hrind, hritt’, and hrittú, Fsm. 43; part. hrundinn; in mod. usage pres. weak hrindi, and even a pret. hrinti is in use: [A. S. hrindan]:—to push, kick, throw, with dat.; ef hann hrindr manni í eld, Grág. ii. 129; Þorkell hratt Knúti af baki, Fb. ii. 23; hann hratt hestinum í vök eina, Fms. i. 211, Nj. 91; skaut hann við honum hendi ok hratt honum, Fms. vi. 6; þá höfðu þeir út hrundit skipunum, Hkr. i. 153; h. skipi fram or í vatn, to launch a ship, Eg. 142, Nj. 18, Fms. i. 58, Ó. H. 109, Fas. iii. 40; var þá hrundit bátnum, the ship’s boat was put out or off, Grett. 95; h. e-m í eld, to kick him into the fire, Akv. 20; h. hurð, to push the door open, Eg. 560; h. á hurð, Fsm. 43; h. í myrkva-stofu, to cast into prison, Post. 656 C. 33; h. á braut, to drive away, Fms. ix. 380; brot hrundinn or sæti, Sks. 623; hratt (threw) á völl brynju, Hkm. 4; að þeir hryndi honum þar af fram, Luke iv. 29. II. metaph., er hann fékk öndinni frá sér hrundit, when he could draw his breath, Eg. 553; þeir hrundu frá honum (kicked away from him) því fólki flestu er þá var með honum, Bs. i. 554; þat hrindr eitri ór, 655 xxx. 12:—phrases, h. harmi, to cast off one’s grief, Fms. vii. 153; h. ugg ok ótta, vi. 63; hrindum þessu af oss ok verum kátir, let us throw this off and be glad! 127; h. íllu ráði, Merl. 1. 64; h. e-u af e-m, to defend one from one, Fms. v. 113; hann hratt þeim úfriði af sér, Ó. H. 34; til pess at h. þessu ríki af landsmönnum, 232; h. máli, to throw a case back, make it void, Landn. 89; hefir þú drengiliga hrundit þessu máli, i. e. thou hast cleared thyself of it, Fb. ii. 195; at ek gæta þessu íllmæli sem skjótast rutt ok hrundit, Fms. iv. 310; eins þeirra vitni skyldi h. tíu Norðmanna, x. 398; villa aptr hrundin, Anecd. 104: absol. or impers., hratt stundum fyrir en stundum frá, the clouds were drifting off and on, so that the moon was hidden one moment and seen the next, Grett. 114. III. reflex. and recipr. hrindask, to push, kick one another, Grág. ii. 96: part., grund grapi hrundin, the storm-beaten earth, Haustl.

hrindlan, f. a pushing, kicking, N. G. L. i. 157.

hringa, að, to furnish with a ring, to hook, Stj. 644 (2 Kings xix. 28, of Sennacherib): to coil into rings, h. sik, of a serpent.

hring-danz, m. = hringleikr.

hring-eygr, adj. wall-eyed, of a horse.

Hring-horni, a, m. a mythol. ship, Edda.

hring-iða, u, f. a whirling eddy.

hringing, f. a bell-ringing, Fms. iii. 60, Hkr. ii. 111, N. G. L. i. 381, Eluc. 147.

HRINGJA, d, [A. S. hringan; Engl. ring; Dan. ringe]:—to ring bells, Nj. 189, Grág. i. 27, Fms. iii. 60: act. with dat., K. Þ. K. 48: reflex., hringdisk klukka sjálf, Bs. i. 443.

hringja, u, f. a buckle, Fas. i. 319, 331, Landn. 87, Fb. i. 354.

hringja, d, [hringr], to encircle, surround; also kringja (q. v.), Fms. v. 53; hrinctu mik, imperat. surround me! a dub. reading, Gkv. 3. 5.

hringla, að, to clatter, rattle.

hring-leikr, m. a game in which the players stood in a ring, a ring-dance; um kveldit eptir náttverð mælti Sturla við Guðnýju húsfreyju, at slá skyldi hringleik, ok fara til alþýða heimamanna ok gestir, Sturl. i. 82; slá hringleik, Stj. 400, 466; gera h., id., Karl. 470.

hring-læginn, adj. coiled up, of a serpent, Hm. 85.

hring-ofinn, part. woven with rings, of a coat of mail, Lex. Poët.: woven with rings, of a stuff, Vm. 22, Am. 33.

HRINGR, m., pl. hringar, in mod. usage sometimes hringir: [A. S., Hel., and O. H. G. hring; Engl., Germ., Dan., and Swed. ring, ringlet]: I. a ring, circle; tungl hvert gengr sinn hring, Rb. 53 (1812); h. jarðar, the earth’s circumference, Hom. 20; slá hring um e-n, to make a ring around one, Stj. 312, Fms. viii. 67; hann hefir lykkju af ái en hringinn af ói, of the circle or bight of the letter , Skálda 161; hann þóttisk sjá þangat hring ok elds-lit á, Nj. 194. 2. í hring, adv. in a ring or circle; þeir lögðu þann sjá í hring utan um hana, Edda; sól gengr umhverfis í hring, Rb. 66 (1812); standa umhverfis í hring, to stand round in a ring, Fms. iv. 160, (mann-hringr, a ring of men); hann sveiflaði sverðinu í hring um sik, he swept with his sword all round him, Sturl. iii. 220; hann fór í hring um (swam in a circle around) skipit, Ld. 56; lagðir steinar í hring utan um, Eg. 486; nú snúask þessi merki í hring um heiminn á hverjum tveim dægrum, Rb. 104; hann gékk þá í hring hjá konungi, Fms. vi. 206. 3. as an adverb. phrase, með (at) hringum, all around, altogether, taka allt með hringum, Arnór; hann lét leggja eld í kirkju ok bæinn ok brendu upp með hringum, Fms. vii. 212; brenna bæinn upp at hringum, x. 389 (Ágrip). II. a ring, Lat. annulus: 1. a ring at the end of a chest, Fms. i. 178, kistu-h.; in a door, Rm. 23; hurðar-h., Ísl. Þjóðs. ii: the ring at the end of the hilt to which the friðbönd (q. v.) were fastened, Hkv. Hjörv. 9: the chain or links in a kettle chain (hadda), Hým. 33: an anchor ring (akkeris-h.) β. the rings in a coat of mail, the Sagas and Lex. Poët. passim, whence hringa-brynja, u, f. a coat of ring-mail, see brynja, Fms. i. 43, vi. 416–421, ix. 27, Karl. 542, the Sagas passim, see Worsaae, No. 474; hring-kofl, m., hring-skyrta, u, f., hring-serkr, m. a shirt of rings, coat of ring-mail, Lex. Poët.: a coat of mail is called hring-ofin, adj. woven with rings. 2. but esp. a ring on the arm, finger (gull-h., silfr-h., járn-h.), passim; rauðir hringar, the red rings, Þkv. 29, 32; men ok hringar, Vsp. 23, passim; and hence gener. = money, see baugr. A lordly man is in poetry called hring-berandi, -bjóðr, -brjótr, -broti, -drífir, -hreytandi, -lestir, -mildr, -miðlandi, -rífr, -skati, -skemmir, -snyrtir, -stríðandi, -stýrir, -tælir, -varpaðr, -viðr, -þverrir, the bearer, breaker … or spender of rings, Lex. Poët.: a woman from wearing rings, hring-eir, -skögul, -þöll, -varið; and a man, hring-þollr, etc. III. a ship is called Hringr (also in present use), Eg. (in a verse); hringr Ullar, the ship of Ull, i. e. his shield, Akv. 30; cp. Hring-horni, the mythol. ship of the Edda: Hringr is the pr. name of a man, Fb. iii, Landn.

hring-snúa, sneri, to twirl or turn round.

hrinur, f. pl. [hrína], a howling, Sturl. iii. 176, Fas. iii. 149, Konr. 29.

HRIP, n. a box of laths or a basket to carry peat and the like on horseback, with a drop at the bottom, Lv. 65, (mó-hrip, torf-hrip.) hrips-grind, f. the frame of a h., id. Hence the phrase, það er eins og að ausa vatni í hrip, ‘it is like pouring water into a sieve,’ (cp. Lat. ‘Danaidum dolia implere’), of useless efforts: hurried work, e. g. hurried writing, as if dropped out of the quill.

HRIPA, að, to leak much; þá hripar allt, or það hrip-lekr, it leaks fast: metaph. to write hurriedly, h. bréf; það er hripað í mesta flýtri.

hrips, n. and hrípsa, að, see hrifsa.

hripuðr, m., poët. a fire, Edda (Gl.), Gm. 1.

HRISTA, t, [Ulf. hrisjan = to shake; A. S. hreosan; Hel. hrisjan; Dan. ryste]:—to shake, Ld. 148, Hým. 1; h. höfuðit, to shake one’s head, Fms. iii. 192; h. skegg, to shake the beard, Þkv. 1; h. e-t af sér, to shake it off, Sd. 158, Fms. vii. 186; hann hristi at honum stúfinn, v. 184; hann hristi bótann af fæti sér, vii. 186; h. vönd yfir e-m, Sks. 700; h. teninga í hendi sér, Fb. ii. 174; hrista sik, to shake himself, of a dog, lion; þeim hristusk tennr í höfði, the teeth chattered in their mouth, Fas. i. 78; marir hristusk, the horses shook their manes, Hkv. Hjörv. 28; darraðr hristisk, the shafts shook, Hkm. 2; björg hristusk, of an earthquake, Haustl.: also freq. in mod. usage, hið græna tréð var hrakið ok hrist, Pass. 32. 13.

hristir, m. a shaker; h. hjálms, helm-shaker, κορυθαίολος, Lex. Poët.

hristi-sif, f., poët.; h. háls-hringa, the shaker of the necklace, epithet of a lady, Bragi.

HRÍÐ, f. [A. S. hrîð a απ. λεγ. in the poem Widsith; Scot. and North. E. snow-wreath]:—a tempest, storm, in old writers only of a snow storm, as also in present use, except in western Icel., where rain and sleet are also called hríð; hríðir ok íllviðri, Rb. 102; hríð mikla görði at þeim, Nj. 263; hríð veðrs, 282; önnur hríð kom þá menn riðu til alþingis (A. D. 1118) ok drap fé manna fyrir norðan land, Bs. i. 74; í ógurligum hríðum, 656 B. 12; þá görði á harða veðráttu ok hríðir á fjallinu, ok hinn sjötta dag Jóla höfðu þeir hríð, Sturl. iii. 215; þá gerði at þeim hríð svá mikla, at hríðin drap til dauðs son hans frumvaxta, Fms. vi. 31; þá létti hríðinni, a violent snow storm, Bjarn. 55; síðan létti upp hríðinni, Fb. ii. 194; laust á fyrir þeim hríð mikilli, Dropl. 10; en hríðin hélzt hálfan mánuð ok þótti mönnum þat langt mjök, 11; þá kom hríð sú á Dymbildögum at menn máttu eigi veita tíðir í kirkjum, Bs. i. 30; hríð með frosti, Fas. iii. 318. 2. metaph. a shock, attack, in a battle; hörð, snörp, hríð, Fms. ii. 323, viii. 139, Hkr. iii. 158, Nj. 115, Eg. 492, passim; þá lét jarlinn binda postulann ok berja svipum, en er gengnar vóru sjau hríðir (rounds) bardagans, 656 B. 4; Dags-hríð, Orra-hríð, Ó. H. ch. 227, Fms. vi. 421. 3. medic., in plur. paroxysms of pain, of fever; hafa harðar hríðir, sóttar-hríðir, paroxysms of fever: but esp. pangs of childbirth (fæðingar-hríðir); Forðum lögðust fjöll á gólf | fengu strangar hríðir, rendering of ‘parturiunt montes’ of Horace, Grönd. II. the nick of time: 1. a while; nökkura hríð, for a while, Nj. 1; langa hríð, a long while, Ó. H. 31; litla hríð, a little while, Fas. iii. 48; langar hríðir, for long spells of time, Fms. vii. 199; þessar hríðir allar, all this while, Hkr. i. 211; á lítilli hríð, in a short while, Sks. 232 B; um hríð, or (rarely) um hríðir, for a while, Ó. H. 32, Fs. 8, Eg. 59, 91, 95; enn of hríð, Ísl. ii. 360; um hríðar sakir, id., Fs. 134; orrinn er um hríð (a while ago) var nefndr, Stj. 77; sem um hríð (for a while) var frá sagt, 104: in plur., þau vandræði er á þetta land hafa lagzt um hríðir, N. G. L. i. 445; höfu vér nú um hríðir iðuliga skoðat hana, Gþl. v. 2. adverb, phrases, α. hríðum, frequently; at þeir væri hríðum at Staðarhóli, Sturl. i. 62; stundum í Hvammi en hríðum at Stað, 193; hann mælti allt til andláts síns ok söng hríðum ór psaltera, Fms. vii. 227, cp. Hdl. 38. β. í hríðinni, immediately, at once; hann fór í hríðinni upp til Hofs, Fms. ix. 520; báru þeir hann þá í hríðinni ofan í Naustanes, Eg. 398; þegar í hríðinni (= Lat. jam jam), Stj. 7; þásk hans bæn þegar í hríðinni, 272, 274; þá bað Sveinn at þeir færi til Sandeyjar, ok fyndisk þar, þvíat hann lézk þangat fara mundu í hríðinni, Orkn. 388; létusk þá enn sex menn í hríðinni, Eb. 278; þrem sinnum í hríðinni, thrice in succession, D. N. ii. 225; so also, í einni hríð, all at once, Tristr. 6. III. local (rare), space, distance; Erlingr ríðr mest, þar næst Ubbi, ok var þó hríð löng á millum, Mag. 9; stundar-hríð, Hkr. i. 150.

hríða, d, to excite, Th. 3.

hríð-blásinn, part. storm-blown, Hallfr. (epithet of the waves).

hríð-drepa, adj. killed by a snow storm, 656 B. 12.

hríð-fastr, adj. held fast by a storm, Sturl. ii. 235, Fms. ii. 239.

hríð-feldr, adj. stormy, epithet of the clouds, Gm. 40, v. l. (Edda).

hríðir, m., poët. a sword, Edda (Gl.)

hríð-lyndr, adj. distressed, agitated, Vígl. (in a verse).

hríð-mál, n. the nick of time, Edda i. 332 (Ob.), where Kb. hrimdal (wrongly); cp. the words, en jöfnuðr var milli prestanna samt annarra góðra bænda þar í Fljótum, sem gáfu ánum hey allan vetrinn, ok mín á Okrum í miðsveitinni, sem ekki gaf hey nema at taka úr hríðmál, Fél. iv. 198, where hríðmál and allan vetrinn are opposed to each other.

hríð-tjald, n., poët. the heaven, Harms. 28.

hríð-viðri, n. a tempest, Eb. 204, Sturl. iii. 215.

hrífa, u, f. a rake, Eb. 258, Fms. iii. 207, Háv. 47. COMPDS: hrífu-tindr, m. the teeth of a rake; hrifu-skapt, -höfuð, n. a rake-handle, head of a rake, freq. in mod. usage.

HRÍFA, hreif, hrifu, hrifinn, [prob, from the same root as hrifsa, cp. Engl. to rive]:—to catch, grapple; kasta akkerum, ok hrífa þau við um síðir, Bs. i. 423; en nokkuð bægði allstaðar svá at hvergi hreif við, Gísl. 125; þá hét hann á heilagan Jón biskup … ok hreif þegar við, Bs. i. 197; hann reist þeim seiðvillur með þeim atkvæðum, at þeim hrifi sjálfum seiðmönnum, Fas. iii. 319; hann hrífr þá til hlustanna, Fs. 146: rare in old writers, but freq. in mod. usage: also in a metaph. sense, to affect, to move, touch, stir into a passion, hrifinn, part. moved, enthusiastic, etc.

HRÍM, n. [A. S. hrîm; Engl. rime; Dan. rim-frost; cp. Germ. reif]:—rime, hoar frost, Edda 4, Vþm. 31, Korm. (in a verse), Fms. vi. 23 (in a verse), Merl. 1. 51, freq. in mod. usage. COMPDS: hrím-drif, n. a drift of rime, Sks. 230. Hrím-faxi, a, m. Rime-mane, a mythol. horse, Edda 56, Vþm. 14. hrím-fextr, part. rime-maned, of the waves, Fas. ii. (in a verse). hrím-frosinn, part. rimy, Sks. 230. hrím-steinar, m. pl. rime stones, Edda 38, 48. Hrím-þursar, m. pl. ‘Rime-giants;’ the Titans of the Scandin. mythology were so called, as opposed to and older than the common Jötnar (Giants), Vþm. 33, Hm. 109, Gm. 31, Skm. 34; hrímþursar ok bergrisar, Edda 10, 15, 25, 38. II. the black soot on a kettle, ketil-hrím. COMPDS: Hrím-gerðr, f. name of a giantess, Hkv. Hjörv. hrím-kaldr, adj. rime cold, Vþm. 21, Ls. 49, Fm. 38. hrím-kalkr, m. a rimy cup, from the froth on the mead, Ls. 53, Skm. 37.

hrím-aldi, a, m. a lazy lout, who lies on the hearth black with soot, cp. kolbítr, Fas. iii. 18.

hrímandi, see hrynjandi.

hrími, a, m. = hrím, Lex. Poët.

Hrímnir, m. the name of a giant, Edda.

hrímugr, adj. sooty, black, Korm. (in a verse).

HRÍNA, pres. hrín; pret. hrein, pl. hrinu; part. hrinið:—

A. To squeal like swine; stundum jarmaði hann sem geit eðr hrein sem svín, Greg. 50, Fas. iii. 148; hani, krummi, hundr, svín … | galar, krunkar, geltir, hrín, a ditty, passim. β. of an animal in heat; þá hljóp merr at hestinum ok hrein við, Edda 26; hrein hænan við hananum, Fs. 156.

B. [A. S. hrînan = tangere], to cleave to, stick; það hrín ekki á, it will not stick, e. g. of throwing water on a duck’s back; það hrín ekki á svörtu, i. e. black (spots) on black will not be seen. 2. metaph. to take effect, hurt, esp. of curses or imprecations; mjök þykir þetta atkvæði á hafa hrinit, Ld. 154; ella mun ek mæla þat orð er alla æfi mun uppi vera í knérunni yðrum, ok mun á hrína, Anal. 186; ellegar hríni þat allt á þér sem ek hefi þér verst beðit, Fas. iii. 206, 390; þótti þat mjök hafa hrinit á er Ósvífr hafði spáð, Ld. 230; cp. áhrins-orð, curses that take effect.

HRÍS, n. [A. S. hrîs; Old Engl. ris or rys (Chaucer); Dan. riis; Swed. ris; Germ. reis]:—a collective noun, shrubs, brushwood; hrís ok hátt gras, Hm. 120; smá hris ok þá enn holt, Fms. vi. 334 (v. l.), vii. 31, Eg. 220; hann fannsk í hrísum nokkurum, Fms. vii. 31, 68, Fs. 155; hörfuðu þeir þannig um hrísin, Sturl. i. 150: fagots, Ld. 214, 216, Rm. 9; til hrísa ok haga, Jm. 7; brjóta hrís, to break fagots, D. N. i. 215: so in the phrase, brjóta hrís í hæla e-m, to break fagots on another’s heels, give him a thrashing, Fms. vi. 339 (in a verse): rífa hrís, to make fagots: the saying, þjökkva skal hræsinn við (nið?) með hrísi, Sighvat, is dubious, perh. við = nið, i. e. a proud son wants the rod, cp. Prov. xiii. 24. II. local names, Hrísar, Hrís-hóll, etc., Landn. COMPDS: hrís-bítr, m. twig-biter, a nickname, Fms. ix. hrís-brot, n. breaking wood for fagots, D. N. hrís-byrðr, f. a load of fagots, Fbr. 47, Pm. 423. hrís-fleki, a, m. a hurdle of brush-wood, Rd. 240. hrís-högg, n. = hrísbrot, Vm. 96. hrís-kjörr, n. pl. brushwood, Ld. 204, Landn. 68, Fms. vii. 31, 123, Þiðr. 67. hrís-magi, a, m. a nickname, Ld. 216. hrís-rif, n. = hrísbrot, Grág. ii. 263, 264, Dipl. v. 10. hrís-runnr, m. a bush, Eb. 200, Rd. 250, Fms. vii. 250, Thom. 473.

hrísa, u, f. a female hrísungr (q. v.), N. G. L. i. 206.

hrísi, a, m. = hrísungr (?), a nickname, Landn.

hrísla, u, f. a dimin. a twig or sprig of a branch, Ísl. ii. 356, Rd. 240, Ld. 52, N. G. L. i. 270, Fb. iii. 453, Barl. 56.

hrís-óttr, adj. grown with shrubs, Eg. 219, Fb. iii. 453.

hrísungr, m. a law term, a kind of bastard, one begotten in the woods, but of a free mother, N. G. L. i. 48, 228: in the Grágás, a son born of a free woman, but begotten whilst she was a bondwoman; he could not inherit, and, though called free born, had to be declared free personally (pro formâ), Grág. i. 178; cp. rishöfde in the old Swed. law. The heipt hrísungs = stones, Ýt. 19, refers to the tale of the Sons of Jormunrek, of which one (Erp) is in Hðm. called hornungr.

hrjá, f. a rout, (cp. slang Engl. row), struggle, Fms. vi. 212, Fas. ii. 505.

HRJÁ, ð, to vex, distress, harass a person, Fms. vi. 204 (v. l.), viii. 78, Th. 77: neut. to struggle, wrestle, hann kvaðsk af hafa lagt at rjá (sic), Grett. 146 A: freq. in mod. usage and with the h, Pass. 9. 9; hrjáð er holdið líka, Stef. Ól.

HRJÓÐA, pret. hrauð, pl. hruðu, part. hroðinn:—to strip, disable, esp. a ship in a sea-fight; hann hrauð öll víkinga-skipin, Fms. i. 27; var þá hroðit þat skip stafna á meðal, 178; þau skip er þeir sjálfir ynni ok hryði af Ólafi konungi, ii. 303; hruðu þeir öll Dana skip þau er þeir fengu haldit, 314; hrauð Magnús konungr þat skip ok síðan hvárt at öðru, vi. 78, 84; þeir hruðu sum skipin Birkibeina, viii. 290; léttu þeir feðgar eigi fyrr en hroðit var skipit, Eg. 122. 2. of ships, to unload; þeir hrjóða skip sín ok setja landfestar, Al. 13; ok er rétt at h. skip ok bera farm af þótt Drottins-dagr sé, af …, K. Þ. K. 82; skip skal eigi h. um helgi nema skips-háski sé, N. G. L. i. 142. 3. to be cleared; var þá enn hroðinn valrinn, the battle-field was cleared of the slain, Fms. v. 97; mun hroðit myrkvanum (the fog has cleared away) þar sem þeir eru, Hkr. iii. 94. II. impers. to belch or vomit forth, of steam, fire, expectoration, or the like; kongrinn hjó með Hneiti þá svo hrauð af eggjum báðum, so that both edges struck fire, Ór. 48; eldi hrauð ór hlunni, Lex. Poët.; kvað hann þat vera svelg ok hrauð stundum svá hátt upp ór sem fjall væri, Bret. 49 (1845); hrauð upp ór honum miklu vatni (he brought up much water) er hann hafði drukkit, Mag. 76; hrauð í himin upp glóðum, Edda (in a verse); hrýðr um krapit, Finnb. 310 III. reflex. hrjóðask, to be cleared, stripped, Jd., Hkm., Lex. Poët.

hrjóðr, m. [A. S. hroder], poët. one of the heavens, Edda (Gl.); whence hrjóðr-leika, u, f. the sun, id.

hrjóðr, m. a destroyer, Lex. Poët.

hrjóna, u, f. [Old Engl. royne = a scab; roynous, roynish = scabby (Chaucer and Shaksp.); cp. also ronyon]:—roughness, Edda (Lauf.), and hrjónungr, m. id., esp. from flaws in ice. The word, which is old, although not recorded in ancient writers, is interesting on account of its being akin to hraun, q. v.

hrjónn, adj. rough; h. íshrufa, Edda.

HRJÓSA, hraus, hrusu. subj. hrysi, a defect. strong verb: [A. S. hreosan = to shake; Ivar Aasen rysja; Swed. rysa; akin to hrista, q. v.]:—to shudder; ok hraus þeim mjök hugr við hánum, Grett. 78 new Ed.; ávallt hrýs mér hugr við er ek sé þik, Krók. 7 new Ed. (1866).

hrjóstr, m. a rough place, barren rocky place, Grág. ii. 282, Jb. 242.

hrjóstugr, adj., mod. hrjóstrugr, rough, barren, Bs. i. 674.

