B (bé) is the second letter. In the Phenician (Hebrew) alphabet the three middle mutes, b, g, d, etc., follow in unbroken order after a. In the Greek the same order is kept; in Latin, and hence in all European alphabets, a confusion arose, first, by giving to the Γ (the old Greek gamma) the value of k (c), and thereby throwing g out of its original place: secondly, by placing e and F (identical in form with Ϝ, the old Greek digamma) immediately after the d; thus, instead of the old Greek (and Hebrew) a, b, g, d, e, f, we got a, b, c, d, e, f, g, etc. In the old Slavonian alphabet v (vidil) was inserted between the b and g (Grimm Introd. to lit. B). In the old Runic alphabet the order became still more disjointed; the common rude Scandinavian Runes have no special g or d, and their b is put between t and l, nearly at the end of the alphabet (… t, b, l, m, y). In all the others b kept its place at the head of the consonants, immediately after a, which stands first in almost all alphabets.

A. Among the vowels a begins more words than any other vowel: it contains the three great prepositions, af, at, and á, which, with their compounds, along with those of al- and all-, make up more than half the extent of the letter; it abounds in compound words, but is comparatively poor in primitive root words. Again, b is in extent only surpassed by the consonants h and s; in regard to the number of root words it is equal to them all, if not the foremost. It is scanty in compounds, has no prepositions, but contains the roots of several large families of words, as, for instance, the three great verbs, bera, bregða, and búa; besides many of secondary extent, as binda, bíða, biðja, etc.; and a great number of nouns. The extent of b is greatly reduced by the fact, that the Scandinavian idioms have no prefix be-, which in the German swells the vocabulary by thousands (in Grimm it takes up about 300 pages); the modern Swedes and Danes have during the last few centuries introduced a great many of these from modern German; the Icel. have up to the present time kept their tongue pure from this innovation, except in two or three words, such as betala or bítala (to pay), befala or bífala (to commend), behalda or bíhalda (to keep), which may, since the Reformation, be found in theol. writers; the absence of the prefix be- is indeed one of the chief characteristics of the Icel. as opposed to the German; the English, influenced by the northern idiom, has to a great extent cut off this be-, which abounds in A. S. (v. Bosworth, A. S. Dictionary, where about 600 such words are recorded); even in the Ormulum only about thirty such words are found; in South-English they are more frequent, but are gradually disappearing. Again, b represents p in Scandinavian roots; for probably all words and syllables beginning with p are of foreign extraction; and the same is probably the case in German and English, and all the branches of the Teutonic (vide Grimm D. G. iii. 414); whereas, in Greek and Latin, p is the chief letter, containing about a seventh of the vocabulary, while b contains from one seventieth to one ninetieth only. It might even be suggested that the words beginning with b in Greek and Latin are (as those with p in the Teutonic) either aliens, onomatopoëtics, provincialisms, or even cant words.

B. Pronunciation.—The b is in Icel. sounded exactly as in English: I. as initial it is an agreeable sound in all the branches of the Teutonic, especially in the combinations br and bl, as in ‘bread, brother, bride, bloom, blithe, blood, bless,’ etc. etc. The Greek and Roman, on the other hand, disliked the initial b sound; but the difference seerns to be addressed to the eye rather than the ear, as the π in modern Greek is sounded exactly as Icel. b, whilst β is sounded as Icel. v; thus the Greek βίσων in Icel. rendered phonetically by vísundr, but επισκοπος (biskup, bishop) is in all Teutonic dialects rendered by b, not p, probably because the Greek π had exactly this sound. II. but although agreeable as the initial to a syllable, yet as a middle or final letter b in Icel. sounds uncouth and common, and is sparingly used: 1. after a vowel, or between two vowels, b is never sounded in Icel. as in modern German geben, haben, laub, leben, leib, lieb; in all those cases the Icel. spells with an f, sounded as a v. Ulfilas frequently uses b, e. g. graban, haban, saban, ïba, gabei, etc.; yet in many cases he vacillates, e. g. giban, graban, gêban, grôbun, tvalib, but gaf and grôf, etc. So gahalaiban on the Gothic-Runic stone in Tune, but hlaifs, Ulf., Luke vi. 48. The Greek and Latin abound in the use of the b (bh) in the middle of syllables and inflexions (-bus, -bills, -bo): in Icel. only a double b may be tolerated, but only in onomatopoëtic or uncouth words, as babbi (pa of a baby), bobbi (a scrape), stubbi (Germ. stumpf), lubbi (Germ. lump), nabbi (a knob), krabbi (a crab), gabb, babbl, babbla, etc.; cp. similar words in English. 2. joined to a consonant; α. in old Swedish b is inserted between m and r or m and l (as in mod. Greek μρ and μλ are sounded μβρ and μβλ, e. g. Swed. domber, komber, warmber, hambri, gamblar = Icel. dómr, komr (venit), varmr, hamri, gamlar: Swed. kumbl and kubl (Icel. kuml, monumentum) are used indifferently. Even in old Icel. poems we find sumbl = suml, symposium, simbli = simli, Edda i. 256 (Ed. Havn.): mp is only found in adopted words, as in kempa (cp. Germ. kampf), lampi (Lat. lampas), and is almost assimilated into pp (kappi): mb is tolerated in a few words, such as umb, lamb, dramb, dumbr, kambr, vömb, timbr, gymbr. strambr, klömbr; cp. the Engl. lamb, comb, timber, womb, where the b is not pronounced (except in the word timber); in limb, numb the b is not organic (cp. Icel. limr, numinn); it occurs also in a few diminutive pet names of children, Simbi = Sigmundr, Imba = Ingibjörg. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Germans used much to write mb or mp before d or t, as sambt or sampt (una cum), kombt or kompt (venit); but this spelling again became obsolete. β. the modern High German spells and pronounces rb and lb, werben, korb, kalb, halb, etc., where the middle High German has rw and lw, korw, kalw; the modern Scandinavian idioms here spell and pronounce rf, lf, or rv, lv, e. g. Dan. kalv, Swed. kalf, vitulus; the Icel. spells with f, arfi, kálfr, but pronounces f like v. Yet in Icel. rb, lb are found in a few old MSS., especially the chief MS. (A. M. folio 107) of the Landnáma, and now and then in the Sturlunga and Edda: nay, even to our own time a few people from western Icel. speak so, and some authors of mark use it in their writings, such as the lexicographer Björn Halldórsson, e. g. álbr, kálbr, hálbr, sjálbr, silbr, úlbr, kólbr, orb, arbi, karbi, þörb, = álfr, etc.; only the word úlbúð, qs. úlfúð, is used all over Icel. γ. fl and fn are in mod. Icel. usage pronounced bl and bn, skafl, tafl, nafli, = skabl, tabl, nabli; nafn, höfn, safn, nefna, = nabn, höbn, sabn, nebna; without regard whether the radical consonant be f or m, as in nafn and safn, qs. namn and samn. This pronunciation is in Icel. purely modern, no traces thereof are found in old vellum MSS.; the modern Swedes, Danes, and Norse pronounce either mn (the Swedes spell mn where Icel. use fn or bn) or vl (Dan.), ffl (Swed.) δ. is in Icel. commonly pronounced as bð, e. g. hafði, hefð, sofðu = habði, hebð, sobðu; yet a few people in the west still preserve the old and genuine pronunciation vd (havdu, sovdu, not habðu, sobðu), even in the phrase, ef þú (si tu), proncd. ebðú. The prefixed particles of- and af- are often in common speech sounded as ob-, ab-, if prefixed to a word beginning with b or even m, l, e. g. ofboð, afburðr, afbindi, aflagi, afmán, as obboð, abbindi, Hm. 138; abbúð, Korm. 116; abburðr, Fms. x. 321; ablag, abmán: gef mér, lofa mér, proncd. gébmér or gémmér, lobmér or lommér (da mihi, permitte mihi); af mér (a me), proncd. abmér or ammér; but only in common language, and never spelt so; cp. Sunnan Póstur, A. D. 1836, p. 180, note **. ε. b = m in marbendill = marmennill.

C. According to Grimm’s Law of Interchange (‘Lautverschiebung’), if we place the mute consonants in a triangle thus:


the Scandinavian and Saxon-Teutonic form of a Greek-Latin root word is to be sought for under the next letter following the course of the sun; thus the Greek-Latin f (φ) answers to Icel. and Teutonic b; the Greek-Latin b (β), on the other hand, to Teutonic p. Few letters present so many connections, as our b (initial) does to the Greek-Latin f, either in whole families or single words; some of the instances are dubious, many clear: φάλαγξ, cp. Icel. balkr; φάρ, Lat. far, cp. barr; φαρόω, φάρος, Lat. fŏrare, cp. bora; φάρυγξ, cp. barki; φόβος, φοβέω, cp. bifa; φέρω, φορέω, Lat. fĕro, cp. bera, borinn; φόρτος, cp. byrðr; φεύγω, εφυγον, Lat. fŭgio, cp. beygja, boginn, bugr; φηγός, Lat. fāgus, cp. bók, beyki; φλέγω, φλόξ, Lat. fulgere, fulgur, cp. blik, blika; φλέω, Lat. flāre, cp. blása, bólginn, Lat. follis, cp. belgr; φλογμός, Lat. flōs, cp. blóm; φονή, φόνος, φεν-, cp. bani, ben; φορμός, cp. barmr; φράγμα, φράσσω, cp. borg, byrgja; φράζω, φραδή, cp. birta; φρατήρ, Lat. frāter, cp. bróðir; φρέαρ, cp. brunnr; φρίσσω, cp. brattr (brant), brandr; οφρυς, cp. brá; φρύγανον, φρύγω, cp. brúk; φύω, Lat. fīo, fŭi, cp. búa, bjó, Engl. to be, and the particle be- (v. Grimm s. v. be- and bauen); φύλλον, Lat. fŏlium, cp. blað; φώγω, Lat. fŏcus, cp. baka: moreover the Lat. făcio, -fĭcio, cp. byggja; fastigium, cp. bust; favilla, cp. bál; fĕrio, cp. berja; fĕrox, fĕrus, cp. ber-, björn; fervere, cp. brenna; fīdus, foedus, cp. binda; findo, fīdi, cp. bíta, beit; flăgellum, cp. blaka; flectere, cp. bregða; fluctus, cp. bylgja; fŏdio, cp. bauta, Engl. to beat; fundus, cp. botn; fors, forte, cp. ‘burðr’ in ‘at burðr;’ frango, frēgi, frăgor, cp. breki, brak, brjóta; fraus (fraudis), cp. brjóta, braut; frūges, fructus, cp. björk; fulcio, cp. búlki; frĕmo, cp. brim; frenum, cp. beisl, Engl. bridle; frons (frondis), cp. brum;—even frons (frontis) might be compared to Icel. brandr and brattr, cp. such phrases as frontati lapides;fātum, fāma, cp. boð, boða, etc. The Greek φίλος, φιλειν might also be identical to our bl- in blíðr. The change is irregular in words such as Lat. pangere, Icel. banga; petere = biðja; parcere = bjarga; porcus = börgr; πηγή, cp. bekkr; probably owing to some link being lost. β. in words imported either from Greek or Roman idioms the f sometimes remains unchanged; as the Byz. Greek φεγγάριον is fengari, Edda (Gl.); sometimes the common rule is reversed, and the Latin or Greek p becomes b, as episcopus = biskup; leopardus = hlébarðr, Old Engl. libbard; ampulla = bolli; cp. also Germ. platz = Icel. blettr; again, plank is in the west of Icel. sounded blanki: on the other hand, Latin words such as bracca, burgus are probably of Teutonic or Celtic origin. γ. the old High German carried this interchange of consonants still farther; but in modern High German this interchange remains only in the series of dental mutes: in the b and g series of mutes only a few words remain, as Germ. pracht (qs. bracht), cp. Engl. bright; Germ. pfand, cp. Engl. bond; otherwise the modern Germans (High and Low) have, just as the English have, their braut, bruder, brod, and butter, not as in old times, prût, etc.

D. In the Runic inscriptions the b is either formed as RUNE, so in the old Gothic stone in Tune, or more commonly and more rudely as RUNE in the Scandinavian monuments; both forms clearly originate from the Greek-Roman. The Runic name was in A. S. beorc, i. e. a birch, Lat. betula; ‘beorc byð blêda leâs …,’ the A. S. Runic Poem. The Scandinavian name is, curiously enough—instead of björk, f. a birch, as we should expect—bjarkan, n.; the name is in the old Norse Runic Poem denoted by the phrase, bjarkan er lauf grænst lima, the b. has the greenest leaves, cp. also Skálda 177: both form and gender are strange and uncouth, and point to some foreign source; we do not know the Gothic name for it, neither is the Gothic word for the birch (betula) on record, but analogously to airþa, hairþa, Icel. jörð, hjörð, björk would in Gothic be sounded bairca, f.; the Scandinavian form of the name points evidently to the Gothic, as a corruption from that language,—a fresh evidence to the hypothesis of the late historian P. A. Munch, and in concord with the notion of Jornandes, about the abode of the Goths in Scandinavia at early times. Thorodd (Skálda 166) intended to use b as a sign for the single letter, B for a double b, and thus wrote uBi = ubbi; but this spelling was never agreed to.

babbl, n., bábilja, u, f. a babble; babbla, að, to babble.

BAÐ, n. [in Goth. probably baþ, but the word is not preserved; A. S. bäð, pl. baðo; Engl. bath; Germ. bad; cp. also Lat. balneum, qs. badneum (?); Grimm even suggests a kinship to the Gr. βάπτω]:—bath, bathing. In Icel. the word is not very freq., and sounds even now somewhat foreign; laug, lauga, q. v., being the familiar Icel. words; thus in the N. T. Titus iii. 5. is rendered by endrgetningar laug; local names referring to public bathing at hot springs always bear the name of laug, never bað, e. g. Laugar, Laugarnes, Laugardalr, Laugarvatn, etc. The time of bathing, as borne out by many passages in the Sturl. and Bs., was after supper, just before going to bed; a special room, baðstofa (bathroom), is freq. mentioned as belonging to Icel. farms of that time. Bathing in the morning seems not to have been usual; even the passages Sturl. ii. 121, 125 may refer to late hours. This custom seems peculiar and repugnant to the simple sanitary rules commonly observed by people of antiquity. It is, however, to be borne in mind that the chief substantial meal of the ancient Scandinavians was in the forenoon, dagverðr; náttverðr (supper) was light, and is rarely mentioned. Besides the word bað for the late bath in the Sturl. and Bs., baðstofa is the bathroom; síð um kveldit, í þann tíma er þeir Þórðr ok Einarr ætluðu at ganga til baðs, Sturl. iii. 42; um kveldit er hann var genginn til svefns, ok þeir til baðs er þat líkaði, ii. 117, 246, iii. 111; þat var síð um kveldit ok vóru menn mettir (after supper) en Ormr bóndi var til baðs farinn, ok var út at ganga til baðstofunnar, Bs. i. 536; eptir máltíðina (supper) um kveldit reikaði biskupinn um baðferðir (during bathing time) um gólf, ok síðan for hann í sæng sína, 849; hence the phrase, skaltú hafa mjúkt bað fyrir mjúka rekkju, a good bathing before going to bed, of one to be burnt alive, Eg. 239. In Norway bathing in the forenoon is mentioned; laugardags morguninn vildu liðsmenn ráða í bæinn, en konungr vildi enn at þeir biði þar til er flestir væri í baðstofum, Fms. viii. 176; snemma annan dag vikunnar …, and a little below, eptir þat tóku þeir bað, vii. 34, iii. 171; þá gengr Þéttleifr til baðstofu, kembir sér ok þvær, eptir þat skœðir hanu sik, ok vápnar, Þiðr. 129, v. l.; Icel. hann kom þar fyrir dag (before daybreak), var Þórðr þá í baðstofu, Sturl. ii. 121, 125; vide Eb. 134, Stj. 272. COMPDS: bað-ferð, f. time for bathing, Bs. i. 849. bað-hús, n. a bathing-house, G. H. M. ii. 128 (false reading), vide Fs. 149, 183. bað-kápa, u, f. a bathing-cloak, Sturl. ii. 117. bað-kona, u, f. a female bathing attendant, N. G. L. iii. 15. bað-stofa, u, f. (v. above), a bath-room, Eb. l. c., Bs. i. l. c., Þiðr. l. c., Fms. viii. l. c., Sturl. ii. 121, 167, iii. 25, 102, 176, 198. baðstofu-gluggr, m. a window in a b., Eb. l. c., Sturl. l. c. In Icel. the bathing-room (baðstofa) used to be in the rear of the houses, cp. Sturl. ii. 198. The modern sense of baðstofa is sitting-room, probably from its being in modern dwellings placed where the old bathing-room used to be. The etymology of Jon Olafsson (Icel. Dict. MS.), baðstofa = bakstofa, is bad. In old writers baðstofa never occurs in this modern sense, but it is used so in the Dropl. Saga Major:—a closet, room, in writers of the 16th century, Bs. ii. 244, 256, 504, Safn. 77, 92, 95, 96.

baðast, að, dep. (rare), to bathe, Fms. iii. 171; in common Icel. act., baða höndum, to gesticulate, fight with the arms, as in bathing.

BAÐMR, m. [Goth. bagms; A. S. beam, cp. Engl. hornbeam; Germ. baum], a tree, only used in poetry, v. Lex. Poët., never in prose or common language, and alien to all Scandin. idioms: it seems prop. to be used of the branches of a tree (in flower); hár b., the high tree, Vsp. 18; á berki skal þær rista ok á baðmi viðar, Sdm. 11 (referring to the lim-rúnar). Even used metaph. = gremium, sinus; er þá Véa ok Vilja | létztu þér Viðris kvæn | báða í baðm um tekið, when thou tookest both of them into thy arms, embraced them both, Ls. 26; vaxi þér á baðmi (bosom) barr, Hkv. Hjörv. 16. Cp. hróðrbaðmr (barmr is a bad reading), Vtkv. 8, a fatal twig.

BAGALL, m. [Lat. baculus], an episcopal staff, crozier, Fms. i. 233, iii. 168, Bs. i. 42, Vm. 68.

bagga, að, to hinder, with dat.

BAGGI, a, m. [Engl. bag, baggage; Germ. pack, gepäck], a bag, pack, bundle, Edda 29, Eg. 218, Fms. ii. 197, Fas. ii. 516.

bagi, a, m. inconvenience; baga-legr, adj. inconvenient.

baglaðr, part. [cp. bagr, begla], broken, maimed, Fas. iii. 195.

bagr, adj. [cp. bágr], awkward, clumsy, clownish, opp. to hagr, q. v., Fas. iii. 195: baga, u, f., in mod. usage means a plain common ditty; böguligr and amböguligr, adj., means awkward.

BAK, n. [A. S. bäc], Lat. tergum, back, Eg. 218, Edda 29, 30, Hkr. i. 337: in metaph. phrases, bera sök á baki, to be guilty, Gþl. 539; leggja bleyðiorð á bak e-m, to load, charge one with being a coward. Fas. ii. 530; hafa mörg ár á baki, to ‘carry a weight of years’ Ísl. ii. 456: of horseback, léttr á baki, Sturl. ii. 195; fara á bak, to mount; stíga af baki, to dismount, Eg. 397, Grág. ii. 95: in other relations, as adv., at hurðar-baki, behind the door; at húsa-baki, at the back of the houses; að fjalla-baki, behind the mountains; handar-bak, the back of the hand. 2. á bak or á baki used as a prep. or as an adv.; á bak (acc.) if denoting motion, á baki (dat.) if without motion: α. loc. behind, at the back of; á baki húsunum, Háv. 49, Nj. 28; at baki þeim, at their back, Eg. 91, Nj. 261, 262, 84, Eg. 583; Hrútr kveðst þat ætla, at hans skyldi lítt á bak at leita, he should not be found in the rear, Ld. 278; berr á baki, unbacked, helpless, in the proverb, Nj. 265, Grett. 154: metaph., ganga á bak e-u, orðum, heitum …, to elude, evade one’s pledged word, Fms. ii. 209, Ísl. ii. 382; göra e-t á baki e-m, in one’s absence, behind one’s back, N. G. L. i. 20; á bak aptr (= aptr á bak), backward; falla; á b. a., Eb. 240, Nj. 9, Eg. 397, Háv. 48 new Ed.; til baks, better til baka, to back, Sturl. ii. 203; brjóta á bak, prop. to break one’s back, Fms. viii. 119; to break, subdue, and also to make void, annul; brjóta á bak Rómverja, to ‘break the back’ of the R., defeat them, 625. 65; Heiðrekr vildi öll rúð fóður síns á bak brjóta, Fas. i. 528. β. temp. with dat. past, after; á bak Jólum, after Yule, Fms. viii. 60; á b. Jónsvöku, ix. 7: metaph., Héðinn kvaðst eigi hirða hvat er á bak kæmi, H. said he did not care for what came after, Fas. i. 402; muntú eigi vera mót Njáli, hvat sem á b. kemr, Nj. 193.

baka, að, [Gr. φώγειν, cp. also the Lat. focus; A. S. bacan; Engl. to bake; Germ. backen.] 1. prop. to bake; b. brauð, N. G. L. i. 349; b. ok sjóða, to bake and cook, Gþl. 376. In Icel. steikja is to roast; baka, to bake; but in mod. usage steikja may also be used of baking on embers, opp. to baka, baking in a pan or oven; elda ofn til brauðs ok b., Hom. 113; b. í ofni, Fas. i. 244; people say in Icel. steikja köku (on embers), but baka brauð. 2. metaph. and esp. in the reflex. bakast, to bake, i. e. to warm and rub the body and limbs, at a large open fire in the evening after day-work; v. bakeldr and bakstreldr; v. also the classical passages, Grett. ch. 16, 80, Fms. xi. 63, 64 (Jómsv. ch. 21), Orkn. ch. 34, 89, 105, Hkr. iii. 458. In Icel. the same fire was made for cooking and warming the body, Ísl. ii. 394, Eb. ch. 54, 55; hence the phrase, hvárt skal nú búa til seyðis (is a fire to be made for cooking) … svá skal þat vera, ok skaltú eigi þurfa heitara at baka, it shall be hot enough for thee to bake, Nj. 199 (the rendering of Johnsonius is not quite exact); skaltú eigi beiðast at baka heitara en ek mun kynda, Eg. 239: used of bathing, bakaðist hann lengi í lauginni, Grett. ch. 80, MS. Cod. Upsal. This ‘baking’ the body in the late evening before going to bed was a great pastime for the old Scandinavians, and seems to have been used instead of bathing; yet in later times (12th and 13th centuries) in Icel. at least bathing (v. above) came into use instead of it. In the whole of Sturl. or Bs. no passage occurs analogous to Grett. l. c. or Jómsv. S. β. bóndi bakar á báðar kinnr, blushed, Bs. ii. 42; þanneg sem til bakat er, as things stand, Orkn. 428; bakaði Helgi fótinn, H. baked the (broken) leg, Bs. i. 425; vide eldr. γ. (mod.) to cause, inflict; b. e-m öfund, hatr, óvild (always in a bad sense): af-baka means to distort, pervert. II. to put the back to, e. g. a boat, in floating it, (mod.)

bakari, a, m. a baker, Stj. 200. bakara-meistari, a, m. a master-baker, Stj. 201.

bak-borði, a, m. (bakborð, m., Jb. 407 A), [Dutch baakbord], the larboard side of a ship, opp. to stjórnborði, Fb. i. 22, Jb. l. c., Fms. vii. 12, Orkn. 8.

bak-brjóta, braut, to violate, transgress, B. K. 108.

bak-byrðingar, m. pl. the crew on the larboard side, opp. to stjórn-byrðingar, Fms. viii. 224.

bak-byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back, Ísl. ii. 364.

bak-eldr and bakstreldr, m. an evening fire to bake the body and limbs at (v. baka); sitja við bakelda, Fs. 4, Orkn. 112, 74, Korm. 236, Grett. 91: metaph., bændr skulu eiga ván bakelda, they shall get it hot enough, Fms. viii. 201; göra e-m illan bakeld, 383, ix. 410. bakelda-hrif, n. pl. rubbing the back at a b., Grett. l. c. A. As the evening bakeldar are not mentioned in the Sturl., it may be that bathing had put them out of use because of the scarcity of fuel.

bak-fall, n. falling backwards, Fas. iii. 569: esp. in pl. in the phrase, róa bakföllum, to take a long pull with the oars, i. 215: milit. attack from behind = bakslag, Fms. viii. 115, ix. 405.

bak-ferð, f. mounting on horseback, Grett. 91 A.

bak-ferla, að, [ferill], prop. to step backwards; þat (viz. the word ave) sýnir öfgað, bakferlað (read backwards) nafnit Eva, 655 xxvii. 18, to break, annul; b. ofbeldi e-s, Stj. 233; at b. þat allt er Domitianus hafði boðit, 623. 13; rjúfa ok b., to break and make void, Sturl. i. 171 C.

bak-hlutr, m. the hind part, Stj. 253, Fs. 48.

bak-hold, n. pl. the flesh on the back of cattle, Grett. 91.

bak-hverfask, ð, reflex, to turn one’s back upon, abandon, Eg. 20, v. l.

bak-jarl, m., milit. a foe attacking in the rear, Sturl. iii. 66, Karl. 164.

bakki, a, m. [Engl. and Germ. bank], a bank of a river, water, chasm, etc.; árbakki, sjávarbakki, marbakki, flæðarbakki, Gísl. 54; síkisbakki, gjárbakki; út eptir áinni ef Hákon stæði á bakkanum, Fms. vi. 282, ix. 405, Nj. 158, 224: Tempsar b., banks of the Thames, Fms. v. (in a verse). 2. an eminence, ridge, bank; gengu þeir á land ok kómu undir bakka einn, Dropl. 5; hann settist undir b. í hrísrunni, Bjarn. 15; cp. skotbakki, butts on which the target is placed; setja spán í bakka, to put up a target, Fms. ii. 271. β. heavy clouds in the horizon. 3. [= bak], the back of a knife, sword, or the like, opp. to edge; blað skilr bakka ok egg, Jónas, Grett. 110 new Ed. COMPDS: bakka-fullr, adj. full to the bank, brim-full; bera í b. lækinn, a proverb, cp. Lat. ligna in silvam ferre, and Engl. to carry coals to Newcastle. bakka-kólfr, m., prob. a bird-bolt, thick arrow without a point, to be shot from a cross-bow, Fms. iii. 18. bakka-stokkar, m. pl. the stocks on which a ship is built, Gþl. 80, Hkr. i. 293.

bak-klæði, n. tapestry, Hkr. iii. 437.

bak-lengja, u, f. the dark stripe along the back of cattle, Grett. 91, Eg. 149, v. l.

bak-máligr (and bakmáll), adj. backbiting, Hom. 34, 656 B. 1.

bak-mælgi, f. and bakmæli, n. backbiting, Hom. 86; liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 145.

bak-rauf, f. anus, a cognom., Fms. vii. 21.

bak-sárr, adj. a horse with a sore back, Lv. 58.

bak-sig, n., medic. exania, Fél. ix.

bak-skiki, a, m. a back flap, a cognom., Bjarn. 12.

bak-skyrta, u, f. the back flap of a skirt, Fms. vii. 21.

bak-slag, n. a back-stroke, attack in rear, Fms. viii. 399.

bak-sletta, u, f. and bakslettr, m., Al. 27, 44; acc. pl. bakslettu, 90: milit. an attack in rear, Fms. viii. 319, ix. 357: drawback, at rétta þann bakslett, Al. l. c.

bak-spyrna, d, to spurn or kick against; N. T. of 1540 (Acts ix. 5) προς κέντρα λακτίζειν is rendered by b. móti broddunum.

bak-stakkr, m. the back part of a cloak. Fas. ii. 343.

bakstr, rs, m. baking, Fms. ix. 530: baked bread, pund b., B. K. 89, esp. wafer, Bs. ii. 15: a poultice, fomentation, i. 786: warming, heating, ii. 10. COMPDS: bakstr-brauð, n. baked bread, B. K. 89. bakstr-buðkr, m. a box in which wafers were kept, Pm. 5. bakstr-eldr, v. bakeldr. bakstr-hús, n. a bake-house, Fms. ix. 531. bakstr-járn, n. an iron plate for baking sacramental wafers, Vm. 15, 37. bakstr-kona, u, f. a female baker, N. G. L. iii. 15. bakstr-munnlaug, f. a vessel in which wafers were kept, Dipl. iii. 4. bakstr-sveinn, m. a baker boy, N. G. L. iii. 15.

bak-verkr, m., medic. a pain in the back, lumbago, Nj. 130, Fél. ix.

bak-verpast, ð and t, dep., b. við e-m, to turn the back to, set at defiance, Stj. 362, 431, 449, Eg. 20.

bak-þúfa, u, f. a horse block.