HRJÓTA, pres. hrýt, pl. hrjóta; pret. hraut, 2nd pers. hrauzt, pl. hrutu; subj. hryti; part. hrotinn:—to rebound, fall, fly, be flung, with the notion of shaking or violence; öxin hraut ór hendi honum, Nj. 28, Fs. 101; björg hrutu ór stað, Rb. 318; hrutu fyrir borð höfuð ok limir, Fms. i. 171; hraut upp hurðin, vi. 121; annarr hraut í sundr, rent asunder, Hkr. ii. 143; barrarnar hrutu í sundr, were crushed, Sturl. ii. 49; hamrar sprungu en hrutu steinar, Krosskv. 13; vápnin hrutu af upp af skallanum, the swords rebounded from his skull, without hurting him, Fms. xi. 132; förunautar hans hrutu frá, they started back, Fbr. 40; hann blæss í nafars-raufina ok hrjóta spænirnir upp móti honum, Edda 49; en þó hraut þat upp fyrir Þorgrími, at …, that (word) broke forth from Th., he was heard to say, that …, Grett. 120 A. 2. metaph., eldr hraut ór törgunni, fire started from the target, Korm. 88; eldr hraut ór hlunnunum ok lönd öll skulfu, Edda 38, Gullþ. 9; hryti hár logi hús mín í gögnum, Am. 15; svá sýndist sem dust hryti ór hreinbjálfanum, the dust flew out of the cloak, Fb. ii. 356; hrýtr (sparkled) ór skallanum við höggin, Fms. xi. 132; hraut ór af vætu, it drizzled into a shower, Sturl. iii. 112; hrýtr blóð ór munni eða nösum, Grág. i. 149 new Ed.

B. To snore, a different word, of which the older and better form was rjóta, as shewn by alliteration in old poems, see p. 227: [A. S. hrûtan; Old Engl. rout or rowt; Swed. ryta]:—þá raut við enn reginkunni Baldr í brynju sem björn ryti, Hðm. 26; hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga, Edda 29; sofnar Skrýmir ok hraut fast, id., Grett. 154; konungr hraut mjök, Fms. ii. 139; flagðit hraut ógurliga hátt, Fb. i. 258; sofnar hann þegar fast, ok hraut mikinn, Finnb. 336; hann hraut mjök, Fas. ii. 133, Sturl. ii. 50.

HRJÚFR, adj. [A. S. hreof = scabby; Engl. rough], rough, rugged to the touch; hrjúfr háls, Fas. iii. 37 (in a verse). 2. scabby, scurvy; líkþráir ok hrjúfir, 655 xi; þeir eru sem hrjúfir sé, er orðmargir eru, id.; hendr hans höfðu hryfar (i. e. hrjúfar) verit ok fætr ok vall hvárt-tveggja vági, Greg. 75, Ld. 232, v. l.

hroða, að, to huddle up; h. e-u af.

hroði, a, m. [hrjóða II], refuse, offal, Fær. 186; dún-h., refuse of eiderdown; medic. excretion. 2. = hrjá, a rout, riot, Fbr. 8; cp. also hryðja. hroða-vænligr, adj. likely to cause a row, Njarð. 366. II. metaph. a rough, brutal man. COMPDS: hroða-lega, adv. coarsely, badly (done). hroða-legr, adj. coarse, bad (workmanship): brutal. hroða-menni, n. a brutal person. hroða-skapr, m. brutality.

hroðinn, hroðit, part. of a lost verb [= A. S. hreôdan, to paint], painted, stained, only found once, hroðit sigli, Skv. 3. 47; and in the compd gull-roðinn, q. v.

hroð-virkr, adj. doing hurried and bungling work, (hroðvirkni, f.)

HROGN, n. pl. [Engl. roe; Dan. rogn; Swed. row], roe, spawn, Sks. 48, Landn. 117 (as a nickname), freq.

hrogn-kelsi, n., proncd. hrokkelsi, the cyclopterus, lump-sucker, collectively; but the male fish is called rauðmagi, the female grámagi or grásleppa, Bjarn. (in a verse), freq. hrokkelsa-fjara, u, f. catching lump-suckers on the beach.

HROKA, að, (see hraukr), to fill a vessel above the brim; cistera hrokuð af gulli, Hkr. iii. 245; hrokaðr (brimful) af úlyfjan, Th. 19: metaph., h. sig upp, to puff oneself up with pride: also hroka-fylla, t, to fill over the brim.

hroki, a, m. the heap above the brim of a full vessel; með hroka færdæmingar, covered with disgrace, H. E. i. 514. II. metaph. insolence, overbearing manners, freq. COMPDS: hroka-fullr, adj. full of insolence. hroka-legr, adj. (-lega, adv.), overbearing. hroka-yrði, n. swelling words, Jude 16.

hrokk-áll, m. a kind of eel, old form hrökkvi-áll, Bragi.

hrokkinn, part. (see hrökkva), curled: hrokkin-hárr, -hærðr, adj. curly-haired, Fms. vii. 101, Fbr. 5, 176, Bs. i. 127, Þiðr. 176: hrokkin-skinna, u, f. ‘wrinkle-skin,’ term of abuse for an old woman, Fms. ii. 130: name of a MS. given to it by Torfeus, cp. Fagr-skinna, Grá-skinna, Gullin-skinna, Morkin-skinna, = Fair-skin, Gray-skin, Golden-skin, Rotten-skin, all names of Icel. vellum MSS.

hrolla, d, to shiver, and metaph. to shudder; hrollir hugr minn, Fb. i. (in a verse); hroldi hotvetna, Am. 95; hrolla á hríslu, Fas. i. (in a verse), cp. Sól. 38.

HROLLR, m. a shivering, from cold; hann hafði hroll mikinn í búknum, Fas. ii. 394; h. kom í hörund honum, Orkn. 184; h. og kuldi, Dropl. (Major); kulda-h., a shivering from cold: metaph. horror, Fas. i. 194.

hropti, a, m. a word of uncertain sense; Ögmundr sagðisk eigi þá mundu sigla lengra en um þveran hroptann, Sd. 151.

HROPTR, m. a mythical name of Odin, perh. the crier, prophet (from hrópa), Gm. 8, Kormak, Vsp. 61, Ls. 45, Eb. 78 (in a verse), Hd. (Edda); prop. an appellative, as seen from the compds Rögna-hroptr, m. the crier of the gods, the prophet = Odin, Hm. 143; Hropta-týr, m. the crying god = Odin, Hm. 161, Gm. 54.

HROSS, m., spelt hors, Stj. 178: [A. S. hors; Engl. horse; O. H. G. hros; Germ. ross]:—a horse, Hm. 70, Grág. i. 194, 432, 433, 599, Nj. 69, Sturl. iii. 227, Gþl. 190, Eb. 106, Fb. ii. 184, 313; stóð-h., a stud-horse, steed; mer-h., a mare; áburðar-h., a hackney. 2. spec. a mare, opp. to hestr, a stallion; litföróttr hestr með ljósum hrossum, Gullþ. 14, Hrafn. 6; hestr eða h., N. G. L. ii. 68; ef maðr á hest (a stallion), þá skal hann annathvárt kaupa hross (a mare) til, eða fá at láni, 125. COMPDS: I. hrossa-bein, n. horse bone, horse flesh, Sturl. i. 184. hrossa-beit, f. bite or grazing for horses, Jm. 20, Pm. 38. hrossa-brestr, m. a rattle. hrossa-fellir, m. loss of horses, from hunger or disease, Ann. 1313. hrossa-fúlga, u, f. fodder or pay given to keep a horse, Grág. i. 432. hrossa-fætr, m. pl. horses’ hoofs, Rb. 348; troðin undir hrossa fótum, Fas. i. 227. hrossa-gaukr, see gaukr. hrossa-geymsla, u, f. horse keeping, Grett. 91. hrossa-hús, n. a stable, Fms. i. 108, xi. 407, Grett. 91, Orkn. 218, Bs. i. 285. hrossa-höfn, f. horse-keep, horse pasture, Íb. 6. hrossa-kjöt, n. horse flesh, horse meat, Fms. i. 36. hrossa-kyn, n. horse flesh, Fas. iii. 132. hrossa-letr, n. ‘horse-letters,’ a large coarse hand-writing. hrossa-maðr, m. a groom, Þorst. Stang. 48; Kjartan kvaðsk engi vera h. ok vildi eigi þiggja, Ld. 194. hrossa-móða, u, f. the dirt and loose hairs which come off the coat of an ungroomed horse. hrossa-móðugr, adj. covered with h. hrossa-reið, f. a horse-race, horse-riding, Grág. i. 432, 438. hrossa-skella, u, f. = hrossabrestr. hrossa-slátr, n. horse meat, Nj. 164, Hkr. i. 143, Fms. x. 300. hrossa-sótt, f. horse fever, a kind of horse’s disease. hrossa-stuldr, m. horse stealing, Fms. iii. 147. hrossa-taka, u, f. id., Eb. 56. hrossa-vöndr, m. a horse-whip, Art. hrossa-þjófr, m. a horse-stealer, Hbl. 8. hrossa-þöngull, m. a kind of seaweed, fucus digitatus. hross-bak, n. horse-back, Sturl. i. 146, ii. 219, Jb. 262. hross-bein, n. a horse’s bone, Sturl. i. 184. hross-eigandi, a, m. part. a horse owner, Grág. i. 437. hross-fellir, n. = hrossafellir. hross-fjöldi, a, m. a drove of horses, Glúm. 316. hross-fóðr, m. horse-fodder, N. G. L. i. 240. hross-gjöf, f. the gift of a horse, Sturl. i. 155. hross-görsemi, f. a ‘treasure of a horse,’ a valuable horse, Bs. i. 633. hross-hali, a, m. a horse’s tail, Fms. ix. 18. hross-hauss, m. a horse’s head, Fas. ii. 300: as a term of abuse, afgamall h. hross-hár, n. horse-hair. Hrosshárs-grani, a, m. one of the names of Odin, prob. from wearing a frock or hekla of horse-hair, hross-hófr, m. a horse’s hoof, Al. 156. hross-hvalr, m. [A. S. horshwæl = horse-whale; the Germ. form being wall-ross; Engl. wal-rus], a walrus, Edda (Gl.), Sks. 30 new Ed., Korm. 164, K. Þ. K. 138: ropes of walrus skin (svörðr) were used of old for rigging ships, see king Alfred’s Orosius. hross-höfuð, n. = hrosshauss, Eg. 389. hross-íss, m. (= hrossheldr íss), horse-ice, i. e. ice safe to ride on, Sturl. iii. 21. hross-klyf, f. a horse pack, Karl. 382. hross-lifr, f. a horse’s liver, Hkr. i. 144. hross-nautn, f. using a horse, Grág. i. 432, 441. hross-reið, f. horse-riding, a horse-race, Grág. i. 432, 433, 442. hross-rófa, u, f. a horse’s tail, Fas. iii. 473. hross-síða, u, f. a horse’s side, Orkn. 12. hross-spell, n. the damaging a horse, N. G. L. i. 176. hross-tagl, n. a horse’s tail, Art. hross-tönn, f. a horse’s tooth. hross-verð, n. the worth of a horse, Grág. i. 434, Jb. 273. hross-þjófr, m. a horse-stealer: name of a giant, Hdl. hross-æta, u, f. an eater of horse flesh, which by the old eccl. law might not be eaten. II. in pr. names, Hross-kell, Hross-björn, Landn.: local name, Hross-ey, in the Orkneys.

HROSTI, a, m. [Dan. roste; perh. the Engl. roast is akin; in Ivar Aasen rostethe mash]:—the mash in a brewer’s boiler, also the boiler and mash together; fánn h., the shining frothy mash, Stor. 18; whence hrosta-fen, hrosta-brim, n. the hot boiling fluid, Kormak, Arnór; hrosta-búð, f. a beer-shop, D. N. v. 763; hrosta-lúðr, m. a ‘mash-box,’ = the boiler; the word only occurs in poetry.

hrota, u, f. the barnacle-goose, = hrotgás: as a term of abuse, karl-hrota, an old man.

hrot-gás, f. [Dan. rodgaas; Norse rotgaas; Orkn. rood-goose]:—a barnacle-goose, Edda (Gl.)

hrotti, a, m., poët. a sword, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.: metaph. a coarse, rude fellow; sá inn heimski h., Fms. ii. 161; hinn gamli hrottinn, Grett. 118 A, Karl. 534. COMPDS: hrotta-legr, adj. coarse, crude, hrotta-skapr, m. coarseness.

hrotur, f. pl. snoring.

hró, see hræ.

hróð-mögr, m. the great, famous son, Hkr. i. 114 (in a verse).

HRÓÐR, m., gen. hróðrar and hróðrs: [A. S. hræð, hrôðer; O. H. G. hruodi; Goth. hrôþ is assumed as the subst. of hrôþeigs, 2 Cor. ii. 14]:—praise, prop. fame, reputation; heyra hróðr sinn, to hear one’s own praise, Fms. v. 174; bera hróðr e-s, 623. 36; hróðrs örverðr, unworthy of praise, Ad. 14, 15; njóta hróðrar, to enjoy one’s praise, Edda (in a verse); mun þinn hróðr (thy honour) ekki at meiri þó at ek mæla berara, Gísl. 16; hróðr varlega góðr, Fas. i. 267 (in a verse); ú-hróðr, disgrace. 2. esp. an encomium; göra hróðr of e-n, to compose a poem in one’s praise, Kormak; nemi hann háttu hróðrs míns, Edda (in a verse); hlýða hróðri sínum, to give ear to a song of praise, Sighvat. COMPDS (all from poems): hróðrar-gjarn, adj. willing to praise, of a poet, Rekst. 34. hróðr-auðigr, adj. rich in honour, famous, Sighvat. hróðr-barmr, m. the famous, fatal spray (the mistletoe), Vkv. 9. hróðr-barn, n. the glorious child, Lex. Poët. hróðr-deilir, m. a ‘praise-dealer,’ an encomiast, Gísl. 42 (in a verse). hróðr-fúss, adj. = hróðargjarn, Skv. 2. 21. hróðr-görð, f. ‘praise-making,’ an encomium, Lex. Poët. hróðr-kveði, a, m. a ‘praise-singer,’ a poet. Fas. iii. 36. hróðr-mál, n. pl. a song of praise, Hd. hróðr-smíð, f. = hróðrgörð, Lex. Poët. hróðr-sonr, m. = hróðmögr, Fms. vi. 348. hróðr-tala, u, f. praise, Lex. Poët. II. in a few instances the sense is ambiguous, and probably to be derived from hrjóða, to destroy, e. g. in Hróðvitnir, m. the fatal, murderous wolf, Edda 58, Gm. 39, Ls. 39: perh. also in hróðrbarmr (above). III. in pr. names as prefix (cp. O. H. G. Hruod-land = Roland), Hróð-marr, Hróð-geirr; assimil. in Hrol-leifr, Hrol-laugr: absorbed in Hró-arr (qs. Hróðarr = Hrod-here), Hró-aldr, Hró-mundr: as also in Hrœ-rekr (A. S. Hrêðric = Engl. Roderick), Hró-bjartr (= Engl. Robert), Hrolfr (qs. Hróð-úlfr = Germ. Rudolph, Engl. Ralph): also, Hróð-ný, a woman’s name, Landn.: the obsolete pr. names Hreið-arr and Hreið-marr may also belong to the same root; as also Hreið-Gotar or Reið-Gotar (A. S. Hrêðgotan), a division of the Goths, Hervar. S., Skjöld.

hróðugr, adj. [Ulf. hrôþeigs; A. S. hréðig], triumphant, Vkv. 18, Ls. 45: glorious, Gm. 19, Ad. 9, Lex. Poët.: as also in poët. compds, vin-h., al-h.: freq. in mod. usage in the sense of boasting, triumphant.

HRÓF, n. [A. S. hrôf; Engl. roof; Dutch roef], a shed under which ships are built or kept, Ld. 34, 112, Grág. ii. 400, Landn. 30, Krók. 10 new Ed.; Þangbrands-hróf, Bs. i. 14; Stíganda-hróf, Fs. 28: in local names, Hróf-á, Hróf-berg (proncd. Hró-berg), Landn.

hrófl, n. scrapings; það er ekki nema hrófl, hann hefir hróflað því saman, of loose uncritical compilation.

hrófla, að, to scrape together. 2. dep. to get out of order, Sks. 385.

hrófna, að, to be dilapidated.

HRÓKR, m. [Ulf. hruk = crowing; A. S. hrôc; Engl. rook; O. H. G. hruoh]:—a rook, Edda (Gl.), Ht., Lex. Poët. passim. hróka-ræða, u, f. long-winded foolish talk, croaking; in the popular Icel. phrase, setja upp hrókaræðu, to set up long-winded talk, begin a ‘long yarn,’ which reminds one of the Goth. sense; um hann mælti Sæmundr bróðir Páls, at hann væri hrókr alls fagnaðar hvargi er hann væri staddr, referring to his conversation and cheerfulness in company, Bs. (Páls S.) i. 137. β. a term of abuse, a croaker, scurra garrulus, Kormak, Orkn. (in a verse); heimskr hrókr, Fbr. (in a verse). 2. a pr. name, Fas. II. [from the Indian roch = elephant’s castle, through the Engl.], the rook or castle in chess; skáka í hróks-valdi, to check in the guard of the rook; eiga sér hrók í horni. hróks-mát, n. checkmate with the rook, Mag.

hróp, n. [Ulf. hrôps = κραυγή; North. E. and Scot. roup, a public auction, from the calling out of the articles]:—cavilling, scurrility, Korm. 162, Fms. iii. 154; hróp ok háðung, Band. 31 new Ed.; hróp ok róg, Ls. 4; þú ert allra manna hróp (a laughing-stock) ok reklingr, MS. 4. 26. 2. [Germ. ruf], crying, screaming, mod. COMPDS: hróp-laust, n. adj. without taunt, Str. 69. hróps-tunga, u, f. a ‘slander-tongue,’ foul mouth, Anal. 175. hróp-yrði, n. pl. scurrility, Fms. iii. 154, Gísl. 53.

HRÓPA, að, [Ulf. hrôpjan = κράζειν; A. S. hreôpan; Hel. hrôpan; Scot. roup or rope; O. H. G. hruofan; Germ. rufen; Dutch roepen; Dan. raabe]:—to slander, defame a person, Nj. 68, Eg. 62, Landn. 238, Stj. 192, Str. 15, Orkn. 120, Anal. 175, Ísl. ii. 238. II. [Germ. rufen], to cry, call aloud, freq. in mod. usage.

hrós, n. [Swed., Dan., and Ormul. ros], praise, freq. in mod. usage.

HRÓSA, að, [Old Engl. and Scot. roose; Dan. rose; Swed. rosa; Ormul. rosen]:—to praise, often with the notion to vaunt, boast, with dat., Vkv. 24, Hbl. 4, Nj. 147, Fms. vi. 239, Hkr. ii. 299, Sks. 229, 743; h. sér, to boast, Karl. 291, Gísl. 37; h. sigri, to triumph, Ann. 1340; með hrósanda sigri, triumphant, Sks. 631; því herfangi er þeir áttu opt at h., to boast of, Fms. x. 253; Saul hrósaði (boasted), at hann hefði vel gört, Sks. 702.

hrósan, f. praise, boasting, Str. 74. N. T.

hrósari, a, m. a boaster, Karl. 165, 283.

hrós-verðr, adj. praiseworthy.

HRÓT, n. [Ulf. hrôt = στέγη, Matth. viii. 8, etc., = δωμα, ib. x. 27, Luke v. 19, xvii. 31]:—a roof, only in poetry; hjarta hrót, poët. the ‘heart’s-roof,’ the breast, Landn. (in a verse); hreggs hrót, the ‘gale’s-roof,’ the sky; leiptra hrót, the ‘lightning-roof,’ the sky; heims hrót, the ‘world’s-roof,’ the heaven, Lex. Poët. hrót-gandr, m. ‘roof-wolf,’ fire; or hrót-garmr, m. id., Lex. Poët. 2. the roof near the outer door is in mod. usage called rót, f.

hruðning, f. a challenging of neighbours, judges, Grág. i. 39, 127, 178, ii. 85 (Kb.)

hrufa, u, f. [hrjúfr], a crust, the rough surface of a stone. β. the crust or scab of a boil or the like; h. á sári, N. G. L. i. 162, 305, Stj. 345, Bs. ii. 23.

hrufla, að, to scratch, Karl. 202, Mar.: reflex. to be scratched, of the skin, þar hefði hann hruflast og beinbrotnað, … eins hrufluðust hans áræðnu hendr á klettunum, Od. v. 426, 435.

hrufóttr, adj. rough, rugged to the touch, e. g. of a stone.

HRUKKA, u, f. [Engl. ruck, wrinkle; Dan. rynke; Swed. rynka; Lat. ruga]:—a wrinkle on the skin, but also of cloth, Barl. i. 174, Bs. i. 377, Thom. 518, Mar.: freq. in mod. usage, enga flekkan né hrukku, Ephes. v. 27.

hrukkast, að, dep. to be wrinkled.

hrukkóttr, adj. rugged, wrinkled, Lat. rugosus.

hruma, ð, to enfeeble, make infirm; Þorvarði hrumði sárit, Lv. 86. II. reflex. to become old and infirm, Fas. iii. 204 (in a verse).

hrumaðr, adj. infirm, worn by age, Sturl. i. 57, Al. 55, Fms. vii. 12 (v. l.)

hrum-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), infirm, Mork. 92, Fb. iii. 376.

HRUMR, adj. infirm, staggering, esp. from age, Thom. 464; hrumr í göngu, Band. 28 new Ed.; stirðr ok h., Bs. i. 344; h. af vási, Fms. ii. 59; haltr ok h., Stj. 501; h. at fótum, Fms. vii. 12; h. af elli, Eg. 393, Pr. 194.

hrun, n. [hrynja], ruin, collapse. 2. = hraun, Skáld H. 2. 32.

Hrund, f. name of a Norse island; freq. used in poetry of women, bauga h., hringa h., Lex. Poët.

hrundning, f. [hrinda], kicking, pushing, Eg. 765, Vígl. 19.

Hrungnir, m. the name of a famous giant, Edda; prob. akin to A. S. hrung, Germ. runge, = pertica: a shield is called the pedestal of the giant H., from the tale told in Edda 56–59. Hrungnis-hjarta, n., see hjarta.

hrun-henda, u, f. = hrynhenda.

hrunki, a, m. [akin to Hrungnir?], a clown, brute; skal sjá við mik berjask hrunkinn, Glúm. 332.

hrun-sær, m. a breaker, Haustl. 11.

hrunull, adj. (?); h. þefr, a bad smell, Sturl. i. 27 (in a verse).

HRÚÐR, m., gen. hrúðrs, a crust, scab on a sore, Bs. i. 182, freq.: crusty, of moss on rocks. COMPDS: hrúðr-karl, m. crusted moss on rocks, Bb. 2. 13. hrúðr-urt, f., botan. scabiosa, the scabious, Hjalt.

hrúðra, að, to become crusted, of sores.

HRÚGA, u, f. [Shetl. rudge], a heap, Fs. 42, Stj. 628, Nj. 190, Glúm. 327, Fms. viii. 206, Fb. ii. 8; beina-h., Fas. i. 66; peninga-h., Mar.; fata-h., Grett. 151. II. a nickname, Glúm., Orkn.

hrúga, að, to heap, pile up, with dat.

hrúgald, n. a heap, mass, Fas. ii. 134.

hrúkr, m. a nickname, Landn.

HRÚTR, m. a ram, Grág. i. 427, 502, 503, Grett. 148, Rd. 260, Fs. 25. Stj. 580, Pr. 478, Fms. xi. 149: the zodiacal sign, Rb. 1812. 17: spec. phrases, svá sem börn göra hrúta með fingrum sér, as children make rams with their fingers, i. e. by twisting their fingers into the shape of rams’ horns, Fms. v. 348, a child’s game still well known in Icel.; skera hrúta, to snore aloud (cp. hrjóta B), Stef. Ól.; so, ic hrúti = sterto in king Alfred’s Gr. II. as a pr. name Hrútr; in local names, Hrúts-staðir, Hrúta-fjörðr, Hrút-ey, Landn. COMPDS: hrúta-ber, n., botan. rubus saxatilis, the stone-bramble. hrútaberja-lyng, n. the rubus ling. Hrút-firðingr, m. a man from Hrútafjörðr. hrút-lamb, n. a ram lamb, Jb. 294. hrút-mál, n. and hrút-mánuðr, m. ‘ram months,’ the winter months, when sheep are at heat; frá vetrnóttum til hrútmáls, Vm. 7; in Edda 103 the ram month is the 3rd month of winter. hrúts-fall, n. a ram’s carcase, Stj. 483. hrúts-gæra, u, f. the skin and fleece of a ram, Stj. 306. hrúts-horn, n. a ram’s horn. hrúta-höfn, f. pasture for rams, Vm. 7. hrúts-höfuð, n. a ram’s head, Rd. 260, 281. hrúts-mark (-merki, -líki), n. the sign Aries, Rb. hrúts-reyfi, n. a ram’s fleece, MS. 732. hrúts-svið, n. pl. a roasted ram’s head, the Scot. ‘singed head.’

hrúzi, a, m., dimin. from hrútr, a ramkin; hvað kemr til, hrússi minn, (κριε πέπον), að þú fer síðastr af fénu út úr hellinum, Od. ix. 447.

hryða, u, f. [hroði], excretion, Edda ii. 430.

HRYÐJA, hruddi, = ryðja, [cp. hrjóða], to clear; hryðja dóm, h. kvið, a law phrase, to challenge, Grág. ii. 85, 237 new Ed.

hryðja, u, f. [hroði and hrjóða II], rough weather, sleet, tempest; mörg er hryðja mótlætis um aldr, Stef. Ól.: medic. fits of coughing with excretion, of a sick person: metaph. an outrage, foul deed, hryðju-verk, n. a foul, brutal deed, Fas. iii. 445.

hryfi, n. [hrufa], a scab, Bs. i. 181, ii. 23.

hrygg-afl, n. strength of the back, Fas. ii. 345, Greg. 22, MS. 655 xi. 2.

hrygg-bjúgr, adj. crook-backed, Mar. 1040.

hrygg-boginn, part. bowed, bent, Thom. 356.

hrygg-brjóta, braut, to break the back.

hrygg-brotinn, part. broken-backed, Fms. x. 240, Greg. 48: metaph. an unhappy wooer is said to be hryggbrotin.

hrygg-brotna, að, to break one’s back, Bárð. 177.

HRYGGÐ or hrygð, f. affliction, grief, sorrow, Fms. i. 135, vi. 61, 237, ix. 494 (v. l.), Johann. 97, N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim. COMPDS: hrygðar-búnaðr and hrygðar-búningr, m. a mourning dress, Stj. 500, 642. hrygðar-dagr, m. a day of mourning and sorrow, Fms. vii. 157. hrygðar-efni, n. matter, cause of sorrow, Bs. i. 301. hrygðar-fullr, adj. sorrowful, rueful, Fms. ii. 162. hrygðar-grátr, m. wailing, lamentation, Mar. hrygðar-klæðnaðr, m. a mourning dress, Stj. 173, 207. hrygðar-lindi, a, m. a mourning belt, Stj. 208. hrygðar-mark, n. a token of sorrow, Bs. i. 144. hrygðar-mál, n. a sad case, Thom. 452. hrygðar-raust, f. a cry of sorrow, Pass. 41. 9. hrygðar-samligr, adj. mournful, Mar. hrygðar-svipr, m. a mournful look, 625. 96. hrygðar-söngr, m. a dirge, 625. 195.

hrygg-dreginn, part. bowed, bent, Thom. 478.

hryggi-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), mournful, sad, Fms. vi. 229, Sks. 227, Stj. 573, Róm. 239.

HRYGGJA, ð, older form hryggva, hryggvir, Harms. 60; hryggvask, Pd. 36; hrvggvisk, Fms. ii. 42: [A. S. hreowan; Engl. rue]:—to distress, grieve, with acc., Post. 645. 82, Karl. 481, Fas. i. 178, Ísl. ii. 238: impers., Fms. iii. 164, Band. 12 new Ed., Thom. 456, passim. II. reflex. to become grieved, Pd. 36, Fms. ii. 42, Sks. 225, N. T., Vídal., Pass., and in hymns; Mitt hjarta hvað svo hryggist þú?(= Warum betrübst du dich, mein herz?), Hólabók 208.

hrygg-knýttr, part. humpbacked, Karl. 547.

hrygg-leikr, m. (-leiki), affliction, grief, sorrow, 623. 57, Fms. x. 357, 368, Sks. 228, Bs. i. 78.

hrygg-lengja, u, f. the back of a hide.

hrygg-ligr, adj. = hryggiligr, Al. 59, 60.

hrygg-lundir, f. pl. the loins, Fms. ii. 82, Eb. 109 new Ed.; in the Sdm. 1. 1, ‘hrælundir’ is no doubt a false reading for hrygglundir, the loins.

HRYGGR, m., gen. hryggjar, pl. hryggir, [A. S. hrycg; Engl. rigg, ridge (but only in the metaph. sense); O. H. G. hrucki; Germ. rücken; Dan. ryg; Swed. rygg]:—the back, spine, vertebrae dorsi, in men and beasts, the spine of a fish being called dálkr, q. v.; and even used of serpents, orma-h., Vsp. 44, Fms. v. 157, vii. 208, Nj. 129, 155, Gþl. 459, Karl. 426, Bs. i. 354, ii. 167, Grett. 90, 112. II. metaph. a ridge, Gísl. 34, Landn. 115; fjall-h., a mountain ridge; in local names, as Öldu-hryggr: the middle of a piece of stuff or cloth, opp. to jaðar (the edge); mæla (klæði) at hrygg eða jaðri, Grág. i. 498; hryggr bréfsins, the back of a letter, D. N. i. 593, v. 839: of an edge of a stud, Þiðr. 73. COMPDS: hryggjar-liðr, m. a vertebra. hryggjar-stykki, n. a kind of duck (from a spot on the back), the sheldrake (?), Edda (Gl.): metaph. the name of an old Icel. historical work, Fms. vii. (Mork.)

HRYGGR, adj., old acc. hryggvan, with a characteristic v; compar. hryggri, Finnb. 224, and hryggvari; superl. hryggvastr: [A. S. hreowig; Engl. rueful]:—afflicted, grieved, distressed, Ls. 31, Gkv. 3. 1, Fms. ii. 290, v. 210, 239, ix. 500, Al. 56, Stj. 520, N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim.

hrygg-spenna, u, f. a wrestling term, ‘back-spanning,’ clasping the arms round one another’s back, Fas. iii. 414.

hryggving, f. = hryggð, Mar.

hrygla, u, f. [Dan. rallen], medic. a rattling in the throat or bronchial tubes; hósti og h., a cough and h.; dauða-h., the death-rattle.

hrygna, u, f. [hrogn], a fish which has roe, Fas. ii. 112, Edda (Gl.)

HRYLLA, t, [hrollr], to shudder; mig hryllir við því, I shudder at it.

hrylli-legr, adj. (-lega, adv.), ghastly, horrible.

hrylling, f. horror.

HRYMASK, ð, [hrumr], = hrumast, Pr. 409, Bs. ii. 155, Rb. 344, 346: hrymðr, part. infirm from age, Dropl. 15, Hrafn. 15.

hrymja, ð, = hruma, Hb. 28.

Hrymr, m. name of an old giant, Vsp., the old, infirm (?).

hryn-henda, u, f. a kind of metre, the dróttkvæði (q. v.), containing eight syllables in each line instead of the usual six, Edda (Ht.) 62–64: name of poems composed in this metre, Fms. vi. 26.

hryn-hendr, adj. composed in the metre hrynhenda, Edda (Ht.)

HRYNJA, pres. hryn, pret. hrundi, part. hrunit:—to fall to ruin, tumble down; björgin hrynja, Edda 41; veggrinn var hruninn (dilapidated), Fær. 111; veggrinn hrundi fyrir eldinum, Orkn. 350; hversu múrar hafa niðr hrunit, Karl. 130; grjót eða björg eða jörð hrynr, Skálda 169; þá munu þeir taka at segja fjöllunum, hrynið yfir oss, Luke xxiii. 30; og stjörnur himins hrundu á jörðina (better hröpuðu), Rev. vi. 13, cp. Matth. vii. 25, 27, where hrundi would be the right word, although féll is here used in the Icel. version. II. metaph. to stream, float; of garments, jafnskjótt sem klæðit hrundi ofan um hann, Orkn. 182; látum und hánum hrynja lukla, Vkv. 16, 19: of fluids, to stream, pour down, ok er þeir vóru í brjósti hennar (of a wave), þá hrundi hón öll, Bs. i. 484; hrynja hafbárur, Fas. ii. 75 (in a verse): of blood, tears, water, hrynr blóðit ofan á kápu-skautið, Háv. 45; hvat berr nú þat við, faðir minn, at þér hrynja tár? Ld. 132, cp. the verse in Gísl. 2; sem regn það hraðast hrundi, himins í dimmu skúr (of rain), Pass. 23. 3: of floating hair, Edda ii. 500 (in a verse): of a song, hrynjandi háttr, a streaming, flowing metre, = hrynhenda, Edda (Ht.) 136. 2. of doors; hrynja á hæla e-m, to be shut on one’s heels, of one who is turned out of doors, Skv. 3. 66, (in prose, skella á hæla e-m.)

hrynjandi, a, m. (or f.?), a streamer fastened to a staff, Gísl. 103, 104, whereas the other Recension (20, 21) has hrímandi, which appears to be an error; see Mr. Dasent’s Gisli the Outlaw, p. 39.

hryssa, u, f. [hross], a mare; and hryssi, n., in compds, mer-hryssi, ung-hryssi.

hryssa, u, f. a mare; the word occurs in the Vitae Patrum (Unger).

hryssingr, m. coarseness, brutality; see hreysingr.

hrytr, m. a ‘rowting,’ snoring, Fas. i. 232, Bs. ii. 230.

hrýgja, ð, [hrúga], to heap together, Lat. cumulare, Karl. 259.

Hrýtlingar, m. pl. descendants of Hrútr (II), Landn.

HRÆ, n., old dat. hrævi or hræfi, (spelt hreifi, Hkv. 2. 23), gen. pl. hræva (hræfa), Lex. Poët. passim: [Ulf. hraiv in hraiva-dubo = τρύγων, Luke ii. 24; A. S. hreaw; O. H. G. hreô]:—a dead body, carrion, Grág. ii. 88, Nj. 27, Bret. 68, Stj. 201, Sturl. i. 28, Fms. iv. 244: carrion, of a beast, x. 308, passim. II. the wreck, fragments of a thing; Austmenn brutu þar skip sitt, ok görðu ór hrænum (the wreck) skip þat er þeir kölluðu Trékylli, Landn. 157: scraps or chips of trees or timber, þá á hann at höggva til þess er hann þarf at bæta þat, ok láta eptir hræ, Grág. ii. 295; þá eigu þeir at taka við af fjöru manns, ok bæta farkost sinn, ok láta liggja eptir hræ, 356; en ef hann vill bæta bús-búhluti sína, þá á hann at hafa við til þess, hvárt sem hann vill ór skógi eðr ór fjöru, ok láta eptir liggja hræ, 339; cp. hráviði and hrár viðr. This sense still remains in the mod. hræið! hræið mitt, hræ-tetrið, poor wretch! poor fellow! as also in hró, n. a mere wreck, ruin, an old dilapidated thing; skips-hró, kistu-hró, etc.; and metaph. hróið, poor thing! hón hefir aldrei verið heima, hróið! það getr aldrei orðið maðr úr henni, hróinu, Piltr og Stúlka 26. COMPDS: hræ-barinn, part. [hræ II], crushed; hræbarnar hlimar, felled saplings, Stor. 2. hræ-dreyrugr, adj. bloody, Akv. 36. hræ-dýri, n. a carrion beast, N. G. L. i. 80. hræ-fasti, a, m. = hrælog, Mork. 142 (in a verse). hræ-fugl, m. a carrion bird, fowl, bird of prey, Stj. 464, Bret. 68, (raven, vulture, etc.) hræ-gífr, n. = hrædýri, Lex. Poët. hræ-kló, f. the claw of a hræfugl, K. Þ. K. 132. hræ-kvikindi, n. (hræ-kind, f.), a carrion beast, K. Þ. K. 132, Fas. iii. 265, Stj. 582. hræ-köstr, m. a pile of slain, Fms. vi. (in a verse). hræ-ljómi, a, m. = hrælog, Bs. ii. 109. hræ-ljós, n. = hrælog, Sturl. iii. 215. hræ-log, n. a ‘carrion-lowe,’ the light which gleams round decomposing matter, hrælog brunnu af spjótum þeirra, svá at af lýsti, Sturl. ii. 50: mod. hrævar-eldr. Hræ-svelgr, m. carrion swallower, name of a giant, Edda, Vþm. hræva-daunn, -þefr, m. a smell as of carrion, Fms. viii. 230, x. 213. hræva-gautr, m., poët. a sword, Edda (Gl.) hræva-kuldi, a, m. deadly cold, Gg. 12. hrævar-eldr, m. = hrælog. hrævar-lykt, f. a smell as of carrion. In poetry blood is called hræ-dögg, -lækr, -lögr, -pollr, -vín: weapons, hræ-frakki (see frakka, p. 169), -gagarr, -klungr, -leiptr, -linnr, -ljómi, -máni, -naðr, -seiðr, -síkr, -síldr, -skóð, -teinn: a shield, hræ-borð, -net: carrion crows, hræ-gammr, -geitungr, -skúfr, -skærr, Lex. Poët.

HRÆÐA, d, [Engl. dread], to frighten, with acc., Fms. iii. 48, vi. 147, Ó. H. 119, passim. II. reflex. hræðask, to be afraid of, to dread, fear, with acc.; h. e-n, to fear one, Nj. 57, Fms. ix. 242; h. Guð, to fear God, Post. 656 C. 4; hræðumk ekki hót þín, Skv. 2. 9: with prep., h. við e-t, Fms. x. 358, Sæm. 131 (prose); hræðumk ek við reiði Óðins, Sighvat; h. fyrir e-m, Bær. 2: with infin. not to dare, hræðask at ljúga, 656 A. ii. 16; h. at gjalda, Fms. viii. 252.

hræddr, adj. (prop. a participle, like Old Engl. adred), afraid, frightened, timid, Nj. 105, Sd. 144, Fms. vi. 118; manna hræddastr, i. 216; h. við e-t, frightened at a thing, Nj. 205; vera h. um e-t, to fear, be alarmed about a thing, Fms. vii. 156, x. 18: it seems to be used as a subst. in Al. 32, Fas. ii. 531; ú-hræddr, fearless.

hræði-liga, adv. dreadfully, fearfully, Fms. i. 202, Fb. i. 417.

hræði-ligr, adj. dreadful, fearful, terrible, Fms. i. 138, ix. 489, Ísl. ii. 418, Stj. 22, 477, Al. 37.

hræðinn, adj. timid, Fms. vi. 155.

hræðsla or hræzla, u, f. dread, fear, Nj. 142, Eg. 41, Sturl. ii. 5, passim. COMPDS: hræðslu-fullr, adj. in great fear, Sól. hræðslu-lauss, adj. fearless.

hræfa, ð, (hreifa, Fas. i. 220, Fms. xi. 90), to tolerate, bear with; in the phrase, h. um e-t, menn þóttusk trautt mega um h. hans skaplyndi ok ofsa, Fms. xi. 90; ok mátti um h. meðan Högni lifði, Fas. i. 220, Am. 67; ok má ekki um þat hræfa lengr, it is no longer tolerable, Fs. 31.

hræigr, adj. cadaverous, Ýt. 15.

hræking, f. spitting, Hom.

HRÆKJA, t, [hráki], to hawk, spit, Bs. i. 347, Fb. i. 330, Stj. 325, Róm. 740, Laudn. 247; h. út, to spit out, N. G. L. i. 11, Mark vii. 33; h. á e-n, to spit on one, Matth. xxvii. 30.

hræla, að, older ræla, to beat a loom with a weaver’s rod; hún hrælaði vefinn með gullhræl, Od. v. 62, hrælaðr örum, Darr.; h. dún, to shake eider-down on a frame to cleanse it.

HRÆLL, m., but ræll seems the true form, the h being spurious, [cp. A. S. reol; Engl. reel, = Gr. κερκίς, Od. v. 62]:—a weaver’s rod or sley, Nj. 275; dún-hræll, a stick to clean eider-down.

hræmug-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), hideous, disgraceful.

hræpa, t, [hróp], to libel, defame, with acc., Niðrst. 6; h. Guð, to blaspheme, Mar. (655 xi. B. i); hrœpir hann Heimdl, Frump. (pref.)

HRÆRA, ð, i. e. hrœra: [A. S. hrêran; Engl. rear; O. H. G. hruorian; Germ. rühren; Dan. röre; Swed. röra]:—to move: I. with acc., Hým. 33; h. herbúðir sínar, Stj.; þeir fluttu burt þá er hrærandi vóru, Fms. v. 97; þær gátu öngan múga hrært, Fb. i. 522; ef vér hrærum hann, ii. 129; h. tungu, to move the tongue, Stor. 1; Guð hrærir alla stjórn hugar þeirra, Sks. 479. II. to stir, so as to mix; hrærðu allt saman mold ok silfr, Fms. iv. 298 (Hkr. ii. 220): to stir with a ladle in cooking, hræra í katlinum, Eb. 70 new Ed.; h. í pottinum, h. í graut, súpu, to stir in the kettle, to stir the porridge, broth, etc.; vindr hrærir stór höf, Edda: metaph. to stir in a matter, Bs. ii. 115, Róm. 257; also, h. um e-t, Þorst. Síðu H. 6; h. e-t, id., Karl. 187, Bs. ii. 35; h. við e-u, to touch a thing, Þiðr. 165. III. reflex. to stir, move oneself; þá hrærisk heinin í höfði Þór, Edda; því at ek ætla héðan hvergi at hrærask hvárt sem mér angrar reykr eðr bruni, Nj. 201; þau sjálf megu hvergi hrærask ór stað nema þau sé af öðrum borin eðr dregin, Fms. i. 139, x. 373; allt þat er kvikt hrærisk, Sks. 715; limarnar hrærðusk, Eg. 377; hvat liggr þar, mér þykkir sem þat hrærisk stundum? Fas. ii. 507; mátti hann þaðan hvergi hrærask, Nj. 203. 2. metaph., af þessum hlutum hrærisk (arises) heipt ok hatr, Al. 6; tunga hrærisk til únýtra orða, Greg. 25.

HRÆRAR, m. pl. [Ivar Aasen röyr; cp. Lat. crus], the groin, reins; hröra (acc.), Edda (Lauf.); hann hafði steinsótt, ok lá steinninn í hrærunum, sá er stemdi þurftina, Bs. i. 310; kom spjótið upp í hrærana, ok renndi ofan í lærit, Sturl. iii. 14.

hræri-grautr, m. a mess of porridge, the Scot. ‘stirabout.’

hræri-ligr, mod. hræran-ligr, adj. movable; ú-hræriligr, immovable, Skálda 173, 204, Stj. 18.

hræring, f. motion, stir, Edda 52, Bs. ii. 159; h. líkamans, Greg. 72; h. hafsins, Rb. 438; sjóvar h., Sks. 51; h. tungls, 438; bíðandi eptir vatnsins hræringu, John v. 3 (= Gr. κίνησις). II. metaph. emotion; girndir ok hræringar, Stj. 35; úleyfðar hræringar, Magn. 468; af sjálfra sinna hræringum, of their own impulse, H. E. ii. 75; geðs hræringar, emotions.

hræringr, m. ‘stirabout,’ cp. hrærigrautr.

hræsa = ræsa, Post. 288.

hræsi-brekka, u, f., in the phrase, færa e-t á hræsibrekku, to expose to scorn and ridicule; see rækibrekka.

hræsinn, adj. boasting, vaunting, Sighvat, Hm. 6.

hræsna, að, to feign; h. fyrir e-m, to act hypocritically before one.

hræsnari, a, m. a hypocrite, Matth. vi. 2, 5, 16, vii. 5, etc., Pass., Vídal.

HRÆSNI, f. [hrós], vanity, self-esteem, self-glorification, Stj. 644; sjálfhól ok h., Fms. ii. 267, Bs. ii. 16, Barl. 51, Róm. 267; göra e-t til hræsni, Fs. 88; fyrir tíma h., ‘pro vanâ humanae laudis jactantiâ,’ Hom. 22; always so in old writers, but at the time of the Reformation it assumed the sense of II. hypocrisy (ὑπόκρισις of the N. T.), and is constantly with its compds used so in the N. T., Vídal., Pass., etc.

hröði, f. [from hraðr], a hurry, precipitation, Eluc.

HRÖKKVA (also spelt hreyqua), pret. hrökk, pl. hrukku; pres. hrekk or hrökk, pl. hrökkva; subj. hrykki or hreykki; part. hrokkinn; with neg. suff. hrökkvat, Km. 23:—to fall back, recoil, be repelled, with the notion of a shrinking or reeling motion; Jarl hrökk ofan á Barðann, Fms. ii. 324; Hallvarðr hafði hrokkit fram ór lyptingunni ok á mitt skipit, viii. 388: with prep., þá gerðu þeir hríð ena þriðju ok vóru við lengi, eptir þat hrukku þeir frá, Nj. 115; kappa tvá þá er flestir urðu frá at hrökkva, Fms. v. 162: h. fyrir, to give way to a shock; gékk konungr svá hart fram, at allt hrökk fyrir honum, i. 45; ok sýndisk þegar sú fylking h. fyrir, viii. 14; ok svá ryðjask þeir nú um at allt hrökkr liðit fyrir, xi. 132: h. til, to suffice, cp. Dan. slaa til, of means, money: h. undan (to draw back) hrukku Baglar þá undan, ix. 30: h. við, to face, stand at bay; þetta einvígi er engi hafði þort við að h., Art. 19; ok verðr Sigvaldi nú við at h., xi. 95; ok muntú ekki annat mega en h. við, Nj. 90: to start up, from fear: h. upp, to be thrown open, of a door; to start up from sleep, h. upp með andfælum. 2. metaph., nær þótti hvert tré h. fyrir, every rafter seemed to give way, creak, Gísl. 31; at nær þótti skipit h. fyrir ok braka þótti í hverju tré, 115: til þess er hrökk undir miðdegi, till it drew nigh midday, Fas. i. 506 (where better rökk, from rökva); hrökk hræfrakki, Gísl. (in a verse). II. to curl, of hair; hár hans ok skegg er gull sem silki ok hrökkr sem lokar-spánn, Þiðr. 20; hann hafði gull hár ok hrökk mjök, Fms. vii. 239; dökkjarpr á hár ok hrökk mjök, Ld. 274: part. hrokkinn, curled; hrokkit hár, Sturl. iii. 122; hrokkin-hárr and hrokk-hárr, q. v.; með hrokknum (wrinkled) kinnum, Sks. 170.

hrökkva, ð and t, causal of the last verb, to drive back, beat, whip; ok beit eigi heldr á enn tálknskíði væri hrökt um, than if it had been beaten with a reed, Fas. ii. 534, 556: to spur or whip a horse, eptir þat hrökti hann hestinn, Sturl. iii. 50; þá hrökði Þórðr hestinn undir sér ok kvað þetta við raust, 317; Eldgrímr vill nú skilja ok hrökkr hestinn, Ld. 150; þeir hrökkva hann síðan brott, they whipped him off, Mar. II. reflex. to fall back; hann skyldi geyma at engir hreykðisk aptr, that none should lag behind, Sturl. ii. 211; þeir hröktusk (staggered to and fro) þar í lengi dags, Grett. 147 new Ed. 2. esp. to coil, wriggle, of the movement of a snake; ormr hrökvisk (hrøquesc) ok es háll, Eluc. 28, Stj. 96; undan honum hrökðisk ein naðra at Oddi, Fas. ii. 300; ormrinn vildi eigi inn í munninn ok hrökðisk frá í brott, Fms. ii. 179; gengu menn eptir orminum þar til er hann hrökðisk í jörð niðr, vi. 297; þá skreið hann í munn honum ok hrækðiz þegar niðr í kviðinn, x. 325; hrökkvisk hann um hans fótleggi, Stj. 96, cp. hrökkvi-áll.

hrökkvi-áll, m. a wriggling eel, poët. for a snake, Bragi: hrökkvi-skafl, m., poët. = brák (q. v.), a tanner’s tool, Fms. vi. (in a verse): hrökkvi-vöndr, m. a whip, Lex. Poët.

hrökkvir, m. a giant, Edda (Gl.)

hröklast, að, to reel, Mag. 158, freq.: used also of a snake.

HRÖNN, f., gen. hrannar, pl. hrannir, a wave, esp. used in poetry, Stor. 6, Hkv. 1. 26, passim: a ship is called hrann-blakkr, -valr, the steed, hawk of the wave, (also hranna elgr, hranna hrafn, the elk, raven of the wave); gold is called hrann-blik, -eldr, wave-fire, Lex. Poët.: hrann-garðr, m. a wall of waves, id. II. in prose, old and esp. mod., hrannir, f. pl. the heaps or swathes of seaweed and shells along the beach; hræs hrannir, heaps of slain, Edda (Ht.) 2. dat. pl. hrönnum, adverb. in heaps, Lat. catervatim, = unnvörpum, drepr hann hirðmenn konungs hrönnum niðr, Fas. i. 105. III. one of the northern Nereids was called Hrönn, Edda.

HRÖR, spelt hreyr and reyr, n. [A. S. hryre = ruina], a corpse, Lat. cadaver, Gkv. 1. 5, 11; köglar frænda hrörs, Stor. 4; sækja um hrör, Grág. ii. 141; ekki skulu þér taka á hrörum þeirra, því at þau kvikendi eru úhrein, Levit. xi. 8; alla fugla þá er fjóra fætr hafa, skal ekki eta, ok hvergi maðr er tekr á hrörum (not hræjum) þeirra, þá saurgask hann, Stj. 316. Levit. xi. 20. II. metaph. an old decayed thing, a ruin, wreck, a fallen tomb, akin to hreysi (q. v.), the h being borne out by alliteration in Ýt. 19; Yngva hrör, 6; Dyggva hrör, 7; fylkis hrör, Ht. (Yngl. S. ch. 26); as also Ýt. 19, where the sense is that the king was buried in the avalanche of stones,—horfinn foldar beinum Högna hrörs: in local names, Tryggva-hreyr, Hkr. i. 178.

hrörask, ð, = hrörna (?); fár er hvatr er hrraz tekr, ef í barnæsku er blauðr, Fm. 6, a saying.

hrör-ligr, adj. ‘corpse-like,’ ruinous, dilapidated, Fms. iv. 93 (of houses): of men, infirm, worn by age.

hrörna, að, to fall into decay, of buildings or the like, K. Þ. K. 54, Fms. iii. 147, xi. 311, Eb. 6 new Ed.; heimr hrörnar, Hom.; þótt landit hrörni, Landn. 168, v. l.: to wither, tré hrörnar, Sks. 144, 665 6 A. ii. 11; hrörnar blóm, Eluc.; hrörnar þöll, Hm. 49; eigi losnuðu hans tennr né hrörnuðu, Stj. 348. 2. to become infirm, worn out by age; önd vár hrörnar, Stj. 332; mér gömlum karli, hrörnanda á hverjum degi, Sks. 730; mannsaldrar vóru þá meiri en nú, ok hrörnuðu menn seinna, Mag. 89.

hrörnan, f. decay, dilapidation, Pm. 33.

hu or hú, interj. ho! Sks. 304, 365.