BAL, n. vagina, in poems of the 15th century.

bala, d and að, to drudge, live hard, (cant word.)

baldakin, and bad forms baldrsskinn (the skin of Balder!) and baldskin [from Baldak, i. e. Bagdad], a baldaquin, canopy, Bs. i. 713, 803, Sturl. iii. 306, Fms. x. 87, Dipl. v. 18, Vm. 52, 97, 117, Ám. 44, Hb. 544, 22. COMPDS: baldrskinns-hökull, m., literally a surplice of b., Ám. 87. baldrskinns-kápa, u, f. a cape of b., Ám. 15.

baldinn, adj. [A. S. beald], untractable, unruly, Grett. 90 A, Fms. xi. 445; cp. bellinn, ballr, ofbeldi.

BALDR, rs, m. [A. S. baldor, princeps, seems to be a different root from the Goth. balþs, A. S. bald, which answers to the Icel. ball- or bald- without r], prop. = Lat. princeps, the best, foremost; in compds as mann-baldr, her-baldr, fólk-baldr. β. meton. the god Balder, because of his noble disposition, Edda. Baldrs-brá, f. Balder’s eye-brow, botan. cotida foetida, Ivar Aasen ballebraa and baldurbraa, pyrethrum inodorum, Edda 15; the B. is there called the fairest and whitest of all flowers (allra grasa hvítast). Perhaps the eye-bright or euphrasy,,—the Icel. Baldrs-brá, if we remember rightly, resembles the Engl. ‘ox-eye’ or ‘dog-daisy.’

baldrast and ballrast, að, dep. [cp. Germ. poltern; Ivar Aasen baldra, Ihre ballra = strepere], to make a clatter; þeir sneru hestunum ok böldruðust sem þeir væri úráðnir hvárt þeir skyldi ríða, Sturl. iii. 279: adding saman, þeir böllruðust saman, Ingv. 34.

baldrekr, m. (for. word), a belt, baldrick, Lex. Poët.

BALI, a, m. a soft grassy bank, esp. if sloping down to the shore, Grett. 116 A.

BALLR, adj. [Goth. balþs, audax, may be supposed from Jornandes, ob audaciam virtutis baltha, id est audax, nomen inter suos acceperat, 109; Ulf. renders παρρησία by balþis, f., and balþjan is audere; in Icel. the (lth) becomes ll; A. S. beald, audax; Engl. bold]:—bard, stubborn: only used in poetry, and not in quite a good sense, as an epithet of a giant, Hým. 17; böll ráð, telling, fatal schemes, Hom. 27 ; ballir draumar, bad, deadly dreams, Vtkv. I; ballr dólgr, Haustl.; böll þrá, heavy grief, Ls. 39, etc., vide Lex. Poët. [So old German names, Bald, Leo-pold, etc.]

ball-riði, a, m. the great rider, bold rider, Ls. 37.

ballti, a, m. the name of a bear, Lex. Poët.

BALSAM, m. (now always n.), a balsam, Bs. i. 143, (for. word.)

bana, að, [bani; Gr. root φένω], to kill, with dat., ef griðungr banar manni, Grág. ii. 122, Rb. 370, Fms. iii. 124; b. sér sjálfr, to commit suicide, Ver. 40; metaph., Hom. 17.

BAND, n. pl. bönd, [binda; Ulf. bandi, f. δεσμός; O. H. G. pfand, whence the mod. Dan. pant; N. H. G. band; Engl. band and bond; Dan. baand.] I. prop. in sing. any kind of band; mjótt band, a thin cord, Edda 20, Grág. ii. 119. β. a yarn of wool, v. bandvetlingar. γ. metaph. a bond, obligation; lausn ok b. allra vandamála, Fms. v. 248, Bs. i. 689. II. in pl. also, 1. bonds, fetters, Lat. vincula; í böndum, in vinculis, Bs. i. 190, Fms. ii. 87, 625. 95: theol., synda bönd, 656 A; líkams bönd, Blas. 40. 2. a bond, confederacy; ganga í bönd ok eið, to enter into a bond and oath, Band. 22; cp. hjónaband, marriage; handaband, a shaking of hands, etc. 3. poët. the gods, cp. hapt; of providence ruling and uniting the world, Hkm. 10; banda vé, the temples, Hkr. i. 204; at mun banda, at the will of the gods, 210; vera manu bönd í landi, the gods (i. e. lares tutelares) are present in the land, Bs. i. 10; gram reki bönd af löndum, Eg. (in a verse); blóta bönd, to worship the gods; vinr banda, the friend of the gods; bönd ollu því, the gods ruled it, Haustl.; vide Lex. Poët., all the instances being taken from heathen poems. Egilsson suggests a reference to the imprisoning of the three gods, Odin, Hænir, and Loki, mentioned Edda 72; but bönd is that which binds, not is bound; (band means vinculum not vinctus.) 4. metric. a kind of intricate intercalary burden (klofastef). This seems to be the meaning in the word Banda-drápa, where the burden consists of five intercalary lines occurring in sets of three verses | Dregr land at mun banda || Eiríkr und sik geira | veðrmildr ok semr hildi || gunnblíðr ok réð síðan | jarl goðvörðu hjarli; but as this metrical term is nowhere else recorded, the name of the poem may have come from the word ‘banda’ (gen. pl. deorum), Hkr. i. 210 sqq. COMPDS: banda-dagr, m. vincula Petri, the 1st of August, Fms. vi. 222. banda-menn, m. pl. confederates, Band. 5, and many other modern compds. banda-ríki, n. (mod.) the United States. banda-þing, n. the late German Bund, etc.

banda, að, [cp. Ulf, bandvian = σημαίνειν and bandva, vexillum; Germ. banner; is probably alien to binda], to make a sign with the hand, esp. in the phrase, b. móti, to drive back sheep or flocks, Háv. 41, Fas. ii. 124, v. l. The chief MSS., however, spell bannaði; the word is at present freq., but only in the above phrase, or gener. to remonstrate slightly against as by waving the hand; v. benda.

bandingi, ja, m. a prisoner, Stj. 200, Fms. vi. 16, 623. 25.

band-vetlingr, m. a knitted woollen glove, Fms. iii. 176; and band-vöttr, id., a horse’s name, Gísl. 19.

BANG, n. hammering, Sturl. iii. 256; mod. also banga, að, [Scot. and North. E. to bang], to hammer.

bang-hagr, adj. knowing a little how to use the hammer, Sturl. ii. 195.

BANI, a, m. [Ulf. banja = πληγή; A. S. bana; Engl. bane; O. H. G. bano; v. ben below]. I. bane, death, natural or violent (properly violent); Egill tók sótt þá er hann leiddi til bana, Eg. 767; lostinn öru til bana, Fms. i. 118; kominn at bana, sinking fast, of a sick person, vii. 166. II. a bane, and so = bana-maðr, a slayer; fjögurra manna b., Nj. 8, Grág. ii. 88, Ld. 326; pl., N. G. L. i. 163: the phrase, verða e-m at bana, to slay one, may refer to I. or II: poët. fire is called bani viðar, the bane of wood, and bani Hálfs, the bane of king Half, Ýt. 6; the winter is bani orma, the bane of worms, etc., Lex. Poët. COMPDS: bana-blóð, n. blood shed in death, Stj. 432. bana-dagr, m. the day of death, Fas. i. 52. bana-drykkr, m. a baneful potion, poison, Fms. i. 18. bana-dægr, n. = banadagr (freq.), Fas. i. 160. bana-högg, n. a death-blow, mortal wound, Nj. 8, Eg. 193. bana-kringla, u, f. vertebra colli, atlas (in animals). bana-lag, n. stabbing to death, Sturl. iii. 62. bana-maðr, m. a slayer, Fms. i. 215. bana-orð, n. death, in the phrase, bera b. af e-m, to put one to death, slay in fight, Edda 42; betra þykir mér frændi at þiggja b. af þér en veita þér þat, Ld. 222, Bs. i. 106; kenna e-m b., to charge one with slaying one, N. G. L. i. 306. bana-ráð, n. pl. the planning a person’s death, a law term, Grág. ii. 116; eigi réð ek honum b., Nj. 21; slá banaráðum við e-n, Ld. 218. bana-sár, n. a mortal wound, Nj. 9, Eg. 258. bana-skot, n. a mortal shot, Jb. 324. bana-sótt, f. death-sickness, the last sickness, Jb. 192, Ísl. ii. 38, Gullþ. II, Bs. i. 426. bana-spjót, n. pl. in the poët. phrase, berast banaspjótum eptir, to be deadly enemies, Glúm. 354, Hkr. iii. 76. bana-sæng, f. the death-bed. bana-sök, f. a deed worthy of death, Fms. i. 199. bana-tilræði, n. a mortal attack, Fas. i. 406. bana-þúfa, u, f., in the phrase, drepa fótum í banaþúfu, to stumble against a fatal mound, Anal. 179, Hdl. 28.

banlaga-ráð, n. = banaráð, Str. 14.

BANN, n. [cp. Ulf. bandva; Hel. bann, mandatum; Engl. ban; Germ. bann; A. S. geban; mid. Lat. bannum], prob. of foreign origin: 1. eccles. excommunication, interdict; minna b. (excommunicatio minor), þat sem forboð er kallat á Norrænu, K. Á. 226 (App.); meira b. (excommunicatio major), Ann. A. D. 1255; England í banni, id. A. D. 1208; Bs., H. E. several times. 2. in secular sense, prohibition of trade or intercourse; leggja b. fyrir mjöl eðr vöru, N. G. L. i. 204, 103; cp. farbann, forbidding ships to set sail. 3. gener. a protest, prohibition, in phrases, boð ok b., Gþl. 76; lof né b., Eg. 349; leggja b. fyrir, to prohibit, Ísl. ii. 265. 4. = bannan, a curse, swearing. The notion of jurisdiction common in Germany (v. Grimm) is unknown in the Scandin. idioms; yet the Laufás’ Edda, Ed. A. M. i. 586, v. l. 14, has bann as one of the names of the earth, cp. the O. H. G. banz, regio. The passage Gísl. 16, náttlangt né lengra banni, is an απ. λεγ. and probably corrupt, = á lengr or the like; lengra banni might, however, be equivalent to lengra meli, bann here denoting spatium temporis, a while. COMPDS: banns-atkvæði, n. a sentence of excommunication, H. E. i. 465. banns-áfell and -áfelli, n. the condemnation of excommunication, H. E. ii. 70. banns-dómr, m. a ban-doom, sentence of excommunication, H. E. ii. 74. banns-mál, n. a case liable to excommunication, H. E. i. 254. banns-pína, u, f. the punishment of excommunication, H. E. i. 477. banns-spjót, n. a spear of excommunication, H. E. ii. 77. banns-verk, n. an act liable to excommunication, H. E. i. 390.

banna, að, [A. S. bannan = jubere; Germ. bannen; mid. Lat. bannire], to forbid, hinder, prohibit (freq.); b. e-m e-t, or with infin., Fms. i. 254, Nj. 157, Ld. 256, Orkn. 4; b. fiskiför, Grág. ii. 350, N. G. L. i. 117. 2. to curse, [Scot. ban], with dat., Stj. 37: with acc., Hom. 31, Stj. 199, Post. 656 A, ii. 12: reflex., bannast um, to swear, Sturl. ii. 126, Fms. viii. 174. 3. = banda, to stop, drive back; hann sá tröll við ána, þat b. honum, ok vildi taka hann, Fas. ii. 124.

bannan, f. swearing, Bs. ii. 134. bannanar-orð, n. id., Stj. 153.

bann-bóla, u, f. a bull of excommunication, Anecd. 8. bann-færa, ð, to place under ban, K. Á. 134, Sturl. ii. 3. bann-setja, tt, id., K. Á. 64, Sturl. ii. 3, H. E. i. 471; part. pass. under ban, accursed, Fas. iii. 423, Stj. 417.

bann-setning, f. an excommunication, Sturl. ii. 3. bannsetningar-sverð, n. the sword of excommunication, H. E.

bann-syngja, söng, to pronounce the ban of excommunication, Fms. ix. 486.

ban-orð, n. = banaorð, Fms. x. 400, Bret. 76.

ban-væni, f., medic. prognosis mortis, Fcl. ix.

ban-vænligr, adj. mortal, deadly, Bret. 56, Edda 154.

ban-vænn, adj. deadly, Eg. 34. 2. medic. deadly sick, just before death; ok er dró at því at hann (the sick) var b., when all hope of life was gone, Eg. 126, Fms. i. 86; snerist um allt sárit svá at Grettir görðist b., Grett. 153.

BARAR, mod. börur, f. pl. [A. S. bär; Hel. bara; Engl. bier and barrow; Lat. feretrum], a hand-bier; borinn í börum um fjallit, Fms. vii. 9, Bs. i. 352: sometimes to be carried on horseback (by two horses), báru þeir Guðmund í börum suðr til Hvítár, … bararnar hrutu ofan, Bs. i. 508 (Sturl. ii. 49 C spells barir): esp. the funeral bier, hearse, to be carried on horseback, lagði þegar kistuna í bunar barar, 655 xxii, Fms. x. 149; mæddust hestarnir undir börunum, Finnb. 322, cp. líkbörur; now also liggja á nátrjám (nátré) in like sense. The sing. in D. N. i. no. 70 is perh. a bad reading.

bar-axlaðr, adj. part. high-shouldered, with sharp prominent shoulder bones, Fms. vii. 321.

bar-átta, u, f. [North. E. barett obsolete], gener. a fight, contest: α. a row, Gþl. 176. β. a fight, battle, Fas. i. 26. γ. now freq., esp. = strife, contest. COMPDS: baráttu-maðr, m. a warrior, Þiðr. 67. baráttu-samr, adj. troublesome, Barl. 137.

barberr, m. (for. word), a barber, N. G. L. iii. no. 15.

BARÐ, n. [identical in etymology but not in sense to Lat. barba, Engl. beard, Germ. bart; the Scandin. dialects all call the beard skegg; Swed. skägg; Dan. skjæg; barð in the sense of barba is quite alien from the Scandin. idioms; the passages, Edda 109 (skegg heitir barð) and höggva börðum í gras, Íd. 12, a poem of the end of the 13th century, are isolated instances: bart in Dan. is a mod. word]:—Lat. ora, margo: α. a brim of a helmet or hat (hjálmbarð, hattbarð), Fas. iii. 341. β. the verge, edge of a hill (holtbarð, túnbarð, brekkubarð, hólbarð, etc.), freq. in local names of farms in Icel. γ. the wing or side fin of some fishes, e. g. whales, cp. barðhvalr; of flat fishes, raja pastinaca (skötubarð). δ. the beak or armed prow of ships, esp. ships’ of war, [cp. A. S. barda, a beaked ship]; so barded, of a horse in armour; hence Barði or Járnbarði is the name of a sort of ram in olden times, e. g. the famous Járnbarði (Iron Ram) of carl Eric, described, Fms. ii. 310; cp. also Fb. i. 280: the stem, Gr. στείρη, Jb. 398; róa fyrir barð e-rn, to thwart one, Gþl. 519, Eg. 386, Fms. vii. 195; skulu vér binda akkeri fyrir barð hverju skipi, xi. 66, ii. 273, Lex. Poët. ε. several compds are used in Icel. referring to parts of the head, e. g. hökubarð, kinnbarð, kjálkabarð, ora genae, maxillae, but without any notion of ‘beard,’ cp. Isid. granos et cinnabar Gothorurn, 19. 23; the cinnabar and the present Icel. kinnabarð seem to be etymologically identical.

barða, u, f. a kind of axe (barbata), Edda (Gl.)

bar-dagi, a, m., prop. a ‘battle day,’ cp. eindagi, máldagi, skildagi: 1. a law term, a beating, flogging, thrashing; ef maðr lystr mann þrjú högg eðr þrim fleiri, þat heitir b. fullr, N. G. L. i. 73, Grág. ii. 155, Post. 656 B, Blas. 42. 2. a fight, battle (very freq.) = orrosta, Eg. 745, Nj. 45, etc.: metaph. a calamity, scourge (theol.), Sks. 112, 328, Fms. v. 214, Bs. i. 70. COMPDS: bardaga-frest, n. delay of battle, Al. 24. bardaga-fýst, f. eagerness to give battle, Al. 24. bardaga-gjarn, adj. eager for battle, Stj. 230. bardaga-guð, n. n god of battle, Mars, Al. 33. bardaga-gyðja, u, f. a goddess of battle, Bellona, Al. 41. bardaga-laust, n. adj. without battle, Al. 14. bardaga-list, f. the art of war, Stj. 45, Al. 4. bardaga-lykt, f. the close of a battle, Al. 5. bardaga-maðr, m. a warrior, Fms. vi. 56, Stj. 456. bardaga-stef, n. and bardaga-stefna, u, f. a term, fixed meeting for a fight, Al. 54, Fms. ix. 488.

barð-hvalr, m. a sort of whale, Sks. 124, Edda (Gl.)

barði, a, m. a ship, a sort of ram, v. above, Fms. ii. 310, Edda (Gl.) β. a sort of fish (Germ. bartfisch), Edda (Gl.) γ. a shield, Edda (Gl.)

barð-mikill, adj. with a great barð (δ.), epithet of a ship, Hkr. iii. 268.

bar-efli, n. a club, (common word.)

bar-eyskr, adj. from Barra, one of the Hebrides, Grett.

barka, að, to bark, tan.

BARKI, a, m. [Gr. φάρυγξ; alien from the South-Teut. idioms?], the windpipe, weazand. Eg. 508, Fas. i. 131, Fms. i. 217, vii. 191, Nj. 156: metaph. the stem of a boat; cp. háls, sviri. COMPDS: barka-kýli, n. Adam’s apple, 65. 1. 382. barka-lok, n. epiglottis. barka-op, n. glottis.

BARKI, a, m., mid. Lat. barca, a sort of small ship (for. word), Fms. vii. 82. barka-bazi, a, m., a cognom., Sturl.

bark-lauss, adj. without bark (börkr), Lex. Poët.

BARLAK, n. (for. word), barley, Edda (Gl.); the Icel. common word is bygg, Dan. byg, Swed. bjugg.

bar-lómr, m. wailing, complaining, v. lómr.

barm-fagr, adj. with fine sides, epithet of a ship, Lex. Poët.

barmi, a, m., poët. a brother, prop. frater geminus, not qs. αδελφός, vide the following word, Lex. Pout.

BARMR, m. [Gr. φορμός; cp. Ulf. barms = κόλπος and στηθος; O. H. G. param; Hel. barm; A. S. barm; all in the sense of gremium: this sense, however, is entirely unknown to old Icel. writers, who only apply the word in like sense as barð, namely, Engl. brim; Lat. ora]:—a brim: α. the brim of a vessel (fötubarmr, pottbarmr, etc.), Bs. ii. 173; hence barma-fullr, adj. or fullr á barma, full to the brim; the rim of a bell, Pm. 106. β. also the edge of a brook or well (lækjarbarmr, brunnbarmr): a chasm (gjárbarmr). γ. the border of the shore; eybarmr, ora insulae, Hervar. S. (in a verse); víkrbarmr; also used in many local names of farms in Icel. δ. the wing of anything; lyptingarbarmr, the gunwale of the stern; kastalabarmr (wing of a castle), Orkn. (in a verse); barmr hvarma, the edge of the eye-lids, Lex. Poët. ε. the flaps of a thing; reif hann allan í sundr ok kastaði börmunum á eldinn, Fms. iv. 339 (rare if not an απ. λεγ.) ζ. the notion of gremium, bosom, only appears after the Reformation, and even then rare; cp. the bosom of a coat, e. g. geyma e-t á barmi sér; hægri, vinstri b., etc.; stinga hendinni í sinn eigin barm, Exod. iv. 6. barma, að, b. sér, to lament, is also a mod. word, Germ. barmen qs. bearmen; vide, however, baðmr.

barm-tog, n. a rope for contracting the nets during fishing, Ivar Aasen barma, Gþl. 427.

BARN, n. pl. börn, [Ulf. barn; O. H. G. parn; A. S. bearn; Scot. and North. E. bairn; cp. bera and Lat. parère]:—a bairn, child, baby. This word, which in olden time was common to all the Teut. idioms, was lost in Germany as early as the 13th century (Grimm, s. v.); in the South of England it went out of use at an early time, and was replaced by ‘child;’ even the Ormulum uses barn only four times, else always ‘child.’ In North. E. bairu is still a household word, and freq. in popular Scottish writers, Burns, Walter Scott, etc. In the whole of Scandinavia it is in full and exclusive use; the Germ. ‘kind’ is in Icel. entirely unknown in this sense, v. the funny story Ísl. Þjóð. ii. 535; (‘kind’ in common Icel. means a sheep.) In Danish barn is the only word which, like the Icel., changes the radical vowel in pl. into ö (börn). Proverbs referring to barn; barnið vex en brókin ekki; þetta verðr aldri barn í brók; bráð er barnslundin (barnæskan); nema börn hvað á bæ er títt; allir hafa börnin verið; því læra börnin málið að það er fyrir þeim hatt; tvisvar verðr gamall maðrinn barn; bragð er at þá barnið finnr; snemma taka börn til meina; Guð gefr björg með barni, cp. Eggert (Bb.) 1. 14; sex born, dætr þrjár ok þrjá sonu, Nj. 30, Ísl. ii. 198, Vsp. 36; eiga þrjá sonu barna, Fms. xi. 43; og svíkjast um að eiga börn, Eggert (Bb.) 1. 14; vera með barni, to be with child, Fms. ii. 212, i. 57, 68, Ísl. ii. 197; fara með barni, to go with child, Nj. 130; frá blautu barni, from a child, Fms. iii. 155; unni honum hvert barn, every child, i. e. every living creature, loved him, i. 17; hvert mannsbarn, every man: metaph. (rare), offspring, Niðrst. 10: barn, barnið gott, börn, barnið mitt (τέκνον, τέκνα) is with many a favourite term of endearment in talking with another. Látum líða og bíða, börn, Pál Vid. in a popular ditty: eptirlætisbarn, a pet, spoilt child; olbogabarn, a hard-treated child; óskabarn, a child of adoption; sveinbarn, a boy; meybarn, a girl; ungbarn, a baby. COMPDS: barna-börn, n. pl. grand-children, Grág. i. 185. barna-eign, f. procreation of children, v. barneign. barna-færi, n. the phrase, ekki b., no task for children, Þórð. 97 (1860). barna-gaman, n. child’s play, El. I. barna-karl, m. child’s friend, nickname of an old pirate; hann var víkingr mikill, hann lét eigi henda börn á spjótsoddum sem þá var víkingum títt, því var hann b. kallaðr, he was a great pirate, but he did not spit babies as pirates then used to do, wherefore he was called b., Landn. 308; in mod. usage, one who has many children, mesti b. barna-kensla, u, f. fathering a child upon one (kenna e-m barn), N. G. L. i. 410: mod. training children in a school. barna-leikr, m. a child’s play, Grett. 107 A, vide barnleikr. barna-messa, u, f., now barna-dagr, m. Holy Innocents’ Day, Dec. 28, N. G. L. i. 377. barna-mold, f. argilla apyra, also called Pétrs mold, argilla St. Petri, Eggert Itin. p. 125. barna-mosi, a, m., botan. sphagnum cymbi folium, Hjalt. barna-skap, n. in the phrase, hafa ekki b., to be no baby, Fs. 138. barna-spil, n. a childish play, Fas. i. 88 paper MS.; spil is a Germ. for. word. barna-vipr, n. childish trifles, gewgaws, Ld. 122. barna-þáttr, m. the section of law concerning infants, baptism, etc., in the Icel. Jus. Eccl., K. Þ. K. 8. barns-aldr, m. childhood. Eg. 118, Fms. ii. 267. barns-bein, n. in the phrase, frá blautu b., v. above, Al. 71. barns-farir, f. pl. in the phrase, deyja af barnsförum, to die in childbed. barns-full, adj. pregnant, Pr. 185,—a rude phrase; Icel. now say, kálffull kýr, but not barnsfull kona. barns-fylgja, u, f., medic. secundinae, a baby’s caul, Björn. barns-grátr, m. the cry of a baby, Fms. x. 218. barns-hafandi, part. pregnant, Jb. 114. barns-húfa, u, f. a baby’s cap, D. N. barns-lík, n. a baby’s corpse, Hkr. iii. 184. barns-mál, n. babble, El. 15. barns-skírsl, f. infant baptism, N. G. L. i. 131 (Norse). barns-sótt, f. = jóðsótt, the pains of childbirth, Bs. i. 327. barns-útkast, n. and barns-útburðr, m. exposure of infants, N. G. L. i. 303. barns-verk, n. child’s work, Fms. ix. 35.

barna, að, to get with child, Nj. 98: metaph. in the phrase, að barna söguna, to interrupt a tale while being told.

barn-aldr, m. childhood, Hkr. ii. 35.

barn-alinn, part. native, Bs. i. 808.

barn-beri, a, m. pregnant, with child, N. G. L. i. 317.

barn-burðr, ar, m. childbearing, childbirth, Grág. i. 375.

barn-bær, f. capable of bearing children, opp. úbyrja, Grág. i. 323, Stj. 89: pregnant, Grág. i. 294.

barn-dómr, m. childhood, Stj. 195, 25, 655 xxx. 21.

barn-eign, f. getting children, Stj. 196: metaph. children, furðu illa b. gat Loki, Edda 20; vera or b., to be past childbearing.

barn-eskja, u, f. [Goth. barniski], childhood, Hom. 122.

barn-faðir, m. a child’s alleged father, H. E. ii. 111. barna-móðir was in popish times the name for a priest’s concubine.

barn-fóstr, n. ‘bairn-fostering,’ a kind of adoption in olden times; at bjóða e-m b., to offer b. to another man, is a standing custom in the Sagas; men of wealth, but of low birth, in order to get security for their property, offered barnfóstr to noblemen, as in Ld. ch. 16 and ch. 28, Hænsa Þór. S. (Ísl. ii. 125), Harð. S. ch. 9 (Ísl. ii. 23); or it was done as a matter of policy, it being regarded as a homage to be the foster-father of another man’s son; því at sá er mælt at sá sé útignari sem öðrum fóstrar barn, Fms. i. 16; ok er sá kallaðr æ minni maðr, er öðrum fóstrar barn, Ld. 108; thus Jon Loptsson offered b. to the young Snorri, in order to soothe the wounded pride of his father Sturla, Sturl. i. 106; Ari Frodi was fostered by Hall í Haukadal, Íb.; Njal offered to adopt as a son the young Hoskuld, in order to atone for the slaying of his father, Nj. ch. 95; cp. also the interesting story of the kings Harold and Athelstan and the young Hacon, Fms. i. l. c.: as a matter of friendship, Ld. 144, Bs. i. 73, 74, Sturl. i. 223, Ld. 25, and many other instances. COMPD: barnfóstr-laun, n. pl. a reward, fee for b., N. G. L. i. 91.

barn-fóstra, u, f. a foster-mother of a child, Mar.; now a nurse.

barn-fóstri, a, m. a foster-father, Eg. 401, Ísl. ii. 144.

barn-fúlga, u, f. (now in Icel. meðgjöf), pay for the maintenance of a child, N. G. L. I 30.

barn-fæddr, adj. part. native, Bs. i. 80; borinn ok b., born and bred.

barn-fæði, n. nativity; eiga b., to be a native, Fr.

barn-getnaðr, m. the procreation of children, Grág. i. 349, Greg. 29: pregnancy, Stj. 514.

barn-gjarn, adj. eager for bairns, Gsp.

barn-góðr, adj. fond of children.

barn-gælur, f. pl. lulling sounds, nursery rhymes, Fas. ii. 234.

barningr, m. [berja], thrashing, v. lamabarning: now, ‘thrashing the water,’ i. e. hard pulling against wind and tide.

barn-lauss, adj. childless. Eg. 318, Grág. i. 185, Landn. 1. 304, Hkr. i. 99.

barn-leikar, m. pl. child’s play; leika barnleikum, of play-fellows, Bs. i. 417, 473, Fms. vi. 403, Sturl. i. 62.

barn-leysi, n. the being childless, Stj. 428, Mar. 656.

barn-ligr, adj. childish, Sks. 153.

barn-maðr, m. the bearer of a baby to be christened; þar á at ala líkmenn ok barnmenn, Vm. 77.

barn-skikkja, u, f. a child’s cloak, Sturl. iii. 278.

barn-skírn, f. the christening of infants, K. Þ. K. 14. barnskírnar-orð, n. pl. formula in b., 655 xi.

barn-sæng, f. childbed, H. E. i. 492.

barn-teitr, adj. glad as a child, Hym. 2.

barn-ungr, adj. very young, youthful, Fms. ii. 98, Mirm. 31.

barn-úmagi, a, m. an orphan child, Grug. i. 305.

barn-úmegð, f. minority, Grug. 1. 305.

barn-æði, n. childishness, Fél. 12. 56, transl. of Iliad ix. 491.

barn-æska, u, f. childhood, Eg. 116, Grág. ii. 392, Fms. i. 4, x. 273; bráð er b., the youth is impatient, a proverb, cp. Am. 75.