HUGA, að, or better hugði, (as from hyggja, q. v.), to mind, Lat. excogitare, to make out, think out; ráðit er nú hugat, Fms. xi. 21; hugat hefi ek mér ráð, Gísl. 15; Fátt er of vandlega hugat, a saying. 2. huga e-m e-t, to keep in store for one; verk hefi ek hugat þér, Nj. 53, Róm. 211; hverjar föðurbætr hann hefir hugat Hákoni konungi, Fms. vii. 261. 3. with prepp.; e-m er umhugat um e-t, one is concerned about; mér mun mest um hugat, Ísl. ii. 150; allt skulda-lið hans þat er honum var mest um hugat, Al. 21; svá at eigi þurfi um at huga félát, Vápn. 30; huga at e-u (see athuga, athugi), to attend to, look after; þá var at hugat sárum Kormaks, Korm. 244, Fms. vi. 137; ef rétt er at hugt, if it is rightly considered, Al. 86; huga fyrir e-u, to provide for, Fms. vi. 127; í-huga, at-huga, to consider.

hugaðlát-liga, adv. amiably, lovingly, Bs. ii. 49.

hugað-látr, adj. engaging, amiable; h. ok veglátr, O. H. L. 22, Fms. vii. 321, x. 152, v. l.; h. ok þokkasæll, ix. 246, v. l.

hugað-liga, adv. attentively; heyra h., Hom. 86: boldly, Fms. vi. 141.

hugaðr, adj. minded, disposed, Stor. 14; vera e-m vel h., Fms. x. 267; görðisk þá fólkit honum lítt hugat, 264, Þiðr. 311. 2. bold, stout-hearted, Nj. 164; h. vel, Bs. i. 36, Lv. 38, freq.

hugað-samliga, adv. kindly, Stj. 6: carefully, Fas. i. 363.

hugað-samligr, adj. devout; h. bæn, devout prayer, Greg. 49.

hugað-samr, adj. gentle, engaging, Fms. viii. 447.

hugall, adj. mindful, attentive, Hm. 14: kind, charitable, Skálda 163; and so in mod. usage, hugull = attentive to the wants and wishes of another; gör-h., Band. 4: neut. hugalt, carefully, Fas. i. 8. COMPDS: hugul-samr, adj. charitable in small things. hugul-semi, f. charitableness.

hugan, f. a minding; hafa h. fyrir e-u, Fms. xi. 238: attention, Rd. 280.

hugð, f. and hugða, u, f. [A. S. hyð and hygð; Engl. heed]:—love, interest, affection; leggja hugðu til e-s, to take interest in, feel love for one, Fms. vi. 280; at konungr leggr enga hugðu til hests síns, he heeded it not, Bs. i. 633; mæla, ræða af hugðu, to speak from one’s heart, Bjarn. 40, 58. COMPDS: hugðar-erendi, n. = hugðarmál, Skálda 173. hugðar-mál, n. matters which one has at heart, Ísl. ii. 98. hugðu-maðr, m. (hugðar-maðr), an intimate friend, Bs. i. 175; frændr ok hugðar-menn, Fms. viii. 103, 231, ix. 525, Bs. ii. 156.

hugga, að, to comfort, with acc., Bs. i. 238, 318, ii. 149, Fms. v. 239, vi. 234, x. 367, Greg. 22: to soothe one crying or weeping, esp. hugga barnið; óhuggandi, crying bitterly: reflex. to be comforted, Fs. 38, Ld. 286, Fas. i. 205, Hom. 49, Hkv. 2. 27, N. T., Pass., Vídal. passim.

huggan, f. comfort, consolation, 623. 13, 52, Eb. 44 new Ed., Fms. iii. 173, v. 241, vi. 234, 371, Sks. 106, freq. COMPDS: huggunar-lauss, adj. ‘comfort-less,’ 623. 56. huggunar-orð, n. a word of comfort, Stj. 195, Greg. 39. huggunar-sýn, f. a comforting sight, Post. huggunar-ván, f. hope of comfort, Fms. vi. 234.

huggandi, a, m. a comforter, Stj. 511.

huggari, a, m. a comforter, 656 C. 42, Barl. 181, Th. 77, Stj. 30: eccl. = Παράκλητος, the Holy Ghost, Sks. 132, N. T., Pass., Hólabók, Vídal.

hugi, a, m. = hugr, Hbl. 21, Edda 24, Glúm. 323, Hkr. ii. 243, Stj. 5, and passim, the weak and strong forms being used almost indiscriminately both in old and mod. usage, as also in the compds, huga-góðr, huga-fullr, = hug-góðr, hug-fullr, q. v.; á-hugi, zeal; var-hugi, caution; at-hugi, attention. II. a pr. name, Fms.; cp. mid. Lat. Hugo, Engl. Hugh.

Huginn, m. the wise raven of Odin, Gm., Edda.

hugna, að, to please; e-m hugnar e-t, something pleases one, one likes it, is pleased, satisfied with it; h. vel, ílla, Eg. 395, Lv. 34, Fs. 27, 138, 152, Fas. i. 220, Glúm. 355, 365, Orkn. 14, Korm. 154, Ld. 328, Band. 7 new Ed.: reflex., e-m hugnask e-t, id., Ld. 50, Ó. H. 43, Eg. 96 (v. l.), Sturl. i. 24, Str. 19.

hugnan, f. a pleasing, comforting, Háv. 57.

hug-næmt, n. adj., Thom. 386.

HUGR, m., gen. hugar, dat. hugi and hug, pl. hugir; an older form hogr occurs in very old MSS., e. g. hog-gði, 655 xxv. 2, and still remains in the compds hog-vrr etc., see p. 280: [Ulf. hugs = νους, but only once, in Ephes. iv. 17, whereas he usually renders νους etc. by other words, as fraþi, aha, muns; A. S. hyge; Hel. hugi; O. H. G. hugu; Dan. hu; Swed. håg; hyggja, hugga, hyggð, -úð (q. v.) are all kindred words and point to a double final]:—mind, with the notion of thought, answering to Germ. gedanke; hugr er býr hjarta nær, Hm. 94; engi hugr má hyggja, Fms. v. 241; enn er eptir efi í hug mínum, 623. 26; í hug eða verki, in mind or act, Fms. vi. 9; koma e-m í hug, to come into one’s mind, to bethink one, iv. 117, Fb. ii. 120, 325; vera í hug e-m, to be in one’s mind; þat mun þér ekki í hug, thou art not in earnest, Nj. 46, Fms. iv. 143; hafa e-t í hug, to have a thing in mind, intend; renna hug sínum, to run in one’s mind, consider, vii. 19; renna hug or hugum til e-s, Hom. 114; koma hug á e-t, to call to mind, remember, 623. 16; leiða e-t hugum, to consider, Sks. 623; leiða at huga, Skv. 1; ganga, líða, hverfa e-m ór hug, to forget, Ó. H. 157, Fms. vi. 272; snúa hug sínum eptir (at, frá) e-u, to turn one’s mind after (to, from) a thing, iv. 87, Eb. 204; mæla um hug sér, to feign, dissimulate, Fær. 33 new Ed., Hkv. 2. 15, Am. 70; orka tveggja huga um e-t, to be of two minds about a thing, Þjal. 31; orkask hugar á e-t, to resolve, Grett. 207 new Ed.; ef þér lér nokkut tveggja huga um þetta mál, if thou be of two minds about the matter, Odd. 112 new Ed.; ok ljær mér þess hugar (thus emend.) at né einn fái fang af honum, I ween that none will be a match for him, Fms. xi. 96. II. denoting mood, heart, temper, feeling, affection; góðr h., a good, kind heart, Hm. 118; íllr h., ill temper, spite, id.; heill h., sincerity, Sól. 4; horskr h., Hm. 90; í góðum hug, in a good mood, Fms. vi. 110, ix. 500 (v. l.), Stj. 453; in plur., vera í hugum góðum, Fas. i. 441 (in a verse); or simply, í hugum, ‘in one’s mind,’ cheerful, Hkm. 9, Hým. 11; bæði reiðr ok í hugum, both when angry and when glad, Post. 168; í reiðum hug, in angry mood, Fms. vi. 4; í hörðum hug, in hard (sad) mood, distressed, 655 xii. 3; í íllum hug, in evil mood; af öllum hug, from all one’s heart, 686 B. 2 (Matth. xxii. 37), cp. Hm. 125: and adverb., alls hugar, from all one’s heart, Hom. 68; all hugar feginn, Hom. (St.): reynask hugi við, to try one another’s mind, make close acquaintance, Fb. iii. 446; því at hón vildi reynask hugum við hann (examine him), Fs. 128; hugir þeirra fóru saman, their minds went together, they loved one another, 138. III. denoting desire, wish; leggja hug á e-t, to lay to heart, take interest in, Nj. 46; leggja mikinn hug á um e-t, Eg. 42; leggja allan hug á e-t, Ó. H. 44, 55; leggja lítinn hug á e-t, to mind little, Fms. x. 61; to neglect, 96; leggja hug á konu, to love a woman, Fs. 137, Fb. i. 303; leika hugr á e-u, to long, wish for a thing, hón er svá af konum at mér leikr helzt hugr á, Fms. vii. 103, Rd. 254; hugir þínir standa til þess mjök, Hom. 53; e-m rennr hugr til e-s, to have affection for one, Fb. i. 279; e-m er hugr á e-u, to have a mind for a thing, be eager for, have at heart; mér er engi hugr á at selja hann, I have no mind to sell him, Fms. i. 80, iv. 30, vii. 276; er þér nú jammikill hugr á at heyra draum minn sem í nótt? Dropl. 22, Nj. ii. 2. in plur., personified, almost like fylgja or hamingja, q. v., a person’s ill-will or good-will being fancied as wandering abroad and pursuing their object; for this belief see the Sagas passim, esp. in dreams; þá vakti Torfi mik, ok veit ek víst, at þetta eru manna hugir, Háv. 55; þetta eru íllra manna hugir til þín, Þórð. 65; hvárt syfjar þik, Járnskjöldr faðir? Eigi er, Járndís dóttir, liggja á mér hugir stórra manna, art thou sleepy, father? Not so, daughter, but the minds of mighty men weigh upon me, Fb. i. 258: popular sayings referring to the travelling of the mind, e. g. fljótr sem hugr manns, swift as thought (Germ. gedankenschnell), cp. the tale of the race of Hugi and Thjalfi, Edda, and of Odin’s ravens Hugin and Munin. IV. with the notion of foreboding; svá segir mér hugr um, ‘so says my mind to me,’ I forebode, Fs. 127; kveðsk svá hugr um segja, sem konungr myndi úmjúklega taka því, Ó. H. 51; kvað sér ílla hug sagt hafa um hennar gjaforð, her wedlock had boded him evil, Ísl. ii. 19; en kvaðsk þó úvíst hugr um segja, hver …, i. e. he had little hope, how …, Fb. i. 360; e-m býðr e-t í hug, it bodes one, Ísl. ii. 32; bauð konungi þat helzt í hug, at …, Ó. H. 195, Eg. 21 (see bjóða IV); göra sér í hug, to imagine, Fms. viii. 338; telja sér í hug, id., Fb. ii. 322, Eb. 204. V. denoting courage; hugr ræðr hálfum sigri, a stout heart is half the battle, a saying, Fms. vi. 429 (in a verse); hugr ok áræði, Stj. 71; með hálfum hug, half-heartedly, faintly; með öruggum hug, fearlessly; herða huginn, Eg. 407, Ó. H. 241; engi er hugr í Dönum, Hkr. i. 338; treysta hug sínum, Odd. 112 new Ed.; hugar eigandi, bold, Fas. i. 522 (in a verse), Korm. 200; bregðask at hug, Þórð. 48; þat segi þér, at mér fylgi engi hugr, Fms. vii. 297; engi hugr mun í vera, Glúm. 356, passim. VI. COMPDS: hugar-angr, n. heart’s grief, Þjal. 11. hugar-beiskleikr, m. bitterness of mind, Stj. 290. hugar-bót, f. comfort, Dropl. 11. hugar-burðr, m. fancy, hugar-ekki, a, m. distress of mind, Fas. i. 171, iii. 81. hugar-far, n. state of mind, esp. in a moral sense, Bs. i. 317, 716, ii. 33, Thom. 40, N. T., Vídal. hugar-fýst, f. desire, Magn. 468. hugar-glöggr, adj. mean, narrow-minded, Fbr. (in a verse). hugar-góðr, adj. good of heart, kind, Sks. 437. hugar-hræring, f. emotions, Bs. i. 703. hugar-hvarf, n. frowardness of mind, Barl. 4. hugar-kraptr, m. strength of mind, Stj. 173. hugar-látliga, adv. = hugaðlátliga. hugar-lund, f. fancy, disposition of mind; eptir sinni h., after one’s own fancy, Sks. 339, Stj. 451, Barl. 25, Fms. vi. 109; göra sér e-t í hugarlund, to fancy, imagine, freq. hugar-ótti, a, m. fright, terror, Fms. vi. 353. hugar-reikan, -ruglan, -ruplan, f. wandering of mind, insanity, Al. 55, Pr. 467, Stj. 121, 256. hugar-speki, f. wisdom, Hsm. 33. 3. hugar-styrkr, m., hugar-styrkt, f. strength of mind, Stj. 132. hugar-válað, n. hypochondria, despair, Bs. i. 366, 368, 644. See válað. hugar-víl, n. = hugarválaðr. hugar-æði, n. fury, Stj. 344.

B. COMPDS: hug-ást, f., in the phrase, unna hugástum, to love with all one’s heart, Hkr. iii. 194, passim. hug-blauðr, adj. timid, Hbl. 49, Km. hug-bleyði, f. cowardice, Hbl. 26. hug-blíðr, adj. merciful, Bs. i. (in a verse). hug-boð, n. foreboding, fancy, Fs. 18, 64, Eg. 82, Nj. 212, Fær. 202, Fms. viii. 118, Fb. ii. 38, passim. hug-boðit, n. part. what bodes one, Rd. 308. hug-borð, n. courage, metaph. from a ship, Fms. vii. 143, Lex. Poët. hug-borg, f., poët. the breast, Lex. Poët. hug-bót, f. comfort, mind’s release, Hom. 104, Stj. 466. hug-brigðr, adj. fickle, Hm. 101. hug-dirfð, f. courage, Karl. 161. hug-dirfl, f. id., Karl. 346. hug-djarfr, adj. stout-hearted, Bs. i. 38, Karl. 312. hug-dyggr, adj. steadfast, Mar. hug-fallast, féllsk, dep., láta h., to lose heart, despair. hug-fastliga, adv. steadfastly, Str. 20. hug-fastr, adj. steadfast, El. 24. hug-fár, adj. gloomy, Fms. v. 169. hug-feldr, adj. agreeable, Barl. 49, 95. hug-festa, t, to fix in one’s mind, Ld. 88, Sks. 237, Orkn. 54, Fms. i. 133: reflex., Fb. ii. 88. hug-fróun, f., hug-fró, hug-frói, a, m. the mind’s ease, relief. hug-fullr, adj. full of courage, Hým. 8, Fms. xi. 270, Mart. 107. hug-góðr, adj. kind-hearted, merciful, O. H. L. 30, Fms. ii. 94, Bs. i. 166: cheerful, Sks. 446. hug-gæði, n., fem. in Bs. i. 561, ii. 76; goodness of heart, mercy, 655 xxv. 2, Bs. i. 174, ii. 149, Stj. 155, Fms. v. 326, Þórð. 28 new Ed., Fagrsk. 29. hug-hraustr, adj. strong of mind, of good cheer, N. T. freq. hug-hreysta, t, to comfort one, cheer one’s heart. hug-hreysti, f. a being of good comfort, Pr. 454, El. 5, Fas. i. 159. hug-hryggr, adj. sorrowful, Str. 42. hug-hvarf, n. change of mind; telja e-m hughvörf, to persuade a person to change his conviction, Fas. i. 530, Ld. 306. hug-hægr, adj., e-m er hughægt, easing one’s mind, Glúm. 348, Bs. i. 358, Fas. ii. 91. hug-kvæmi, f. a ‘coming to one’s mind,’ ingenuity, Hom. (St.) hug-kvæmiligr, adj. ingenious, Fms. vii. 225; -liga, adv. ingeniously, 351. hug-kvæmr (-kœmr), adj. ingenious; h. ok margbreytinn, Vápn. 3, Þorst. S. St. 46, Fms. vi. 217: of things, recurring to the mind, kvað þá hugkvæmra Vatnsdals-meyjum ef hann væri svá nær götu, i. e. they would sooner recollect him, Fs. 67; helzti hugkvæmt er um þau tíðendi, Fms. vi. 36, Valla L. 218, Bjarn. 7 (dear); hversu h. hann var eptir at leita við vini sína hvat þeim væri at harmi, Fms. vii. 103. hug-lauss, adj. heartless, faint-hearted, Ld. 232, Fbr. 35, Nj. 217, Fas. i. 192, iii. 616. hug-leggja, lagði, to lay to mind, consider, Fas. iii. 527. hug-leiða, d, to consider, reflect, 655 xi. 3, Ld. 204, Eg. 70, Fs. 69, Fms. i. 3, vi. 280, vii. 30, Stj. 25, Barl. 115, 122, Sks. 3, Grett. 161, passim. hug-leiðing, f. reflection, Gísl. 16, Barl. 113, freq. hug-létt, n. adj. light-hearted; e-m er huglétt, Stj. 290, 428, Edda 218. hug-léttir, m. mind’s ease, comfort, Bs. ii. 225. hug-leikit, n. part., e-m er e-t h., with heart bent upon a thing, Fas. iii. 268. hug-leysa, u, f. timidity, Karl. 339. hug-leysi, n. id., Nj. 264, Fms. ii. 68, Karl. 318, passim. hug-lítill, adj. little-minded, timid, Rb. 348, Ísl. ii. 102. hug-ljúfi, a, m. a darling; vera h. hvers manns. hug-ljúfr, adj. engaging, kind. hug-maðr, m. a bold man, Þiðr. 174. hug-mannliga, adv. boldly, Fms. vii. 164. hug-móðr, m. moodiness, Safn i. 33, 116. hug-mynd, f. ‘mind’s-shaping,’ a mod. rendering of idea. hug-prúðr, adj. stout-hearted, Fbr. 5. hug-prýði, f. courage, Fms. ii. 69, vi. 418, passim. hug-rakkr, adj. stout-hearted, Sks. 437, Al. 33. hug-raun, f. ‘mind’s-trial,’ a trial, Sturl. iii. 145: trial of courage, Fms. v. 165. hug-reifr, adj. cheerful, Lex. Poët. hug-rekki, f. courage, Fms. ii. 322. hug-renning, f. ‘mind’s-wandering,’ thought, meditation, Sks. 559, Hom. 47, 54, Greg. 13, Post. 656 C. 28, Barl. 32, 86, 180, N. T., Vídal. passim. hug-reynandi, part. a trusted, tried friend, Haustl. hug-ró, f. peace of mind, Str. 88: the name of a ship, Fms. viii. 385. hug-rúnar, f. pl. ‘mind’s-runes,’ magical runes with a power of wisdom, Sdm. hug-sjó, f., Thom. 2, and hug-sjón, f. vision. hug-sjúkr, adj. ‘mind-sick,’ distressed, anxious, Nj. 9, Fms. i. 205, vi. 69, vii. 104, viii. 8, Hkr. ii. 11, Al. 73. hug-skot, q. v. hug-snjallr, adj. doughty, Lex. Poët. hug-sótt, f. sickness of mind, care, anxiety, concern, Bret. 24, Str. 4, Róm. 297, Mar. hug-spakligr, adj. sagacious, Sks. 627. hug-spakr, adj. wise. hug-speki, f. sagacity, foresight, Sturl. i. 206, Orkn. 166. hug-spæi, f. ‘mind-spaeing,’ prophecy, Sturl. i. 206 C. hug-steinn, m., poët. the heart, Lex. Poët. hug-sterkr, adj. strong-minded, Al. 8, MS. 4. 28. hug-stiginn, part. in high spirits, Grett. 177 new Ed., Mart. 100. hug-stoltr, adj. haughty, Pass. 21. 7. hug-stórr, adj. high-minded, Fs. 129. hug-styrkr, adj. = hugsterkr, Karl. 345. hug-stæðr, adj. steadfast; e-m er e-t hugstætt, fixed in one’s mind, Fs. 180, Grett. 151 A; vera hugstætt til e-s, to busy one’s mind with a thing, Ísl. ii. 19, where used of antipathy. hug-svala, að, to refresh the soul, comfort, Vídal., Pass. hug-svalan, f. consolation. hug-svinnr, adj. wise, Sighvat. Hugsvinns-mál, n. the name of a didactic poem. hug-sýki, f. anxiety, Luke xii. 25, Pass. 36. 6. hug-sýkja, t, to dishearten, Al. 6. hug-tregi, a, m. bereavement, grief, affliction, Bs. i. 645, Fms. v. 208. hug-trúr, adj. true, faithful, Nj. 258. hug-veikr, adj. weak-minded, Fas. i. 418. hug-vekja, u, f. ‘soul’s-waking,’ the title of a religious tract. hug-vit, n. understanding, sagacity, Fms. ii. 286; hugvit til bóknæmis, Bs. i. 793; hvass í hugviti, Mar.; skilning ok h., Stj. 12; djúpsæi ok h., 560; skilja af sínu hugviti, Hom. 84; í hugviti smiðsins, Eluc. 7: mod. genius. hug-vitr, adj. clever, Mar. hugvits-maðr, m. a man of genius, esp. of an artist, mechanic, or the like. hug-værr, adj., see hógværr, Hom. 8, 129. hug-þekkliga, adv. engagingly; h. ok lítillátliga, MS. 15. 1. hug-þekkr, adj. endeared to one, after one’s heart; h. hverjum góðum manni, Bs. i. 72, Fms. i. 140; h. allri alþýðu, vii. 102; öllum var hann h., x. 151. hug-þokkaðr, part. well disposed; var hvárt þeirra Hallfreðar öðru vel hugþokkat, Fms. ii. 88; vel er mér hugþokkat til Magnúss hins Góða, iii. 58. hug-þokkan, f. = hugþokki, Eg. 47, v. l. hug-þokki, a, m. mind, disposition, judgment; eptir hugþokka sínum, Eg. 47, Sks. 197; hefir þetta farit eptir hugþokka mínum, Fms. xi. 288: = hugskot, rannsaka vandliga í hugþokka þínum, Sks. 444 B; Saul mælti í hugþokka sínum, 706; meðalorpning (interjectio) sýnir hugþokka manns, Skálda 180. hug-þótti, a, m. disposition, with the notion of self-will, opinionativeness; eptir h. sínum. following one’s own opinion, (mod.) hug-þungt, n. adj., e-m er h., to be depressed, Ld. 160. II. in pl. in a few words, mostly poëtical: hugum-prúðr, adj. = hugprúðr; Hjálmarr inn h., a nickname, Fas. hugum-sterkr, -stórr, -strangr, adj. = hugstórr, etc., Hkv. 1. 1, Korm., Jd. 38, Fas. i. 418.

hug-ró, f. = höggró, Fms. i. 177, Hkr. i. 238, Þórð. 44 new Ed.

HUGSA, að, [early Dan. hugse, mod. huske = to remember; for the mod. Dan. tænke and also Icel. þenkja were borrowed from the German, and do not occur until the time of the Reformation]:—to think: I. absol. to think; því hefir oss þat gefit verit at hugsa, Dipl. ii. 14; þó at eigi megi auga sjá eðr eyra heyra né engi manns hugr hugsa, hversu …, Fms. i. 229; h. til Guðs, Stj. 138; þeir hugsuðu hví þat mundi gegna, Edda (pref.); ek vissa hvat Símon hugsaði, Post. 656 C. 28. II. with acc. to think out, Lat. excogitare; ek mun hugsa yðr konung, Stj. 441; hugsaðu vandliga hvar hann liggr, 424; hugsat hefi ek kostinn, Nj. 3: to intend, þér hugsuðut mér íllt, Stj. 239; sagði at hann hafi þat helzt hugsat, Fms. i. 83: h. sik, to bethink oneself, ii. 133, Karl. 15, Bs. ii. 121. 2. with prepp.; h. sik um e-t, to take counsel with oneself (um-hugsan); h. sik fyrir, to have forethought, ponder over, Fms. xi. 442; h. fyrir sér, to ponder over, vii. 88, 289; h. um e-t, to think about a thing, Stj. 423, passim; h. eptir um e-t, Fms. x. 6. III. reflex., hugsaðisk honum svá til, at …, Fms. vii. 88; e-m hugsast e-t, a thing occurs to one’s mind.

hugsan, f. thought, thinking, Sturl. iii. 242 (opinion), Fms. i. 185, Al. 163; bera h. fyrir e-u, Sturl. i. 206; h. ok ætlun, 656 A. i. 31, N. T., Pass., Vídal., very freq. COMPDS: hugsunar-augu, n. ‘eyes of thinking,’ intellect, Skálda 160; umhugsan, meditation. hugsunar-lauss, adj. thoughtless. hugsunar-leysi, n. thoughtlessness.

hugsandi, part. gerund, conceivable, possible; ú-hugsandi, impossible.

hugsanlegr, adj. attentive, Sks. 6: conceivable, Lat. cogitabilis, (mod.)

hugsi, adj. ind. thoughtful, meditative; sem hann væri hugsi, Bjarn. 40; Gestr sitr nú hugsi um sitt mál, Ísl. ii. 294; fámálugr ok nokkut hugsi, 156; um slíkt liggr hann hugsi, Al. 15, 70; hann fór jafnan sem hugsi væri, as vacant, wandering, Bs. i. 170.

hug-skot, n. [properly either ‘mind’s-recess,’ from skot, a recess, or rather ‘mind’s-shooting,’ analogous to hugrenning]:—mind, soul; hryggt h., a bereaved mind, Sks. 24, Fms. x. 151; með réttu hugskoti, Blas. 41; hugskots-eyru, Hom. 53; hugskots hendr, 54; hugskots augu, the mind’s eye, 47, Stj. 20, 132, Rb. 380; mitt h., my mind, Fms. i. 140; fjarlægr mönnum í hugskotinu, 272; vitnisburðr hugskotsins, K. Á. 50; blindr á hugskotinu, viii. 294; at faðir hann skyldi við hans h. sem síðast verða varr, Barl. 16; hreinsa h. sitt með iðran, Hom. (St.), Thom. 9, 13; freq. in the N. T. as to render νους or νόημα, e. g. elska skaltú Drottinn Guð þinn af öllu hjarta, af allri sálu, ok af öllu hugskoti, Matth. xxii. 37, Luke i. 35, Rom. xiii. 2, 1 Cor. ii. 16, 2 Cor. iii. 14, iv. 4, xi. 5, 2 Tim. iii. 8, Tit. i. 15, Vídal. passim.

HULD, f. the name of a giantess, cp. Gr. Καλυψώ. Huldar-Saga, u, f. the story of the giantess Huld, Sturl. iii. 304.

HULDA, u, f. hiding, secrecy; drepa huldu á e-t, Fms. xi. 106; með huldu, in secret, i. 295: cover, nokkur hulda lá ávalt yfir, Fs. 22; mikil h. ok þoka liggr yfir eyju þeirri, Fas. i. 5; þeir vóru komnir á einn lítinn skóg ok var þat lítil h., Fms. x. 239: a cover, hafa huldu fyrir andliti eðr augum, 625. 23. II. hollowness; in the phrase, á huldu, ílla brotna bein á huldu, Ísl. Þjóðs.; brast sundr hulda í hrauninu, Pr. 411. COMPDS: huldu-fólk, n. pl. the hidden people, fairies, in the mod. Icel. lore; for the origin of this name see Ísl. Þjóðs. (begin.) i. 1, 2. huldu-maðr, m. a fairy, Fms. iii. 177 (in a tale of the 15th century). huldar-höttr, m. a hood of disguise, Fbr. (in a verse).

hulfr, m. dogwood, = beinviði (q. v.), Sks. 90 B.

huliðs-hjálmr, m., and hulins-hjálmr, less correct, Fms. iii. 184, Fas. iii. 219:—a hidden helm (see s. v. hjálmr), Fms. ii. 141, Gullþ. 27, Fbr. 34 new Ed.

hulning, f. concealing, Stj. 12, 127, 315, Mar.

hulstr, m. [Goth. hulistr; A. S. heolster; Engl. holster; Dan. hylster, from hylja; cp. Germ. hülse]:—a case, sheath.

huma, að, prop. to hum: in the phrase, huma e-ð fram af sér, to put a thing by.

HUMALL, m. [Germ. hummel; Dan. humle; Fr. houblon; Engl. hop]:—the humulus, hop-plant, Nj. 2 (v. l.), N. G. L. i. 244, Bs. i. 441, Boldt., D. N. passim: humla, u, f. a nickname, Sturl. i. 18; vall-humall, the wild hop. COMPDS: humla-garðr, m. a hop garden, Boldt. 41. humla-ketill, m. a hop boiler, D. N. humla-mungát, n. hop beer, D. N. humla-stæði, n. a place grown with hops, D. N. humla-stöng, f. a hop pole, Boldt. humla-tekja, u, f. hop-picking, Boldt. 53.

HUMARR, m. [Dan. and Germ. hummer; Fr. homard], a lobster, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. humar-kló, f. a lobster claw, Mag.

humótt, see húm.

HUNANG, n. [A. S. hunig; Engl. honey; Germ. honig; Dan. honing; Ulf. renders μέλι by miliþ]:—honey, Gþl. 491, Bs. i. 103, 433, Eg. 69, 79, 469, Fms. vii. 173, viii. 258, Stj. 309, 411. COMPDS: hunang-bakaðr, part. baked honey, Stj. 193. hunangs-dögg, f. honey dew, Pr. 401. hunangs-fall, n. honey dew, Edda 12. hunangs-fljótandi, part. flowing with honey, Stj. 642, Eluc. hunangs-ilmr, m. a smell of honey, Landn. 140. hunangs-lækr, m. a stream of honey, Fas. iii. 669. hunangs-seimr, m. [Germ. honig-seim = virgin honey], a honeycomb, Stj. 210, N. T. hunang-sætr, adj. sweet as honey. ☞ In olden times and throughout the Middle Ages, honey was one of the chief exports from England to Scandinavia (Norway and Iceland), see the passages above; as sugar was then unknown, the export of honey far exceeded that of the present day.

hunang-ligr, adj. honeyed, Sks. 630, Bs. i. passim, ii. 131, Mar.

HUND-, [Goth. hund only found in pl. hunda], a form of hundrað, only used in poët. compds, many, very, like Lat. multi-, Germ. tausend: hund-forn, adj. very old, Þd. 14; in mod. conversation hund-gamall and hund-margr, adj. hundred-fold, innumerable, Hkv. 1. 21; h. víkingr, Sighvat (Ó. H. 190); h. herr, Hallfred, Fms. xi. 208 (in a verse), Sighvat (Hkr. iii. 3), Hm. 17; hunnmörg hof, Vþm. 38. hund-villr, adj. utterly lost, quite astray, Eb. (in a verse): esp. of sailors, fóru þeir þá hundvillir, Nj. 267. hund-víss, adj. very wise, esp. used of giants and partly as a term of abuse; hundvíss jötunn, Hým. 5, Hkv. Hjörv. 25, Fas. iii. 15; hann var jötunn h. ok íllr viðreignar, Edda; at jötnar hundvísir skulu þar drekka, 57. The similarity of hundr, a dog, seems here to have given a bad sense to the word (= dog-wise, cunning), which etymologically it did not deserve.

hund-fiskr, m. a dog-fish.

hund-gá, f. barking, Lv. 60, 655 xxxii. 9.

hund-ligr, adj. dog-like, Clem. 55, 656 C. 29.

HUNDR, m. [Ulf. hunds; A. S., O. H. G., Germ., Dan., and Swed. hund; Engl. hound; Lat. canis; Gr. κύων]:—a dog, Hm. 82, Gm. 44, Orkn. 150, Grág. ii. 119, Fms. ii. 224, iv. 314, Nj. 74, Stj. 464, passim; the shepherd’s dog, watch dog, and deer hound were best known;—smala-h. and fjár-h., a shepherd’s dog; dýr-h., a fox hound; búr-h., varð-h., a watch dog; grey-h., a greyhound; spor-h., a slot hound, Orkn. 150, Ó. H.; mjó-h., Dan. mynde, a spaniel; [skikkju-rakki, a lap dog, Orkn. 114;] dverg-h., q. v.; hunda-gá, gnauð, gelt, gnöll, barking, howling, 656 A. ii. 12, Fas. i. 213; vera ór hunda hljóði, to be out of the dog’s bark, have made one’s escape, Orkn. 212, Gísl. 7, cp. hljóð B. 2; hunds hauss, höfuð, a dog’s head (also as an epithet of abuse), Stj. 68, 498, Rb. 346; hunds eyru, dog’s ears, in a book; hunds kjaptr, trýni, löpp, rófa, hár, a dog’s mouth, snout, foot, tail, hair; hunda sveinn, a dog-keeper, Lv. 100: phrases and sayings, það er lítið sem hunds tungan finnr ekki; opt hefir ólmr hundr rifið skinn; as also hlaupa á hunda-vaði yfir e-t, to slur a thing over, scamp work; festa ráð sitt við hunds hala, Mag. 65:—a dog’s age is, partly in fun, partly in contempt, counted by half years; átta vetra á hunda tölu = four years; whence, ek em maðr gamall, ok vánlegt at ek eiga hunds aldr einn ólifat, Fb. ii. 285:—allan sinn hunds aldr, throughout all his wicked, reprobate life. II. metaph., 1. as abuse; hundrinn þinn, κύον! Ísl. ii. 176; eigi af hundinum þínum, Fms. vi. 323; drepum þenna hund sem skjótast, xi. 146; mann-hundr, a wicked man; hunds-verk, a dog’s work, Sighvat: hund-eygr, adj. κυνος ὄμματ ἔχων, Grett. (in a verse): hund-geðjaðr, adj. currish, Hallfred. 2. an ogre, destroyer, = vargr, Gr. κύων; hundr segls, viða, elris, herklæða, Lex. Poët., Edda ii. 512. 3. a nickname, Þórir Hundr, Ó. H.: Hunds-fótr, m. a nickname, Fas.; cp. also the pr. names Hundi, Hundingi, Landn., Sæm.: Hunda-dagar, m. the dog-days: Hunda-stjarna, u, f. the dog-star, Sirius. 4. botan. = vulgaris; hunda-hvingras, hunda-sóley, etc., Hjalt.: hund-bítr, m. a biter, Bjarn. (in a verse): hund-heiðinn, adj. ‘dog-heathen,’ heathenish, Fms. ii. 130, Fas. ii. 186, Karl. 138, Flóv. 23. Favourite dogs recorded in the Sagas, king Olave’s dog Vígi, the Argus of the northern Sagas, Fms. Ó. T. ch. 82, 208, 259; Gunnar’s dog Sam, Nj. ch. 71, 77, 78; the dog Flóki, Rd. ch. 24; also Hálfs S. ch. 7, 8,—þá ina sömu nótt gó hundr hans Flóki er aldri gó nema hann vissi konungi ótta vánir: mythol. the dog Garm, Vsp., Gm.; the dog Saurr, who was made king over the Thronds, (þeir létu síða í hundinn þrjú manns-vit, ok gó hann til tveggja orða, en mælti it þriðja,) for this curious tale see Hkr. Hák. S. Góða ch. 13: pet names, seppi, rakki, grey; and pr. names, Vígi, Snati, Loddi, Lubbi (a rough dog), Stripill (smooth), etc.

HUNDRAÐ, n. pl. hundruð; the form hund- (q. v.) only occurs in a few old compd words: [Goth. hunda, pl.; A. S. hund; O. H. G. hunt; the extended form in Hel. and old Frank, hundered; Germ. hundert; Dan. hundrede; Swed. hundra; the inflexive syllable is prob. akin to -ræðr in átt-ræðr]:—a hundred; the Scandinavians of the heathen time (and perhaps also all Teutonic people) seem to have known only a duo-decimal hundred (= 12 × 10 or 120); at that time 100 was expressed by tíu-tíu, cp. Ulf. taihun-taihund = ten-teen; Pal Vídalín says,—hundrað tólfrætt er sannlega frá heiðni til vor komið, en hið tíræða er líkast að Norðrlönd hafi ekki vitað af fyrr en Kristni kom hér og með henni lærdómr þeirrar aldar, Skýr. s. v. Hundrað (fine): but with the introduction of Christianity came in the decimal hundred, the two being distinguished by adjectives,—tólfrætt hundrað = 120, and tírætt hundrað = 100. But still the old popular duodecimal system continued in almost all matters concerned with economical or civil life, in all law phrases, in trade, exchange, property, value, or the like, and the decimal only in ecclesiastical or scholastic matters (chronology, e. g. Íb. ch. 1, 10). At the same time the word in speech and writing was commonly used without any specification of tírætt or tólfrætt, for, as Pal Vídalín remarks, every one acquainted with the language knew which was meant in each case; even at the present time an Icel. farmer counts his flocks and a fisherman his share (hlutr) by the duodecimal system; and everybody knows that a herd or share of one hundred and a half means 120 + 60 = 180. In old writers the popular way of counting is now and then used even in chronology and in computation, e. g. when Ari Frode (Íb. ch. 4) states that the year consists of three hundred and four days (meaning 364); the census of franklins given by the same writer (where the phrase is hundruð heil = whole or full hundreds) is doubtless reckoned by duodecimal, not decimal hundreds, Íb. ch. 10; and in the census of priests and churches taken by bishop Paul (about A. D. 1200) ‘tíræð’ is expressively added, lest duodecimal hundreds should be understood, Bs. i. 136. The Landn. (at end) contains a statement (from Ari?) that Iceland continued pagan for about a hundred years, i. e. from about 874–997 A. D. In the preface to Ólafs S., Snorri states that two duodecimal hundreds (tvau hundruð tólfræð) elapsed from the first colonisation of Iceland before historical writing began (i. e. from about A. D. 874–1115): levies of ships and troops are in the laws and Sagas counted by duodecimal hundreds, e. g. the body-guard of king Olave consisted of a hundred hirð-men, sixty house-carles and sixty guests, in all ‘two hundred’ men, i. e. 240, Mork. 126; the sons of earl Strút-Harald had a hundred men, of whom eighty were billetted out and forty returned, Fms. xi. 88, 89; hálft hundrað, a half hundred = sixty, Mork. l. c. 2. a division of troops = 120; hundraðs-flokkr, Fms. vi. (in a verse). II. in indef. sense, hundreds, a host, countless number, see hund-, as also in the adverb, phrase, hundruðum, by hundreds (indefinitely), Fms. vi. 407, Þiðr. 275, 524: in mod. usage as adjective and indecl., except the pl. in -uð, thus hundruð ásauðum, Dipl. iv. 10.

B. As value, a hundred, i. e. a hundred and twenty ells of the stuff wadmal, and then simply value to that amount (as a pound sterling in English). All property, real as well as personal, is even at present in Icel. taxed by hundreds; thus an estate is a ‘twenty, sixty, hundred’ estate; a franklin gives his tithable property as amounting to so and so many hundreds. As for the absolute value of a hundred, a few statements are sufficient, thus e. g. a milch cow, or six ewes with lambs, counts for a hundred, and a hundrað and a kúgildi (cow’s value) are equal: the charge for the alimentation of a pauper for twelve months was in the law (Jb. 165) fixed to four hundred and a half for a male person, but three hundred and a half for a female; cp. also the phrase, það er ekki hundrað í hættunni, there is no hundred at stake, no great risk! In olden times a double standard was used,—the wool or wadmal standard, called hundrað talið = a hundred by tale, i. e. a hundred and twenty ells as stated above, and a silver standard, called hundrað vegit, a hundred by weight, or hundrað silfrs, a hundred in silver, amounting to two marks and a half = twenty ounces = sixty örtugar; but how the name hundred came to be applied to it is not certain, unless half an örtug was taken as the unit. It is probable that originally both standards were identical, which is denoted by the phrase, sex álna eyrir, six ells to an ounce, or a hundred and twenty ells equal to twenty ounces (i. e. wadmal and silver at par); but according as the silver coinage was debased, the phrases varied between nine, ten, eleven, twelve ells to an ounce (N. G. L. i. 80, 81, 387, 390, passim), which denote bad silver; whereas the phrase ‘three ells to an ounce’ (þriggja álna eyrir, Sturl. i. 163, passim, or a hundred in wadmal equal to half a hundred in silver) must refer either to a double ell or to silver twice as pure: the passage in Grág. i. 500 is somewhat obscure, as also Rd. 233: the words vegin, silfrs, or talin are often added, but in most cases no specification is given, and the context must shew which of the two standards is there meant; the wool standard is the usual one, but in cases of weregild the silver standard seems always to be understood; thus a single weregild (the fine for a man’s life) was one hundred, Njála passim. 2. the phrases, hundrað frítt, a hundred paid in cattle, Finnb. 236; tólf hundruð mórend, twelve hundred in dark striped wadmal, Nj. 225; hundrað í búsgögnum ok í húsbúningi, Vm. 65; hundraðs-gripr, hestr, hross, kapall, hvíla, sæng, rekkja, psaltari, etc., a beast, a horse, a bed, etc., of a hundred’s value, Am. 2, 10, Vm. 25, 39, 60, 153, Jm. 3, 30; hundraðs-úmagi, a person whose maintenance costs a hundred, Vm. 156; hundraðs virði, a hundred’s value, 68. For references see the Sagas and laws passim, and for more information see Mr. Dasent’s Essay in Burnt Njal.

C. A hundred, a political division which in olden times was common to all Teut. nations, but is most freq. in old Swedish laws, where several hundreds made a hérað or shire; cp. the A. S. and Engl. hundred, Du Cange hundredum; old Germ. hunderti, see Grimm’s Rechts Alterthümer; the centum pagi of Caesar, Bell. Gall. iv. ch. 1, is probably the Roman writer’s misconception of the Teut. division of land into hundreds; this is also the case with Tacit. Germ. ch. 12: cp. the Swed. local names Fjaðrunda-land, Áttundaland, and Tíunda-land, qs. Fjaðr-hunda land, Átthunda land, Tíhunda land, i. e. a combination of four, eight, ten hundreds. The original meaning was probably a community of a hundred and twenty franklins or captains. This division is not found in Icel.

hundraðasti, adj. an ordinal number, the hundredth.

hundrað-falda, að, to ‘hundredfold,’ Stj. 545.

hundrað-faldliga, adv. hundredfold, Barl. 200: -ligr, adj., 19.

hundrað-faldr, adj. hundredfold, Stj. 94, Bs. ii. 157, Matth. xiii. 8.

hundraðs-höfðingi, a, m. a centurion, Stj. 630, N. T., Fms. i. 142, Post. 656 B. 2, Róm. 260. hundraðs-blót, n. a hecatomb, (mod.)

hunds-ligr, adj. currish, Barl. 160.

hundtér, m. a hunter, (Engl. word,) Thom. 16.

hund-tík, f. a ‘she-tyke,’ bitch, Fs. 71, Fas. iii. 231.

HUNGR, m., but in mod. usage neut., as in Bs. ii. 135; [Ulf. huhrus = λιμός; A. S., Engl., Dan., Swed., and Germ. hunger; O. H. G. hungar]:—hunger; hungr várn, Greg. 58; mikinn hungr, Sól. 50; fyrir hungrs sakir, Gþl. 531; seðja fenginn hungr, Al. 83; svelta hungri heill, to starve, Ls. 63; þungan hungr, Gd. 49; sinn sára hungr, Fas. ii. 222; svelta hungri heill, to starve, Ls. 62.

hungra, að, [Ulf. huggrjan], to be a-hungred, to hunger, impers., þá hungraði hann (acc.), Stj. 144, Greg. 30; oss hungrar, 28; hungrandi = hungraðr, Sks. 632.

hungraðr, adj. hungry, Stj. 145, 152, Sks. 632, Hom. 18, Bs. i. 46, Str. 45.

hungran, f. = hungr, Bs. ii. 135.

hungr-morða, adj., verða h., to die of hunger.

hungr-vaka, u, f. the hunger-waker: the name of an old historical work, from its exciting hunger (thirst) for more knowledge, Bs. i. 59.

HUPPR, m. [Ulf. hups = rib; A. S. hype; O. H. G. huf; Engl. hip; Germ. hüfte]:—a hip, Vígl. 21, passim: the loins of a carcase, as in the ditty, þegar eg rís aptr upp ei mun kjöt að fá, fáið þér mér heitan hupp, hólpinn verð eg þá, Jón Þorl.

HURÐ, f. [Goth. haurds = θύρα; A. S. hyrdel; Engl. hurdle; O. H. G. hurt]:—a door, = Lat. janua; drepa, berja á hurð, Th. 3, Ísl. ii. 31, Hom. 96, Vm. 34, Jm. 8, Stj. 402; reka aptr hurð, Ísl. ii. 158, Korm. 10, Eg. 749; úti-hurð, stofu-hurð, búr-hurð, eldhús-hurð, N. G. L. i. 38; hurð er aptr, shut, Ísl. ii. 31, passim: a hurdle, Grág. ii. 328: a lid, Eg. 234. II. metaph. phrases, eigi fellr honum þá hurð á hæla ef ek fylgi honum, the door shuts not on his heels if I follow him, i. e. I go in with him, he is not alone, Fas. i. 204; ef hér hafa hurðir verit loknar eptir þessum manni, if he has been taken in-doors, Ld. 42; hurð hnigin, a shut door, for this phrase see hníga; at seilask um hurð til lokunnar, to stretch oneself across the door to the latch, to try to reach farther than one can, Grett. 67 new Ed. COMPDS: hurða-naust, n. a shed of hurdles, Háv. 26 new Ed. hurðar-áss, m. a ‘door-beam;’ hurðás or hurðásar were the roof-rafters nearest the door, where things (weapons, fish, meat) were hung up, almost answering to the rót or dyra-lopt in mod. Icel. dwellings, cp. Eg. 182, 183, Bs. i. 209, N. G. L. i. 349, 397: the phrase, reisa sér hurðarás um öxl, to carry the door-beam on one’s shoulder, to undertake a thing one is not equal to. hurðar-bak, n. the back of a door; ab hurðar-baki, behind the door, Stj. 118, Fms. vi. 188, Ísl. ii. 45, Fas. ii. 115, Barl. 70. hurðar-bora, u, f. a key-hole, Grett. 137 A. hurðar-flaki, a, m. a hurdle, Grett. 114 A. hurðar-hringr, m. a door-ring, Ísl. ii. 158, Pm. 113, El. 26. hurðar-hæll, m. = hurðás, N. G. L. i. 349, v. l. hurðar-járn, n. a door-hinge, Am. 16, Þiðr. 364, Rétt. 2, 10, Fms. ii. 163. hurðar-klofi, a, m. a door-groove, = gátt, q. v., Eb. 226. hurðar-lauss, adj. ‘doorless,’ without a door, Pm. 14, 66. hurðar-loka, u, f. a door-bolt, MS. 4. 29. hurðar-oki, a, m. a cross-plank joining the boards of the door, Eb. 182.

hurð-áss, m. = hurðar-áss.

hurr, m. [cp. Engl. hurry], a hurley-burley, noise, Thom. (Ed.) 96, 97, 103.

hussun or hoson, interj. of dislike, cp. Engl. hiss! Dan. hysse! o hoson yðr er hlæið! þvíat ér monoð sýta ok gráta, Hom. (St.); hussun þér gömlum! Karl. 532.

hutututu, interj., to express shivering from cold, Orkn. 326.

HÚÐ, f. (húðna, acc. with the article, Edda i. 370); [A. S. hûð; Engl. hide; O. H. G. hût; Germ. haut; Dan.-Swed. hud; Lat. cutis]:—a hide, of cattle; húð af nauti (neat), en skinn at sauði (sheep), N. G. L. i. 420; nauts-húð, but sauð-skinn; hörund, of a man; há (q. v.), of a horse; skrápr, of a shark; roð, of a fish; hvelja, of a whale, cyclopterus, etc., Eg. 69, Nj. 201, K. Þ. K. 38, Grág. ii. 403, Sturl. ii. 50, Dipl. v. 18; of a seal’s skin, Sks. 168, 179; húða-vara, Eg. 69; húða-fang, a supply of hides, N. G. L. i. 101. II. metaph. as a law term, of flogging or ‘hiding’ (as the phrase still is in vulgar Engl.); fyrirgöra húð sinni, to forfeit one’s hide; leysa húð sína, to redeem one’s skin from flogging, N. G. L. ii. 133, 168; berja húð af e-m, to flog, i. 10, 85. COMPDS: húðar-lausn, f. saving one’s hide, N. G. L. i. 349. húð-fat, n., naut. a ‘hide-vat,’ i. e. a hammock, Sturl. ii. 50, Fms. vi. 168, 244, vii. 166, viii. 316, Fb. i. 539, Boll. 344, Fs. 64, Finnb. 232, Gþl. 94, Orkn. 274: the hammocks were leather bags, and sailors used to bring them ashore and keep them in the harbour-booths (see búð). húðfats-beðr, m. a hammock bed, D. N. iv. 475. húðfats-félagi, a, m. a hammock mate, Fms. ix. 321. húð-keipr, m. a canoe of skin, such as is used by the Esquimaux and savages of Vínland (America), Þorf. Karl. passim, Fs. 145, Fb. i. 541. húð-lát, n. loss of one’s hide, i. e. a flogging, Grett. 161, Bs. i. 792. húð-sekkr, n. a hide-bag, Jb. húð-skór, m. a shoe of a raw hide, Hbl. 35. húð-stroka, u, f. a ‘hiding,’ flogging, Grett. 135, Thom. 331, Mar. húð-strokinn, part. flogged. húð-strýking, f. flogging, Pass. húð-strýkja, t, to flog, flagellare, Clar., Bær. 20, N. T.