BARR, n. [Norse and Swed. barr means the needles of the fir or pine, opp. to ‘lauf’ or leaves of the ash, eon; cp. barlind, taxus baccaia, and barskógr, ‘needle-wood,’ i. e. fir-wood, Ivar Aasen]. I. the needles or spines of a fir-tree; the word is wrongly applied by Snorri, Edda II, who speaks of the ‘barr’ of an ash;—Icel. has no trees. In Hm. 50 (Norse poem ?) it is correctly used of a pine, hrörnar þöll er stendr þorpi á, hlýrat henni börkr ne b., Hkv. Hjörv. 16, Edda 11. II. = barley, [Scot. and North. E. bear, A. S. bere, is four-rowed barley, a coarse kind; bigg in North. E. and Scot. is six-rowed barley, also a coarse kind: cp. ‘the Bigg-market,’ a street in Newcastle-upon-Tyne: barlog, sweet wort, made of barley, Ivar Aasen]; bygg heitir með mönnum, en barr með goðum, men call it ‘bygg,’ but gods ‘bear,’ which shews that barr sounded foreign, and that bygg was the common word, Alvm. 33; Edda (Gl.) 231 has b. under sáðsheiti, v. Lex. Poët. Common phrases in Icel., as bera ekki sitt barr, of one who will never again bear leaves or flourish, metaph. from a withered tree: so Persarum vigui rege bcatior is rendered, lifs míns blómgaðra bar, en buðlungs Persa var, Snot 129. barlegr, adj. vigorous, well-looking.

barr, adj. ready (paratus), Jd. 13: strong, vigorous, Lex. Pout.

barr-haddaðr, adj. barley-haired, poët. epithet of the earth, Lex. Poët.

barri, a, m. a grove, Skm. 39.

bar-skeptr, adj. high-shafted, of an axe; breiðöx b., Bs. i. 658.

bar-skógr, m. needle-wood.

bar-smíð, f. thrashing, flogging, Bs. i. 792, Grág. i. 456: pl. fight, row, Íb. 12, Grág. ii. 114.

BARÚN, m. [for. word, mid. Lat. baro; A. S. beornas], a baron; heita þeir hersar eðr lendir menn í Danskri tungu, greifar í Saxlandi, en barónar í Englandi, Edda 93, Thom., Art.; the title was introduced into Norway by king Magnus, A. D. 1277, vide Ann. s. a. Gþl. 512. barúna-nafn, n. the title of b., Ann. l. c.

barúnia, u, f. a barony, Thom. 36.

bar-viðr, m. the wood of the fir, D. N. (Fr.) iii. 473.

bar-viðri, n. a beating storm, Sturl. iii. 127.

basinn, m. [for. word], basin xylinum, a tree, Edda (Gl.) ii. 256.

BASMIR, f. pl. an απ. λεγ. in a verse in Hervar. S. (Ed. 1847), p. 56; bauð ek þér bróðir basmir óskerðar, fé ok fjöld meiðma; a dub. word, cp. Germ. besem, Engl. besom; mod. Germ. besen, North Germ. besemer, Dan. bismer (Icel. reizla), which are all connected. Ivar Aasen records a Norse word basm or basma; the Norse basm means twenty threads of the warp (basm here means loom?):—the Ed. in Fas. i. 207 gives a wrong spelling óskir tvær (qs. óskertar), and skips the word basrnir.

bassi, a, m. a bear, Lex. Poët.

BAST, n.; besti (Vkv. 12) seems to be a dat. masc. from böstr; in Germ. the word is freq. used masc.; the passage l. c. is perh. to be restored thus—þeir er af létu besti (tiliae) byr sima (annulos), who did pull the rings from the cord? (cp. v. 8); [Engl., A. S., and Germ. bast]:—bast, the inner bark of the lime-tree; bast at binda, Rm. 9; bast né band, Gþl. 386, N. G. L. i. 59; sá þeir á bast bauga dregna, Vkv. 7.

basta, að, to bind into a parcel, D. N. ii. 560 (Fr.), Fms. v. 301.

bastarðr, m. bastard, appears for the first time as the cognom. of William the Conqueror. The etymon is dubious; Grimm suggests a Scandinavian origin; but this is very doubtful; the word never occurs in Scandinavian writers before the time of William, sounds very like a foreign word, is rarely used, and hardly understood by common people in Icel.; neither does it occur in A. S. nor O. H. G.; so that Adam of Bremen says, iste Willelmus quem Franci bastardum vocant; whence the word seems to come from some southern source; cp. the Játv. S. (Ed. 1852), and Fl. iii. 463 sqq.; the MS. Holm, spells bastarðr, the Fb. basthardr. 2. name of a sword, Fms. vii. 297, referring to A. D. 1163. 3. a kind of cloth, in deeds of the 14th and 15th centuries, Vm. 46, 136, D. N. ii. 165; cp. the remarks on bæsingr, p. 92, col. 1 at bottom.

bastari, a, m. a bastbinder, D. N. ii. 246.

bast-bleikr, adj. pale as bast, Fms. vii. 269, v. 1.

bastl, n. turmoil; bastla, að, to turmoil.

bast-lína, u, f. a cord of bast, Eg. 579.

bast-taug, f. a tie or cord of bast, Eg. 579, v. l.

bast-vesall, adj. = bastbleikr, Karl. 167.

bast-öx, f., prob. a false reading, Fas. ii. 177, v. l. bátöx.

bata, að, to better, John xvi. 7.

BATI, a, m. improvement, advantage, Fs. 155, Grett. 113 A, Fas. ii. 247, Grág. (Kb.) i. 160. bata-ván, f. hope of convalescence, recovery of health, cp. Grág. I. e.; cp. also ábati, gain.

batna, að, [v. bati; Ulf. gabatnan], to improve, get better, Nj. 52, Grág. i. 206. 2. impers. medic. term; e-m batnar, one recovers, Fms. iv. 369, v. 22; the disease is added in gen., e-m b. síns meins, sjúkleika, sóttar, Bs. i. 343, Hkr. ii. 312, Eb. 280: at present also with nom.: proverb, batnanda manni er bezt að lifa.

batnaðr, ar, m. improvement, 623. 15, Hom. 50, 134, Hkr. 11. 178: convalescence, Grág. ii. 45.

batnan, f. id., Lex. Poët.

baug-bót, f. a law term, compensation (v. baugr II.), Grág. ii. 173.

baug-broti, a, m. a ring-breaker, Hkv.

baug-bætandi, pl. -endr, part. a law term, those who have to pay the baugr (II.); opp. to baugþiggendr, the receivers, Grág. ii. 172.

baug-eiðr, m. the oath upon the sacred temple ring in heathen times; b. Óðinn hygg ek at unnit hafi, hvat skal hans trygðum trúa, Hm. 110; cp. the phrase, vinna eið at baugi, v. baugr below; the baugeiðr of heathen times answers to the Christian bókeiðr and vinna eið at bók, to swear, laying the hand upon the Gospel.

baug-gildi, n. a law term, the ‘weregild’ to be paid to the ‘agnates’ of the slain; opp. to nefgildi, the same amount to be paid to the ‘cognates;’ defined, Grág. (Bt.) ii. 176, N. G. L. i. 186: metaph. agnatic relationship, vera ór b. eðr nefgildi, lifa í b. etc., to be an agnate or a cognate, id. bauggildis-menn, m. pl. agnates who are bound to pay and receive the bauggildi, Grág. ii. 180.

baug-gildingr, m. = bauggildismaðr, cp. nefgildingr, Grág. ii. 178.

baug-gildr, adj. payable, fit to pay as bauggildi, N. G. L. i. 176.

BAUGR, m. [the root bjúg—baug—bog; A. S. beág; O. H. G. pouc = armilla; lost in N. H. G. and in Engl.] I. a ring, armlet, esp. in olden times to be worn on the wrist plain, without stones: α. the sacred temple ring (stallahringr) on the altar in heathen temples; all oaths were’ to be made by laying the hand upon the temple ring; at sacrificial banquets it was to be dipped in the blood, and was to be worn by the priest at all meetings. The ring was either of gold or silver, open (mótlaus), its weight varying between two, three, and twenty ounces (the last is the reading of Eb. new Ed. p. 6, v. 1., the classical passages in the Sagas are—Eb. l. c. (and cp. 44), Glúm. 388, Landn. (Hb.) 258, Þórð. S. 94 (Ed. 1860); cp. also the note at the end of the new Ed. of Eb., referring to an interesting essay of the Norse Prof. Holmboe upon the matter, Christiania, A. D. 1864. β. baugr is at present in Icel. used of a spiral ring without a stone (e. g. a wedding ring); the third finger is called baugfingr, transl. from Lat. digitus annuli, for the wearing of wedding rings is not in use in Icel. (unless as a Dan. imitation). Icel. also say einbaugr, tvibaugr, a single or double spiral ring. II. metaph. in olden times, before minted gold or silver came into use, the metals were rolled up in spiral-formed rings, and pieces cut off and weighed were used as a medium of payment; hence, in old times, baugr simply means money, used in the poets in numberless compounds; hringum hreytti, hjó sundr baug, Rm. 35; cp. baugbroti, baugskyndir, baugskati, baughati, one who breaks, throws, hates gold, epithets of princes, etc., v. Lex. Poët. A. S. poetry abounds in epithets such as, beaggeafa, dator auri; the Heliand speaks of ‘vunden gold.’ In the law the payment of weregild is particularly called baugr, v. the compounds: baugatal is the Icel. section of law treating of the weregild, Grág. ii. 171–188; höfuôbaugr, lögbaugr (a legal baug, lawful payment). In the Norse law vide esp. N. G. L. i. 74 sqq., 184 sqq. 2. the painted circle on the round shield (clypeus); á fornum skjöldum var títt at skrifa rönd þá er b. var kallaðr, ok er við þann baug skildir kendir, Edda 87, Eg. 699; often embellished with scenes from the mythical age. Some poems arc preserved or on record, describing such shields, two Berudrápur by Egil (bera, a shield), Haustlöng by Thjodolf, Ragnarsdrápa by Bragi Gamli (of the 9th and 10th centuries). Some of these poems were among the chief sources used by Snorri in composing the Edda. The shield is metaph. called baugr, Edda (Gl.) 3. a fish-hook; man eigi þú draga Leviathan á öngli eðr bora kiðr hans með baugi (very rare, if not an απ. λεγ.), Post. 686 C. 2. 4. the phrase, eiga (kost) á baugi, to have (a single) chance left; þótti þat vera et mesta hætturáð at berjast, en sá mun á baugi, ef eigi er sæzt, there will be no other chance unless we come to terms, Sturl. iii. 244; þú munt eiga slíkan á baugi brátt, thou wilt soon have the very same chance (viz. death), the turn will come to thee, Nj. 58; nú mun ek eiga þann á baugi, at …, there will be no other chance for me, than …, Orkn. 46; cp. einbeygðr kostr, dira necessitas, 58; kvaðst þá heldr vilja liggja hjá henni, ef sá væri á baugi, if there were no other chance, Fas. ii. 150. The explanation of this metaphor is doubtful, cp. Vkv. verses 5 and 7 (?), or is the metaphor taken from the weregild? 5. baugr also occurs in mod. usage in many compds, astron. and mathem., spor-baugr, the ecliptic; hádegisbaugr, a meridian. COMPDS: bauga-brot, n. pl. cut off pieces of baugr, bad money, Band. 12. bauga-maðr, m. = bauggildismaðr, N. G. L. i. 81, 82, 186. bauga-tal, n. the section of law about weregild, Grág. ii. 171–188: β. fixing of the weregild, Grág. i. 158. baugs-helgi, f. personal sacredness, (one’s death to be atoned for by a weregild); þræll á b. á sér ef hann fylgir drottni sínum til þings …, N. G. L. i. 70.

baug-reið, f. a law term, an official inspection (in Norway) to measure the breadth of the highway, defined, Gþl. 412–414.

baug-rygr, jar, f. pl. ir, a law term, an only daughter entitled to receive and pay weregild, in default of heirs male. The Norse law defines thus, ef hon er einberni, ok til arfs komin, þar til er hón sezt á brúðstól, … up to her wedding day, N. G. L. i. 184, 92: the Icel. law does not limit the right to her marrying; sú er kona ein er bæði skal baugi bæta ok baug taka, ef hon er einberni, en sú kona heitir b., en hon er dóttir hins dauða, Grág. ii. 183.

baug-set, n. the ‘ring-seat,’ i. e. the hand, Höfuðl.

baug-variðr, part. ring-wearing, of a lady, Hkv.

baug-þak, n. [þekja baug], a law term, ‘baug-covering,’ i. e. the supplemental payment to be added in due proportion to the amount of weregild (baugr), defined, Grág. ii. 171, 172; hence ‘at baugþaki’ metaph. means in addition, to boot; þá kom at honum síðan at b. brotfallit, he was taken with fits of epilepsy to boot, Bs. i. 336.

baug-þiggjandi, pl. -endr, part. a receiver of weregild.

BAUKA, að, [Swed. böka], prop. to dig, to rummage; hann b. til fiskanna, viz. in order to steal them, Grett. 137; aldri skal ek í belginn bauka, says the giant in the tale, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 458.

BAULA, u, f. a cow, Bs. i. 635. COMPDS: baulu-fall, n. the carcase of a slaughtered cow, Bs. i. 593. baulu-fótr, m. cow’s foot, cognom., Sturl. iii, 71; mod. baula, að, to low.

BAUN, f. [A. S. beân, cp. Lat. faba], a bean, Gþl. 544, Rb. 394. bauna-lögr, m. bean-broth, Karl. 452.

bausn, f. the fore fins of a shark, Björn.

BAUTA, the remnant of an obsolete strong verb analogous to hlaupa—hljóp, [A. S. beâtan; Engl. beat; Germ. botzen, pulsare], to hunt, beat; bautu, 1st pers. pl. pres. indic., Fms. v. 83 (Ó. H. 1853 spells bavtu); svá bavtu vér björnuna, so do we beat (chase) the bears, Gs. 13: part. pass. bautinn, beaten, slain, Lex. Poët. s. v. sverðbautinn; Farbauti, beater of ships, is the name of the giant father of Loki; hylbauti, beater of the waves, a ship, Edda (Gl.); cp. Swed. bauter, strings for catching birds, Ihre.

bauta-steinn, Eg. 94.; Snorri (Hkr.) constantly uses the pl. form, but bautaðarsteinn, Fagrsk. 19, and bautarsteinn, Hm. 72; m. the stone monuments of the olden age, esp. in Sweden and Denmark; the Hávamál l. c. (sjaldan bautarsteinar standa brautu nær, nema reisi niðr at nið) tells us that these stones used to be placed along the high roads, like the sepulchral monuments of old Rome; cp. the standing phrase on the Swedish-Runic stones—hér skal standa steinn ‘nær brautu;’ or, má eigi ‘brautar-kuml’ (a road monument) betra verða; the high roads of old Sweden seem to have been lined with these monumental stones; even at the present time, after the destruction of many centuries, the Swedish-Runic stones (of the nth and 12th centuries) are counted by thousands. A great collection was made and drawings executed during the 17th century (Buræus, etc.), but only published A. D. 1750, under the name of Bautil. The etymology of this word is much contested; some render it by ‘stones of the slain’ (bauta, to slay), but this is contradicted by the passage in Hm. l. c. and by the inscriptions themselves. The bauta stones were simply monuments erected by the piety of kindred and friends without any respect to sex or manner of death, either in war, on sea, or through sickness; some were even erected to the memory of living persons. They were usually tombstones; but many of them are memorial stones for men that died in foreign lands, Greece, Russia, the British Islands, etc. Neither is Snorri right in saying (Hkr. pref.) that the bautasteinar belonged to the old burning age (brunaöld), and were replaced by the cairns (haugar) in the subsequent cairn age (haugaöld)—þá skyldi brenna alla dauða menn ok reisa eptir bautasteina, en síðan er Freyr hafði heygðr verit at Uppsölum þá görðu margir höfðingjar eigi síðr hauga en bautasteina. Svíar tóku lík hans ok var hann brendr við á þá er Skúta heitir, þar vóru settir bautasteinar hans, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 17—the passage in Hávamál and the monuments refute this statement. The great bulk of the Scandinavian bauta stones seem to be of the nth and even 12th century. In Icel. no stones of that time are on record: var hann þá her heygðr skamt frá bsenum, ok settir upp bautasteinar, þeir er enn standa her, Hkr. i. 269; hávir bautasteinar standa hjá haugi Egils ullserks, 153,—where Fagrsk. reads, í þau skip var lagðr í valrinn, ok orpnir þar haugar utan at; þar stendr ok bautaðarsteinn (= bautarsteinn in Hm.?) hár sem Egill féll, p. 19;—en eptir alla þá menn er nokkut mannsmót var at, skyldi reisa bautasteina, ok hélzt sa siðr lengi síðan, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 8. It is worth remarking that the word ‘bautasteinn’ never occurs out of Icel. literature, and there only in the above passages, viz. once in the old Hm., once in the Fagrsk., four times in the Hkr., whence it has passed over to modern writers. The word is most probably only a corruption from brautarsteinar, lapides viae, (by dropping the r); cp. the analogous Swedish word, brautarkuml, monumentum viae, which occurs in the inscriptions themselves.

bautuðr, m. a stamping steed, Lex. Poët.

BÁÐIR, adj. pron. dual, gen. beggja, neut. bæði; rarely báði, gen. báðra, sometimes occur in MSS. of the 14th century, but both of them are Norse forms, [Goth. bai, baioþs; A. S. ba; Engl. both; Germ. beide; cp. also Gr. αμφω, Lat. ambo]:—both, Nj. 82, Sturl. iii. 314, Eg. 257, Grág. i. 368, N. G. L. i. 33, Ísl. ii. 348, Fms. x. 118, etc. etc.

BÁGI, a, m. (not bagi), an adversary, Stor. 23, Lex. Poët.

bágindi, n. pl. distress, difficulties.

bágliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), adversely, Vígl. 30.

bág-lundr, adj. ill-disposed, bad-tempered, Lex. Poët.

bágr, adj. uneasy; honum verðr bag höndin, Fas. iii. 370: eiga bágt is now in Icel. to be poor, bard up: bag-staddr, adj. distressed.

bágr, m. [cp. Hel. bâgan = contendere, and Icel. bægja below], contest, strife, in such phrases as, fara í bag, to come athwart; for í bag með þeim, they came a cross, Bjarn. 28; í bága (pl.), Bs. i. 622; brjóta bag við e-m, to make a struggle against, Al. 49; Páll postuli braut þar helzt bag við ávalt er öðrum þótti torveldast, Post. 656 C. 24, Fms. viii. 42; koma í bága við, to come intostrife or collision with.

bág-ráðr, adj. difficult to deal with, Fms. ii. II.

bág-rækr, adj. difficult to drive, of geese, Grett. 90.

BÁKN, n. for. word [A. S. bêcn; O. H. G. pauhan], a beacon, v; sigrbákn: bákn now means a big, monstrous thing.

bákna, að, [A. S. bêcnan], to beckon; þeir báknuðu vápnunum til þeirra Hákonar, Fms. vii. 276, xi. 366.

BÁL, n. [old Scot. bale, i. e. a beacon-fagot, Lay of Last Minstrel 3. 27 note]. I. a flame, Nj. 199, Ld. 100, Stj. 45 (freq.) II. Lat. rogus, a pyre, funeral pile; hlaða b., rogum struere, Eb. 314, 264; Fms. v. 328, esp. for burning dead bodies; a funeral pile in the old heathendom, til brands eðr báls, an old law term, ad urnam, N. G. L. i. 50: the phrase, vega e-n á bal, or, bera á bal, to carry to the pyre, Vkv. 14, cp. Vþm. 54, Fas. i. (Hervar. S.) 487; graphical description of those funerals, vide Edda 37, 38 (Baldrsbrenna), Fas. i. (Völs. S.) 204; cp. 333, Hkr. Yngl. S. ch. 27; cp. also the funeral of the mythical king Sigurd Ring, recorded by Arngrim Lærde in his Supplementum ad Compendium Hist. Norv. MS. (composed A. D. 1597), probably taken from a lost leaf of Skjöldunga Saga (Sögubrot), and mentioned by Munch, Norske Folks Hist. i. 274: mod. of a foaming wind, wrath, etc.—bálviðri, n. and balhvass, bálreiðr, adj., etc.

bál-för, f. a funeral, Edda 37.

bál-gerð, f. id., Edda (Ub.) 288 (Ed. 1852).

bál-hvítr, adj. gleaming-white, of waves.

bálki, a, m., v. the following word.

BÁLKR, (or better balkr, bölkr), old form b́lkr, Grág., dat. bælki, N. G. L. i. 399, acc. pl. b́lku or bálku, Lex. Poët. [A. S. bälc], a balk, partition [cp. naval bulk-heads]; b. um þveran hellinn, of a cross wall, Fms. iii. 217, Fas. ii. 333, Grett. 140; sá studdi höndunum á bálkinn, of a balk of wood across the door, Orkn. 112. β. a low wall in a stall or house, N. G. L. i. 399, 2. metaph. a law term, a section in a code of law; þjófa bálkr, Kristindóms b., etc., criminal, ecclesiastical law …, Grág., Jb.; enn fyrsti bölkr bókar þessarrar er um Kristindóms hald várt, N. G. L. i. 3; hér hefr kaupa-bolk, 20; landzleigu bolkr, 37; hér hefr upp erfða-bolk, 48; hér hefr upp þjófa bólk, 82; hér hefr upp útgerðar-bolk, 96; hefir hverr hlutr þá bolku í sér, 126; í hinum fyrra bælkinum, 424 (420, 421). Balkr as a law term is much older than any written code, and does not originally denote ‘a section of a code,’ but rather a ‘body, collection of laws,’ cp. frænd-balkr, ætt-balkr; but later it was a section of a written code, cp. Schlyter in the Glossary, s. v. balker. γ. a body, a host, in compds as frændbálkr, ættbálkr, herbálkr; sýndist honum úárenniligr b. þeirra, of a host in line of battle, Bs. i. 667; a pr. name. COMPDS: bálkar-brot, n. the breaking a fence, crib, Gpl. 350, 391. bálkar-lag, n. a sort of metre (from a pr. name Balkr), Edda (Ht.) 142.

BÁRA, u, f. [berja?], a wave, billow, v. alda; as a rule bára denotes the smaller waves caused by the wind (on the surface of larger billows), alda the rollers or swell, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 186, Fms. x. 324 (of a breaker = boði), Gkv. 1. 7: the proverb, sigla milli skers ok báru, cp. inter Scyllam et Charybdin, Fms. ii. 268, Fb. iii. 402; sjaldan er ein báran stök, there is seldom a single billow: of misfortune, cp. Aesch. Prom. 1015 κακων τρικυμία, cp. also Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 660. β. metaph. of undulations or rough stripes on the surface of a thing, e. g. the crust of a cheese, Fs. 146; a scull, cp. Eg. 769: báruskel, f. cardia testa cordata pectinata, a shell, Eggert Itin. p. 1010. COMPDS: báru-fall, n. a swell at sea, Al. 50. báru-skel, f., v. above. báru-skot, n. waves from a fresh breeze, wrinkling the surface of the sea, Hkr. i. 59. báru-stormr, m. an unruly sea, Stj. 89. báru-stórr, adj. the waves running high, Bs. ii. 82, Fas. i. 72; vide mót-bára, objection.

bár-óttr, adj. waved, of a skull, Eg. 769.

bása, að, = bæsa, to drive cattle into a stall, Gísl. 104.

bás-hella, u, f. a stone wall between two stalls in a cowhouse, Grett. 112.