HÚFA, u, f., proncd. húa, [Scot. how; O. H. G. hûba; Germ. haube; Dan. hue]:—a hood, cap, bonnet; húfa hlaðbúin, Fms. vii. 225; höttr né húfa, Sks. 290; bar kona vatn í húfu sinni, Bs. i. 461, Gísl. 24, Bs. ii. 21, Dipl. v. 18 (belonging to a priest’s dress), passim; stál-húfa, a steel hood; skott-húfa, a tasseled cap; koll-húfa, a cowl or skull-cap; nátt-húfa, a night cap. 2. the name of a cow with a white head; heimsk er hún Húfa, Stef. Ól., Kveld. ii. 197; Skinn-húfa, a nickname. húfu-lauss, adj. hoodless, bare-headed. II. (= húfr), part of a church, in the old timber churches, Ísl. ii. 402 (of a temple); hann lét færa innar háaltarit í húfuna, Bs. i. 830, 890, D. N. v. 586. húfu-viðr, m. timber for the húfa, Bs. i. 144.

HÚFR, m., an older form hófr, Fms. i. 176 (in a verse), as also in hófregin (q. v.), and in the phrase, eiga mikið í hófi (below):—the hulk or hull of a ship; hann þrífr upp fork ok rekr út í húfinn á skipi þeirra, hann færði forkinn í þann húf skipsins er seglit hafði ofan farit ok seglit hallaðisk áðr, Fær. 165; upp í naustið ok settu undir húfinn á skipi Orms, Ísl. ii. 81; kjöl eða stafna, húf eða hálsa, N. G. L. i. 100, freq. in Lex. Poët.; skeiðar-húfr, a ship’s hull, Arnór; stíga fyrir húf, to go overboard, Jd.; hafskips húfar, Fms. vi. (in a verse); héldir húfar, the frosted ships, Jd.; skörum hveldr húfr, Arnór; svelldr húfr; breið-húfaðr, broad-hulled. COMPDS: húf-langr, adj. long-hulled, of a ship, Lex. Poët. hóf-regin, i. e. húf-regin, m. and húf-stjóri, a, m. the guider or steerer of the hull = Thor the Thunderer driving through the air, Haustl., Þd. II. metaph. phrases, vera heill á hófi, to be ‘hale in hull,’ i. e. to be safe and sound; eiga mikit í hófi (húfi), to own much in a ship, to have much at stake, metaph. of a merchant.

húka, t, to sit on one’s hams, Sturl. ii. 220, Mag. 64, Art.; see hokra.

húkr, m. a nickname, Fb. iii.

HÚM, n., poët. the sea, from its dusky colour; salt húm, the salt sea, Lex. Poët., Edda (Gl.), also in poët. compds. II. in prose, twilight, dusk; um kveldit í húmi, Fb. iii. 333; en húm var á mikit, Fas. ii. 284, Grett. (in a verse); í húminu, in the dusk of evening, Gísl. 138, Thom. 308: of the grey dusk in the morning, Fms. vi. 284; hence comes prob. the mod. phrase, að koma, fara í humótt (hámóti) á eptir, to lag behind, sneak behind another. humóttu-legr, adj. sneaking and ashamed.

húma, að, to grow dusk; var nú mjök húmat, Fas. iii. 223, 545; meðan lífs ei húmar húm, a ditty; see hýma.

Húnar, m. pl. (but also Hýnir), the Huns, and Húna-land, Hún-mörk, f. the land of the Huns; Húnlenzkr and Húnskr, adj. Hunnish: the words occur in several of the old poems, esp. Kormak, Akv., Hðm., Og., Gkv. 1, Hornklofi, but only in mythical songs or tales, Fas. passim; the word is derived from the Tartar Huns. COMPDS: Húna-herr, m. a host of Huns, Hervar. S. Húna-kappi, a, m. the champion of the Huns, the nickname of the mythical hero Hildebrand, Fas. ii.

hún-bogi, a, m. a kind of bow, Sks. 408: a pr. name, Landn.

HÚNN, m. [Gr. κωνος], a knob: naut. the knob at the top of the mast-head; draga segl við hún, or í hún upp, or vinda upp segl við húna, to hoist a sail to the top, Ó. H. 17, Tríst. 8, Fas. iii. 410. COMPDS: hún-bora, u, f. the hole in the mast-head through which the halyard went; vinda segl við húnboru, to hoist the sail, Fær. 203. hún-dreginn, part. hoisted to the top, Sks. 394. hún-kastali, a, m. the crow’s nest or ‘castle’ at the mast-head, Sks. 393, Fms. vii. 256, 262. hún-spænir, m. pl. ornaments at the mast-head, Edda (Gl.) 2. the knob at a staff’s end; stafs-húnn, the knob on a door handle etc.: a slice, skera svá breiðan hún til beins er bast er langt, of a whale’s blubber, N. G. L. i. 59. 3. a piece in a game, prob. from its cone-like shape: from the phrase, verpa húnum, to cast (throw) the piece ‘hún,’ it seems to follow that this game was either similar to the Gr. δίσκος or rather to the mod. nine pins; þeirs í Haralds túni húnum verpa, Hornklofi, Fagrsk. 5 (in a verse); in Rm. 32 the ‘hundum verpa’ is no doubt a false reading for ‘húnum verpa;’ the riddle in Hervar. S., (where the answer is, þat er húninn í hnettafli,) is obscure and corrupt in the text, for the hnettafl or hneftafl (q. v.) was quite a different game.

HÚNN, m. a young bear, Kormak, Fas. i. 367, Fb. i. 253, Nj. 35, Landn. 176, Fs. 26, Stj. 530, passim; bjarnar-húnn, a bear’s young: in local names, Húna-flói, Húna-vatn, Húnavatns-þing, -sýsla, Landn.; Húnavatns-leið, Fms. iii. 21. II. metaph. an urchin, boy, Vkv. 22, 30, 32, Gh. 12.

HÚS, n. [Ulf. renders οἰκία by gards and razn, and δωμα by hrôt, whereas hûs only occurs once in the compd gudhus = ἱερόν, John xviii. 20; in all other Teut. languages, old and new, hûs is the general word; A. S., O. H. G., Dan., and Swed. hûs; Engl. house; Germ. haus; Dutch huys]:—a house; hús eru þrjú í hvers manns híbýlum, … eitt er stofa, annat eldhús, þriðja búr, Grág. i. 459; leita nú um hvert hús á þeim bæ, 215, x. 270; þeir fara til bæjarins ok hlaupa þar inn í hús, Eg. 385; í næsta húsi, Ld. 318; af hverju húsi, from every house, Fms. x. 226; eitthvert mikit hús, Sks. 62; eitt fagrt hús, Fb. i. 467; at húsinu, nær dyrrum hússins, id.; bæn-hús, a prayer-house, chapel; söng-hús, a choir; eld-hús, fjós (fé-hús), hest-hús (qq. v.) 2. a house, family, rare in old writers; sonr húss, the son of the house, Rm. 11: freq. in eccl. writers, í húsi Heber, 625. 11; af annars-háttar ættum ok húsi, Stj. 246: freq. in the N. T., af húsi Davíðs, Luke ii. 4: a religious house, monastic order; af Prédikara húsi, from the house of the Preaching Friars, the Dominican order, Bs. passim. 3. a case = húsi (q. v.), corporale með hús, B. K. 84, Vm. 83, 189, Pm. 73, Rb. 358. II. in pl. = bær, the group of buildings of which a house consists, built in a row, the front (hús-bust) facing the sea, or a river if in a dale, or looking south; the back (húsa-bak) turned to the mountain; the pavement along the front is in Icel. called stétt, the open place in front hlað, q. v.; the buildings are parted by a lane (sund, bæjar-sund); the whole surrounded by a wall, called húsa-garðr; a lane, called geilar or tröð, leads up to the houses and house-yard, see Eggert Itin. 22; distinction is made between bæjar-hús or heima-hús, the ‘home-houses,’ homesteads, or úti-hús, the out-houses, and fjár-hús, sheep-houses, which are at a distance from the homesteads; geymslu-hús, store-houses. That this was the same in olden times is borne out by the freq. use of the plur., even when referring to a single house (cp. Lat. aedes, tecta); konur skulu ræsta húsin ok tjalda, Nj. 175, 220; þeir sóttu at húsunum, 115; þeir hlaupa upp á húsin, Eb. 214; biðjast húsa, skipta húsum, ráða sínum húsum, N. G. L. i. 109; hér milli húsa, Ld. 204; taka hús (pl.) á e-m, to take a person by surprise in his houses, Fms. viii. 172; inni í húsum, Sturl. i. 181; þeir stigu af baki fyrir sunnan húsin … ok gengu þá í einum dun heldr hljóðliga heim at húsum, iii. 185; varð þá brátt reykr mikill í húsunum, 189; tóku þá húsin mjök at loga, 186; nú tóku at loga öll húsin, nema elda-hús brann eigi ok litla-stofa ok skyrbúr, 191; þar vóru öll hús mjök vönduð at smíð, 193; hann hljóp upp á húsin ok rifu þakit, 218; rofin húsin yfir þeim, 220. Passages in the Sagas referring to buildings are very numerous: for Iceland, esp. in Sturl. 4. ch. 33, 50, 5. ch. 3–8, 6. ch. 31, 32, 35, 9. ch. 1–5, 8, 20, 52, Nj. ch. 34, 48, 78, 80, 117, 128–133, 137, Gísl. 28 sqq., Dropl. 28 sqq., etc.; for the Orkneys, Orkn. ch. 18, 33, 34, 70 (interesting), 105, 113, 115; for Norway, Eg., Hkr., Ó. H. passim. COMPDS: I. in plur., húsa-bak, n. the back of the houses; at húsa baki. húsa-búnaðr, m. = búsbúnaðr, Ó. H. 175. húsa-bær, m. buildings, farms, Rm. (prose), Nj. 130; mikill húsabær, Orkn. 244; góðr h., Fms. xi. 192, Fas. iii. 20; lítill h., Ó. H. 152. húsa-garðr, m. = húsabær, the yard-wall, Nj. 120, v. l. húsa-gras, n. herbs growing on a house roof, such as house-leek, Stj. 644. húsa-hagi, a, m. home pasture, Gþl. 404. húsa-kostr, m. lodgings, a means of dwelling, Ísl. ii. 139. húsa-kot, n. a cottage, Sturl. ii. 50, Ó. H. 152. húsa-kynni, n. a dwelling; mikil, góð húsakynni, Bs. i. 700, Fms. ii. 84; h. ok borðbúnaðr, Ó. H. 175. húsa-leiga, u, f. house rent, Barl. 194. húsa-mót, n. pl. the joining of buildings, Sturl. ii. 59, Fms. ix. 24. húsa-skildagi, a, m. a contract for the tenure of a house, Gþl. 330. húsa-skipan, f. the order, arrangement of buildings, Gísl. 28, Eg. 235, Post. 656 B. 8. húsa-skipti, n. a sharing of houses, Gþl. 341. húsa-skjól, n. house shelter. húsa-skygni, n. a ‘house-shed,’ shelter, Stj. 121. húsa-smiðr, m. a house-wright, Post. 153. húsa-smíð, f. house-building, Post. húsa-snotra, u, f. a ‘house-neat,’ house-cleaner; the exact meaning of this word is dubious; Finn Magnusson suggested a broom: the word only occurs in Fas. ii. (see hnísa) and in Fb. i. 548 (Symb. 14, Ant. Amer. 291); the latter instance is esp. interesting, as the ‘house-neat’ which is there mentioned (about A. D. 1002) was made from an American tree. húsa-staðr, m. a house-stead, the site of a building, Post. húsa-timbr, n. house timber. húsa-torf, n. house turf for walls and roof, Dipl. v. 5. húsa-tópt, f. house walls, without the roof, Lat. rudera, Fs. 158 (a local name). húsa-umbót, f. house repairs, Jb. 215. húsa-viðr, m. house timber, Grág. i. 200, Nj. 82 (v. l.), Ld. 32, Bs. i. 144. húsa-vist, f. abiding, an abode, Fb. ii. 456. II. in local names, Húsa-fell, Húsa-garðr, Húsa-vaðill, Húsa-vík, Landn., Dipl. i. 7: Hús-víkingr, Hús-fellingr, m. a man from H.

húsa, að, ‘to house,’ build houses; húsa konungs garð, Ó. H. 43; húsa land, Grág. ii. 211; þann hluta landsins er ekki var húsaðr, Glúm. 335; Uni húsaði þar, Landn. 246; húsa ok göra kirkju, Fms. vii. 110; húsa upp, to repair, Fas. ii. 342. 2. to shelter (= hýsa), N. G. L. i. 322. 3. [húsi], to case, B. K. 34, of laths.

húsan, f. house-building, Sd. 180: a casing, B. K. 17 (twice).

hús-bak, n. = húsabak, Hðm. 32, Nj. 28, Sturl. i. 63.

hús-bóndi, a, m., pl. húsbændr; in mod. usage the æ is kept throughout the plural, but not so in old writers; húsbóndi is prop. a participle contracted from húsbóandi or húsbúandi; [see bóndi, p. 74, and búa, of which the older form is bóa, Dan. boe, p. 86; Engl. husband; Swed. husbonde]:—prop. a house-master, master, the Scot. good man (= Swed. husbonde); sínum húsbóanda, Hom. 121; þann klæðnað er húsbóndi átti, Grág. i. 460; ek hefi áðr verit missáttr við húsbónda minn, Ld. 278, Fb. ii. 385, Nj. 97; hann var með þeim húsbónda lengi, he served that master long, Fms. i. 78: a household word in Icel., where the plural húsbændr is used collect. even of master and mistress = Germ. herrschaft, and is opp. to hjú, servants; biddu húsbændrna; húsbondi góðr! is an address of servants to the house-master. In Norway the húsbóndi as the landlord was opp. to the húsmaðr or garðsmaðr or cottager, N. G. L. ii. 207, D. N. v. 54: a host, Fms. vii. 30. II. a husband, answering to húsfreya II; ef húsbóndi hennar er í brottu, Jd. 372; minn húsbóndi, Stj. 119; see bóndi I. 2; but not freq. in mod. usage in that sense: the household phrase being, maðrinn, or maðrinn minn! COMPDS: húsbonda-hollr, adj. faithful to one’s master. húsbónda-lauss, adj. without a master.

hús-bót, f. house repairs, Am. 110.

hús-brenna, u, f. house-burning, arson, Grett. 103 new Ed.

hús-brot, n. a law term, house-breaking, burglary, N. G. L. i. 38, Gþl. 345, H. E. i. 496: in pl. ruins, Ann. 1390.

hús-bruni, a, m. house-burning, Bs. i. 78, Rb. 572.

hús-bust, f. a house front.

hús-búnaðr and hús-búningr, m. house furniture, esp. hangings, tapestry, Js. 78, Fms. vii. 148, Ó. H. 175, Eg. 94, Sturl. ii. 35, Fbr. 138, Vm. 65.

Hús-drápa, u, f. name of an old poem describing the mythical representation on the wall of an old hall, Ld. 114, Edda.

hús-dróttinn, m. the master of a house, 656 C. 16.

hús-dyrr, n. pl. house doors, Sturl. ii. 222.

hús-endi, a, m. a house end, gable, Orkn. 450.

hús-faðir, m. the house father, master, Matth. xiii. 27, 52, xxi. 33.

hús-fastr, adj. ‘house-fast,’ domiciled, Grág. i. 207, ii. 409, N. G. L. ii. 258, Fms. vi. 13.

hús-freyja, u, f., and by way of popular pronunciation huspreyja, Bs. i. 535, Glúm. 349, N. G. L. ii. 6; or húsfrú (Swed. husfru), indecl. in sing., freq. in Stj. 123, Orkn. 326, Fms. vi. 166, xi. 437: whence by corrupt pronunciation hústrú (Dan. hustru), which form is freq. in late MS. deeds, Dipl. iv. r, 3, v. 15, Vm. 31, 52, Bs. i. 117, 119:—a house-wife, lady, mistress; bóndi ok húsfreyja, Bs. i. 535, Grág. i. 157; Unnr húsfreyja, Orkn. 210; Gyða h., Eg. 478; ein rík húsfrú, a great lady, Fms. vi. 166; húsfrú Geirdís, h. Salgerðr, Dipl. iv. 3, Vm. 52; see frú, p. 175, and the references there given. II. a wife, answering to húsbóndi II; sér ok húsfreyju sinni (his wife), Ísl. ii. 201, Stj. 123, Dipl. iv. 1; Sölmundr ok hústrú hans, Vm. 31, Dipl. v. 15; leitandi hvar húsfrú muni sofa, where his wife would be sleeping, Fms. xi. 437.

hús-fyllir, m. a houseful, of guests at an inn.

hús-gafl, m. a house gable, Ísl. ii. 20, Þórst. Síðu H. 15.

hús-ganga, u, f. ‘house-walking,’ visits, Fs. 32, Glúm. 372, Bjarn. 61.

hús-gangr, m. a begging from house to house, Grág. i. 301; fara á hus-gang, Háv. 54, passim: a beggar = húsgangs-maðr, m., Grág. i. 163.

hús-gisting, f. a lodging, Greg. 50.

hús-grind, f. a house frame.

hús-gumi, a, m. the master of a house, the good man, Rm. 25, Gkv. i. 10.

hús-göngull, adj. making many visits, Grett. 96.

hús-görð, f. house-making, Js. 92, Fms. ii. 230, Jb. 211, Odd. 18, Stj.

hús-heigull, m. a kind of spider, = dordingull, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 548.

hús-herra, m. lord of the house, Mar., Art., Pr. 416, Mag. 150.

húsi, a, m. a case, Gullþ. 22; skæris-húsi, a scissors-case, id.

hús-karl, m. a house-carle, man-servant, opp. to húsbóndi, a master; Halli var huskarl undir Felli, Sturl. i. 55; hanu kvaddi húskarla sína með sér, Nj. 18; var skipat verkum með húskörlum, Ld. 58, Grág. i. 435, 456, Gísl. 21, Eg. 4, 52, 565, Bs. i. 645, passim; but in mod. usage vinnumaðr. II. the king’s men, his body-guard, Sks. 249 B; allir þeir menn er handgengnir eru konungi þá eru húskarlar hans, þeir konungs-menn … þá hafa þeir auknafn með húskarla-nafni at þeir heita hirðmenn, 272; enn eru þeir húskarlar konungs er heita gestir, 249, 257, 259, 261; görðusk sumir hirðmenn hans en sumir gestir, sumir húskarlar, Fms. viii. 24. COMPDS: húskarla-hvöt, f. name of a poem, Ó. H. 208. húskarla-lið, n., and húskarla-sveit, f. a body of house-carles, Hkr. ii. 294, Fms. vi. (in a verse), Ó. H. 67.

húski, a, m. a niggard, húska-legr, adj., húski-skapr, m.

hús-kona, u, f. a housewife, lady of the bouse, Rm. 25.

hús-kveðja, u, f. ‘house-farewell;’ at Icel. funerals of persons of note, a brief sermon is delivered at the home of the deceased when the body is removed from the house (see hefja A. 3); this sermon is called húskveðja, and a brief account is therein given of the life, character, family, pedigree, etc. of the deceased; when the ‘house-farewell’ is ended, the body is carried out of the house, the last verses of the 25th Passion hymn (En með því út var leiddr), and the following verses on John xix. 5, being sung; after which the coffin is carried to the church, which is sometimes a long way off. See a description of the funeral of an Icel. lady in Þjóðólfr, 17th Aug. 1869, p. 166.

hús-kytja, u, f. a cottage, hovel, Fms. v. 95.

HÚSL, n. [Ulf. hunsl = θυσία and λατρεία, John xvi. 2; A. S. húsl; E. Engl. housel; Swed. husl]:—the housel, Corpus Domini, a word only used during the Roman Catholic times, never in heathen rites, although the word is Teutonic; at the Reformation it was disused, Hom. 34, 157; taka húsl, N. G. L. i. 144, Karl. 27, passim. COMPDS: húsl-ker, n. a housel box, Vm., Pm. húsl-þungr, m. a housel bag, Vm.129. húsl-taka and húsl-tekja, u, f. taking the housel, the communion, N. G. L. i. 144, Hom. (St.) 15.

húsla, að, to housel, to give the Corpus Domini to a sick person; oleaði hann Ásgrím ok húslaði, Bs. i. 746; hann var húslaðr ok dó síðan, Sturl. ii. 7; húslaðr ok oleaðr, 150, Bs. ii. 70; láta húsla sik, N. G. L. i. 390;—only used of the Roman Catholic service.

húslan, f. the Holy Communion, Hom. (St.) 68.

hús-langr, adj. ‘house-long,’ nickname of a man who built a long hall, Landn. (App.) 324.

hús-lauss, adj. homeless, D. N.

hús-lestr, m. a house-reading, home-service, family prayers, at which hymns are sung and a sermon or lesson read; such services are held in Icel. on Sundays all the year round, in the middle of the day, for the people who cannot get to church; the húslestr consists of the Gospel for the day and a printed sermon (Vídalíns Postilla), a short prayer, the Lord’s Prayer, and a hymn before and after. During the winter an evening service is held every week day (from November to April), which consists of a brief sermon (hugvekja), a prayer, the Lord’s Prayer, and a hymn: hence hús-lestrar-bók, f. a house-reading-book, a postil or the like; húslestrar-fær, adj. able to read a huslestr, of one who has learnt to read well; vera við húslestr, to attend a h. During Lent the Passíu-Sálmar are by popular consent appointed for the húslestr. This old and pious custom is entirely spontaneous, and not ordered by any church authority.

hús-leysi, n. being homeless.

hús-móðir, f. a ‘house-mother,’ housewife, mistress; servants address their mistress as ‘h. góð.’

hús-mænir, m. a house ridge, Ísl. ii. 196.

hús-næði, n. a lodging, shelter.

hús-prúðr, adj. = híbýla-prúðr (q. v.), Fms. v. 191.

hús-rúm, n. house-room, lodging, shelter, Grág. ii. 333.

hús-veggr, m. a house wall, Eg. 187, Fms. viii. 347.

hús-verð, n. the price of a house, Js. 92.

hús-vitja, að, to go on a húsvitjan.

hús-vitjan, f. a ‘house-visitation,’ a circuit which the parish priest has to make every winter from farm to farm in his parish, to enquire into the religious state of his people, the education of children, and so on.

Hús-víkingr, m., Hús-víkskr, adj. a man from Húsavík, Landn.

hús-vörðr, m. a house-ward, ‘house-keeper’ of Shaksp., Gr. οἰκουρός, i. e. the house dog, N. G. L. i. 235.

hús-þekja, u, f. house-thatch, Hkr. iii. 61, Fbr. 24, Stj. 402.

hús-þing, n. [cp. Engl. hustings], a council or meeting, to which a king, earl, or captain summoned his people or guardsmen; skaut konungr á húsþingi ok segir fyrirætlan sína, Eg. 357; Ásbjörn jarl skaut þá á húsþingi, Fms. xi. 267; þá lætr Pálnatóki kveðja húsþings, 67; Sigurðr konungr … ok áttu þar húsþing; talaði Sigurðr konungr, vii. 151, Ó. H. 45, 155; Þá átti Ólafr konungr h. í garðinum ok stóð upp á stein þann inn mikla er þar stóð, Hkr. i. 252; Eysteinn konungr hafði þá h., Fms. vii. 249; keisarinn hafði h. við ráðgjafa sína ok aðra höfðingja, hann sagði svá, i. 126; þá átti Arinbjörn húsþing við lið sitt, ok sagði mönnum fyrirætlan sína, Eg. 533; hann kvaddi þá húsþings (rendering of Sallust’s ‘concionem populi advocavit’), Róm. 146.

hús-þjófr, m. a house-breaker, Ýt. 20.

hús-þröng, f. ‘house-throng,’ a house-full, Jb. 264.

hvaða, pron., indecl. throughout all cases and genders [see hverr], what, which, but only as an adjective, never as a subst. pronoun, e. g. hvaða menn, hvaða konur, hvaða skip? whereas hverr (q. v.) is used as a substantive; hvaða is a mod. form from the old hvat or hvatta (q. v.), and is hardly found in old vellums, except with a dat.; hvaða snúð (dat.), Sks. 266; hvaða burði, Fms. viii. 8; whereas in mod. speech hvaða as an adj. pron. has almost displaced the old hverr, which is at present only used in the substantive sense.

hvaðan, adv. interrog. [Ulf. waþro = πόθεν; A. S. hwanon; Engl. whence; Germ. woher]:—whence, Nj. 2, 125, Fms. ix. 55: absol. of the wind, hvaðan er hann? whence (from what quarter) is the wind? the answer, sunnan, norðan; þóttisk engi vita, hvaðan veðr var á, whence the wind blew, Fms. viii. 55; h. af löndum? Ísl. ii. 222, Vþm. 22, 24, 26, Pr. 416, passim. β. spec. usage; meðan ek veit eigi víst hvaðan Guðmundr hinn ríki stendr at, mágr minn (as long as I know not what side G. takes’), því at ek aetla honum at veita, hvaðan sem hann stendr at, Nj. 214. II. indef. = undecunque, koma þeir heilir hvaðan, Hm. 157; hvaðan sem, whencesoever; hann siglir hvaðan sem á er, he sails whencesoever the wind may blow, whatever wind may blow, Fms. x. 204; blóðrás hvaðan sem renn, Pr. 473; hvaðan af sem hann hafði þann spádóm, Hkr. i. 224. III. as relative, Stj. i.

hvaðan-æva, adv. [æva answers to Engl. -ever in wherever, whenever, whatever, but in Icel. only remains in the adverb denoting the place from which]:—from whencesoever, Fms. vii. 75 (in a verse); drífa h., to throng together from every side, Hkr. i. 54; þustu þá borgarmenn h. at þeim, Fms. i. 104; þar drósk saman mikit lið ok kom h. til, viii. 411; þá gaf þeim glámskygni, sýndisk þeim sem menn færi h. at þeim, Sturl. i. 179; úvina er h. herja á oss, Stj. 398, 444:—phrases, þótti konungi sem h. væri augu á honum, of a wild, fugitive look, Fms. ii. 180; ok hvaðan-æfa augun á sem á hrakdýri, with a look as wild as a hunted deer (as if he had eyes all over him), Korm. 60; hann vann svá at h. vóru á honum hendrnar, he worked as if be had hands all over him, Grett. 101 new Ed.

HVALR, m., pl. hvalar, Sks. 180 B; hvala, acc. pl., K. Þ. K. 138; hvalana, Grág. ii. 387; hvala alla, 359; mod. hvalir: [A. S. hwœl; Germ. wall-fisch; Dan. hval]:—a whale, Hým. 21, Rb. 1812. 17, Grág. i. 159, ii. 337: as to the right to claim whales as jetsum, see the law in Grág. and Jb., the Reka-bálkr and the Sagas passim, e. g. Grett. ch. 14,Eb. ch. 57, Háv. ch. 3, Fbr. ch. 9:—there was always a great stir when a whale was driven ashore, flýgr fiskisaga ferr hvalsaga; í hvals líki, Fms. xi. 182, Fas. ii. 131; hvals auki, amber, old Dan. hvals-öky, Sks.; hvals hauss, a whale’s head; hvals ván, expectation of a whale being drifted ashore, Vm. 174; hvals verð, a whale’s value, Grág. ii. 373; hvala blástr, the blowing of a whale; hvala-kváma, arrival of shoals of whales, Eg. 135; hvala-kyn, a species of whale, Sks. 121; in Edda (Gl.) and in Sks. l. c. no less than twenty-five kinds of whales are enumerated and described; hvala-skúfr, whale guts, a nickname, Landn.; hvala-vetr, a winter when many whales were caught, Ann. 1375: in local names, Hvals-á, Hvals-nes, Hval-fjörðr, Hvals-eyrr, Landn. etc. COMPDS: hval-ambr, m. whale amber. hval-fiskr, m. a whale. hval-fjara, u, f. a whale beach, on which a whale has drifted and is cut up. hval-fjós, f. whale blubber, Ám. 83, Rd. 251. hval-flutningr, m. carrying blubber, Ám. 78. hval-flystri, n. = hvalfjós, Rétt. 10, II. hval-fundr, m. the finding a (dead) whale, N. G. L. hval-föng, n. pl. stores of whale (blubber), Bs. i. 549, Fbr. 41. hval-grafir, f. pl. whale pits where blubber was kept, Sturl. i. 136: a local name in western Icel. hval-gæði, n. pl. = hvalgögn, H. E. ii. 130. hval-gögn, n. pl. gain derived from whales, Ám. III. hval-járn, n. a whale-iron, harpoon, Sturl. iii. 68. hval-kaup, n. purchase of whale-blubber, Lv. 59. hval-kálfr, n. a whale-calf, young whale, Fas. iii. 546. hval-klippa, u, f. = hvalfjós, Grett. (in a verse). hval-kváma, u, f. a drifting of whales ashore, Sturl. i. 190, Bs. i. 665. hval-látr, m. ‘whale-litter,a place where whales cast their young: a local name in Icel. hval-magi, a, m. whale-maw, a nickname, Landn. hval-mál, n. ‘whale-case,’ i. e. a claim to whales as jetsum, Bs. i. 666. hval-reið, f. = hvalreki, Lv. 58. hval-reki, a, m. a drift of whales, Grág. ii. 210, 366, Ld. 4. hval-rekstr, m. whale hunting (as described by Sir Walter Scott in the Pirate), Gþl. 458, Ann. 1296, Bs. i. 801, Boldt. 143. hval-rétti, n. ‘whale-right,’ as to jetsum, N. G. L. i. 59. hval-réttr, m. whale hunting, Ann. 1296. hval-rif, n. a whale’s rib, Háv. 48, Grett. 89. hval-ró, f. a nickname, Landn. hval-saga, u, f. whale news, Bs. i. 463. hval-skipti, n. whale sharing, Grág. ii. 381, H. E. ii. 126. hval-skíð, n. whale gills. hval-skurðr, m. whale carving, cutting up whales, Fbr. 41, Bs. i. 666, Am. 36. hval-skyti, a, m. a whale harpooner, Grág. ii. 377, Jb. 326. hval-taka, u, f. taking, stealing blubber, Sturl. ii. 29, Rd. 251. hval-tíund, f. a tithe paid from whales, Vm. 76, B. K. 53. hval-vágr, m. a whale creek, where whales are caught, Gþl. 464. hval-ván, f. a whale expected to be driven ashore, Vm. 174. In poetry the sea is called hval-frón, -jörð, -mænir, -tún, = the abode … town of whales, Lex. Poët.

HVAMMR, m. [Ivar Aasen kvam]:—a grassy slope or vale; þar var byggilegr hvammr, Fs. 22; kaus hann sér bústað í hvammi einum mjök fögrum, 26; sá var einn h. í landi Geirmundar, at hann kvaðsk vilja kjósa í brott or landinu,—varð búfé hans statt í hvamminum,—hann eltir féð ór hvamminum, Sturl. i. 5; með þeim viði er í þeim hvammi er vaxinn, 6; þeir kómu at því síki er leið liggr til Kirkjubæjar ok skamt var frá þeim hvammi er þeir Ögmundr sátu í, Sturl. iii. 112: very freq. as an appellative in every Icel. farm or as a local name, Hvammr, Landn.: the best known is the seat of the Sturlungar in Broadfirth, Hvamms-dalr, Hvamms-fjörðr, Landn.; Hvamms-land, Hvamms-verjar, or Hvamms-menn, m. pl. the men from Hvam, Sturl.; Hvamm-Sturla, m. Sturla from H., the father of Snorri.

hvann-garðr, m. [hvönn], an angelica garden, N. G. L. i. 38, 241, 253, Gþl. 347, Js. 134.

hvann-jóli, a, m. (see jóll), a stalk of angelica, Fms. ii. 179, x. 336, 337.

hvann-kálfr, m. a young angelica, Hervar. (Hb.)

hvann-stóð, n. a bed of angelica, Vm. 143: as a local name.

hvap, n. [cp. Goth. hwapjan = to suffocate, extinguish], dropsical flesh, holda-hvap. hvap-ligr, adj. dropsy-like, dropsical.

HVAR, adv. interrog. and indef., [Ulf. hwar = που; A. S. hwær; Old Scot. qubar; Engl. where; Germ. wo; Dan. hvor]: I. interrog. where? direct and indirect; in endless instances indirect after the verbs vita, sjá, heyra spyrja…, hvar, to know, see, hear, ask…, Vsp. 5, 22, Hm. i, Ýt., Höfuðl. 3; kveða á, hvar koma skal, Grág. i. 46; hvar við skyldi auka, Ib. 5; þeir fundu hvar upp var rekin kista Kveldúlfs, Eg. 129 and prose passim. β. followed by a subj., hvar viti? hvar hafi? hvar muni? Lex. Poët. γ. with a prep.; hvar skulum vit á leita, where shall we go and seek? Nj. 3; greina hvar þetta heyrir til, whereto, Fms. ii. 260. 2. with the notion of whither; eigi vitum ver hvar hann for, N. G. L. i. 218; hvar hann skyldi stefna, Fas. iii. 543; sé ek nú hvar sök horfir, Hrafn. 11. 3. with particles; hvar fyrir? wherefore? why? Fms. iv. 47; þeir spyrja, hvar til þessi svör skulu koma, i. 3, passim; hvar kvómu feðr okkrir þess (staðar understood) at…, hvar nema alls hvergi, Ísl. ii. 236; hvar landa ertu þess faeddr, where in the world art thou born? Lat. ubi terrarum? Fas. ii. 534. II. indef. anywhere; allir hlutir verða bjartari á glerinu í sólskini en hvar annarstaðar, Hom. 128; hér eru vötn verri en hvar annarstadar, Stj. 609; hér framar enn hvar annarstaðar, Fb. i. 236. 2. in each place; urðu þrjú þing í hverjum fjórðungi ok skyldu þingu-nautar eiga hvar (in each) saksóknir saman, Íb. 9; Duná (Danube) kemr í sjau stöðum mikil hvar (IB seven arms, each of which is great) saman í sjó, Rb.; turturar eru fair hvar saman, Hom. 65. 3. hvar sem, hvar es, and in old MSS. and poems contracted hvars, wheresoever; hvar sem hann for, hvar sem þeir kvámu, Fms. i. 62, vii. 21: with a local genitive, hvar lands er kom, wherever he came, Ód. 8; hvar þess er (wheresoever that) maðr hefir þann eið unninn, Grág. i. 56; hvar landa sem þú ert, Fs. 23; hvar þess er aðrir taka fyrst arf, 191; hvar helzt, id., Hom. 155. 4. hér ok hvar, here and there, now here now there, Nj. 142, Fms. i. 136, vii. 294, 301, 324, viii. 61, ix. 362, Sks. 566; víða hvar, far and wide, in many places; víðast hvar, in most places, in most instances, Skald. H. 3. 42, freq. in mod. usage. 5. ever so, very; hvar fjarri, ever so far, very far off; en þegar er Arnljótr laust við geislinum þá var hann hvarr fjarri þeim, Ó. H. 153; honum kastaði mjök upp or húsunum svá hátt at hvar fjarri kom niðr, Sturl. i. 161 C, Orkn. 114; hann laust hann svá mikit högg at hann kom hvar fjarri niðr, El. 100; hugr þinn er mér h. fjarri, Stj. 417, Hom. (St.) 43: with a compar., um allt Hálogaland ok þó víðara hvar, in all H. and ever so much farther, Fas. ii. 504; hvar meiri, evermore; ek skal þó hvar meiri stund (with ever more zeal) á leggja hennar mál en ek ætlaða, Fms. x. 106. III. relat. only in later writers, Dipl. v. 3, Mar. passim; hvar til (whereunto, to which) Bjarni bauð ekki fremr en áðr, Dipl. iii. 11.

B. In COMPDS, intens. = ever, mostly in poetry: hvar-brigðr, adj. ever shifty, fickle, Fms. x. (in a verse). hvar-dyggr, adj. ever true, faithful, Lex. Poët. hvar-gegn, adj. ‘ever-gain,’ straightforward, upright, Fms. xi. 314 (in a verse). hvar-góðr, adj. ever good, Lb. 13. hvar-grimmr, adj. savage, Lex. Poët. hvar-kunnr, adj. ‘ever-known,’ famous, Hallfred. hvar-kvæntr, part. polygamous, having ‘a wife in every port;’ a rendering of ‘gentern procacissimam,’ of the Vulgate, Deut. xxviii. 50, Stj. 345. hvar-leiðr, adj. ‘ever-loathed,’ detested, Hkv. i. hvar-lofaðr, adj. ever praised, Geisli 16. hvar-mikill, adj. ever great, Clem. 47.

HVARF, n. [hverfa], prop. a ‘turning away,’ disappearance: of a thing being stolen, hvörf ok stuldir, Fbr.; hvarf Iðunnar, Edda 46, Ld. 206, Band. 12 new Ed.: cp. sól-hvörf, sun-turn, i. e. the solstice. βrann hann þeim þar hvarf (mod. á hvarf), he ran out of their sight, Sturl. ii. 145; hlaupit í burt með ok runnit þeim skjótt hvarf, Bs. i. 704: in mod. usage a hill on the horizon is called hvarf; á hvarf, to go to the other side of a hill so as to be out of sight: vera á hvörfum, to waver, Skv. 3. 38. 2. shelter; því ek hefi nú leitat áðr allra hvarfa, Barl. 59; ef björn er horfinn í híði, lýsi því í fjölda manna at þat er hans hvarf (lair), N. G. L. i. 46; at-hvarf, shelter; göra sér e-n at hvarfi, to call on a friend, Fms. iv. 292. II. a local name for Cape Wrath in Scotland, Bs. i. 483; Hvarfs-gnipa, u, f. Cape Farewell in Greenland, A. A.

hvarfa, að, [Ulf. hwarbon = περιπατειν, περιάγειν], prop. to turn round; let hann sér í hendi h. her gullit, Hðm. 21, obsolete. 2. to wander, stroll about, Fms. x. 412, Eg. (in a verse), Pr. 136. β. metaph., h. í millum, what is between, as a matter of dispute or dissent, Gþl. 364; sakir stórra hluta er hér h. milli, Nj. 177, v. 1., ok h. þar í millum, run on these numbers, i. e. between the length of ten and twenty ells, Sks. 120, Anecd. 16: e-m hvarfar hugr, one’s mind wavers, Fms. x. 270.

hvarfan, f. strolling, Skv. 3. 38.

hvarf-fúss, adj. shifty, Hel. 2.

hvarfla, að, = hvarfa, Eg. 766, Lv. 54, Sks. 141, Bs. ii. 62, Fs. 152: to waver, Aroni hvarflaði hugrinn, Sturl. ii. 84.

hvarf-lauss, adj. ‘swerveless,’ unswerving, Barl. 146.

hvarf-semi, f. shelter, refuge, Clem. 44.

hvargi, adv. indef. (for the particle -gi see p. 199); a clear distinction is made in the MSS. between hvargi, everywhere, and hvergi (q. v.), nowhere, (Hkr. i. 269, 278, ii. 208 in the folio Ed. are misprints):—wheresoever, with the particle er (es) or sem; hvargi sem menn verða staddir, 655 iii. 4; hvargi er hann kvángask, Grág. i. 181; hvargi er maðr drepr mann ok varðar þat skóggang, ii. 14; hvargi er menn eru staddir, 20; h. er hann tók, i. 210; h. er þú tekr land, Landn. 43, v. 1.; h. sem þeir herja, N. G. L. i. 103; h. er hann fór, Fms. xi. 40, Hkr. i. 100, 269; h. sem vér komum, Post. 645. 71; h. er þjóð heyrir, Am. 103. 2. in each, every place, without the particle; sýna mér, af hverju gefit er hvargi, what is given in each place, Nj. 76; en þá hit næsta sumar gat nær hvargi (almost everywhere) ber á Íslandi, Bs. i. 135, (the MS. has hvergi erroneously, cp. the Annals of the year 1203.)

HVARMR, m. the eyelid; brá eða brúna, hvarma ok ennis, Edda ii. 499, Róm. 326; hann þenr upp hvarmana, Stj. 475, 1 Sam. xxi. 13; hann let leggja lit í augu sér ok sneri um á sér hvörmunum, Fs. 98; þá skauzt hællinn af auga-steininum ok sleit af honum hvarminn, síðan tók Einarr hvarminn með hendi sinni, ok sá at auga-steinninn var þar, Hkr. iii. 365; greri ör hvítt á hvarmi hvárum-tveggja, 367; utan á hvarmana, 655 xxx. 4: in the poets the eye is called stjörnur, tungl, geisli hvarma, the stars, moon, beam of the h.: tears are hrynregn hvarma: eyelashes, skogr hvarma etc., Lex. Poët. COMPDS: hvarm-rauðr, adj. with red eyelids, Korm. hvarm-skógr, m. ‘eyelid-shaw,’ eyelashes, Lex. Poët. hvarm-tengr, f. pl. ‘eyelid-tongues,’ drooping eyelids, Egil. hvarmrþeyr, m., poët. ‘eyelid-thaw,tears, Edda (in a verse).

hvars, adv. = hvar es, wheresoever, freq. in old poetry and MSS.; see er, p. 131, and Lex. Poët.

hvar-vetna, adv., hórvetna, Grág. ii. 282, Post. 686 B. 2, Fms. ii. 269; but usually, as also in mod. usage, though less correctly, hver-vetna, Nj. 32, Fms. vi. 16. 296, Karl. 534, and passim; [from hvar and vetna, a gen. pl. from an obsolete vetta = wight]:—everywhere; tók herr hans hvarvetna at láta undan siga, Fms. i. 174; hvarvetna milli steinanna, 230. 2. with a local gen., h. þess er, wheresoever that, Grág. i. 36, ii. 292, 342, N. G. L. i. 42, cp. 74, where the gen. is dropped; munu þér hljóta at ráða okkar í millum h. er, in every case where, Fms. ii. 269, (thus Fb. 1. c., cp. Cd.)

HVASS, adj., hvöss, hvasst, gen. pl. hvassa, Sdm. 20; [the Goth. form is supposed to be hwass, cp. hivassaba, Tit. i. 13, and hwassei = ἀποτομία, Rom. xi. 22; cp. hvessa, hvetja, hvatr, as well as O. H. G. hwassi, which seem to be kindred words]:—pointed, tapering; hvass hjálmr eða kuml, Sks. 167; hvasst niðr sem hæll, id.; með hvössu enni, 170; hvöss vörr, Sturl. ii. (in a verse); hvass hringr, Fms. v. 343; hvass þyrnir, sharp thorns. 2. sharp, keen, whetted, of edged tools; öngull sá enn hvassi, Niðrst. 3; hvasst vápn, Grett. 137; hvassan kníf, 91; hvasst sverð, Barl. 155; h. hjörr, Fm. 6; odd-hvass, pointed; egg-hvass, q. v. II. metaph. of intellect, keen; hvasst næmi, Bs. i. 235; hvass í skilningi, 681; hvass í hugskoti. Hom.; hygginn ok hvass, id. 2. of the eyes or sight; hvöss augu, Sks. 170, Skáld 160, Ó. H. 109, Hkv. 2. 2; hvöss sjón, a keen sight; hvassar sjónir, piercing eyes, Sighvat; hvassir geislar, sharp beams of light, MS. 732. 17. 3. sharp, acute; hvöss hljóðs grein, a sharp sound, Skálda 175, 179; hvasst hljóð, 160, 169; hvöss samstafa, 175. 4. of wind, sharp, fresh; hvasst veðr, Eg. 99; veðr var miklu hvassara, 196; hvöss sunnan veðr, Fms. vii. 310; hvasst andviðri, Eg. 87; hvass byrr, Fms. i. 165; h. útnyrðingr, hann er hvass á sunnan, það er hvasst, hann (the wind) er hvass, etc., passim; hvassir straumar, Sks. 14 new Ed.: neut. hvasst, blowing hard; þeir höfðu hvasst mjök á firðinum, Háv. 26, 42 new Ed.: freq. in mod. usage, æði-hvass, blowing very hard; bál-hvass, blowing a gale (so as to lash the sea into tongues like flame). 5. sharp fighting, Korm., Hkv. 2. 10, Lex. Poët.; hvassir menn, Fms. v. 137; kveðsk mundu fá honum annan hest, ef nokkurir væri hvassari en sjá, Rd. 298, of a horse. 6. neut. precisely; ekki hvasst umhyggju-laust, Fms. vi. 204; þat verðr hvasst (precisely) tveir hlutir átjándu álnar, N. G. L. i. 78; þá taka hvárir eigi hvasst (not quite) sjau penninga, 107: in poets, ríða, ganga, sigla, líða, skjóta hvasst, to ride, walk, sail, shoot fast, Lex. Poët.; bita hvassara, to eat heartily, Þkv. 25. 7. coarse; hvassar hosur, Karl. 363, (rare.) COMPDS: hvass-eygr, adj. keen-eyed, Stj. 270. hvass-fleygr, adj. swift-winged, Lex. Poët. hvass-kömbóttr, adj. with a sharp comb or crest, Stj. 77. hvass-leikr, m. sharpness; h. klungra, Barl. 18, 732. 18; h. veðrsins, Fms. viii. 55, Sks. 212: of intellect, Hom. hvass-leitr, adj. sharp-looking, Fas. i. 179 (in a verse). hvass-liga, adv. sharply, Stj. 181, Sks. 228. hvass-ligr, adj. sharp, Edda (in a verse). hvass-nefjaðr, adj. sharp-nebbed, Sks. 418. hvass-oddaðr, adj. sharp-pointed, Ht. R. hvass-orðr, adj. sharp-worded, Hsm. hvass-tenntr, adj. sharp-toothed, Sks. 418. hvass-viðri, n. a sharp gale, Ld. 58, Sturl. iii. 56, Fms. iv. 57, passim. hvass-ögnóttr, adj. sharp-pointed, Sks.

HVAT, neut. pron. of an obsolete hvar; for the other kindred forms see hverr, hví, and hót.

A. Interrog. direct and indirect, what; eiga at bíða hvat ek skal á kveða, Nj. 3; vita, hvat hann skal við kveða, Hm. 28, Vþm. 55; veit ek eigi hvat til annars kemr, Band. 36 new Ed., passim. β. = Germ. was für ein …? North. E. what for a …? for what sort of a …? expressing wonder or the like; hvat Ögmundr ertú, what sort of an O. art thou? Fas. ii. 534; hvat fé er þat? Nj. 55: indirectly, þeir vissu eigi hvat lið þat var, Hkr. i. 268. 2. with gen., hvat er manna þat mér ókunnra? Vtkv. 5; hvat er þat fíra, flagða, drauma, fiska, what sort of men, witches, dreams, fishes? Alm. 2, 5, Skv. 2. 1, Fsm. 2, Em. i; hvat mun enn verða æfi minnar? Skv. 1. 12, 14, 18; hvat manna ertú, what sort of a man art thou? Fms. ix. 55; hvat kvenna ertú? Dropl. 4; hvat karla er þat? Fms. vii. 152; hvat íþrótta er þat? Edda 31; hvat undra varð þess? 623. 35: indirect, hann spurði hvat manna Hallfreðr var, Fms. ii. 54, vii. 166; hvat sveina þat myndi vera, x. 219; hann spurði hvat væri ráðs hennar, he asked what she intended to do, i. 186; hvat hann vildi ráða sinna, vii. 154; spurði hvat veðrs væfi, Bjarn. 54. β. with dat., hvat liði er þetta? Fms. ix. 50; hvat rani var þat? Ísl. ii. 142; hvat húsi stendr þar? Hkr. iii. 187, Stj. 626, 650: indirect, spurði hvat mönnum þeir væri, Eg. 162; hann spyrr hvat mönnum þeir sé, Fær. 64; vita hvat mönnum þeir væri, Hkr, i. 268; hvat erendum, Fs. 11; er hestrinn kenndi hvat hrossi þetta var, Edda 26; Þá þóttisk þórr skilja hvat látum verit hafði um nóttina. 29; hvat matvistum, Str. 81. 3. what, why, how? in asking, denoting surprise, indignation, or expecting an answer in the negative, Lat. numquid? hvat skal rögum manni langt vápn, to what use? hvat skaltú sveinn í sess minn? Eg. (in a verse); hvat hæfir ykkr með mér at vera? Stj. 420; hvat þarftú at spyrja at nafni minu? 399, 410, 476; hvat ek veit, segir Gunnarr, hvárt …? Nj. 85; hvat mun ek þat vita, how should I know that? Bs. ii. 104. 4. how = hve; fréttir hann nú hvat liði bónorðs-málum, Ld. 92; hvat hlýðnir landsmenn vóro, Íb. 16; hvat grimm, how cruel! Mar. 5. causal, why? hvat spyrr þú mik? Hom.; hvat lystr þú mik? id., freq.

B. Indef. pron. each, every, with the particle er (es) or sem, whatso- ever; hvat sem, or hvat es, whatsoever; hvat dýr sem er, Gþl. 457, Fms. vii. 29; hvat sem hann kostaði til, Edda 29; hvat fjarlægr sem…, howsoever remote…, Stj. 93: with suffixed es, hvaz or hvats, id., see er, p. 131. 2. with the possess, pron. sinn; hvat bíðr sinnar stundar, Lat. horam quodque suam expectat, there is a time for everything, Nj. 79; flýr sér hvat, they run each his own way, i. e. were scattered in all directions, Fms. x. 268. 3. hvat af öðru, from one to another, in succession, Fms. i. 128; hvat af hverju, ‘what from which,’ i. e. soon; hans er von hvað af hverju, he is expected every moment, (mod.) 4. with compar. ever so much; hann var til hans hvat betr enn til sinna barna, he was ever so much kinder to him than to his wn children, Ld. 304. II. as interj., hú, há, eðr hvat! Sks. 365 B; vaknaði hann alltrautt ok mælti nær í úvitinu, hvat! hvat! Fms. ix. 24.