BÁSS, m. [Ulf. Bansts = αποθήκη; A. S. bós; Engl. provincial boose; Germ. banse], a boose or stall in a cowhouse; kýr á bási, binda kú á bás, etc., Bjarn. 32, Bs. 5. 171; a cow and a bás go together, e. g. in the nursery rhyme lulling children to sleep; sou, sofi… selr í sjá… kyr á bási, köttr í búri…, cp. the Engl. in the cow’s boose, Bosworth s. v.; bás, bás is an interj. exclam. for driving cows into stall: also used in Icel. of basins formed in rocks, e. g. at the foot of a waterfall; in local names, Básar, Básendar, etc.: the phrase, hafa sér markaðan bás, to have one’s course of life marked out, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 538; einginn veit sér ætlaðan bás í örlaganna solli, no one knows what boose is kept for him in the turmoil of the fates, Grönd. 194; vide bjarnbáss.

BÁSUNA, u, f. (for. word), bassoon, Fas. ii. 511.

bát-festr, f. a rope by which a boat is made fast, Jb. 398, 655 xvii.

bát-lauss, adj. and bátleysi, n. being without a boat, Eb. 142, Jb. 399.

bát-maðr, m. a boatman, Hkr. iii. 128, Fms. vi. 320.

BÁTR, m. [a Scandin. and Low Germ. word used in A. S., Engl., Dutch, but alien to O. H. G. and middle H. G.; even Luther (v. Grimm s. v.) never uses the word; it was later introduced into mod. High Germ., but has a foreign sound there, (Engl. t answers to High Germ. z); the word is in Germ. borrowed from Dutch or English]:—a boat, either a small open fishing vessel or a ship-boat. In Icel. only small boats are called so, those of two or four oars; an eight-oared boat is a ‘ship,’ Eg. 121, 373, Eb. 142, Nj. 122, Jb. 398, Bs. 1. 422, 423: in phrases, ausa bát sinn, Fms. vii. 331; sjá fyrir báti sínum, to go one’s own course, to mind one’s own business, Sturl. iii. 247: alliteration, eiga bygð í báti, metaph., Bs. i. 422. COMPDS: báts-borð, n. the side of a boat, Sturl. i. 119. báts-farmr, m. a boat’s freight, Ann. 1342.

bát-stafn, m. a boat’s prow, Fms. viii. 223.

beddi, a, m. a little bed, (mod.)

beð, n. a bed in a garden, (mod. and rare, cp. reitr.)

beð-dúkr, m. a bed-covering, Dipl. iii. 4.

beðja, u, f., poët. a wife, bed-fellow, Lex. Poët.

beð-mál, n. pl. a curtain lecture, Hm. 85.

BEÐR, jar, m. pl. ir, [Ulf. badi; Hel. bed; A. S. bedd; Engl. bed; Germ. bett], a bed; in Icel. sæng is the common word, beðr poët. and rare; in the N. T. κράββατον is always rendered by sæng (tak sæng þína og gakk, Mark ii. 9); beðr is used in alliterative phrases, e. g. beðr eðr blaeja, Jb. 28; í beðjum eðr bólstrum, N. G. L. i. 351; deila beð ok blíðu, φιλότητι και ευνη, Od. v. 126; and mostly in the sense of bolster; saxit nam í beðinum staðar, Ld. 140, Gísl. 114: the sea-shore is poët. called sævar-beðir (sofa ek né mátta’k sævarbeðjum á, Edda 16 (in a verse); hvíl-beðr, a resting bed, Akv. 30; rísa upp við beð, to lift the body against the pillow, Bkv. 2. 23: the conjugal bed, bjóða á beð, Ls. 52; sitja á beð, Gh. 19; ganga á beð e-m, to marry, 14: pl., sofa á beðjum, Hm. 96, 100: metaph. a swelling sea, lauðr var lagt í beði (acc. pl.), Fms. vi. 180 (in a verse); cp. skýbólstrar, ‘bolster-clouds,’ heavy piles of cloud. COMPDS: beðjar-dýna, u, f. a feather-bed, Vm. 177. beðjar-ver, n. a bolster case, Dipl. 4.

beð-vina, u, f. = beðja, Lex. Poët.

begla, u, f. [bagr], a bungle; sem b. hjá fögru smíði, hence the name Rimbegla, Rb. (pref.)

BEIÐA, dd, [cp. A. S. beade; Old Engl. bead-roll, bidding-prayer, bedes-man; biðja, bað, beðið, Lat. orare, and bíða, beið, beðit, Lat. expectare.] I. to ask, beg, with the notion of right; almost as a law term, to request [but biðja, orare]; b. e-n e-s, or b. e-m (for one) e-s; beiða griða Baldri, Edda 36, Gs. verse 2; beiða sér bjargkviðar búa sína fimm, Grág. i. 113, 275; b. sonar bóta, Nj. 21; b. e-s af e-m, Fms. i. 47: with acc., in the law term, b. lögbeiðing, to make a lawful request, Grág. (freq.); ef hann vill eigi eið vinna þá er hann er beiddr (requested) þá verðr hann sekr um þat tólf mörkurn, þá er hann beiddr (requested) er hann er beðinn (asked), K. Þ. K. 146: adding út, b. e-s út, to request the payment of a right, etc., Gþl. 375; b. til e-s, to request, 656 B. β. reflex., beiðast, to request on one’s own behalf; b. laga, Ld. 76; fars, Grág. i. 90; griða, Fms. viii. 423, x. 172, Nj. 10, 76, Eg. 239, Fms. i. 11: in active sense, Land. 293; beiðast út réttar sins, to claim as one’s right, Gþl. 187: with infin., Grág. i. 489: with ‘at’ and a subj., Fms. i. 12, Grág. i. 7. II. [Dan. bede], as a hunting term, to hunt, chase; b. björnu, to hunt bears: part. beiddr and beiðr, hunted about, Gísl. 112; hann kvað sveininn hafa verið illa beiddan, Fs. 69, Mirm. 39: the phrase by Kormak, sá er bindr beiðan (i. e. beiddan) hún, seems to mean one who pinions the young hunted bear, viz. as if it were sheep or cattle, Edda 96 (in a verse), symbolical of the earl Sigurd, a mighty Nimrod, who surpassed the wild deer in strength and swiftness; beiðr (= beiddr) for ek heiman at biðja þín Guðrún, Am. 90, seems to mean hunted by love, amore captus: the verse of Kormak,—bands man ek beiða rindi, fascinating, charming woman (?), by whom the poet is made prisoner in love; cp. the poët. compds beiði-hlökk, beiði-sif, beiði-rindr, all epithets of women, Lex. Poët., v. beita.

beiðing and beiðning (Mar. Fr.), f. request, demand, El. II: waiting, Fms. viii. 151 (dub. reading).

beiðni, f. a request, demand, Fms. i. 208; pl., 655 iii. 4; holds b., carnal lust, Hom. 17, 25 (Lat. petulantia).

beiðsla, u, f. a request, demand, Sturl. iii. 231, Sks. 772. beiðslu-maðr, m. a person asking, Sks. 776, Anecd. 88.

BEIGR or beygr, m. fear; hafa b. af e-m (freq.):—beiguðr, m. an athlete, one who inspires fear (?), Edda.

BEIMAR, m. pl. [etym. uncertain], poët. men, heroes, the followers of king Beimi, according to Edda 109; it is more likely that it is a relation to Engl. beam, beaming, and means illustrious, Lex. Poët.

BEIN, n. a word common to the Teut. idioms and peculiar to them; [the Goth. word is not on record, as Luke xxiv. 39 and John xix. 36 are lost in Ulf.; A. S. bân; Engl. bone; Germ. bein; Swed.-Dan. ben (been). Sansk., Gr., Lat., and the Slav. languages agree in a totally different root; Sansk. asthi; Gr. οστέον; Lat. os; the Slav. branch all with an initial c, cp. the Lat. costa. Vide Grimm (s. v.), who suggests a relation to Gr. βαίνω; but the native Icel. words beinn, rectus, and beina, promovere, are more likely roots; the original sense might thus be crus, Gr. σκέλος, but Lat. os the secondary one]:—a bone. I. spec. the leg from the knee to the foot; freq. in Swed. and Dan., but very rare and nearly obsolete in Icel., where leggr is the common word; hosa strengd at beini, Eg. 602, Fms. x. 331; kálfar á beinum fram, N. G. L. i. 339. II. gener. = Lat. os, a bone, but originally the bones with marrow (Germ. knochen), as may be inferred from the passages, þá er mergund ef b. er í sundr til mergjar, þat er mergr er í, Grág. ii. 11, i. 442, Fms. vii. 118, Vápn. 21, Fas. i. 66, Vígl. 20; stór bein í andliti, with a strongly-marked, high-boned face, Band. 7, whence stórbeinóttr, q. v.; viðbeina, a collar-bone; höfuðbein, pl. head-bones, the scull around the temples and the forehead; er gamlir grísir skyldu halda mér at höfuðbeinum, Grett. (in a verse); strjúka höfuðbeinin; málbein, os loquendi, a small bone in the head; hence the phrase, láta málbeinið ganga, of one talking incessantly and foolishly: metaph. in phrases, láta ganga með beini, to deal blows to the very marrow, deal severely, Ld. 230; hafa bein í hendi (the Danes say, have been i næsen), to have a boned hand, i. e. strength and power, Hrafn. 10, Al. 29. 2. pl. relics, remains (ashes); the phrase, bera bein, to repose, rest, be buried; far þú út til Íslands, þar mun þér auðit verða beinin at bera, Grett. 148, Nj. 201; ok iðrast nú að aptr hvarf að bera b. blá við hrjóstr, Bjarni, 57:—of the relics of saints, Bs. 468, 469; hence beina-færsla, u, f. removal of bones (translatio); in the Catholic age, when churches were removed, the churchyard was dug up and the bones removed also, vide Eb. (in fine), Bjarn. 19, K. Þ. K. 40, Eg. (in fine). COMPDS: beina-vatn, n. water in which relics have been washed, Bs. ii. 173. Fél. ix. records many medic. terms; beina-grind, f. a skeleton; bein-áta, u, f. necrosis, caries ossium; bein-brot, n. fractura ossium, Lv. 68, Grág. ii. 17; bein-kröm, f. rachitis: bein-kveisa, u, f. osteocopus; bein-sullr, m. sarcostosis; bein-verkir, m. pl. lassitudo febrilis dolorosa universalis, Gísl. 48, cp. Fél. ix. As a poët. circumlocution, the stone is foldar bein, bone of the earth; sævarbein, bone of the sea, Hlt., Edda (Ht.) 19, 23; cp. the Gr. myth of Deucalion.

beina, d. I. to stretch out, to put into motion; b. flug, of birds, to stretch the wings for flight, Edda 13, Orkn. 28; b. skrið, of a serpent, Stj. 98; b. raust, to lift up the voice, speak loud, Gísl. 57. II. metaph. to promote, forward; b. for (ferð) e-s, to help one forwards, Fms. vi. 63, Grág. i. 343, Bret. 38; b. til með e-m, to lend one help; ek vil b. til með þér bænum mínum, I will assist thee in my prayers, Bs. i. 472; b. e-u til e-s, to contribute to a thing; þessu vil ek b. til brennu þinnar, Fb. i. 355; b. at með e-m, to help, assist one; hlauptú hér út, ok mun ek b. at með þér, Nj. 201; b. at e-u, to lend a hand to, Bjarn. 64; b. fyrir e-m, to entertain, of alms or hospitable treatment (whence beini); b. fyrir fátækum, Post. 656

bein-brjóta, braut, to break one’s bones, Bárð. 167.

bein-brot, n. the fracture of bone, v. above.

bein-fastr, adj., b. sár, a wound to the bone, Sturl. ii. 222, 655 xi.

bein-fiskr, m., v. beitfiskr.

bein-gjald, n. a law term, compensation for a lesion of bone, N. G. L. i. 172.

bein-gróinn, part. healed (of a bone fracture), Fas. ii. 295.

bein-hákall, m. squalus maximus.

bein-hinna, u, f. periosteum.

bein-högg, n. a blow injuring the bone, opp. to svöðu sár, Sturl. i. 13.

beini, m. help, but exclusively used of hospitable entertainment, kind treatment, hospitality; vinna, veita, e-m beina, Eb. 268; þykir yðr eigi sá b. beztr, at yðr sé borð sett ok gefinu náttverðr ok síðan fari þér at sofa, Eg. 548; ofgörr er beininn, too much trouble taken, too much attendance, Lv. 38 (Ed. badly ‘beinan’); höfðu þar blíðan beina, Fms. ii. 248, iv. 336; mikit er nú um beina þinn, what hospitable treatment! Ísl. ii. 155, Bjarn. 53–55, Fas. i. 79: ganga um beina, to wait upon the guests, in old times (as at present in Icel.) an honourable task; in great banquets the lady or daughter of the house, assisted by servants, did this office; Þórhildr (the daughter) gékk um beina, ok báru þær Bergþóra (the mother) mat á borð, Nj. 50, cp. Lv. l. c., Fms. xi. 52; Hít (the hospitable giantess) gékk um b., Bárð. 174; Þiðrandi (the son of the house) gékk um beina, Fms. ii. 194;—but it is added, ‘because he was humble and meek,’ for it was not regarded as fit work for a man; cp. þá er konur gengu um b. um dagverð, Sturl. i. 132. COMPDS: beina-bót, f. accommodation, comfort for guests; þar var mörgu við slegit til b., 625. 96; sagði at honum þætti þat mest b. at eldr væri kveyktr fyrir honurn, Fas. i. 230; bar var jafnan nýtt mjöl haft til beinabótar, Sturl. i. 23. beina-maðr, m. a promoter, H. E. ii. 93. beina-spell, n. spoiling of the comfort of the guests, Bs. i. 313, Sturl. i. 22. beina-þurfi, adj. ind. in need of hospitable treatment, Fas. iii. 373.

bein-knúta, u, f. a joint bone, Bs. ii. 82.

bein-kross, n. a cross of bone, Magn. 512.

bein-lauss, adj. without bone, Fas. i. 251.

bein-leiðis, adv. directly, Fas. iii. 444.

bein-leiki, a, m. hospitable treatment, Lv. 5, Eg. 577, Fas. i. 77.

bein-línis, adv. in a straight line, directly, (mod.)

BEINN, adj., compar. beinni, superl. beinstr or beinastr. I. Gr. ορθος, Lat. rectits, opp. to wry or curved, in a straight line; b. rás, a straight course, Sks. 217; beinstr vegr, the straigbtest, shortest way, Fms. ix. 361, Bs. ii. 132 (very freq.): ueut. beint, beinast, used as adv. straight; sem beinst á þá, Eg. 386; svá beint, straight on, 742: just, þat kom mér beint (just) i hug, Fms. vi. 213, 369, 371; b. sextigi skipa, precisely sixty ships, xi. 114; mi beint, just now, iv. 327; var hann þá beint í undlati, just breathed his last, vi. 230. 2. metaph. hospitable; Dagstyggr tok við honum forkunnar vel, ok var við hana hinn beinasti, Sturl. ii. 125; varla náðu þeir at stíga af baki, svá var bóndi beinn við þá, Ísl. ii. 155; Björn var allbeinn við hann um kveldit, Fms. ii. 84; var kerling hin beinasta í öllu, Fas. iii. 394: also as epithet of the inn or house, þar er svá beint (such hospitality), at varla þykkja þeir hafa komit í beinna stað, … in a more hospitable botise, i. 77; sváfu af þá nótt, ok vóru þeir í allbeinum stað, Eb. 268. II. [bein, crus], in compds, berbeinn, bare-legged, Hbl. 6: as a cognom. of king Magnus from the dress of the Highlanders assumed by him, Fms. vii; harðbeinn, hard-legged, cognom., Ld.; mjóbeinn, tape-legged, a nickname, Landn.; Kolbeinn, pr. name, black-legged; hvítbeinn, white-legged, pr. name, Landn., etc.

BEINN, m. ebony, Edda (Gl.), v. basinn.

bein-serkr, m., medic. ‘bone-jack,’ an abnormal growth, by which the under part of the thorax (the lower ribs) is attached to the spine; as a cognom., Fas. iii. 326; cp. Bjorn s. v.

bein-skeyti, n. a straight-shooting, good shot, Fms. vii. 120, v. 337, viii. 140, v. I.

bein-skeyttr, adj. straight-shooting, a good shot, Fms. ii. 320.

bein-stórr, adj. big-boned, Sturl. i. 8.

bein-stökkull, m. a sprinkle (stökkull) of bone, Am. 105.

bein-vaxinn, part. straight-grown, tall and slim.

bein-veggr, m. a wedge of bone, A. A. 270.

bein-verkr, v. bein.

bein-viði, n. and beinviðr, m. ebony, Sks. 90, Bser. 16; Lat. ilex.

bein-víðir, m. salix arbuscula, Hjalt.

bein-vöxtr, m. bone-growth, bonyness; lítill (mikill) beinvöxtum, of small (big) frame, Bs. i. 328.

beiska and beiskja, u, f. bitterness, harshness, sourness, Sks. 532 B.

beiskaldi, a, m., Lat. acerbus, a nickname, Sturl.

beiskask, to grow bitter, Thom.

beiskleiki, a, and beiskleikr, s, m. bitterness, harshness, sourness; Marat, þat er b., Stj. 290, Rb. 336 of sulphur: metaph. acrimony, b. i brjósti, Post. 656 C; hjartans b.; bitr b., Stj. 51, 421, Sks. 730 B, Magn. 502, Bs. i. 743.

beiskliga, adv., esp. in the phrase, grata b., to weep bitterly, Fms. x. 367, Th. 6, the Icel. transl. of Luke xxii. 62; grenja (to howl) b., Fms. x. 256: bitterly, grimly, bera sik b. her í móti, Stj. 143.

beiskligr, adj. bitter.

BEISKR, adj. [Dan. beedsk; Swed. besk; it is always spelt with s (not z) in the MSS., and cannot therefore well be traced to bíta, qs. beitskr; for the etymology see p. 728, col. 2 (letter Z); the word originally, we believe, was opp. to þjarfr, q. v.]:—bitter, sour, acrid; salt vatn ok b., Stj. 93; beiskar súrur, bitter herbs, 279. Exod. xii. 8; b. drykkr; amara, þat er b. at vóru máli, 421, 625. 70, Sks. 539: metaph. bitter, Th. 6: exasperated, grim, angry, smalamaðr sagði Hallgerði vígit; hon varð beisk við, Nj. 60, Al. 122.

BEISL, n. a bridle, freq. in old vellum MSS. spelt beils, Fs. 128, 62, Fms. x. 86, xi. 256 C; with z, beizl or mod. beizli, Sks. 84, 87 new Ed., N. G. L. ii. 115, Grett. 122, Fms. viii. 52, v. 1., Fas. ii. 508; beisl (wilh s), Karl. 4, Grág. i. 439 (Kb. and Sb.), Stj. 206, Nj. 33, Fms. x. 86, Flov. 26, etc. The word is not to be derived from bíta; this may with certainty be inferred from comparison with the other Teut. idioms, and even in the Roman tongues we find r after the first letter: A. S. bridle and bridels; O. H. G. brittill; Dutch bridel; Engl. bridle; these forms seem to point to the Lat. frenum; the Scandin. idioms seem to have elided the r; Swed. betsel; Dan. bidsel; Icel. beils and beisl or beizl; many words referring to horse taming and racing are not genuine Scandinavian, but of foreign extraction; so is söðull, saddle, derived from A. S. saðol, Lat. sedile. COMPDS: beisl-ál, f. bridle-rein, Flov. beisl-hringr, m. bridle-ring, Fs. 62. beisl-tamr, adj. used to the bridle, Grág. i. 439. beisl-taumar, m. pl. bridle-reins, Fms. xi. 256, Sturl. iii. 314; cp. bitull.

beisla, að, to bridle, Stj. 206.

beisl-lauss, adj. bridle-less, unbridled. Thom.

BEIT, n. I. pasturage, Grág. ii. 224, 263, 286; á beit, grazing: [in England the rector of a parish is said to have ‘the bite’ of the churchyard.] COMPDS: beitar-land, n. a pasture land. beitar-maðr, m. owner of a pasture, Grág. ii. 286, Jb. 245. beitar-tollr, m. a toll or fee for pasturage. II. poët. a ship, Lex. Poët.

BEIT, f. a plate of metal mounted on the brim, e. g. of a drinking horn, the carved metal plate on an old-fashioned saddle, Fms. iii. 190; skálir með gyltum beitum, B. K. 84, Bs. ii. 244; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6. 28 (Germani urorum cornua) a labris argento circumcludunt.

beita, u, f. bait, Bs. ii. 179, Hým. 17, Edda 38; now esp. for fish, and used in many compds, e. g. beitu-fjara, u, f. the shore where shell-fish for bait are gathered; beitu-lauss, adj.; beitu-leysi, n., etc.

BEITA, tt, [v. bita, beit, mordere], prop. mordere facere. I. to graze, feed sheep and cattle; the animals in dat., b. svínum, Grág. ii. 231; nautum, Eg. 721: the pasture in acc., b. haga, Grág. ii. 224, 225; engi, 228; afrétt, 302, 329; land, 329, Eg. 721: absol., Grág. ii. 249: with ‘í’ and dat., b. í skógi, 299: ‘í’ with acc., b. svínum í land annars manns, 231: b. upp land (acc.), to spoil the pasture by grazing, lay it bare; beittust þá upp allar engjar, Eg. 712: with dat., b. upp (to consume) engjum ok heyjum, Fms. vi. 104. II. to handle, manage a (cutting) instrument; with dat., b. skutli, a harpoon, Fbr. 144; sverði, a sword, Fms. viii. 96, xi. 270; vápnum, 289. III. a nautical term, to cruise, prop. to let the ship ‘bite’ the wind; undu þeir segl sin ok beittu út at Njcirvasundum allfagran byr, Orkn. 356; beita þeir í brott frá landinu, Ld. 76; fengu þeir beitt fyrir Skotland, they sailed round, weathered S., Eg. 405; beittu þá sem þverast austr fyrir landit, 161; b. undir veðrit, to tack, Vb. i. 511; b. í haf út, Orkn. 402: metaph., varð jafnan þeirra hlutr betri, er til hans hnigu, en hinna, er frá beittu, who steered away from him, Fms. viii. 47. IV. a hunting term, to hunt (cp. beiða), the deer in acc., the dogs or hawks in dat.; b. e-n hundum, to set hounds on him; konungr sagði at hann skyldi afklæða, ok b. hundum til bana, Fms. ii. 173, x. 326; beita haukum, to chase with hawks, Fas. 1. 175: to chase, svá beitum vér björnuna, Hkr. ii. 369 MS. B, vide bauta; hann … hafði beitt fimm trönur, he had caught five cranes, Fagrsk. 77, where Hkr. l. c. has ‘veitt;’ svá beitu vér bjarnuna á mörkinni norðr, sagði hann, O. H. L. 70, cp. above; verðr Salomon konungr varr at dýr hans eru beitt, biðr. 231; þeir beita bar mart dýr, hjörtu ok björnu ok hindr, 232: metaph. and reflex., b. e-m, sögðu þeir mundu eigi þeim birni bcitast, at deila um mál hans við ofreflismenn slíka, they said they would not hunt that bear, Ölk. 34: metaph., b. e-n brögðum, vélum, vélræðum…, to hunt one down with tricks or schemes; þykist þér nú allmjök hafa komizt fyrir mik í viti, ok beittan brögðum í þessu, Ísl. ii. 164; vélum, 623; úlögum, Sks. 22; illu, Fas. i. 208: recipr., við höfum opt brögðum beizt, … schemed against each other, Fms. xi. 263; stundum beittust þau velræðum, i. 57. β. to bait; the bait in dat., the angle in acc. V. to yoke to, of horse or cattle for a vehicle, the cattle almost always in acc.; þá vóru yxn fyrir sleða beittir, Eb. 172; bjó sér vagn ok beitti hest, Fms. x. 373, Gkv. 2. 18; ok beittu fyrir tvá sterka yxn, Eb. 176, Grett. 112, Stj. 206: with dat., b. hestum, vagni, to drive; but acc., beittu, Sigurðr, hinn blakka mar, S. saddle thy black steed, Ghv. 18: metaph., b. e-n fyrir e-t, to put one at the head of it, Sks. 710: reflex., beitast fyrir e-t, to lead a cause, to manage it, Ld. 196, Fms. viii. 22, Hkr. ii. 168. VI. to hammer iron or metal into plates, v. beit, f.

beit-fiskr, m. fish to be caught with bait, in the phrase, bíta mætti b. ef at borði væri dreginn, Fbr. í So, Gísl. 135 reads beinfiskr, no doubt wrongly: the proverb denotes a fine game, one played with slight trouble.

beiti, n. pasturage, Fbr. 65 (1852).

beiti, n., botan. erica vulgaris, heather, ling, commonly beiti-lyng, Hm. 140.

beiti-áss, m., naut. term, a sail-yard, Fms. ii. 230, iii. 26, Hkr. i. 159.

beitill, m. (v. góibeitill), botan. equisetum arvense, mare’s tail, Hjalt.

beiting, f. grazing, Grág. ii. 224, Gullþ. 19, Landn. 289, Ld. 148. beitinga-mál, n. a lawsuit about right of grazing or pasturage, Landn. 287, (Ed. betting, badly.)

beiti-teigr, m. a tract of pasturage, Grág. ii. 227, 246.

beit-lostinn, part. mounted with a metal rim, B. K. 84, D. N. i. 537 (of a book).

beit-stokkr, m., cognom., Fms. viii, 327.

beittr, adj. sharp, cutting (= bitr), of cutting instruments, Eg. 746 (freq.)

bekkjast, ð and t, dep. to envy one, in the phrase, b. til við e-n, to seek a quarrel with, Grett. 127; the metaphor from guests (beggars) elbowing one another off the benches, cp. Hm. 31.

bekkju-nautr, m. a bench-fellow, Fms. ii. 48.

bekk-klæði, n. the covering of a bench, Fms. vii. 307, Js. 78.

BEKKR, jar, m. pl. ir, gen. pl. ja, dat. jum, [A. S. benc; Engl. bench, bank; Germ. bank; Dan. bænk; Icel. per assimil. kk; the Span. banco is of Teut. origin]:—a bench, esp. of the long benches in an old hall used instead of chairs; the north side of a hall (that looking towards the sun) was called æðri bekkr, the upper bench (Gl. 337, Ld. 294); the southern side úæðri bekkr, the lower (inferior) bench, Nj. 32, Eg. 547, Fms. iv. 439, xi. 70, Glúm. 336, Ld. l. c.; thus sitja á enn æðra or úæðra bekk is a standing phrase: the placing of the benches differed in Icel. and Norway, and in each country at various times; as regards the Icel. custom vide Nj. ch. 34, Sturl. i. 20, 21, the banquet at Reykhólar, A. D. 1120, ii. 182, the nuptials at Flugumýri, Lv. ch. 13, Ld. ch. 68, Gunnl. S. ch. 11, Ísl. ii. 250, cp. Nj. 220: á báða bekki, on both sides of the ball, Ísl. ii. 348, cp. Gísl. 41 (in a verse), etc.: as to foreign (Norse) customs, vide esp. Fagrsk. ch. 216, cp. Fms. vi. 390, xi. (Jómsv. S.) 70, Glúm. ch. 6, Orkn. ch. 70, Sturl. ii. 126; see more minutely under the words skáli, öndvegi, pallr, etc.; breiða, strá bekki, is to strew or cover the benches in preparing for a feast or wedding; bekki breiði (imper. pl., MS. breiða), dress the benches! Alvm. 1; bekki at strá, Em. verse 1; standit upp jötnar ok stráit bekki, Þkv. 22; brynjum um bekki stráð, the benches (wainscots?) covered with coats of mail, Gm. 44: in these phrases bekkir seems to be a collective name for the hall, the walls of which were covered with tapestry, the floor with straw, as in the Old Engl. halls. The passage Vtkv. 10—hveim eru bekkir baugum sánir—is dubious (stráðir?); búa bekki, to dress the benches; er Baldrs feðr bekki búna veit ek at sumblum, Km. 25; breitt var á bekki, brúðr sat á stól, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 466; vide brúðarbekkr. COMPDS: bekkjar-bót, f. the pride of a bench, a bride, cognom., Landn. bekkjar-gjöf, f. ‘bench-gift,’ an old custom to offer a gift to the bride whilst she sate on the bride’s bench at the wedding festival, Ld. 188, cp. Fms. ii. 133, and in many passages in Fritzner from D. N. it seems to be synonymous with línfé (lín, a veil), as the bride’s face on the wedding day was veiled; ganga und líni is a poët. phrase used of the bride on the bridal bench, yet Fms. x. 313, línfé eða b. 2. as a law term, cp. Engl. bench; the benches in the lögrétta in Icel. were, however, usually called pallr, v. the Grág. 3. the coloured stripes in a piece of stuff.

BEKKR, s, and jar, m. [North. E. beck; Germ. bach; Dan. bæk; Swed. bäck], a rivulet, brook. In Icel. the word is only poët. and very rare; the common word even in local names of the 10th century is lækr (Lækjar-bugr, -óss, etc.); Sökkva-bekkr, Edda, is a mythical and pre-Icel. name; in prose bekkr may occur as a Norse idiom, Fms. vi. 164, 335, viii. 8, 217, Jb. 268, or in Norse laws as in Gþl. 418. At present it is hardly understood in Icel. and looked upon as a Danism. The phrase—þar er (breiðr) bekkr á milli, there is a beck between, of two persons separated so as to be out of each other’s reach—may be a single exception; perhaps the metaphor is taken from some popular belief like that recorded in the Lay of the Last Minstrel, note to 3. 13, and in Burns’Tam o’ Shanter—‘a running stream they dare na cross;’ some hint of a like belief in Icel. might be in Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 356. It is now and then used in poetry, as, yfir um Kedrons breiðan bekk, Pass. 1. 15. COMPDS: bekkjar-kvern, f. a water-mill, B. K. 45 (Norse). bekkjar-rás, f. the bed of a beck, Stj. MS. col. 138.

bekk-skrautuðr, m. (cp. bekkjarbót), the pride of the bench, epithet to Bragi, Ls. 15.

bekk-sögn, f., poët. the people seated in a hall, Gísl. (in a verse).

bekk-þili, n. the wainscoted walls of a hall, Em. 1.

BEKRI, a, m. a ram, Lex. Poët.; in prose in the form, brjóta bekkrann, to break the ram’s neck, Grett. 149: now also bekra, að, to bleat, Dan. bræge (rare).

belg-bera, u, f. a ‘wallet-bearer,’ a beggar, wretch, in swearing; vándar belgberur, wretches! Nj. 142, v. 1., or a monster, v. the following word.

belg-borinn, part. a monster child, without any trace of face, N. G. L. i. 339.

belgja, ð, [Hel. belgan, irâ inflari], to inflate, puff out, Fms. iii. 201, Anal. 200; b. augun, to goggle, Bárð. 171: to drink as a cow.

BELGR, jar, m. pl. ir, [Lat. follis; Ulf. balgs = ασκός; A. S. bälg; Dutch balg; Engl. belly]:—the skin, taken off whole (of a quadruped; hamr is the skin of a bird, hams that of a snake), nauts-belgr, katt-belgr,otrs-belgr, melrakka-belgr, hafr-belgr, Grág. i. 500, 501, Fas. ii. 516 (of a bear), Edda 73 (otter): they were used as bags, in which to carry flour (mjölbelgr), butter (smjörbelgr), liquids (vínbelgr), curds (skyrbelgr), herbs (jafnabelgr), or the like, (bulgos Galli sacculos scorteos appellant, Festus); í laupum eða belgjum, Gþl. 492, cp. Grett. 107, and the funny taunt in Fms. xi. 157—verið get ek hafa nökkura þá er þaðan munu hafa borið raufóttara belginn (i. e. more of scars and wounds) en svá sem þú hefir borit, því at mér þykir sjá bezt til fallinn at geyma í hveitimjöl, the rebuke of a lady to her sweetheart on his having fled out of battle with whole skin fit to keep flour in it, cp. also Nj.141. 2. bellows (smiðju-belgr), Edda 70, Þiðr. 91. 3. the curved part of a letter of the alphabet, Skálda 177. II. metaph., letibelgr, a lazy fellow, Fél. 12. 53: belgr also denotes a withered, dry old man (with a skin like parchment), with the notion of wisdom, cp. the proverb, opt ór skörpum belg skilin orð koma, and, a little above, opt er gott þat er gamlir kveða, Hm. 135; böl vantú bróðir er þú þann belg leystir, opt ór þeim (þurrum?) belg böll ráð koma, … deep schemes often come out of an old skin, Hðm. 27: the proverb, hafa skal ráð þó ór refsbelg komi, take good advice, even if coming from an old fox-skin! Gullþ. ch. 18. People say in Icel. lesa, tala, læra í belg, to read, talk, learn in a bag, to read or talk on foolishly, or to learn by rote; cp. the tale about the orðabelgr, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 479; cp. Asbjörnsen, Norse Tales, New Coll. Chr. 1856. 2. botan. gluma, Hjalt.

beli, a, m. belly, a cognom., Fas. i. 347: botan. legumen.

beli, n. dat. bellowing; með beli ok öskri, Fas. iii. 413.

belja, að, to bellow, Vápn. 21, Hkr. i. 319, Eb. 320.

beljan, f. bellowing, lowing, Grett. 112, Bær. 19.

BELLA, ball, a defect. strong verb [cp. Lat. pello, Gr. πάλλω,], to hit, hurt, tell upon; with dat., ekki má ófeigum bella, i. e. one not fated to die is proof against all shots, Ísl. ii. 305; tólf berserkjum, þeim er þeir ætluðu, at ekki mundi b., Fas. iii. 140, 149; ok ætluðu sér ekki b. mundu, Ver. 10; ball þér nú, Bófi (did it strike thee?) … Ball víst, sagði hann, ok ball hvergi meir en þú hugðir, Eb. 240; þykir nú sem þeim muni ekki b., Sturl. iii. 237.

bella, d, [A. S. bealdjan; Hel. beldjan], to deal with one in a certain way, esp. of unfair dealing; with dat., hvar viti menn slíku bellt við konungmann, who did ever see a king thus dealt with, Eg. 415; hvat skal ek göra við biskup, er slíku hefir bellt, … who has dared to deal thus, Orkn. 252; hver … mun hafa þessu bellt, at brjóta guð várn Bal, Stj. 391. Judges vi. 99; but more freq. in poetry, bella svikum, to deal in treason, Hallfreð; lygi, Þkv. 10; bragði, Am. 55; b. glaumi, gleði, to be in high spirits, Gkv. 2. 29; cp. mod. bralla, að, brellur, f. pl. tricks.

belli-bragð, n. knavish dealing, a trick, Grett. 91, Þorst. hv. 46.

bellinn (mod. brellinn), adj. trickish, Grett. 22 new Ed.

bell-vísi, f. trickishness, Finnb. 294.

BELTI, n. [Lat. balteus; Engl. belt], a belt, esp. a belt of metal (silver) or embroidered, esp. belonging to a woman, Ld. 284, Sturl. iii. 189, Nj. 2, 24: belonging to a man, with a knife fastened to it, Fs. 101, Fms. iv. 27; kníf ok belti ok vóru þat góðir gripir, Gísl. 54, Fms. ix. 25, Fb. ii. 8, Nj. 91; as a naut. term, Edda (Gl.) COMPDS: belta-dráttr, m. a game, two boxers tied together with one girdle, also in use in Sweden: hence a close struggle, Fms. viii. 181. beltis-púss, m. a belt-pocket, Gullþ. 47, Sturl. l. c., Art. 70. beltis-staðr, m. the belt-waist, Gísl. 71, Fms. iv. 56. In poetry the sea is called the belt of islands or of the earth. 2. Belti, Mare Balticum, is derived from the Lithuanian baltas = albus. 3. astron. a zone, himinbelti, hitabelli, kuldabelti.

BEN, jar, f. pl. jar (neut., N. G. L. i. 387; stór ben, acc. pl. n., Gísl. (in a verse), v. bani above. I. a wound; as a law term, esp. a mortal wound (cp. bani); thus defined, skal ILLEGIBLE lýsa, en ben ef at bana verðr, Grág. ii. 18, 29, 70; benjar á hinum dauða manni, 28; svá skal nefna vátta at sárum sem at benjum, 30; and in the compds, benja-lýsing, f. a sort of coroner’s inquest upon a slain man, Grág. ii. 29; benja-váttr, m. a sort of coroner’s jury, defined in Grág. ii. 28—þeir eigu at bera, hve margar benjar eru, they have to give a verdict how many mortal wounds there are; en búakviðr (the jury) hverir sannir eru at; benja-vætti, n. the verdict of a benjaváttr, Grág. id. II. yet commonly ‘ben’ means a small bleeding wound; þeirri blóðgri ben, er Otkell veitti mér áverka, Nj. 87, Sd. 139, Fs. 144, in the last passage, however, of a mortal wound. It is now medic. the wound produced by letting blood. In old poetry it is used in a great many compds.

bend, f. = ben, N. G. L. i. 159, 166.

benda, u, f. a bundle, Gþl. 492: now metaph. entanglement. 2. a bond, tie, v. höfuðbenda: naut. term, a stay.

benda, d, laler t, [Goth. bandvian], to beckon, give a sign with the hands or eyes: with dat., hann bendi þeim at fylgja sér, Hom. 113, K. Þ. K. 37, Orkn. 426: metaph. to forebode, betoken, Hom. 137, Skálda 170, Stj. 101: with acc. of the thing, Akv. 8.

benda, d, mod. t, [band], Lat. curvare, to bend; b. sverð um kné sér, Fms. x. 213; benda boga, to bend a bow, Grág. ii. 21, Fas. ii. 88, 330; b. upp, Nj. 107; benda hlífar, Rm. 39; prob. = Lat. flectere, nectere, to join, as in mod. usage, b. tunnu, to hoop a tub: recipr., bendast á um e-t, to strive, contest about, Fms. viii. 391, v. l.: metaph. to give away, Al. 44.

bendi, n. a cord, Fms. iii. 209.

bendill, m., dimin. a small cord, string, Edda 231. 2. a sort of seed, Edda (Gl.)

bending, f., Lat. nutus, a sign, token, Rb. 348, Fms. i. 10; boð ok b., Stj. 36: foreboding, betokening, Fms. vii. 195, Ld. 260.

benja, að, to wound mortally, Fm. 25.

ben-lauss, adj. free from wounds, N. G. L. i. 357.

ben-logi, a, m. ‘wound-flame,’ a sword, Hkv.

ben-rögn, n. an απ. λεγ., Nj. 107 (cp. the verse, p. 118), bloody rain, a prodigy, foreboding, slaughter, plague, or like events, cp. Eb. ch. 51, Dl. verse 1.

benzl, n. a bow in a bent state; taka boga af benzlum, to unbend a bow, Str. 44.

BER, n., gen. pl. berja, dat. jum, [Goth. basi; A. S. beria; Germ.beere; cp. also the A. S. basu]:—a berry, almost always in pl., Grág. ii. 347; lesa ber, to gather berries, Jb. 310, Bs. i. 135:—distinguished, vinber, the vine-berry, grape; esp. of Icel. sorts, bláber, the bleaberry, bilberry, whortleberry; aðalbláber, Vaccinium myrtillus; krækiber, empetrum; einirber, juniperus; hrútaber, rubus saxatilis; jarðarber, strawberry; sortuber or mulningr, arbutus, Hjalt. COMPDS: berja-hrat, n. the stone in a berry. berja-mór, m. baccetum; fara á b., to go a-black-berrying. berja-vín, n. berry-wine (cp. Engl. gooseberry-, elderberry-wine), Bs. i. 135.

BERA, u, f. I. [björn], a she-bear, Lat. ursa; the primitive root ‘ber’ remains only in this word (cp. berserkr and berfjall), björn (q. v.) being the masc. in use, Landn. 176, Fas. i. 367, Vkv. 9: in many Icel. local names, Beru-fjörðr, -vík, from Polar bears; fem. names, Bera, Hallbera, etc., Landn. II. a shield, poët., the proverb, baugr er á beru sæmstr, to a shield fits best a baugr (q. v.), Lex. Poët., Edda (Gl.); hence names of poems Beru-drápa, Eg.

bera, að, [berr, nudus], to make bare, Lat. nudare; hon beraði líkam sinn, Bret. 22: impers., berar hálsinn (acc.), the neck became bare, Bs. i. 624.

BERA, bar, báru, borit, pres. berr,—poët. forms with the suffixed negative; 3rd pers. sing. pres. Indic. berrat, Hm. 10; 3rd pers. sing. pret. barat, Vellekla; 1st pers. sing. barkak, Eb. 62 (in a verse); barkat ek, Hs. 8; 2nd pers. sing. bartattu; 3rd pers. pl. bárut, etc., v. Lex. Poët. [Gr. φέρειν; Lat. ferre; Ulf. bairan; A. S. beran; Germ. gebären; Engl. bear; Swed. bära; Dan. bære].

A. Lat. ferre, portare: I. prop. with a sense of motion, to bear, carry, by means of the body, of animals, of vehicles, etc., with acc., Egil tók mjöðdrekku eina mikla, ok bar undir hendi sér, Eg. 237; bar hann heim hrís, Rm. 9; konungr lét bera inn kistur tvær, báru tveir menn hverja, Eg. 310; bera farm af skipi, to unload a ship, Ld. 32; bera (farm) á skip, to load a ship, Nj. 182; tóku alla ösku ok báru á á (amnem) út, 623, 36; ok bar þat (carried it) í kerald, 43, K. Þ. K. 92; b. mat á borð, í stofu, to put the meat on table, in the oven; b. mat af borði, to take it off table, Eb. 36, 266, Nj. 75, Fms. ix. 219, etc. 2. Lat. gestare, ferre, denoting to wear clothes, to carry weapons; skikkja dýr er konungr hafði borit, Eg. 318; b. kórónu, to wear the crown, Fms. x. 16; atgeir, Nj. 119; vápn, 209: metaph., b. ægishjálm, to inspire fear and awe; b. merki, to carry the flag in a battle, Nj. 274, Orkn. 28, 30, 38, Fms. v. 64, vi. 413; bera fram merki, to advance, move in a battle, vi. 406. 3. b. e-t á hesti (áburðr), to carry on horseback; Auðunn bar mat á hesti, Grett. 107; ok bar hrís á hesti, 76 new Ed.; þeir báru á sjau hestum, 98 new Ed. II. without a sense of motion: 1. to give birth to; [the root of barn, bairn; byrja, incipere; burðr, partus; and burr, filius: cp. Lat. parĕre; also Gr. φέρειν, Lat. ferre, of child-bearing.] In Icel. prose, old as well as mod., ‘ala’ and ‘fæða’ are used of women; but ‘bera,’ of cows and sheep; hence sauðburðr, casting of lambs, kýrburðr; a cow is snembær, siðbær, Jólabær, calves early, late, at Yule time, etc.; var ekki ván at hon (the cow) mundi b. fyr en um várit, Bs. i. 193, 194; kýr hafði borit kálf, Bjarn. 32; bar hvárrtveggi sauðrinn sinn burð, Stj. 178: the participle borinn is used of men in a great many compds in a general sense, aptrborinn, árborinn, endrborinn, frjálsborinn, goðborinn, höldborinn, hersborinn, konungborinn, óðalborinn, samborinn, sundrborinn, velborinn, úborinn, þrælborinn, etc.; also out of compds, mun ek eigi upp gefa þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, … entitled to by inheritance, Ld. 102; hann hafði blindr verit borinn, born blind, Nj. 152, Hdl. 34, 42, Vsp. 2: esp. borinn e-m, born of one, Rm. 39, Hdl. 12, 23, 27, Hðm. 2, Gs. 9, Vþm. 25, Stor. 16, Vkv. 15; borinn frá e-m, Hdl. 24: the other tenses are in theol. Prose used of Christ, hans blezaða son er virðist at láta berast hingað í heim af sinni blezaðri móður, Fms. i. 281; otherwise only in poetry, eina dóttur (acc.) berr álfröðull (viz. the sun, regarded as the mother), Vþm. 47; hann Gjálp um bar, hann Greip um bar …, Hdl. 36: borit (sup.), Hkv. 1. 1. β. of trees, flowers; b. ávöxt, blóm …, to bear fruit, flower … (freq.); bar aldinviðrinn tvennan blóma, Fms. ix. 265; cp. the phrase, bera sitt barr, v. barr. 2. denoting to load, with acc. of the person and dat. of the thing: α. in prop. sense; hann hafði borit sik mjök vápnum, he had loaded himself with arms, i. e. wore heavy armour, Sturl. iii. 250. β. but mostly in a metaph. sense; b. e-n ofrafli, ofrmagni, ofrliði, ofríki, magni, to bear one down, to overcome, oppress one, by odds or superior force, Grág. i. 101, ii. 195, Nj. 80, Hkr. ii. 371, Gþl. 474, Stj. 512, Fms. iii. 175 (in the last passage a dat. pers. badly); b. e-n ráðum, to overrule one, Nj. 198, Ld. 296; b. e-n málum, to bearhim down (wrongfully) in a lawsuit, Nj. 151; b. e-n bjóri, to make drunk, Vkv. 26: medic., borinn verkjum, sótt, Bjarn. 68, Og. 5; bölvi, Gg. 2: borne down, feeling heavy pains; þess er borin ván, no hope, all hope is gone, Ld. 250; borinn sök, charged with a cause, Fms. v. 324, H. E. i. 561; bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise, Fms. iv. 111; b. fé, gull á e-n, to bring one a fee, gold, i. e. to bribe one, Nj. 62; borinn baugum, bribed, Alvm. 5; always in a bad sense, cp. the law phrase, b. fé í dóm, to bribe a court, Grág., Nj. 240. 3. to bear, support, sustain, Lat. sustinere, lolerare, ferre: α. properly, of a ship, horse, vehicle, to bear, be capable of bearing; þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, all that they could carry, Eb. 302;—a ship ‘berr’ (carries) such and such a weight; but ‘tekr’ (takes) denotes a measure of fluids. β. metaph. to sustain, support; dreif þannig svá mikill mannfjöldi at landit fékk eigi borit, Hkr. i. 56; but metaph. to bear up against, endure, support grief, sorrow, etc., sýndist öllum at Guð hefði nær ætlað hvat hann mundi b. mega, Bs. i. 139; biðr hann friðar ok þykist ekki mega b. reiði hans, Fms. iii. 80: the phrase, b. harm sinn í hljóði, to suffer silently; b. svívirðing, x. 333: absol., þótti honum mikit víg Kjartans, en þó bar hann drengilega, he bore it manfully, Ld. 226; er þat úvizka, at b. eigi slíkt, not to bear or put up with, Glúm. 327; b. harm, to grieve, Fms. xi. 425: in the phrases, b. sik, b. af sér, berask, berask vel (illa, lítt), to bear oneself, to bear up against misfortune; Guðrúnu þótti mikit fráfall Þorkels, en þó bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore her bravely up, Ld. 326–328; lézt hafa spurt at ekkjan bæri vel af sér harmana, Eb. 88; berask af; hversu bersk Auðr af um bróðurdauðann? (how does she bear it?); hón bersk af lítt (she is much borne down) ok þykir mikit, Gísl. 24; niun oss vandara gört en öðrum at vér berim oss vel (Lat. fortiter ferre), Nj. 197; engi maðr hefði þar jamvel borit sik, none bad borne himself so boldly, Sturl. iii. 132; b. sik vel upp, to bear well up against, bear a stout heart, Hrafn. 17; b. sik beiskliga (sorely), Stj. 143; b. sik lítt, to be downcast, Fms. ii. 61; b. sik at göra e-t, to do one’s best, try a thing. III. in law terms or modes of procedure: 1. bera járn, the ordeal of bearing hot iron in the hand, cp. járnburðr, skírsla. This custom was introduced into Scandinavia together with Christianity from Germany and England, and superseded the old heathen ordeals ‘hólmganga,’ and ‘ganga undir jarðarmen,’ v. this word. In Norway, during the civil wars, it was esp. used in proof of paternity of the various pretenders to the crown, Fms. vii. 164, 200, ix. Hák. S. ch. 14, 41–45, viii. (Sverr. S.) ch. 150, xi. (Jómsv. S.) ch. 11, Grett. ch. 41, cp. N. G. L. i. 145, 389. Trial by ordeal was abolished in Norway A. D. 1247. In Icel. It was very rarely mentioned, vide however Lv. ch. 23 (paternity), twice or thrice in the Sturl. i. 56, 65, 147, and Grág. i. 341, 361; it seems to have been very seldom used there, (the passage in Grett. S. l. c. refers to Norway.) 2. bera út (hence útburðr, q. v.), to expose children; on this heathen custom, vide Grimm R. A. In heathen Icel., as in other parts of heathen Scandinavia, it was a lawful act, but seldom exercised; the chief passages on record are, Gunnl. S. ch. 3 (ok þat var þá siðvandi nokkurr, er land var allt alheiðit, at þeir menn er félitlir vórn, en stóð ómegð mjök til handa létu út bera börn sín, ok þótti þó illa gört ávalt), Fs. Vd. ch. 37, Harð. S. ch. 8, Rd. ch. 7, Landn. v. ch. 6, Finnb. ch. 2, Þorst. Uxaf. ch. 4, Hervar. S. ch. 4, Fas. i. 547 (a romance); cp. Jómsv. S. ch. 1. On the introduction of Christianity into Icel. A. D. 1000, it was resolved that, in regard to eating of horse-flesh and exposure of children, the old laws should remain in force, Íb. ch. 9; as Grimm remarks, the exposure must take place immediately after birth, before the child had tasted food of any kind whatever, and before it was besprinkled with water (ausa vatni) or shown to the father, who had to fix its name; exposure, after any of these acts, was murder, cp. the story of Liafburga told by Grimm R. A.); v. Also a Latin essay at the end of the Gunnl. S. (Ed. 1775). The Christian Jus Eccl. put an end to this heathen barbarism by stating at its very beginning, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, i. e. all children, if not of monstrous shape, shall be brought up, N. G. L. i. 339, 363. β. b. út (now more usual, hefja út, Am. 100), to carry out for burial; vera erfðr ok tit borinn, Odd. 20; var hann heygðr, ok út borinn at fornum sið, Fb. i. 123; b. á bál, to place (the body and treasures) upon the pile, the mode of burying in the old heathen time, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse); var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi, Edda 38.