HVATA, að, to make speed, hasten with a thing, with dat.; hvata för sinni, h. ferðinni, to hasten one’s journey, 655 iii. 3, Fms. iv. 144; hvata göngunni, to quicken one’s pace, Edda 7; h. þessu, Lv. 20; h. báli, make speed with the bale-fire, Fms. x. 379: absol. to hasten, speed, hann eggjar at menn skulu hvata, Fær. 262; hvata til skipa, Eg. 357; hvata heim, Ísl. ii. 387; h. í brott, Rd. 16: with prep., hvata at e-u, to make haste with a thing, Hkr. i. 103. II. also spelt hvota, Band, and Thom. 1. c., cp. hóta (II): to stretch forth with, with dat.; hvata hnefa at e-m, to threaten a person with the fist, but without striking, Grág. ii. 14; hvota skálm at e-m, Band, (in a verse); hvotandi sverðinu ofan í toman hausinn, Thom. 442: in mod. usage ota.

hvata-buss (-bussi), m. a busybody, Fbr. 191, v. 1.; gættú hans þá, Þórarinn, at hann komizk eigi í brott, ok ertú jafnan hvatabuss mikill, Fms. iv. 266.

hvatan, f. an urging on, pushing on, Skv. I. 50.

hvat-færr, adj. quick, Eg. 73.

hvati, a, m. hurry, Mork. 110. 2. an inciter, Lex. Poët.

hvatki, pron. indef. [see -gi, p. 199]: 1. each thing, every thing for itself; munu þér þá vita til hvers hvatki kemr, Fms. xi. 103; því at h. var þar, gnógar vistir, etc., Karl. 203; hversu hann vill h. göra, Eluc. 56; at skynja hverja jartein hvatki hefir, Hom. 139. 2. with er; hvatki er, whatsoever, Sighvat, Lex. Poët.; hvatki er yfir fjóra fætr gengr, þat skulu þér eta, Stj. 416; hvatki es missagt es í fræðum þessum, Íb. (pref.); h. es honum var í hug, Hkr. ii. 156; hvakki er lifi hans hefir lukt, Fms. x. 395; hvatki málum er lýzk hafa, N. G. L. i. 250; h. mönnum sem inni eru, 61; hvatki er þess þrýtr, er honum er á hendi, Grág. i. 94; hvatki er maðr görir, id., Am. 20. II. hveskis, gen. of or for whatsoever, cujuscunque; hveskis er vér biðjum, Hom. (St.) III. hvígi, dat. to whatsoever, cuicunque; skynja hvaðan af hvígi er nafn gefit, Hom. 139. 2. = hvegi, q. v.

hvat-látr, adj. quick, Fms. ix. 489, v. 1.

hvat-leikr (-leiki), m. boldness, energy, alacrity, presence of mind, Sturl. iii. 42, Fms. vi. 166, Sks. 59 new Ed.; h. ok áræði, Nj. 271; vitsmunir ok h., 262.

hvat-liga, adv. quickly; ríða h., Nj. 192, Sd. 156; búask h., Ísl. ii. 338; fara h., Rd. 277, Th. 77.

hvat-ligr, adj. quick, brisk; hvatlegt lið, active troops, Fms. xi. 33; verjask et hvatligsta, 142; hvatligt verk, a manly feat, x. 391.

HVATR, adj., fem. hvöt, neut. hvatt, bold, active, vigorous; in the saying, engi er einna hvatastr, Hm. 63; h. maðr, Fms. vii. 160, Fm. 6. 24, 30, 31; ef engi hefði verit hvatari höfðingi í her þessum en þú, Fms. vi. 160; hvatr hugr, Fm. 26: acc. as adv., ríða hvatan, to ride at a quick pace, Ld. 260: neut. hvatt, id.; ríða hvatt, Fb. ii. 125, Sighvat; hann bað menn sína fara sem hvatast, Eg. 217. II. male, opp. to blauðr, female, of beasts; h. köttr, freq. in mod. usage.

hvat-ráðr, adj. headlong, Lex. Poët.

hvat-ræði, n. quick action, Glúm. 377.

hvat-skeyti, f. precipitancy, Karl. 393.

hvat-skeytliga, adv. precipitately, Stj. 4, K. Á. 202, Fms. ii. 33.

hvat-skeytligr, adj. hurried, headlong, K. Á. 202.

hvatt, n. [hvetja], a c ut or mark on a sheep’s ear, a slice cut off one side of the ear; hvatt framan, aptan hægra, vinstra; whence hvat-rifað, n. adj. a hvat with a rift: when the slice is cut on both sides of the ear so as to make it like a spear’s point, it is called fjöður, a feather.

hvattá, adv. or interj. = hvatþá, what! what then! Fms. xi. 118; hvattá! láttú góðra gjalda vert ef þú kömsk með fjörvi á braut, Mork. 139.

hvat-vetna, hvat-vitna, pron. used as subst. (hvetvetna is a false form), in old MSS. often spelt hótvitna, Hm. 47, Am. 67, 95, Skm. 28, Niðrst. 6, Fms. xi. 36, 68, 78, 122; [from hvat and vetna, q. v.]:—anything whatever; vex þér hvatvetna í augu, Nj. 53; h. íllt, Fms. vi. 283; þér látið honum h. hlýða, Eg. 71; hann kvaðsk h. mundu til vinna, Fs. 59; eigi eru búar skyldir at bera um hvatvetna, Grág. i. 167; h. var upp brotið, Fms. vi. 381; hvatvetna þar nokkvat es, Greg. 12; Guð leysir hótvetna, Niðrst. 6; fyr hótvetna fram, above all, Fms. xi. 68. II. dat. hví-vetna, to anything whatever, cuivis; ræntu þar hvívetna. Orkn. 294; var Hrafn fyrir þeim í hvívetna, Ísl. ii. 208; hvívetna (hvívitni MS.) er illt er, Hom. 35; miklu er sjá framarr at hvívetna, Fms. vii. 148; görr í hvívitna hornungr bróður sins, i. 255; fyrir h. fram, above all, xi. 28. III. gen. hvers-vetna, of anything whatever, cujusvis; hann kann til hversvetna ráð, Nj. 67; ok sýnir sik svá vera hversvetna Dróttinn, Greg. 4; fyrir hversvetna sakir, Fas. i. 188, Fms. xi. 104.

hvat-vísi, f. temerity, Fms. vi. 8, vii. 124, xi. 98.

hvat-vísliga, adv. recklessly, rashly, Fms. ii. 33, v. l.

hvat-víss, adj. headlong, reckless, foolhardy, Hkr. iii. 225, Fms. ii. 211, xi. 12, 75, Bjarn. 14.

hvaz, pron. = hvat es, whatsoever; see hvat (II), and er, p. 131.

hvá, ð, to say what! (há, q. v., eh), of one not hearing; eins og ganti roðið hvert við hváði, Snót 214.

HVÁÐA, u, f., not kváða, [Ulf. hwaþo = ἀφρός, Luke ix. 39, and hwaþjan = to froth]:—glue, lime, resin, esp. from trees, freq.

HVÁLF, n., mod. form hólf, [A. S. hwealf], a vault, Bs. i. 177, Sks. 633, Al. 89; gufu-hvolf, or dampa-h., ‘steam-vault,’ the atmosphere, (mod.): of the concavity of a shield, Boll. 340; vera á hválfi, keel uppermost, of a boat or vessel; see hólf.

hválfa, d, in old writers spelt hólfa or hölfa; but hvolfa is the mod. form:—to turn vpside down, keel uppermost; sjá at þar hólfir skip á sjónum, Fb. ii. 223, as also Hb. l. c., Fbr. 103 new Ed.; þar hvolfði skip, Njarð. 376 (paper MS.); hóf upp knörr ok sneri á lopti ok kom hólfandi niðr, Bs. i. 30; ok hugðu nú mundu fullkomlega yfir hólfa, it would be overwhelmed, 769.

HVÁLL, m., mod. hvoll, [akin to Gr. κύκλος; also akin to hvel, hválf, prop. denoting what is convex, cp. Germ. hägel]:—a hill; not much used, hóll (q. v.) being the common word; but it is still used of a ‘dome-shaped’ hill; and in local names of farms lying under such hills, as Hváll in Saurbær in the west, Berg-þórs-hváll and Stórólfs-hváll in the south, Beigaðar-hváll in the north, Landn.; Kálfs-hváll in the east, Dropl.; Orrostu-hváll, Eg.: Hváls-maðr, m. a man from H., Sturl.; þeir stefna upp á hválinn, Nj. 69; dalr var í hválinum ok riðu þeir þangat, 197; vér vildum á hválinn ok kómumk ekki, Dropl. 22; hvála eðr hálsa, Róm. 315.

hváma (hvoma), að, to swallow, devour.

hvámr (hvomr), m. a glutton.

HVÁPTR, m., mod. hvoptr, the cheek, Lat. bucca; kemr á kinnina ok í hváptinn, Ísl. ii. 399; mér renna hróðrmál um hvápta, Húsd.; úrakaða hváptana, Orkn. 288, Fb. i. 395: the mouth, gape, Lat. rictus, of a beast, 416, 417, 530, Sks. 52, 53 new Ed.: the phrase, gott er at hafa tvá hváptana ok sitt með hverjum mæla, Fas. ii. 429, Þorst. S. St. 51; cp. kjaptr or kjöptr.

hvárgin-ligr, adj. neuter, Skálda 185.

hvárigr, m., mod. hvorugr, either, each; see hvárrgi.

hvárki, see hvárrgi.

HVÁRR, pron. interrog. and indef., contr. from hvaðarr, which is obsolete, but occurs thrice in poets of the 10th century, Kormak, Fas. i. 297 (in a verse), Hkr. i. 205 (in a verse): mod. form hvorr, still so proncd. in the south of Icel.: [Goth. hwaþar; A. S. hwæðer, cp. Engl. whether; Hel. hweðar, cp. Germ. weder]: I. interrog. direct and indirect, whether, which of two, Lat. uter, in a dual sense, distinguished from hverr in plur.: in plur., like Lat. utri, of two parties, hvárir sigrask, either, which of both (hosts) will gain the day, Nj. 198, Fms. x. 199; hvárir ná máli annarra, Nj. 8: in sing., hvárr þeirra, each of them, both, Grág. i. 120: with a possess. pron., hvárr okkar, Nj. 202: hvárr—annarr, oneanother, either … the other; hvárr sem (either) annars frændkonu á, Grág. i. 29; hvárr við annan, Fms. ii. 366; hvárr okkarr við annan, one to another, Fær. 174; annarr hvarr (q. v.), either. II. indef., each of two; hvárir við aðra, Fms. x. 299, Grág. i. 70; hvarir til annarra, Eg. 126; selja grið hvárir öðrum, Grág. ii. 20; tveggja (gen.) hvárr, either of the twain, 623. 24, Blas. 40, Fms. vii. 157; hvárt … eða, either … or; hvárt er þú vill, láta okkr lifa eðr deyja, Fms. i. 205; á hvára hlið, Rm.; sextigu barna, jafnmart hvárt, syni ok dætr, Stj. 408; hætt er þeirra hvárt, Hm. 87; sinn dag hvárir, Fbr.; sinn veg hvárr, Róm. 347; á sínum stól hvárr þeirra, Stj. 602; mánaðar mat hvars, N. G. L. i. 67, 98, 99; hann kastaði á öxl sér hvárum tveimr, two on each shoulder, Grett. 134 A. 2. adverbial, at hváru, yet, nevertheless, however, often spelt at-vóru, Hom. 116, 119, cp. Hkr. iii. 288; att varu, Al. 30, 137, Hom. 158; sár mun gramr at hváru, but however that may be …, Hallfred; þó at hváru, yet, N. G. L. i. 48; þá á hinn þó at hváru at skuldfesta hann, Grág. i. 233; en hinn selr þó at hváru, yet nevertheless, ii. 253; þót hváru (= þó at h.), 313; þá freistum attvóru, Al. 137, this phrase is now obsolete, and is rare even in old writers.

B. Neut. hvárt, interrog. adverb, whether, direct and indirect; commonly in the first of two correlative clauses, hvárt …, eða or eðr …, whether …, or …, Lat. utrum …, an …, Nj. 205, etc., passim; hvat? … hvárt mægð eðr frændsemi, what? … whether is it affinity or kin? Fb. i. 328; hvárt (better hvat) segi þér til? hvárt skal ek fara eðr eigi, whether shall I go or not? Stj. 602; fæ ek nú varliga séð, hvárt Hrærekr mun fá nauðgat mik til eða eigi at ek láta drepa hann? Ó. H. 74:—but the latter of the two clauses is often dropped; hvárt grætr þú, whether dost thou weep (or not)? what! art thou weeping? Nj. 202; hvárt er rétt, bóndi, whether is it true (or not)? 79; eld kveyki þér nú sveinar, eða hvárt skal nú búa til seyðis? 199; hvárt er Flosi svá nær, at hann megi heyra mál mitt? 200; hvárt er nú engi kona sú er þér er eigandi? Stj. 411, 602; hvat sagðir þú? hvárt eigi þetta? Þiðr. 59; hann vildi vita hvárt hann var í brynju, Ó. H. 74. 2. with adv. er (es, sem), either … or; hvártz sem (sic) maðr verðr sekr at sátt eða á várþingi, Grág. i. 121; hvárt er Hákon Gamli vill eðr eigi, Fms. i. 74; hvárt sem þat er at lögbergi eða í lögréttu, whether it be at the bill of laws or in the legislative chamber? Grág. i. II; hvárt sem þat var í löndum eða í lausa-aurum? Íb. 16; hvárt er friðr er betri eða verri? Ó. H. 208, Fms. iv. 79; hvárt sem þat er heldr í þessarri eðr annarri bók, Stj.

HVÁRRGI or hvárgi, pron. indef.

A. Forms:—the older form was nom. hvárrgi, Grág. i. 114, ii. 307, Eg. 286, Ísl. ii. 354: neut. nom. and acc. hvártki, or with elided t, hvárki, mod. hvorki, Fms. i. 68, passim: gen. hvárskis, Grág. i. 494, N. G. L. i. 350, Fms. viii. 163, Rd. 292; hvárkis, Sks. 558: dat. m. hvárungi, Grág. i. 10, ii. 266; neut. hvárugi, i. II, 131: acc. m. hvárngi, Grág. (Kb.), see -gi, signif. B, p. 199. II. afterwards it changed into a regular adjective, hvárigr, mod. hvorugr, pl. hvárgir, Gþl. 114; but usually uncontracted, and so in mod. usage, hvárugir, Grág. ii. 51, Ísl. ii. 267, Fms. i. 36, viii. 193, Hkr. iii. 243, Sks. 650, passim: dat. sing. fem. hvárugri, Fms. iii. 214, passim: acc. m. pl. hváruga, passim: irreg. and intermediate forms are, acc. masc. sing. hvárngan, Egill tekr því mjök hvárngan veg, Sturl. iii. 99 C, Fms. viii. 88, Thom. 111.

B. Usage: I. neither, of two, Lat. neuter. The old form hvárgi is usually substantival; with gen., hvárrgi or hvártki þeirra, neither of them, Eg. 286, Grág. i. 237; miklu meiri sök en hvárgi hinna var, Sks. 655, passim: with a possess, pron., hvártki okkat, neither of us, Nj. 10: rarely adjectival, hvártki sverðit, Korm. 112: on the other hand, the form hvárigr is used indiscriminately as substantive or adjective; for references see the Sagas passim. II. special usages; with annarr, neither … other, hvarigr at öðrum, Landn. 57; hvárigir kunnu öðrum þar tíðendi at segja, Ísl. ii. 349; réð hvárrgi á annan, Lv. 3; svá hvárigr réð at öðrum, Fas. i. 506; sem hvárrgi tryði öðrum, Fms. i. 217; hvárigir skildu annars mál, Fb. i. 545; ok heri hvárigir á aðra, Eg. 282; því at hvárigir vildu öðrum samneyta, Kristnir eða heiðnir, Fms. i. 265. III. neut. as adv. hvárki, mod. hvorki; hvárki … né, neither … nor; hvárki til laga né til úlaga, Grág. i. 75; hefir h. heyrt til hans styn né hósta, Nj. 201; ok var málit hvárki sótt ne varit þaðan af, 37, Fms. i. 27, N. G. L. i. 61, Hkr. i. 196, Sturl. iii. 99, 236, Grett. 94 B, Sks. 356, passim; hvárki … né … né, Sks. 157 new Ed.; hvárki … né, … eða, Sks. 365 B, H. E. i. 419; hvárki … eða (less correct), Sks.

hvárr-tveggi or hvárr-tveggja; an older form, hvaðar-tveggi, occurs in Hkr. i. 205 (in a verse), and acc. m. hvaðran-tveggja, Korm. 224 (middle of the 10th century).

A. Forms:—the older declension is hvárr-tveggja, originally in two words, of which the latter is a gen. of tveir, literally = uter duorum, whether of twain; this form freq. occurs in old writers, the latter part being indecl., thus, neut. hvárt-tveggja, utrum duorum, Grág. i. 113, Hom. 156, Eg. 61, v. 1.: gen. hvárs-tveggja, Fms. i. 19, Grág. ii. 144: dat. hvárum-tveggja, hváru-tveggja, Fms. ii. 310, vii. 251, x. 304, Hkr. iii. 8, Grág. i. 113, Nj. 64, Eg. 181, Ísl. ii. 332; dat. fem. hvárri-tveggja, Sks. 215 B: acc. hvárn-tveggja, Nj. 145, Fms. i. 12, 13, K. Þ. K. 158: nom. pl. hvárir-tveggja, Sks. 272: gen. pl. hvárra-tveggja, Fms. x. 276. II. tveggja afterwards took a kind of weak inflexion, viz. tveggi in nom. sing., tveggju in the oblique cases and in plur., in dat. tveggjum, but these forms are often applied with great irregularity; nom. sing. hvárr-tveggi, Grág. i. 6l, Fms. i. 17, 265, x. 249, Nj. 39, 55, 59, Ld. 290, Landn. 47, Ísl. ii. 360, 366, 369, Eg. 765, Js. 8, Hkr. iii. 8, passim: gen. fem. hvarrar tveggju, Boll. 326 C: dat. fem. sing. hvárri-tveggju, Grág. ii. 228, Nj. 210, v. 1.: acc. fem. hvára-tveggju, Fms. i. 62: pl. hvárir-tveggju, 655 xvii. i, Grág. i. 69, 107, Fms. i. 38, Eg. 267, Fb. ii. 103, 211, Fbr. 98, passim: acc. pl. hvára-tveggju, Grág. i. 78, Ld. 210: gen. pl. hvárra-tveggju, Eg. 32, Fms. ii. 14: dat. pl. hvárum-tveggjum, Grág. i. 30, ii. 44, Fms. i. 114, Landn. 160, passim. 2. mixed irreg. forms, nom. pl. hvárir-tveggi, Grág. i. 69; hváru-tveggju (as nom. pl.), Ísl. ii. 254, scarcely occurs in good old MSS., but is freq. in mod. usage even as an indecl. form.

B. Usage: I. either, each of two, both, Lat. uterque, Gr. ἑκάτερος, used both as adjective and substantive: 1. as adjective; ór hvárritveggju hlustinni, Nj. 210; ór hvárutveggju liðinu, Hkr. iii. 8; hvárumtveggjum leysingjunum, Fms. i. 114; ór hvárutveggja því vatni, vii. 251; hvárrtveggi herrinn, Hkr. iii. 8; um Mæri hváratveggju, Fms. i. 62; at hvárritveggju tiltekju þessi. Grág. ii. 228; á Bálkastöðum hvárumtveggjum, Landn. 160. 2. as substantive, with gen.; hvárrtveggi þeirra, Grág. i. 61; hvárumtveggja þeirra, Nj. 64; hugr hvárstveggja þeirra, Fms. i. 19: with a possess, pron., hvárrtveggi okkarr, Nj. 55. β. absol., til hvárstveggja, góðs ok ílls, Grág. ii. 144; hvárttveggja, fuglar ok aðrar skepnur, Sks. 103 B; við skaplyndi hvárratveggju, Fms. ii. 14; hvárttveggja, ok þó …, Sks. 351 B; at hvárirtveggi nemi orð annarra, Grág. i. 69. II. the neut. hvárttveggja, used as adverb, both; þá hefir þat h. tynt góðum siðum ok dugandi mönnum, Sks. 348; very freq. in mod. usage with the particle enda ironically expressing dislike, það er hvortveggja hann kann mikit, enda veit hann af því, ‘tis true he knows much, but he lets it be seen.

hvárz = hvárts, = hvárt es, = hvárt er, pron. neut. from hvarr, q. v., either, used adverbially; hvárz … eðr, either … or; hvártz hann hefir farit til þessa eðr eigi, Grág. i. 48; h. er til sóknar eða varnar, 56; hvárz þeir eru bændr eðr griðmenn, 57; hvárz hverfa til lofs eðr löstnnar, Greg. 10; hvárz verit hafa góð eðr íll; hvárz hann er lærðr eðr úlærðr, h. hann svimr á sjó eðr vatni, Hom. (St.) passim: adding a superfluous sem, hvártz sem maðr verðr sekr at sátt eðr á várþingi, Grág. i. 121.

HVE, adv., hvei, Gþl. 495 A; the vowel was prob., as in all similar monosyllables, sounded long, qs. hvé; prop. an old instrumental case from hvat: [Ulf. hwaiva; A. S. hwu; Engl. how; Germ. wie; Swed. huru; Dan. hvor-ledes]:—how, interrog.; ok freista hve þá hlýddi, Ib. 7; bera vætti, hve fyrir sekð hans var mælt, Grág. i. 83; hve for með þeim, Ísl. ii. 341; kveða á, hve þing heitir, Grág. i. 100 (see heita A. II); hve þú heitir, how art thou named? hve margir, how many? Ld. 74; hve mjök, how much? Nj. 24; hve mikill? Fms. vi. 286, Þiðr. 273, Hom. 35; þeir vissu eigi, hve fram var (mod. hvað framorðið var), they knew not the time, of the day, K. Þ. K. 90; spurði, hve gamall maðr hann væri, Ld. 74; þat var með miklum úlíkindum hve (how violent) stormr var eðr snæfall, Finnb. 312: hve nær, when?; Stj. 339, Fb. ii. 394, Nj. 142, Hom. 9, passim; but see hvenar below.

hveðnir, m. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

hvegi, adv., qs. hve-gi; hvigi, Grág. (Kb.) i. 144, 147, N. G. L. i. 71; hveregi = hvegi, Skálda 169 (Thorodd), see p. 199:—howsoever, always with a following particle er (es) or sem; hvegi er mál fara með þeim, Grág. i. 330; hvegi er um hlaup bersk, Kb. i. 147; h. vandr sem væri, Hom. (St.) 53, Am. 33; hvigi mikinn rétt sem erfingi hennar á á henni, N. G. L. i. 71; hvegi er margir viðtakendr eru, Grág. (Kb.) i. 195; hvegi margir sem eru, N. G. L. i. 79; hvegi er síðan görisk, 19; h. skyllig er hón væri, howsoever important it may be, Post. 686 C. I; hvegi er fundr ferr, Fms. viii. 118 (in a verse); h. úvænt sem þeim hyrfði, xi. 76; hvegi lengi sem, h. víða sem, x. 392, 395; h. litla hríð sem, H. E. i. 243; h. náin at frændsemi er, Grág. i. 227: a kind of gen., hvegis lítt sem eptir var af öskunni, þá stóð ljós af mikit, Blas. 37.

hveim, dat. to whom, = Lat. cui: I. interrog.; direct, hveim eru bekkir baugum sánir? Vtkv. 6: indirect, aesir vitu hveim …, Ls. 8; hveim ofreiðr, Skm. I, 2; hann skal segja hveim á hendr var, Grág. i. 65; hveim ek hefi þá jörð selda, N. G. L. i. 88. II. indef. to any, with gen.; hveim hölda, to any, every man, Skv. 3. 12; manni hveim, Skm. 7; but manna hveim, 27; hveim snotrum manni, Hm. 94; hón hratt hveim af hálsi, Skv. 3. 42. 2. with er; hveim er, to whomsoever, Lat. cuicunque; nefni ek þetta vætti hveim er njóta þarf, Grág. i. 7; hveim er sér góðan getr, Hm. 75; hveim er þær kná hafa, Sdm. 19; hveim er liðinn er, 34; hveim er sína mælgi né manað, Ls. 47; hveim er sér góðan getr, Hm. 75; hveim er við kaldrifjaðan kemr, Vþm. 10. This form remains in the mod. hvim-leiðr or hvum-leiðr, qs. hveim-leiðr, adj. loathsome to everybody, detested, hateful.

HVEITI, n. [Ulf. hwaiteis = σιτος, John xii. 24; A. S. hwæte; Engl. wheat; Hel. hueti; O. H. G. hwaizi; Germ. waizen; Swed. hvete; Dan. hvede]:—wheat, Eg. 69, 79, 460, Stj. 255, 413. COMPDS: hveiti-akr, m. a wheat field, Stj. 413, Fas. iii. 373, Fb. i. 540. hveiti-ax, n. an ear of wheat, Þorf. Karl. 412. hveiti-brauð, n. wheaten bread, Stj. 221. hveiti-hleifr, m. a wheaten loaf, Bev. hveiti-korn, n. a grain of wheat, Stj. 99, Hom. 37, Pass. xvii. 27. hveiti-mjöl, n. wheat meal, flour, K.