B. Various and metaph. cases. I. denoting motion: 1. ‘bera’ is in the Grág. the standing law term for delivery of a verdict by a jury (búar), either ‘bera’ absol. or adding kvið (verdict); bera á e-n, or b. kvið á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty; bera af e-m, or b. af e-m kviðinn, to give a verdict for; or generally, bera, or b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case; bera, or b. vitni, vætti, also simply means to testify, to witness, Nj. 111, cp. kviðburðr (delivering of verdict), vitnisburðr (bearing witness), Grág. ii. 28; eigi eigu búar (jurors) enn at b. um þat hvat lög eru á landi hér, the jurors have not to give verdict in (to decide) what is law in the country, cp. the Engl. maxim, that jurors have only to decide the question of evidence, not of law, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 85; eigi eru búar skildir at b. um hvatvetna; um engi mál eigu þeir at skilja, þau er erlendis (abroad) hafa görzt, id.; the form in delivering the verdict—höfum vér (the jurors), orðit á eitt sáttir, berum á kviðburðinn, berum hann sannan at sökinni, Nj. 238, Grág. i. 49, 22, 138, etc.; í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn, id.; b. annattveggja af eðr á; b. undan, to discharge, Nj. 135; b. kvið í hag (for), Grág. i. 55; b. lýsingar vætti, Nj. 87; b. vitni ok vætti, 28, 43, 44; b. ljúgvitni, to bear false witness, Grág. i. 28; b. orð, to bear witness to a speech, 43; bera frændsemi sundr, to prove that they are not relations, N. G. L. i. 147: reflex., berask ór vætti, to prove that oneself is wrongly summoned to bear witness or to give a verdict, 44: berask in a pass. sense, to be proved by evidence, ef vanefni b. þess manns er á hönd var lýst, Grág. i. 257; nema jafnmæli berisk, 229; þótt þér berisk þat faðerni er þú segir, Fms. vii. 164; hann kvaðst ætla, at honum mundi berask, that he would be able to get evidence for, Fs. 46. β. gener. and not as a law term; b. á, b. á hendr, to charge; b. e-n undan, to discharge, Fs. 95; eigi erum vér þessa valdir er þú berr á oss, Nj. 238, Ld. 206, Fms. iv. 380, xi. 251, Th. 78; b. e-m á brýnn, to throw in one’s face, to accuse, Greg. 51; b. af sér, to deny; eigi mun ek af mér b., at… (non diffitebor), Nj. 271; b. e-m gott vitni, to give one a good…, 11; b. e-m vel (illa) söguna, to bear favourable (unfavourable) witness of one, 271. 2. to bear by word of mouth, report, tell, Lat. referre; either absol. or adding kveðju, orð, orðsending, eyrindi, boð, sögu, njósn, frétt…, or by adding a prep., b. fram, frá, upp, fyrir; b. kveðju, to bring a greeting, compliment, Eg. 127; b. erindi (sín) fyrir e-n, to plead one’s case before one, or to tell one’s errand, 472, 473; b. njósn, to apprise, Nj. 131; b. fram, to deliver (a speech), talaði jungherra Magnús hit fyrsta erindi (M. made his first speech in public), ok fanst mönnum mikit um hversu úbernsliga fram var borit, Fms. x. 53; (in mod. usage, b. fram denotes gramm. to pronounce, hence ‘framburðr,’ pronunciation); mun ek þat nú fram b., I shall now tell, produce it, Ld. 256, Eg. 37; b. frá, to attest, relate with emphasis; má þat frá b., Dropl. 21; b. upp, to produce, mention, tell, þótt slík lygi sé upp borin fyrir hann, though such a lie be told him, Eg. 59; þær (viz. charges) urðu engar upp bornar (produced) við Rút, Nj. 11; berr Sigtryggr þegar upp erindi sín (cp. Germ. ojfenbaren), 271, Ld. 256; b. upp gátu, to give (propound) a riddle, Stj. 411, Fas. i. 464; b. fyrir, to plead as an excuse; b. saman ráð sín, or the like, to consult, Nj. 91; eyddist þat ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed, Post. 656 A. ii; b. til skripta, to confess (eccl.), of auricular confession, Hom. 124, 655 xx. II. in a metaphorical or circumlocutory sense, and without any sense of motion, to keep, hold, bear, of a title; b. nafn, to bear a name, esp. as honour or distinction; tignar nafn, haulds nafn, jarls nafn, lends manns nafn, konungs nafn, bónda nafn, Fms. i. 17, vi. 278, xi. 44, Gþl. 106: in a more metaph. sense, denoting endowments, luck, disposition, or the like, b. (ekki) gæfu, hamingju, auðnu til e-s, to enjoy (enjoy not) good or bad luck, etc.; at Þórólfr mundi eigi allsendis gæfu til b. um vináttu við Harald, Eg. 75, 112, 473, Fms. iv. 164, i. 218; úhamingju, 219; b. vit, skyn, kunnáttu á (yfir) e-t, to bring wit, knowledge, etc., to bear upon a thing, xi. 438, Band. 7; hence vel (illa) viti borinn, well (ill) endowed with wit, Eg. 51; vel hyggjandi borinn, well endowed with reason, Grág. ii; b. hug, traust, áræði, þor, til e-s, to have courage, confidenceto do a thing, Gullþ. 47, Fms. ix. 220, Band. 7; b. áhyggju, önn fyrir, to care, be concerned about, Fms. x. 318; b. ást, elsku til e-s, to bear affection, love to one; b. hatr, to hate: b. svört augu, to have dark eyes, poët., Korm. (in a verse); b. snart hjarta, Hom. 5; vant er þat af sjá hvar hvergi berr hjarta sitt, where he keeps his heart, Orkn. 474; b. gott hjarta, to bear a proud heart, Lex. Poët., etc. etc.; b. skyndi at um e-t, to make speed with a thing, Lat. festinare, Fms. viii. 57. 2. with some sense of motion, to bear off or away, carry off, gain, in such phrases as, b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in …; hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orrustum, er frægstar hafa verit, he had borne off the victory in two battles, Fms. xi. 186; bera banaorð af e-m, to slay one in a fight, to be the victor; Þorr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi, Edda 42, Fms. x. 400: it seems properly to mean, to bear off the fame of having killed a man; verðat svá rík sköp, at Regin skyli mitt banorð bera, Fm. 39; b. hærra, lægra hlut, ‘to bear off the higher or the lower lot,’ i. e. to get the best or the worst of it, or the metaphor is taken from a sortilege, Fms. ii. 268, i. 59, vi. 412; b. efra, hærra skjöld, to carry the highest shield, to get the victory, x. 394, Lex. Poët.; b. hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), i. e. to be in high or low spirits, Nj. 91; but also, b. halann bratt (lágt), to cock up or let fall the tail (metaph. from cattle), to be in an exultant or low mood: sundry phrases, as, b. bein, to rest the bones, be buried; far þú til Íslands, þar mun þér auðið verða beinin at b., Grett. 91 A; en þó hygg ek at þú munir hér b. beinin í Norðrálfunni, Orkn. 142; b. fyrir borð, to throw overboard, metaph. to oppress; verðr Þórhalli nú fyrir borð borinn, Th. was defied, set at naught, Fær. 234; b. brjóst fyrir e-m, to be the breast-shield, protection of one, Fms. vii. 263: also, b. hönd fyrir höfuð sér, metaph. to put one’s hand before one’s head, i. e. to defend oneself; b. ægishjálm yfir e-m, to keep one in awe and submission, Fm. 16, vide A. I. 2. III. connected with prepp., b. af, and (rarely) yfir (cp. afburðr, yfirburðr), to excel, surpass; eigi sá hvárttveggja féit er af öðrum berr, who gets the best of it, Nj. 15; en þó bar Bolli af, B. surpassed all the rest, Ld. 330; þat mannval bar eigi minnr af öðrum mönnum um fríðleik, afi ok fræknleik, en Ormrinn Langi af öðrum skipum, Fms. ii. 252; at hinn útlendi skal yfir b. (outdo) þann sem Enskir kalla meistara, xi. 431: b. til, to apply, try if it fits; en er þeir báru til (viz. shoes to the hoof of a horse), þá var sem hæfði hestinum, ix. 55; bera til hvern lykil at öðrum at portinu, Thom. 141; b. e-t við, to try it on (hence viðburðr, experiment, effort): b. um, to wind round, as a cable round a pole or the like, Nj. 115; þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body, Fms. ix. 219; ‘b. e-t undir e-n’ is to consult one, ellipt., b. undir dóm e-s; ‘b. e-t fyrir’ is to feign, use as excuse: b. á, í, to smear, anoint; b. vatn í augu sér, Rb. 354; b. tjöru í höfuð sér, Nj. 181, Hom. 70, 73, cp. áburðr; b. gull, silfr, á, to ornament with gold or silver, Ld. 114, Finnb. 258: is now also used = to dung, b. á völl; b. vápn á e-n, to attack one with sharp weapons, Eg. 583, Fms. xi. 334: b. eld at, to set fire to, Nj. 122; b. fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one, Fms. x. 172, Hm. 150: metaph. reflex., bönd berask at e-m, a law term, the evidence bears against one; b. af sér, to parry off; Gyrðr berr af sér lagit, G. parries the thrust off, Fms. x. 421; cp. A. II. 3. β. IV. reflex., berask mikit á (cp. áburðr), to bear oneself proudly, or b. lítið á, to bear oneself humbly; hann var hinn kátasti ok barst á mikit, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 219, Eb. 258; b. lítið á, Clem. 35; láta af berask, to die; Óttarr vill skipa til um fjárfar sitt áðr hann láti af b., Fms. ii. 12: berask fyrir, to abide in a place as an asylum, seek shelter; hér munu vit láta fyrir b., Fas. iii. 471; berask e-t fyrir, to design a thing, be busy about, barsk hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur, Greg. 53; at njósna um hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about, Fms. iv. 184, Vígl. 19. β. recipr. in the phrase, berask banaspjót eptir, to seek for one another’s life, Glúm. 354: b. vápn á, of a mutual attack with sharp weapons, Fms. viii. 53. γ. pass., sár berask á e-n, of one in the heat of battle beginning to get wounds and give way, Nj.:—berask við, to be prevented, not to do; ok nú lét Almáttugr Guð við berast kirkjubrunnann, stopped, prevented the burning of the church, Fms. v. 144; en mér þætti gott ef við bærist, svá at hón kæmi eigi til þín, vi. 210, vii. 219; ok var þá búit at hann mundi þegar láta hamarinn skjanna honum, en hann lét þat við berask, he bethought himself and did not, Edda 35; því at mönnum þótti sem þannig mundi helzt úhæfa við berask, that mischief would thus be best prevented, Sturl. ii. 6, iii. 80.

C. IMPERS.:—with a sort of passive sense, both in a loc. and temp. sense, and gener. denotes an involuntary, passive motion, happening suddenly or by chance: I. with acc. it bears or carries one to a place, i. e. one happens to come; the proverb, alla (acc.) berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end), Lat. omnes una manet nox; bar hann þá ofan gegnt Özuri, he happened to come in his course just opposite to Ö., Lat. delatus est, Dropl. 25: esp. of ships or sailors; nú berr svá til (happens) herra, at vér komum eigi fram ferðinni, berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eðr annara landa, it bore us to I., i. e. if we drive or drift thither, Fms. iv. 176; þá (acc. pl.) bar suðr í haf, they drifted southwards, Nj. 124. β. as a cricketing term, in the phrase, berr (bar) út knöttinn, the ball rolls out, Gísl. 26, cp. p. 110 where it is transit.; berr Gísli ok út knöttinn, vide Vígl. ch. 11, Grett. ch. 17, Vd. ch. 37, Hallfr. S. ch. 2. γ. Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, Sk. came suddenly upon them, Nj. 144; bar at Hróaldi þegar allan skjöldinn, the shield was dashed against H.’s body, 198; ok skyldu sæta honum, ef hann (acc.) bæri þar at, if he should per chance come, shew himself there, Orkn. 406; e-n berr yfir, it bears one, i. e. one is borne onwards, as a bird flying, a man riding; þóttist vita, at hann (acc.) mundi fljótara yfir bera ef hann riði en gengi, that he would get on more fleetly riding than walking, Hrafn. 7; hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, he passed quickly, of a flying meteor, Nj. 194; e-n berr undan, escapes. 2. also with acc. followed by prepp. við, saman, jafnframt, hjá, of bodies coinciding or covering one another: loc., er jafnframt ber jaðrana tungls ok sólar, if the orb of the moon and sun cover each other, Rb. 34; þat kann vera stundum, at tunglit (acc.) berr jafht á millum vár ok sólar (i. e. in a moon eclipse), 108; ber nokkut jaðar (acc.) þess hjá sólar jaðri, 34; Gunnarr sér at rauðan kyrtil (acc.) bar við glugginn, G. sees that a red kirtle passed before the window, Nj. 114; bar fyrir utan þat skip vápnaburð (acc.) heiðingja (gen. pl.), the missiles of the heathens passed over the ship without hurting them, flew too high, Fms. vii. 232; hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, nowhere a shadow, all bright, Nj. 118; þangat sem helzt mátti nokkut yfir þá skugga bera af skóginum, where they were shadowed (hidden) by the trees, Fms. x. 239; e-t berr fram (hátt), a body is prominent, Lat. eminet; Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingunni, bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, king O. stood out conspicuously, ii. 308; b. yfir, þótti mjök bera hljóð (acc.) þar yfir er Ólafr sat, the sound was heard over there where O. sat, Sturl. i. 21; b. á milli, something comes between; leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect, Nj. 263: metaph., e-m berr e-t á milli, they come to dissent, 13, v. 1.; b. fyrir augu (hence fyrirburðr, vision), of a vision or the like; mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, ek sé …, many things come now before my eyes, 104; hann mundi allt þat er fyrir hann hafði borit, i. e. all the dream, 195; eina nótt berr fyrir hann í svefni mikla sýn, Fms. i. 137, Rd. 290; veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m (a metaphor from hunting), sport falls to one’s lot; hér bæri veiði í hendr nú, here would be a game, Nj. 252; e-t berr undan (a metaphor from fishing, hunting term), when one misses one’s opportunity; vel væri þá … at þá veiði (acc.) bæri eigi undan, that this game should not go amiss, 69; en ef þetta (acc.) berr undan, if this breaks down, 63; hon bað hann þá drepa einhvern manna hans, heldr en allt (acc.) bæri undan, rather than that all should go amiss, Eg. 258: absol., þyki mér illa, ef undan berr, if I miss it, Nj. 155; viljum vér ekki at undan beri at…, we will by no means miss it…, Fms. viii. 309, v. 1. The passage Bs. i. 416 (en fjárhlutr sá er átt hafði Ari, bar undan Guðmundi) is hardly correct, fjárhlut þann would run better, cp. bera undir, as a law term, below. II. adding prepp.; b. við, at, til, at hendi, at móti, til handa …, to befall, happen, Lat. accidere, occurrere, with dat. of the person, (v. atburðr, viðburðr, tilburðr); engi hlut skyldi þann at b., no such thing should happen as…, Fms. xi. 76; svá bar at einn vetr, it befell, x. 201; þat hefir nú víst at hendi borit, er…, Nj. 174; þó þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, Eg. 7; b. til handa, id., Sks. 327; bar honum svá til, so it befell him, Fms. xi. 425; at honum bæri engan váðaligan hlut til á veginum, that nothing dangerous should befall him on the way, Stj. 212; bæri þat þá svá við, at hann ryfi, it then perchance might happen, that …, 102; þat bar við at Högni kom, 169, 172, 82; raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by the fact, event, Fms. ix. 474, x. 185. 2. temp., e-t berr á, it happens to fall on …; ef þing (acc.) ber á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls on the holy week (Whitsun), Grág. i. 106; ef Crucis messu (acc.) berr á Drottins dag, Rb. 44; berr hana (viz. Petrs messu, June 29) aldrei svá optarr á öldinni, 78; þat er nú berr oss næst, what has occurred of late, Sturl. iii. 182: b. í móti, to happen exactly at a time; þetta (acc.) bar í móti at þenna sama dag andaðist Brandr biskup, Bs. i. 468; b. saman, id.; bar þat saman, at pá var Gunnarr at segja brennusöguna, just when G. was about telling the story, Nj. 269. 3. metaph. of agreement or separation; en þat (acc.) þykir mjök saman b. ok þessi frásögn, Fms. x. 276: with dat., bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the records agreed well together, Nj. 100, v. l.; berr nú enn í sundr með þeim, Bjarna ok Þorkatli at sinni, B. and Th. missed each other, Vápn. 25. 4. denoting cause; e-t (acc.) berr til …, causes a thing; ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til bera, that that was the reason, Nj. 75; at þat beri til skilnaðar okkars, that this will make us to part (divorce), 261; konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief? Fms. vi. 355; þat berr til tunglhlaups, Rb. 32. β. meiri ván at brátt beri þat (acc.) til bóta, at herviliga steypi hans ríki, i. e. there will soon come help (revenge), Fms. x. 264; fjórir eru þeir hlutir er menn (acc.) berr í ætt á landi hér, there are four cases under which people may be adopted, Grág. i. 361. γ. e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot; hon á arf at taka þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn, 179; mikla erfð (acc.) bar undir hana, Mar. (Fr.); berr yfir, of surpassing, Bs. ii. 121, 158; b. frá, id. (fráburðr); herðimikill svá at þat (acc.) bar frá því sem aðrir menn, Eg. 305; er sagt, at þat bæri frá hve vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they did speak, Jb. 11; bar þat mest frá hversu illa hann var limaðr, but above all, how…, Ó. H. 74. 5. with adverbial nouns in a dat. form; e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden; berr þetta (acc.) nú allbráðum, Fms. xi. 139; cp. vera bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise (above); berr stórum, stærrum, it matters a great deal; ætla ek stærrum b. hin lagabrotin (acc.), they are much more important, matter more, vii. 305; var þat góðr kostr, svá at stórum bar, xi. 50; hefir oss orðit svá mikil vanhyggja, at stóru berr, an enormous blunder, Gísl. 51; svá langa leið, at stóru bar, Fas. i. 116; þat berr stórum, hversu mér þóknast vel þeirra athæfi, it amounts to a great deal, my liking their service, i. e. I do greatly like, Fms. ii. 37; eigi berr þat allsmám hversu vel mér líkar, in no small degree do I like, x. 296. β. with dat., it is fitting, becoming; svá mikit sem landeiganda (dat.) berr til at hafa eptir lögum, what he is legally entitled to, Dipl. iii. 10; berr til handa, it falls to one’s lot, v. above, Grág. i. 93. III. answering to Lat. oportet, absolutely or with an adverb, vel, illa, with infinit.; e-m berr, it beseems, becomes one; berr þat ekki né stendr þvílíkum höfuðfeðr, at falsa, Stj. 132; berr yðr (dat.) vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli, Fms. ix. 326; sagði, at þat bar eigi Kristnum mönnum, at særa Guð, x. 22; þá siðu at mér beri vel, Sks. 353 B: used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, unbeseeming, unfit, improper; athæfi þat er vel beri fyrir konungs augliti, 282; þat þykir ok eigi illa bera, at maðr hafi svart skinn til hosna, i. e. it suits pretty well, 301: in case of a pers. pron. in acc. or dat. being added, the sentence becomes personal in order to avoid doubling the impers. sentence, e. g. e-m berr skylda (not skyldu) til, one is bound by duty; veit ek eigi hver skylda (nom.) yðr (acc.) ber til þess at láta jarl einn ráða, Fms. i. 52: also leaving the dat. out, skylda berr til at vera forsjámaðr með honum, vii. 280; eigi berr hér til úviska mín, it is not that I am not knowing, Nj. 135. IV. when the reflex. inflexion is added to the verb, the noun loses its impers. character and is turned from acc. into nom., e. g. þar (þat?) mun hugrinn minn mest hafa fyrir borizt, this is what I suspected, fancied, Lv. 34; cp. hugarburðr, fancy, and e-t berr fyrir e-n (above, C. I. 2); hefir þetta (nom.) vel í móti borizt, a happy coincidence, Nj. 104; ef svá harðliga kann til at berask, if the misfortunes do happen, Gþl. 55; barsk sú úhamingja (nom.) til á Íslandi, that mischief happened (no doubt the passage is thus to be emended), Bs. i. 78, but bar þá úhamingju …; þat (nom.) barsk at, happened, Fms. x. 253; fundir várir (nom.) hafa at borizt nokkurum sinnum, vii. 256; þat barsk at á einhverju sumri, Eg. 154; bærist at um síðir at allr þingheimrinn berðist, 765, cp. berast við, berask fyrir above (B. V.): berast, absol., means to be shaken, knocked about; var þess ván, at fylkingar mundu berast í hergöngunni, that they would be brought into some confusion, Fms. v. 74; Hrólfr gékk at ramliga, ok barst Atli (was shaken, gave away) fyrir orku sakir, þar til er hann féll. Fas. iii. 253; barst Jökull allr fyrir orku sakir (of two wrestling), Ísl. ii. 467, Fms. iii. 189: vide B. IV.

D. In mod. usage the strong bera—bar is also used in impersonal phrases, denoting to let a thing be seen, shew, but almost always with a negative preceding, e. g. ekki bar (ber) á því, it could (can) not be seen; að á engu bæri, láta ekki á bera (to keep tight), etc. All these phrases are no doubt alterations from the weak verb bera, að, nudare, and never occur in old writers; we have not met with any instance previous to the Reformation; the use is certainly of late date, and affords a rare instance of weak verbs turning into strong; the reverse is more freq. the case.

ber-bakt, n. adj., ríða b., to ride bare-back, i. e. without saddle, Glúm. 362.

ber-beinn, adj. bare-legged, Fms. vii. 63, Harbl. 5.

ber-brynjaðr, part. without coat of mail, Sd. 146, Bs. i. 541.

ber-dreymr, now berdreyminn, adj. [draumr], having ‘bare’ (i. e. clear, true) dreams as to the future, v. Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 91, Ísl. ii. 91, Fb. iii. 447, Gísl. 41.

berendi, n. = berfé, N. G. L. i. 70, 225.

ber-fé, n. a female animal, opp. to graðfé, Grág. i. 426, Jb. 431.

ber-fjall, n. 1. [ber = björn and fjall, fell = pellis], a bear-skin, Vkv. 10 (2). 2. [berr, nudus, and fjall, fell = mons], a bare fell or rocky hill, (now freq.)

ber-fættr, adj. bare-footed, bare-legged, Bs. i. 83, Hkr. ii. 259, Fms. vii. 63, x. 331. COMPD: berfættu-bræðr, m. pl. a minorite, bare-footed friar, Ann. 1265.

BERG, n. [Ulf. bairga = η ορεινή; A. S. biorh; Germ. berg; Dan. bjærg; Swed. berg; cp. bjarg and borg, in Swed. and Dan. berg means a mountain gener., = Icel. fjall; in Icel. berg is a special name]:—a rock, elevated rocky ground, as in lögberg; vaðberg, a rock on the shore where the angler stands; móberg, a clay soil, saxum terrestri-arenaceum fuscum, Eggert Itin.; þursaberg is a sort of whetstone, cp. Edda 58; and heinberg, hone-stone, id.; silfrberg, silver-ore, Stj.; á bergi, on a rock or rocky platform. β. a rock, boulder; varð b. eitt undir höfði honum, Flov. 31. γ. a precipice = björg; framan í bergi, Fms. vii. 81, Eg. 581, Hkr. i. 151; meitilberg.

berg-búi, a, m. a berg-dweller, i. e. a giant, Landn. 271, Barð. 164.

berg-danir, m. pl. the Danes, (inhabitants) of rocks, giants, Hým. 17.

berg-hamarr, m. a rocky projection, Hom. 117.

berg-hlíð, f. the side or slope of a b., Fms. viii. 57, = Icel. fjallshlíð.

berg-högg, n. a quarry, Þjal. 8; cp. berhögg.

bergi-biti, a, m. a bit to taste, Sturl. ii. 132.

bergiligr, adj. inviting to taste, Sks. 528.

berging (bergning, Eluc. 20), f. tasting, taste, Stj. 292, Hom. 53, Magn. 486, Eluc. 54.

bergisamligr, adj. = bergiligr, Sks. 528.

BERGJA, ð, [A. S. beorgan; Lat. gustare], to taste; with dat., Þórgunna vildi öngum mat b., Th. would taste no food, Eb. 262; b. ölvi, Ls. 9; þeir bergðu engu nema snjó, Fms. viii. 52, 303, Stj. 268, Andr. 70; b. Guðs holdi ok blóði, in the holy supper, 655 xviii; b. dauða, to taste death, Post. 656 C, Fb. i. 323; fá margir sjúkir menn heilsu, er b., that drink, Fms. i. 232, iii. 12, Hom. 82; b. á e-u, Stj. 39, Fas. i. 246; b. af, Sks. 106, Blas. 43; cp. bjarga, bjargast við e-t, e. g. Eb. 244, Eg. 204, Clem. 26, Fs. 174.

berg-mál, n. an echo, also called dvergmál. berg-mála, að, to echo.

berg-rifa, u, f. a fissure in a rock, Symb. 56.

berg-risi, a, m. [ep. berga-troll in the Norse tales], a hill-giant, Hkr. i. 229; hrímþursar ok bergrisar, Edda 10, 15; hon (Gerðr) var b. ættar, 22; mikit fólk hrímþursa ok bergrisar, 38, Gs. 9, 23.

berg-skor, f. pl. ar, [cp. Scot. scaur], a chasm in a rocky hill, Hkv. 2. 20, Fms. vii. 202, Stj. 450. 1 Sam. xiii. 6.

berg-snös, f. [from snös = a projection, Gullþ. 50, ch. 4, not nös, nasus], a rocky projection. Eg. 389, Gullþ. 8, l. c., Fas. i. 156 spelt bergnös, Sæm. 131.

berg-tollr, m. a rock-toll, paid for catching fowl thereon, Sturl. iii. 225.

berg-vörðr, m. a watch, look-out for rocks and cliffs; halda b., Jb. 407.

ber-harðr, adj. hardy as a bear, Akv.

ber-hendr, adj. bare-handed.

ber-höfði, berhöfða or berhöfðaðr, adj. bare-headed, Stat. 299.

ber-högg, n. [berr, nudus, or rather = berghögg, metaph. for a quarry], in the phrase, ganga á (í) b. við e-n, metaph. to make open fight, deal rudely with, Fms. xi. 248, Ld. 142; Jóann gekk á b. at banna, St. John interdicted openly, 625. 93, in all those passages ‘á:’ in mod. usage ‘í,’ so Greg. 80, Sturl. ii. 61, Þorst. Síðu-H. 7.

berill, m. a barrel for fluids (for. word), Stj. 367.

BERJA, barði, pres. berr; sup. bart, barzt, O. H. L. 24, Bret. 48, 64, Fms. viii. 214, 215, xi. 16, and later barit, barizt; part. fem. barið, Am. 84; barðr, fem. börð, Sturl. iii. 154; mod. barinn; either form may now be used: [Lat. ferio. The word is not found in Ulf., and seems to be unknown in Germ. and Engl.; it is lost in mod. Dan.] I. act. to strike, beat, smite, with acc., Fms. vii. 227, Eg. 582: as a punishment, b. húð af e-m, to scourge one, N. G. L. i. 85: to thrash to death, 341; b. grjóti, to stone, of witches, Am. 84, Ld. 152, Eb. 98, Gísl. 34: to castigate, b. til batnaðar, Hkr. ii. 178; cp. the sayings, einginn verðr óbarinn biskup, and, vera barðr til bækr, Bs. i. 410; b. steinum í andlit e-m, to throw stones in one’s face, 623. 31; b. e-u saman vápnum, sverðum, skjöldum, knefum, to dash weapons … against each other, Fms. vii. 204; b. gull, to beat gold, x. 206; sem barit gull, like beaten gold, Ísl. ii. 206; b. korn, to thresh corn, Magn. 520: metaph. to chide, scold, b. e-n illyrðum, ávítum, Nj. 64, Hom. 35:—with ‘á’, ‘at’, to knock, rap, strike, b. á hurð, á dyrr (or at dyrum), to rap, knock at a door, Th. 6; b. sér á brjóst, to smite on one’s breast, in repentance, Fms. v. 122; b. at hurðu, Sturl. iii. 153; b. til e-s, á e-m, to give one a thrashing, Dropl. 23; er þú á konum barðir, Hbl. 38; hjartað barði undir síðunni, to beat, of the heart, Str. 6 (but hjartsláttr, throbbing of the heart), in mod. use reflex., hjartað berst, hjartað barðist í brjósti heitt, Pass. 2. 12: in the phrase, b. í brestina, to cry off a bargain, the metaphor is taken from hammering the fissure of a ring or the like, in order to hide the fault, Nj. 32. II. reflex., berjask, [cp. Fr. se battre; Germ. sich schlagen], to fight, Lat. pugnare, Boll. 360, Rd. 296, Fms. x. 86, Ísl. ii. 267, Fas. i. 255, Íb. 11: of a duel, ok þat með, at vit berimk her á þinginu, Eg. 351; b. við e-n, to fight with, Fms. xi. 86; b. á e-t, Lat. oppugnare, á borgina, i. 103, vii. 93, Stj. (freq.), seems to be a Latinism; b. til e-s, to fight for a thing; at b. til Englands, to invade England, Ísl. ii. 241, v. l.; b. orrostu, Lat. pugnam pugnare, Fms. vii. 79: of the fighting of eagles, Ísl. ii. 195. III. impers., with dat., it dashes against; skýja grjóti barði í augu þeim, the hailstones dashed in their eyes, Jd. 31; honum barði við ráfit kirkjunnar, he dashed against the roof, Bs. i. 804; þeim barði saman, they dashed against each other, id.

BERKJA, t, to bark, bluster; with dat., b. yfir e-u, AI. 24; er oss hefir lengi í sumar berkt, Hkr. iii. 386; hefir þú stórt berkt við oss, Fms. xi. 87, [cp. barki, digrbarkliga.]

ber-kykvendi, n. a she-beast, Fms. xi. 94.

ber-kyrtlaðr, adj. without cloak, wearing the kyrtill only, Fms. ii. 29.

ber-leggjaðr and berleggr, adj. bare-legged, Fms. vii. 63, x. 415.

ber-ligr, adj. and berliga, adv. I. [berr, nudus], open, manifest, Hom. 134; adv. openly, Fms. iv. 234, ix. 447, Ísl. ii. 317; compar., Clem. 46. II. [berr, bacca], fruitful, Stj. 15.

berlings-áss, m. [from Swed. bärling, a pole, bar], a pole; b. þrettán álna langr, Fms. iii. 227, απ. λεγ., l. c., [cp. berling, in Engl. carpentry, the cross rafter of a roof.]

ber-málugr and bermáll, adj. bare-spoken, outspoken, Fms. x. 420.

ber-mælgi, f. bare-speech, freedom of speech, Fms. vi. 178.

ber-mæli, n. pl. = bermælgi, Fms. ix. 333, Hkr. iii. 77.

ber-mæltr, part. = bermálugr, Fms. xi. 53, Hkr. iii. 97.

bernska, u, f. [barn], childhood, childishness; proverb, bráðgeð er bernskan, Fms. vi. 220; vera í b., Nj. 30, Fms. vii. 199, Sks. 596. COMPDS: bernsku-bragð, n. a boyish trick, Grett. 92, Sturl. iii. 124. bernsku-maðr, m. a youth, childish person, Hkr. ii. 156.

bernskligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), childish, Fms. v. 245, Sks. 553, 153, Magn. 434.

bernskr, adj. [Ulf. barnisks], childish, Fms. i. 22, vii. 237, ix. 249, Hom. 50.

ber-orðr, adj. = bermáll.

BERR, adj. [A. S. bär; Engl. bare; Germ. bar; Slav. bos; Litt. bosus; the Goth word is not on record, but was prob. sounded basus; the radical form is b-s, not b-r, and it is consequently different from Lat. -perio (in aperio), or bera, ferre, v. Grimm s. v.];:—Lat. nudus, bare, naked; albrynjaðr svá at ekki var bert nema augun, Fms. vii. 45; beran vápnastað, Nj. 9; undir berum himni, under the bare sky, in open air, sub dio, Karl. 544; á beru svæði, in open field; ber sverð, naked swords, Fms. i. 266; ríða berum hestum = berbakt, Dl. ii. 2. metaph. naked, unprotected, Grág. ii. 8; berr er hverr á baki nema sér bróður eigi (a proverb), Nj. 265. β. uncovered, open, clear, manifest; segja með berum orðum, in clear words, Stj. 447; verða berr at e-u, to be convicted of a thing, 656 A, 25; berar jartegnir, Fms. ii. 221; góran sik beran at e-u, to shew openly, mostly in a bad sense, xi. 55; vóru berastir í því Þrændir, the Th. were most undisguised in it, Hkr. ii. 57; göra bert, to make known, lay bare, Fms. i. 32, vii. 195.

ber-serkr, s, m., pl. ir: [the etymology of this word has been much contested; some—upon the authority of Snorri, hans menn fóru ‘brynjulausir,’ Hkr. i. 11—derive it from ‘berr’ (bare) and ‘serkr’ [cp. sark, Scot. for shirt]; but this etymology is inadmissible, because ‘serkr’ is a subst. not an adj.: others derive it from ‘berr’ (Germ. bär = ursus), which is greatly to be preferred, for in olden ages athletes and champions used to wear hides of bears, wolves, and reindeer (as skins of lions in the south), hence the names Bjálfi, Bjarnhéðinn, Úlfhéðinn, (héðinn, pellis,)—‘pellibus aut parvis rhenonum tegimentis utuntur,’ Caes. Bell. Gall. vi. 22: even the old poets understood the name so, as may be seen in the poem of Hornklofi (beginning of 10th century), a dialogue between a Valkyrja and a raven, where the Valkyrja says, at berserkja reiðu vil ek þik spyrja, to which the raven replies, Úlfhéðnar heita, they are called Wolfcoats, cp. the Vd. ch. 9; þeir berserkir er Úlfhéðnar vóru kallaðir, þeir höfðu vargstakka (coats of wild beasts) fyrir brynjur, Fs. 17:—a ‘bear-sark,’ ‘bear-coat,’ i. e. a wild warrior or champion of the heathen age; twelve berserkers are mentioned as the chief followers of several kings of antiquity, e. g. of the Dan. king Rolf Krake, Edda 82; a Swed. king, Gautr. S. Fas. iii. 36; king Adils, Hrólf. Kr. S. ch. 16 sqq.; Harald Hárfagri, Eg. ch. 9, Grett. ch. 2, Vd. l. c. (Hornklofi, v. above); the twelve sons of Arngrim, Hervar. S. ch. 3–5, Hdl. 22, 23; the two berserkers sent as a present by king Eric at Upsala to earl Hakon of Norway, and by him presented to an Icel. nobleman, Eb. ch. 25. In battle the berserkers were subject to fits of frenzy, called berserks-gangr (furor bersercicus, cp. the phrase, ganga berserksgang), when they howled like wild beasts, foamed at the mouth and gnawed the iron rim of their shields; during these fits they were, according to popular belief, proof against steel and fire, and made great havoc in the ranks of the enemy; but when the fever abated they were weak and tame. A graphical description of the ‘furor bersercicus’ is found in the Sagas, Yngl. S. ch. 6, Hervar. S. l. c., Eg. ch. 27, 67, Grett. ch. 42, Eb. ch. 25, Nj. ch. 104, Kristni S. ch. 2, 8 (Vd. ch. 46); cp. also a passage in the poem of Hornklofi | grenjuðu berserkir, | guðr var þeim á sinnum, | emjaðu Úlfhéðnar | ok ísarn gniiðu—which lines recall to the mind Roman descriptions of the Cimbric war-cry. In the Icel. Jus Eccles. the berserksgangr, as connected with the heathen age, is liable to the lesser outlawry, K. Þ. K. 78; it is mentioned as a sort of possession in Vd. ch. 37, and as healed by a vow to God. In the Dropl. S. Major (in MS.) it is medically described as a disease (v. the whole extract in the essay ‘De furore Bersercico,’ Kristni S. old Ed. in cake); but this Saga is modern, probably of the first part of the 17th century. The description of these champions has a rather mythical character. A somewhat different sort of berserker is also recorded in Norway as existing in gangs of professional bullies, roaming about from house to house, challenging husbandmen to ‘holmgang’ (duel), extorting ransom (leysa sik af hólmi), and, in case of victory, carrying off wives, sisters, or daughters; but in most cases the damsel is happily rescued by some travelling Icelander, who fights and kills the berserker. The most curious passages are Glúm, ch. 4, 6, Gísl. ch. 1 (cp. Sir Edm. Head’s and Mr. Dasent’s remarks in the prefaces), Grett. ch. 21, 42, Eg. ch. 67, Flóam. S. ch. 15, 17; according to Grett. ch. 21, these banditti were made outlaws by earl Eric, A. D. 1012. It is worth noticing that no berserker is described as a native of Icel.; the historians are anxious to state that those who appeared in Icel. (Nj., Eb., Kr. S. l. c.) were born Norse (or Swedes), and they were looked upon with fear and execration. That men of the heathen age were taken with fits of the ‘furor athleticus’ is recorded in the case of Thorir in the Vd., the old Kveldulf in Eg., and proved by the fact that the law set a penalty upon it. Berserkr now and then occurs as a nickname, Glúm. 378. The author of the Yngl. S. attributes the berserksgangr to Odin and his followers, but this is a sheer misinterpretation, or perhaps the whole passage is a rude paraphrase of Hm. 149 sqq. In the old Hbl. 37 berserkr and giant are used synonymously. The berserkers are the representatives of mere brute force, and it therefore sounds almost blasphemous, when the Norse Barl. S. speaks of Guðs berserkr (a ‘bear-coat’ or champion of God), (Jesus Kristr gleymdi eigi hólmgöngu sins berserks), 54, 197. With the introduction of Christianity this championship disappeared altogether.

bersi, a, m. a bear, Grett. 101 A, Fas. ii. 517, Sd. 165, Finnb. 246: the phrase, at taka sér bersa-leyfi, to take bear’s leave, i. e. to ask nobody (cp. ‘to take French leave’): freq. as a nom. pr., and hence in Icel. local names.

ber-skjaldaðr, adj. bare of shield, i. e. without a shield, Nj. 97.

ber-svæði, n. an open field.

ber-syndugr, adj. (theol.), a sinner, publicans and ‘sinners,’ Greg. 33, Post. 656, H. E. i. 585.

ber-sögli, f. [bersögull, adj.], a free, frank speech; hence bersöglis-vísur, f. pl., name of a poem by Sighvat, Fms. vi. 38 sq.

ber-yrði, n. pl. plain-speaking, Fms. vii. 161.

BETR, adv., compar. to vel; and BEZT, elder form bazt, superl., better, best: 1. compar., er betr er, luckily, happily, Fms. ix. 409, Ld. 22; b. þætti mér, I would rather, Nj. 17; vánu betr, Lat. spe melius, Fms. ii. 101; b. úgört, better not to do, Ld. 59; hafa b., to get the better of it, Fb. i. 174: adding gen., þess b., er …, so much the better …, Sks. 426: denoting quantity, more, leggit fram b. hit mikla skipit, advance it farther, better on, Fms. ii. 307; engi maðr tók b. en í öxl honum, v. 67; b. en tuttugu menn, ix. 339; þrjú hundruð ok þrír tigir ok sex b., to boot, Rb. 88; ekki máttu sumir menn b. en fá staðist, i. e. they could do no more, were just able to keep up against him, Fms. xi. 136; ef hann orkar b., if he can do more, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 128; nú má hann b., but if he is able to do more…, id. 2. superl., bazt búið, best equipped, Fas. ii. 523; with a gen., bezt allra manna, Eg. 34; manna bezt, Nj. 147; kvenna bezt hærð, Landn. 151; bazt at báðir væri, cp. Germ. am besten, am liebsten, soonest, Eg. 256.

betra, að, to better, improve, Ld. 106; betrask, to become better, Fms. iii. 160: impers., ef eigi betraðist um, Rd. 277; þeir sögðu, at konungi betraðist mjök, that the king was much better, Fms. ix. 215.

betran, f. a bettering, improving, esp. in theol., Fms. vi. 217, Stj. 158: alliter., böt ok betran.

betr-feðrungr, m. a man better than his father, Fms. vi. 286.

BETRI, betra, compar., and BEZTR, baztr, batztr, the superl. to ‘góðr,’ which serves as the posit.:—in the compar. the primitive a becomes e; thus old poets of the beginning of the 11th century, as Sighvat, rhyme betri—setrs; the old form batri however occurs, 655 xx. 4: in the superl. the a was kept till the end of the 12th century. Sighvat rhymes, last—bazti; old vellum MSS. now and then still spell with a (bazt, baztr …), Glúm. 371, Heið. S. Ísl. ii. 324, Grág. ii. 165, 252, Fms. xi. 214, 220, Hm. 13, 26, 47, Hkv. Hjörv. 39, Lb. 12, Pd. 11, Ýt. 27, 625. 42, Fms. x. (Ágrip) 418; baþztra (baztra), gen. pl., 398, 401 (but betþt, 385); bazta (acc.), Eluc. 36: sing. fem. and neut. pl. bözt, with a changed vowel, bözt heill, n. pl., Skv. 2. 19; böztu (böþtu), pl., Fms. x. 401, 403, 415: it is spelt with z, tz (in Ágrip even þt), or zt, in mod. spelling often s, as in mod. Engl., and pronounced at present as an s, [Goth. batizo, superl. batisto; A. S. batra and betsta, besta; Engl. better and best; Germ. besser and beste]:—better, best; meira ok betra, Nj. 45, 193; betri, Dipl. v. 18; beztr kostr, Nj. 1, Eg. 25; beztr bóndi, Ld. 22. β. kind, friendly towards one; with dat., er honum hafði baztr verit, 625. 42; er mér hefir beztr verit, Fms. vii. 274: er þér fyrir því bezt …, it is best for thee, thou doest best to accept it, Nj. 225; því at þinn hlutr má eigi verða betri en góðr, 256; betra byr ok blíðara, 625. 4: with gen., meðan bezt er sumars, during the best part of the summer, Sks. 29, etc. etc., v. góðr.

beygja, ð, [baugr], to bend, bow, Fms. ii. 108, iii. 210, x. 174: metaph., b. e-m krók, to make it crooked for one, the metaphor taken from a game or from wrestling, Ld. 40.

beygla, u, f. to dint, of plate, metal, etc., Sturl. ii. 221.

BEYKI, n. beech-wood; beykir, m. a cooper, v. buðkr.

beyla, u, f. a hump, Lat. gibbus, swelling, Björn, cp. Snót 98.

beyrsta and beysta, t, [old Dan. börste; Swed. bösta], to bruise, beat; b. korn, to thresh, Fms. xi. 272; the alliterated phrases, berja ok b., to flog, Hom. 119; b. ok bíta, Grág. ii. 118; b. bakföllum, to pull hard, beat the waves with the oars, Am. 35.

beysti, n. [Swed. böste], a ham, gammon of bacon, Þiðr. 222.

beytill, m., v. góibeytill, equisetum hiemale, a cognom., Landn.

beytill, m. a bite, morsel, = bitlingr, Völsa þ.

beztr, baztr, bezt, bazt, v. betri and betr.

BIBLIA, and old form BIBLA, u, f. the Bible, Ann. (Hb.) 10.

BIÐ, n. pl. [A. S. bid], a biding, waiting, delay; skömm bið, Al. 118: patience, mikit megu biðin (a proverb), 119, 623. 60; vera góðr í biðum, to be patient and forbearing, Bs. i. 141; liggja á bið (biðum?), to bide the events, Fms. x. 407: in mod. usage fem. sing., lífið manns hart fram hleypr, hefir það enga bið, Hallgr.

biða, að, to bide a bit, Stj. 298, Bs. ii. 123: with gen. (= bíða), ok biðuðu þeirra, Fagrsk. 138, Nj. (Lat.) 110 note k, 135 note o.

biða, u, f. a big chest; the phrase, þylja e-ð í belg eða biðu, Bs. ii. 425.

biðan, f. = bið, H. E. ii. 80.

bið-angr and biðvangr, m. a biding, delay, Fms. ix. 259, v. l.

biðill, m., dat. biðli, pl. biðlar, a wooer, suitor, Fms. ii. 8.

BIÐJA, bað, báðu, beðit; pres. bið; imperat. bið and biddu; poët. forms with suff. neg. 1st pers. pres. biðkat ek, Gísl. (in a verse): [Ulf. bidian = αιτειν, ερωταν; A. S. biddian; Old Engl. bid, bede (in bedes-man), and ‘to bid one’s beads;’ Germ. bitten, beten; cp. Lat. petere]:—to beg; with gen. of the thing, dat. of the person; or in old writers with infin. without the particle ‘at;’ or ‘at’ with a subj.: α. with infin., Jarl bað þá drepa hann, … bað hann gefa Hallfreði grið, Fms. iii. 25; hann bað alla bíða, Nj. 196; bað þá heila hittast, Eg. 22, Fms. vii. 351; Skapti bað Gizur (acc.) sitja, Nj. 226; Flosi bað alla menn koma, Nj. 196, Hdl. 2; inn bið þú hann ganga, Skm. 16, Ls. 16; b. e-n vera heilan, valere jubere, Gm. 3, Hkv. 1, 2: still so in the Ór. 65 (biðr ek Ólaf bjarga mér) of the end of the 14th century; mod. usage prefers to add the ‘at,’ yet Hallgrímr uses both, e. g. hann bað Pétr með hryggri lund, hjá sér vaka um eina stund, Pass. 4. 6; but, Guð bið eg nú að gefa mér náð, id. β. with ‘at’ and a subj., b. viljum vér þik, at þú sér, Nj. 226, Jb. 17: without ‘at,’ Pass. 6. 13, 3. 12. γ. with gen., b. matar, Grág. i. 261; er þér þess ekki biðjanda. Eg. 423; b. liðs, liðveizlu, föruneytis, brautargengis, Nj. 226, 223, Ísl. ii. 322; bænar, Fms. iv. 12; b. e-m lífs, griða, góðs, böls, to beg for the life … of one, Háv. 39, Fms. iii. 25, Edda 38, Hm. 127; b. fyrir e-m, to beg, pray for one, Nj. 55; b. e-n til e-s, to request one to do a thing, Grág. i. 450, Fms. v. 34: spec. to court (a lady), propose, with gen. as object of the thing and person here coincide, b. konu, b. sér konu, Eg. 5, Nj. 2, Rm. 37. 2. to pray (to God), absol., hann bað á þessa lund, Blas. 41; b. til Guðs, Sks. 308, Fms. iii. 48; b. bæn sinni (dat.), to pray one’s prayer, 655 xvi, Hom. 114; b. bæn sína, id., Blas. 50. β. reflex., biðjask fyrir, to say one’s prayers, Nj. 196; er svá baðst fyrir at krossi, Landn. 45, 623. 34, Orkn. 51; biðjast undan, to excuse oneself, beg pardon, Fms. vii. 351: the reflex. may resume the infin. sign ‘at,’ and even an active may do so, if used as a substitute for a reflex., e. g. biðr Þórólfr at fara norðr á Hálogaland, Th. asked for furlough to go to H., Eg. 35.

bið-leika, að, to wait, Mork. 48, Ósv. S. 32, and in mod. usage.

bið-lund (and biðlyndi, Hom. 26. transl. of Lat. longanimitas), f. forbearance, patience, Hom. 97, Stj. 52, Pass. 8. 13, 15, 15. 13. COMPDS: biðlundar-góðr, adj. forbearing, Fb. ii. 261. biðlundar-mál, n. a thing that can bide, as to which there is no hurry, Grett. 150.

bið-stund, f. (biðstóll, Bs. i. 292 is prob. a false reading), biding a bit, Bs. i. 292, 704, Fms. viii. 151, Thom. 104.

bifa, u, f. a sound, a voice, Edda (Gl.)

BIFAST, ð, mod. að, dep. [Gr. φεβ-, φόβος, cp. Lat. paveo, febris; A. S. beofan; Germ. beben], to shake, to tremble: 1. in old writers only dep., bifðisk, Þkv. 13, Hkv. 23, Þd. 17; bifaðist, Gísl. 60, Grett. 114: to fear, en þó bifast aldri hjartað, Al. 80. 2. in mod. usage also act. to move, of something very heavy, with dat., e. g. eg gat ekki bifað því, I could not move it.

bifr, m., in the compd úbifr, m. dislike, in the phrase, e-m er ú. að e-u, one feels a dislike to. COMPD: bifr-staup, n. a cup, Eb. (in a verse).

bifra, u, f. [A. S. beber, befer], a beaver (?), a cognom., Fms.

bif-röst, f., the poët. mythical name of the rainbow, Edda 8, (via tremula); but Gm. 44 and Fm. 15 read bilröst.

bifu-kolla (byðuk-, Safn i. 95), u, f. leontodon taraxacum, Hjalt. 254.

BIK, n. [Lat. pix; Gr. πίσσα; A. S. pic; Engl. pitch; Germ. pech; a for. word], pitch, Stj. 46; svartr sem b., Nj. 195, Orkn. 350, Rb. 352. COMPD: bik-svartr, adj. black as pitch.

bika, að, to pitch, Stj. 58, Ver. 8.

BIKARR, m. [Hel. bicere; Engl. beaker; Scot. bicker; Germ. becher; Dan. bæger, cp. Gr. βίκος; Ital. bicchiere], a beaker, large drinking cup, Dipl. v. 18: botan. perianthium, Hjalt.

BIKKJA, u, f. a bitch; þann graut gaf hann blauðum hundum ok mælti, þat er makligt at bikkjur eti Þór, Fms. ii. 163: as an abusive term, Fs. 54, Fas. i. 39; so in mod. Icel. a bad horse is called. COMPDS: bikkju-hvelpr, m. a bitch’s whelp, Fms. ix. 513. bikkju-sonr, m. son of a b., Fas. iii. 607. bikkju-stakkr, m. the skin of a b., Fas. iii. 417: all of these used as terms of abuse.

bikkja, ð, t, [bikka, to roll, Ivar Aasen], to plunge into water; hann bikði í sjóinn, he plunged overboard, Fms. x. 329; bikti sér út af borðinu, ii. 183; cp. Lapp. puokljet = to plunge.

BIL, n., temp. a moment, twinkling of an eye; í því bili, Nj. 115; þat bil, that very moment, Stj. 149, 157, Fms. i. 45. β. loc., Lat. intervallum, an open space left; b. er þarna, Fas. ii. 67; orðin standa eiga þétt (namely in writing), en þó bil á milli, an Icel. rhyme. γ. the poetical compds such as biltrauðr, bilstyggr, bilgrönduðr …, (all of them epithets of a hero, fearless, dauntless,) point to an obsolete sense of the word, failure, fear, giving way, or the like; cp. bilbugr, bilgjarn, and the verb bila; cp. also tímabil, a period; millibil, distance; dagmálabil, hádegisbil, nónbil, etc., nine o’clock, full day-time, noon-time, etc. II. fem. pr. name of a goddess, Lex. Poët.

bila, að, pres. bil (instead of bilar), Fas. ii. 76 (in a verse), to fail; Þórr vill fyrir engan mun bila at koma til einvígis, Th. will not fail to meet, Edda 57; Þorsteinn kvað pat eigi mundu at bila, Th. said that it should not fail, he should not fail in doing so, Lv. 33: with dat., flestum bilar áræðit, a proverb, Fms. ii. 31 (Ld. 170), Rd. 260. 2. impers., e-n bilar (acc.), Finnb. 338 (in mod. usage impers. throughout), to break, crack, þá er skipit hljóp af stokkunum, þá bilaði í skarir nokkurar, Fms. viii. 196; reiði b., Grág. ii. 295; b. at e-u, id., Gþl. 369; bil sterka arma, my strong arms fail, Fas. ii. l. c.

bil-bugr (bilsbugr, Fas. iii. 150), m. failing of heart; in the phrase, láta engan bilbug á sér sjá (finna), to stand firm, shew no sign of fear, Fms. viii. 412, Grett. 124, Fas. iii. 150, Karl. 233; fá b. á e-m, to throw one back, Karl. 80.

bil-eygr, adj. a nickname of Odin, of unsteady eyes, Edda (Gl.)

bil-gjarn, adj., occurs only in the compd úbilgjarn, overbearing.

bil-röst, f. via tremula, the rainbow, v. bifröst.

bil-skirnir, m. the heavenly abode of Thor, from the flashing of light, Edda.

bilt, prob. an old n. part. from bila; only used in the phrase, e-m verðr bilt, to be amazed, astonished; en þá er sagt, at Þór (dat.) varð bilt einu sinni at slá hann, the first time that Thor’s heart failed him, Edda 29; varð þeim bilt, Korm. 40, Nj. 169.

bimbult (now proncd. bumbult), n. adj., only in the phrase, e-m verðr b., to feel uneasy, Gísl. 33, of a witch (freq., but regarded as a slang word), mér er hálf bumbult …

BINDA, batt, 2nd pers. bazt, pl. bundu, bundit; pres. bind; 3rd pers. reflex. bizt; imperat. bind, bind þú; 2nd pers. bittú, bitt þú, Fm. 40; battú, Bret. 32; bitzt, Post. 154: [Goth., A. S., Hel. bindan; Engl. bind; Germ. binden; Swed. binda, 2nd pers. bandt; in Icel. by assimilation batt; bant, however, Hb. 20, 32 (1865)]:—to bind: I. prop. to bind in fetters, (cp. bönd, vincula; bandingi, prisoner), Hom. 119, Fms. xi. 146, Gþl. 179: 1. to tie, fasten, tie up, b. hest, Nj. 83; naut, Ld. 98, Bs. i. 171; b. hund, Grág. ii. 119; b. við e-t, to fasten to; b. stein við háls e-m, 655 xxviii; b. blæju við stöng, Fms. ix. 358; b. skó, þvengi, to tie the shoes, Nj. 143, Þorst. St. 53, Orkn. 430: to bind in parcels, to pack up, b. varning, Fms. iii. 91, ix. 241 (a pun); b. hey, to truss hay for carting, Nj. 74; klyf, Grett. 123; b. at, til, to bind round a sack, parcel, Fms. i. 10; to bind a book, (band, bindi, volume, are mod. phrases), Dipl. i. 5, 9, ii. 13. β. medic. to bind wounds, to bind up, b. sár, Eg. 33, Bs. i. 639, Fms. i. 46 (cp. Germ. verbinden); b. um, of fomentation, Str. 4. 72: metaph. phrase, eiga um sárt at b., to have a sore wound to bind up, one feeling sore; hefir margr hlotið um sárt at b. fyrir mér, i. e. I have inflicted deep wounds on many, Nj. 54: the proverb, bezt er um heilt at b., or eiga um heilt at b., to bind a sound limb, i. e. to be safe and sound; þykir mér bezt um heilt at b., I think to keep my limbs unhurt, to run no risk, Fms. vii. 263. 2. with a notion of impediment; b. skjöld sinn, to entangle the shield: metaph., bundin (closed, shut) skjaldborg, Sks. 385. II. metaph. to bind, make obligatory; leysa ok b., of the pope, Fms. x. 11: to make, contract a league, friendship, affinity, wedding, fellowship, oath, or the like; b. ráð, to resolve, Ld. 4, Eg. 30; samfélag, lag, vináttu, eið, tengdir, hjúskap, Fms. i. 53, iv. 15, 20, 108, 210, ix. 52, Stj. 633, K. Á. 110: absol. with a following infin., binda (fix) þeir Þórir at hittast í ákveðnum stað, Ísl. ii. 147. III. reflex, to bind, engage oneself, enter a league; leikmenn höfðu saman bundizt at setjast á kirkjueignir, Bs. i. 733; bindask (b. sik) í e-u, to engage in a thing; þótt hann væri bundinn í slíkum hlutum, 655; at b. sik í veraldligu starfi, id.; hann bazt í því, at sýslumenn yðrir skyldu eigi koma á mörkina, Eg. 71; em ek þó eigi þessa búinn, nema fleiri bindist, unless more people bind themselves, enter the league, Fær. 25, Valla L. 216; bindast í banns atkvæði, H. E. i. 465; binda sik undir e-t, with a following infin. to bind oneself to do, Vm. 25; b. sik við e-t, id., N. G. L. i. 89; bindask e-m á hendi, to bind oneself to serve another, esp. of the service of great personages; b. á hendi konungum, Fms. xi. 203, x. 215, Bs. i. 681, Orkn. 422; bindast fyrir e-u, to place oneself at the head of an undertaking, to head, Hkr. iii. 40; Öngull vildi b. fyrir um atför við Gretti, Grett. 147 A. 2. with gen., bindask e-s, to refrain from a thing; eigi bazt harm ferligra orða, i. e. he did not refrain from bad language, 655. 12; b. tára (only negative), to refrain from bursting into tears, Fms. ii. 32; hlátrs, Sks. 118; b. við e-t, id., El. 21; b. af e-u, Stj. 56.

bindandi and bindendi, f. (now neut., Thom. 68), abstinence, Stj. 147, 625. 186, Fms. i. 226, Hom. 17. COMPDS: bindendis-tími, a, m. a time of abstinence. bindandis-líf, n. a life of b., Stj. 147, 655 xiii. bindandis-maðr, m. an ascetic, Bs. ii. 146; mod. a teetotaler.

bindi, n. a sheaf, = bundin, N. G. L. i. 330; mod. a volume, (cp. Germ. band.)

BINGR, m. a bed, bolster, Korm. (in a verse), prop. a heap of corn or the like, (Scot. bing,) Nj. 153; vide Lex. Poët.

birgðir, f. pl. stores, provisions, Sturl. ii. 225, Fær. 53, Fas. ii. 423.

birgiligr, adj. well provided, Bs. i. 355.

BIRGJA, ð, to furnish, provide; skal ek víst b. hann at nökkuru, Nj. 73; segir Sigurðr, at hann mun b. þá með nökkuru móti, Fær. 237; hann birgði þá ok um búfé, Ld. 144; nú vil ek b. bú þitt at málnytu í sumar, Hrafn. 9. [In the Edd. sometimes wrongly spelt with y, as it is quite different from byrgja, to enclose.]

birgr, adj. [O. H. G. birig, fertilis; unbirig, sterilis: sometimes in Edd. wrongly spelt byrgr: this form however occurs Bs. i. 868, MS. the end of the 15th century]:—provided, well furnished; b. at kosti, Grett. 127 A, Sd. 170; viltú selja mér augun? Þá er ek verr b. eptir, Fas. iii. 384.

BIRKI, n. collect. = björk, birch, in COMPDS: birki-raptr, m. a rafter of birch-wood, Ísl. ii. 153. birki-viðr, m. birch-wood, Grág. ii. 355.

birkinn, adj. [Ivar Aasen birkjen], dry like bark; brenna sem birkinn við, Gkv. 2. 12.

birkja, t, to bark, strip; b. við, Jb. 235, Stj. 177; cp. Gkv. 2. 12, birkinn viðr (= birki viðr?), Fms. viii. 33; b. hest, to flay a horse.

birkja, u, f. [Ivar Aasen byrkja], the sap of a young birch, sap, got by boring a hole in the bark and sucking; þeir átu safa ok sugu birkju við, they chewed the sprouts and sucked birch sap with it, Fms. viii. 33.

BIRNA, u, f. a she-bear, Stj. 530, Fs. 26, Magn. 476: astron., Rb. 468; b. er vér köllum vagn, 1812. 16. birnu-gætir, m. the name of one of the constellations, 1812. 18.

BIRTA, t, [Ulf. bairhtian], to illuminate, brighten, Stj. 15; b. sýn, 655 xxx; b. blinda, id. 2. impers., þokunni birtir af, the fog lifted, Hrafn. 6: to brighten with gilding or colouring, a ship, þá var birt allt hlýrit, cp. hlýrbjartr and hlýrbirt skip, Fms. iv. 277. 3. metaph. to enlighten; birta hjörtu vár, Hom. 67, Rb. 390: to make illustrious, Skálda 204. β. to reveal, manifest, Fms. iv. 132, viii. 101: with dat., birti hann ́st sinni, x. 418. γ. reflex, to appear; birtist þá skaði þeirra, Fms. vii. 189, v. 344, Stj. 198, Ann. 1243; b. e-m, Fms. i. 142.

birti, f. and mod. birta, u, f. [Goth. bairhti], brightness, light, the old form birti is used Luke ii. 9, in the N. T. of 1540, and the Bible of 1584, and still kept in the 11th Ed. of Vidal. (1829); otherwise birta, Pass. 8. 19, 41. 10; birta also occurs Stj. 81, Fb. i. 122; but otherwise birti in old writers; birti ok fegrð, Fms. v. 344, x. 347; birti ægis, the gold, Edda 69; tunglsins birti, Stj. 26, Fms. i. 77.

birting, f. brightness, Sks. 26, 656 A: metaph. manifestation, revelation, Th. 76, Stj. 378, Barl. 199: vision, 655 xxxii. 2. day-break. COMPD: birtingar-tíð, f. time of revelation, Hom. 63.

birtingr, m. a fish, trutta albicolor, Edda (Gl.): a nickname, Fms. vii. 157: pl. illustrious men, Eg. (in a verse).

BISKUP, m., in very old MSS. spelt with y and o (byskop), but commonly in the MSS. contracted ‘bp̅,’ so that the spelling is doubtful; but biscop (with i) occurs Bs. i. 356, byscop in the old fragm. i. 391–394; biskup is the common form in the Edd. and at present, vide Bs. i. ii, Sturl. S., Íb. [Gr. επίσκοπος; A. S. biscop; Engl. bishop; Germ. bischof]:—a bishop. Icel. had two sees, one at Skalholt, erected A. D. 1056; the other at Hólar, in the North, erected A. D. 1106. They were united at the end of the last century, and the see removed to Reykjavik. Biographies of ten of the bishops of the 11th to the 14th century are contained in the Bs., published 1858, and of the later bishops in the Biskupa Annálar (from A. D. 1606), published in Safn til Sögu Íslands, vol. i. and Bs. ii, and cp. farther the Biskupaæfi, by the Icel. historian Jón Halldórsson (died A. D. 1736), and the Hist. Eccl. (H. E.). by Finn Jonsson (Finnus Johannæus, son of the above-mentioned Jón Halldórsson). During two hundred years of the commonwealth till the middle of the 13th century, the bishops of Skalholt and Hólar were elected by the people or by the magnates, usually (at least the bishops of Skalholt) in parliament and in the lögrétta (the legislative council), vide the Hungrv. ch. 2 (valinn til b. af allri alþýðu á Íslandi), ch. 5, 7, 13, 16, Sturl. 2, ch. 26, Kristni S. ch. 12, Íb. ch. 10, Þorl. S. ch. 9, Páls. S. ch. 2, Guðm. S. ch. 40, Jóns S. ch. 7 (þá kaus Gizurr biskup Jón prest Ögmundarson með samþykki allra lærðra manna ok úlærðra í Norðlendinga fjórðungi). Magnús Gizurarson (died A. D. 1237) was the last popularly elected bishop of Skalholt; bishop Gudmund (died A. D. 1237) the last of Hólar; after that time bishops were imposed by the king of Norway or the archbishop. COMPDS: biskupa-búningr, m. episcopal apparel, Sturl. i. 221. biskupa-fundr, m. a synod of bishops, Fms. x. 7. biskupa-þáttr, m. the section in the Icel. Jus Eccl. referring to the bishops, K. Þ. K. 60. biskupa-þing, n. a council of bishops, Bs. i. 713, H. E. i. 456. biskups-brunnr, m. a well consecrated by bishop Gudmund, else called Gvendarbrunnar, Bs. biskups-búr, n. a ‘bishop’s-bower,’ chamber for a bishop, Sturl. ii. 66. biskups-dómr, m. a diocese, Fms. vii. 173, xi. 229, Íb. 16, Pr. 107: episcopate, Fms. i. 118. biskups-dóttir, f. a bishop’s daughter, Sturl. i. 207. biskups-dæmi, n. an episcopal see, Sturl. i. 204, iii. 124: the episcopal office, 23, Bs. i. 66, etc. biskups-efni, n. bishop-elect, Bs. i, cp. ii. 339. biskups-frændi, m. a relative of a bishop, Sturl. ii. 222. biskups-garðr, m. a bishop’s manor, Fms. ix. 47. biskups-gisting, f. the duty of entertaining the bishop on his visitation, Vm. 23. biskups-kjör, n. pl. the election of a bishop, Bs. i. 476. biskups-kosning, f. id., Sturl. i. 33, Fms. viii. 118, v. l. biskups-lauss, adj. without a bishop, Fb. iii. 445, Ann. 1210. biskups-maðr, m. one in the service of a bishop, Fms. ix. 317. biskups-mark, n. the sign of a bishop; þá gerði Sabinus b. yfir dúkinum ok drakk svá öröggr (a false reading = kross-mark?), Greg. 50. biskups-mágr, m. a brother-in-law of a bishop, Fms. ix. 312, v. l. biskups-messa, u, f. a mass celebrated by a bishop, Bs. i. 131. biskups-mítr, n. a bishop’s mitre, Sturl. ii. 32. biskups-nafn, n. the title of a bishop, Fms. x. 11. biskups-ríki, n. a bishopric, diocese, Ann. (Hb.) 19, Fms. xi. 229, Sturl. ii. 15. biskups-sekt, f. a fine to be paid by a bishop, N. G. L. i. 350. biskups-skattr, m. a duty to be paid to the bishop in Norway, D. N. (Fr.) biskups-skip, a bishop’s ship: the bishops had a special licence for trading; about this matter, vide the Arna b. S. Laur. S. in Bs. and some of the deeds in D. I.; the two sees in Icel. had each of them a ship engaged in trade, Fms. ix. 309, v. l.; vide a treatise by Maurer written in Icel., Ný Fél. xxii. 105 sqq. biskups-skrúði, a, m. an episcopal ornament, Fms. ix. 38. biskups-sonr, m. the son of a bishop, Sturl. i. 123, Fms. x. 17. biskups-stafr, m. a bishop’s staff, Bs. i. 143. biskups-stofa, u, f. a bishop’s study, Dipl. ii. 11. biskups-stóll, m. an episcopal seat, bishopric, Jb. 16, K. Á. 96, Fms. x. 409. biskups-sýsla, u, f. a diocese, episcopate, Fms. vii. 172. biskups-tign, f. episcopal dignity, Bs. i. 62, 655 iii, Sks. 802, Sturl. i. 45. biskups-tíund, f. the tithe to be paid to the bishop in Iceland, v. the statute of A. D. 1096, D. I. i, Íb., K. Þ. K. 150 (ch. 39), K. Á. 96. biskupstíundar-mál, n. a lawsuit relating to the bishop, H. E. ii. 185. biskups-vatn, n. water consecrated by bishop Gudmund, Bs. i. 535. biskups-veldi, n. episcopal power, Pr. 106. biskups-vígsla, u, f. the consecration of a bishop, Fms. viii. 297, Bs. i. 61.

biskupa, að, to confirm, Hom. 99; biskup er skyldr at b. börn, K. Þ. K. 62; Guðmundr biskup biskupaði hann tvævetran, Sturl. iii. 122; tók Glúmr skírn ok var biskupaðr í banasótt af Kol biskupi, Glúm. 397: now in Icel. called að ferma or staðfesta or even kristna börn.

biskupan, f. confirmation; ferming er sumir kalla b., K. Á. 20, ch. 3.

biskupligr, adj. episcopal; b. embætti, Stj. 556, Sks. 781, 655 xxxii. (not fit for a bishop.)

BISMARI, a, m. [for. word; Germ. besem, besen; Dan. bismer; v. Grimm s. v.], a steelyard, Gþl. 526, Dipl. iii. 4. COMPD: bismara-pund, n. a sort of pound, N. G. L. iii. 166.

bissa, u, f., Lat. byssus, a stuff, Bær. 21.

bistr, adj. [Swed. bister], angry, knitting one’s brows, Sturl. iv. 82, v. l., cp. Bs. i. 750, Pass. 21. 1.

BIT, n. bite, Lat. morsus; at tönnunum er bitsins ván, Skálda 163: of cutting instruments, sax vænligt til bits, Fs. 6: of insects, mýbit, bite of gnats, Rd. 295; bit flugdýra, 655 xxx; dýrbit, a fox killing lambs, Bs. ii. 137. β. pasture = beit, N. G. L. i. 246.

bita, að, to divide (a ship) with cross-beams (biti); skip þrennum bitum út bitað, Sturl. iii. 61. β. to cut food, meat into bits.

bit-bein, n., cp. Engl. bone of contention; hafa ríki þessi lengi at öfund orðit ok bitbeinum, Fær. 230.

biti, a, m. 1. a bit, mouthful (cp. munnbiti); konungr át nökkura bita af hrosslifr, Fms. i. 37, Játv. 26, Rd. 283: in the phrase, biðja bitum, to go begging, Grág. i. 278. 2. an eye-tooth = jaxl, q. v., [Swed. betar]; eru vér ok svá gamlir, ok svá bitar upp komnir, i. e. we are no longer babies, have got our eye-teeth, Fms. viii. 325. 3. a crossbeam, girder in a house, Ld. 316, Gþl. 346: in a ship, Lat. transtrum, Fms. ix. 44, Sturl. iii. 61.

bitill and bitull, m., dat. bitli, the bit of a bridle, Stj. 84, 397, Hkr. i. 27, Hkv. 2. 34, Akv. 30, Fms. iv. 75, Hkr. ii. 31.

bitlingr, m. a bit, morsel; the proverb, víða koma Hallgerði bitlingar, cp. Nj. ch. 48; stela bitlingum, to steal trifles, Sturl. i. 61, v. l.; bera bitlinga frá borði, as a beggar, Fas. ii. (in a verse); ganga at bitlingum, to go a-begging, N. G. L. ii. 244.

bitr, rs, adj. biting, sharp, Korm. 80, Eg. 465, Fms. ii. 255.

bitra, u, f. bitterness, a cognom., Landn.

bitrligr, adj. sharp, Korm. 80, Fbr. 58: metaph., Ísl. ii. (in a verse).

bit-sótt, f. contagious disease, poët., Ýt. 17.

bitull, m. a bit, of a bridle, Lex. Poët.

bit-yrði and bitryrði, n. pl. taunts, N. G. L. i. 223.

bivivill, m. a stone, Edda ii. 494.

bí, bí, and bíum, bíum, interj. lullaby!

BÍÐA, beið, biðu, beðit; pres. bíð; imperat. bíð, 2nd pers. bíðþú, bíddu, [Ulf. beidan; A. S. bidan; Engl. bide; O. H. G. bitan]:—to bide. I. to bide, wait for: with gen., b. e-s, to wait for one, Eg. 274; skal slíkra manna at vísu vel b., such men are worth waiting for, i. e. they are not to be had at once, Fms. ii. 34; the phrase, bíða sinnar stundar, to bide one’s time: with héðan, þaðan, to wait, stand waiting, bíð þú héðan, unz ek kem, 656 C. 35; þaðan beið þengill, Hkv. 1. 22: also, b. e-s ór stað, Lex. Poët. The old writers constantly use a notion ‘a loco,’ þaðan, héðan, or stað, where the mod. usage is hér, þar, ‘in loco:’ absol., Fms. x. 37, Nj. 3. II. to abide, suffer, undergo, Lat. pati; with acc., b. harm, Nj. 250; skaða, Grág. i. 459, 656 C; ámæli, to be blamed, Nj. 133; bana, dauða, hel, to abide death …, to die, Hm. 19, Fms. vi. 114; ósigr, to abide defeat, be defeated; svá skal böl bæta at bíða annat meira (a proverb), Fb. ii. 336, Al. 57: sometimes in a good sense, bíða elli, to last to a great age, 656 A; b. enga ró, to feel no peace, be uneasy, Eg. 403; b. ekki (seint) bætr e-s, of an irreparable loss, Ísl. ii. 172. III. impers., e-t (acc.) bíðr, there abides, i. e. exists, is to be had, with a preceding negative; hvárki bíðr þar báru né vindsblæ, there is felt neither wave nor blast, Stj. 78; beið engan þann er ráða kynni, there was none that could make it out, 22; varla beið brauð eðr fæðu, was not to be had, 212; slægastr af öllum þeím kvikendum er til bíðr á jarðríki, 34. Gen. iii. 1. IV. part. pl. bíðendr, v. andróði.

bíðandi, f. a biding, waiting, delay, Fms. ii. 216.

bí-fala, að, [Germ. befehlen], to recommend, command, Bs. i. 145 note 7, from paper MS., v. Introd. p. 48.

bíldr, m., and bílda, u, f. an axe, Edda (Gl.); an instrument for bleeding: bíld-spor, n. a scar as from a b., Bs. i. 367. 2. a sheep witb spotted cheeks: bíld-óttr, adj. (sheep) spotted on the cheeks, Rd. 240.

bíld-ör, f. a blunt arrow, a bolt, Fms. ii. 320, x. 362.

bí-lífl, n. [A. S. biliofa], luxury, Al. 17, 34, 45.

bí-standa, stóð, [Goth. bistandan; Germ. beistehen], (for. word), to assist, Stj. MS. 227, col. 102.

bísundr, m. (for. word), a besant (Byzantius), a coin, El. 2.

BÍTA, beit, bitu, bitið; pres. bít; imperat. bít, 2nd pers. bittú; poët. forms with the negative, beitat, Eg. (in a verse); subj. bítia, Hkv. 2. 31, [Ulf. beitan; Engl. bite; Germ. beizen]:—to bite, Lat. mordere: I. properly, 1. with the teeth, Eg. 508, N. G. L. i. 351; b. menn (of a dog), Grág. ii. 119; b. skarð ór, Eg. 605: of a horse, N. G. L. i. 392: foxes killing sheep, Bs. ii. 138, N. G. L. ii. 34 (wolf):—to sting, of wasps, gnats, Landn. 146. 2. of grazing animals; b. gras, lauf, skóg, Grág. ii. 229, (hence beit, pasture); hvar hestar þínir bitu gras, Fs. 57: absol. to graze, Karl. 71. 3. of sharp instruments, weapons (vápnbitinn); engir vóru ósárir nema þeir er eigi bitu járn, except those whom iron could not bite, Eg. 33; sverðit beit ekki, did not cut, Nj. 45, Edda 7; ljárnir bíta, 48; fótrinn brotnaði en eigi beit, the sword did not cut but broke the leg, Bjarn. 66. β. e-m bítr, one’s weapon (scythe) cuts well, bites; allt bitu honum annan veg vápnin, Eg. 93. 4. of a ship, to cruise; hér er skip … er vér köllum bíta (bite the wind) allra skipa bezt, the best sailer, Fs. 27: impers., beit þeim eigi fyrir Reykjanes, they could not clear cape R., Landn. 30. 5. in fishing, to bite, take the bait; bítr vel á um daginn, the fishes did bite, Ld. 40; bíta mætti beitfiskr, q. v. 6. bíta á vörrinni, to bite the lip as a token of pain or emotion, Nj. 68; hann hafði bitið á kampinum, had bitten the beard, 209. II. metaph.: α. of frost, cold, sickness, and the like. β. to bite, sting, hurt; hvat mun oss heldr b. orð hans, why should his speech sting us any more? Grett. 95 A; eigi veit ek prestr, nema orðin þín hafi bitið, thy words have bit, Fms. vii. 39. γ. as a law term; sekt, sök bítr, the guilt strikes the convict, when brought home to him, hence sakbitinn, guilty; pá menn er hvártveggja hafa bitið, lög, réttindi ok svá dómar, convicted in the face of law and justice, Sks. 655 B; um þau mál sem sekt bítr, i. e. unlawful cases, liable to punishment, K. Á. 148; um þat er sekt bítr, Grett. 133 A (new Ed. 1853), Sks. 655. δ. b. á e-n, to cut deep, affect, make an impression upon; the phrase, láta ekki á sig b., to stand proof against all; þetta lét Kjartan á sik b., K. felt pain from it, Ld. 204; láttu þetta ekki á þik b., do not mind it, id.; rennr þat öðrum opt mjök í brjóst, er á suma bítr ekki (of the conscience), 655 xi. ε. e-t bítr fyrir, something ‘bites off,’ i. e. is decisive, makes a thing impossible or out of question; þat annat (the other reason) er þó bítr skjótara, which is still more decided against it, Fms. ii. 266; þeir kváðust þenna kost eigi vilja, ok kváðu þat tvennt til vera er fyrir beit, two decided obstacles, reasons against it, Sturl. iii. 47; þú ert miklu œri maðr at aldri, en svá at vér hafim her lögtekna í Jómsborg, ok bítr þat fyrir, that puts it out of question, makes it impossible, Fms. x. 93; Þorgilsi þykir nú þetta ráð mega fyrir bíta, Th. thought this would be quite sufficient,—fyrir hlíta would here be better,—Ld. 264; þeir höfðu jafnan minna hlut ór málum, þó þetta bití nú fyrir, they always got the worst of it, though this was a thorough beating, Fas. i. 144; (þat er) lögmanni ok lögréttumönnum þykir fyrir b., seems a decisive proof, cuts the case off at once, N. G. L. ii. 21; b. e-m at fullu, to prove fatal to, tell fully upon; hafa mik nú at fullu bitið hans ráð, Fs. 8; Njáls bíta ráðin, a proverb quoted by Arngrim in Brevis Comment., written A. D. 1593, denoting the sagacity of Njal’s schemes; beit þetta ráð, it was effective, Fs. 153; e-m bítr við at horfa, Band. 7 C, is no doubt a false reading, = býðr, which is the reading l. c. of the vellum MS. 2845, vide bjóða. III. recipr. of horse fight, Rd. 298.

bí-tala, be-tala, að, to pay, (mod.); cp. Germ. bezahlen.

bja, interj. fie! bía, to defile.

bjagaðr, part. wry, deformed, cp. bagr. bjag-leitr, adj. ugly, deformed, Fas. ii. 149.

bjalla, u, f. a bell, certainly an Engl. word imported into Icel. along with Christianity; bjöllu gætir, the keeper of the bell, is a nickname given by the heathen Icel. to a missionary, A. D. 998, Kristni S. (in a verse): hann vígði klukkur ok bjöllur, Bs. i. 65, Fms. i. 233: bjalla is now esp. used of small bells, e. g. on the horns of sheep, but klukka of a church bell; cp. dynbjalla, Grett.

bjannak, n. an απ. λεγ.; þat var háttr hans ef hann (viz. Odin) sendi menn sína til orrostu eðr aðrar sendifarar, at hann lagði áðr hendr í höfuð þeim ok gaf þeim bjannak, trúðu þeir at þá mundi vel farast, Ýngl. S. ch. 11; it is commonly interpreted as benedictio, but it is no doubt the Scot. bannock, from Gael, banagh, an oat-cake; cp. Lat. panis. The whole passage in the Hkr. points to Christian rites and ideas brought into the pagan North, but which are here attributed to Odin, (cp. the breaking of bread and the Eucharist.)

BJARG, n. [Ulf. bairgahei = η ορεινή; A. S. beorg; Germ. berg; lost in Engl.], rocks, precipices: 1. neut. pl. björg, precipices (in a collect. sense), esp. on the sea-side, cp. flugabjörg, sjófarbjörg, hamrabjörg; precipices covered with gulls and sea fowls are called bjarg, e. g. Látrabjarg, Þórisbjörg, mostly in pl., Bs. ii. 111, Fms. 275, Orkn. 312. 2. sing. rock; bjargit hafði nýliga sprungit frá einum hellismunna, Fms. i. 230; vatn ór bjargi, water out of a rock, 655 xii, Nj. 264, Fas. ii. 29. β. in sing. it chiefly means an immense stone (cp. heljarbjarg), a boulder; hann hefir fært þat bjarg í hellisdyrnar, at ekki má í hellinn komast, Fms. iii. 223; einn stein svá mikinn sem bjarg væri, Gísl. 31; hve stór björg (pl.) at sá hestr dró, Edda 26; at svá ungr maðr skyldi hefja svá stórt bjarg, Grett. 93.

BJARGA, barg, burgu, borgit; pres. bergr, pl. björgum; imperat. bjarg; pret. subj. byrga: in mod. use after the Reformation this verb is constantly used weak, bjarga, að, pres. bjargar, pret. bjargat; the only remnant of the old is the sup. borgit, etc. In Norway this weak form occurs very early, e. g. bjargar, servat, Hom. 17; in Icel. the weak seldom occurs before the 15th century; bjargaðist, Fs. 143, and bjargat (sup.) = borgit, Lv. 11, are probably due to these passages being left in paper MSS.; the weak bjargaði, however, occurs in a vellum MS. of the 15th century, Þorf. Karl. 388; 1st pers. pres. bjarga, Fms. xi. 150 (MS. 13th century) seems to be a Norse idiom, [Goth. bairgan; Hel. bergan; A. S. beargan; cp. birgr]:—to save, help; with dat., bergr hverjum sem eigi er feigr (a proverb), Sturl. iii. 220; sá er öldum bergr, who saves mankind, viz. against the giants, i. e. Thor, Hým. 22; nema Þorgeirr byrgi honum, Rd. 295: absol., Guð barg (by God’s grace) er konungrinn varð eigi sárr, Fms. v. 268: in theol. sense, vildu þeir eigi snúast til mín at ek byrga þeim, 656 C. 23, Hom. l. c.: impers., e-m er borgit, is saved, comes safe and sound out of danger, Fær. 178, Hkv. Hjörv. 29. 2. a law term; b. sök, máli, to find a point of defence; hann bergr þeim kosti sökinni, at …, Grág. i. 40; bergsk hann við bjargkviðinn, he is free by virtue of the verdict, 36; borgit mun nú verða at lögum, i. e. there will be some means of putting it right, Lv. 11, Nj. 36. 3. special phrases; b. skipshöfn, to pick up the shipwrecked, Þorf. Karl. l. c., Fms. xi. 412; skipi, to haul a ship out of the reach of tides and waves, Grág. ii. 385; hval, to drag a dead whale ashore, Gþl. 461: to help labouring women (v. bjargrúnar), Sdm. 9; b. nám (v. nábjargir), to render the last service to a dead body, 33; b. kúm, to attend cows casting calf, Bjarn. 32; b. búfé, to milk ewes, N. G. L. i. 10; b. brókum, cacare, Fms. xi. 150. II. recipr. of mutual help; bjargast at allir saman, to be saved all in common, Hkr. ii. 347. III. reflex., bjargask vel, to behave well, keep the heart up, esp. in cold or hunger; Oddr bargst vel á fjallinu (in snow storm), Sturl. iii. 215, Orkn. 324, of one shipwrecked; b. úti, of cattle, to graze, N. G. L. i. 25; b. sjálfr, to gain one’s bread, Grág. i. 294; b. á sínar hendr (spýtur), to support oneself with one’s own hands, Fms. ii. 159: of food or drink, cp. bergja; Snorri goði fann, at nafni hans bargst lítt við ostinn, that he got on slowly eating the cheese, Eb. 244; hann spurði, hví hann byrgist svá lítt (v. l. mataðist svá seint), … why he ate so slowly, id.; verði þér nú at bjargast við slíkt sem til er, you must put up with what you can get, Germ. für lieb nehmen, Eg. 204; hon bað fyrir þær matar ok burgust þær við þat, Clem. 26; hon bjargaðist (= bargst) lítt við þá fæðu er til var, she could hardly eat the food they had (v. l. hjúkaðist), Fs. 174. Part. borginn, used as adj. and even in compar.; impers., erat héra (héri = hegri = duck) at borgnara þótt hæna beri skjöld, the drake is none the better off though a hen shield him, metaph. of a craven, Fs. 174, Fms. vii. 116: [Early Engl. to borrow = to save, ‘who borrowed Susanna out of wo,’ Sir Guy of Warwick.]

bjarg-aurar, m. pl. = bjargálnir, Mag. 160.

bjarg-álnir, f. pl. means enough for support, bjargálna-maðr, m. a well-to-do man.

bjarg-festr, f. a rope or cord used to save men, Vm. 44.

bjarg-hagr, adj. a dexterous carpenter or smith for household work, Glúm. 355; cp. Sturl. ii. 195.

bjarg-högg, n. = berghögg, hewing rocks to make a road, Bárð. 166.

bjarg-kviðr, m. a law term, a verdict of acquittal given by five neighbours for the defendant, proving an alibi or the like, and produced during the trial; the b. seems to be, in its strict sense, synonymous with heimiliskviðr or heimiskviðr, q. v., cp. Grág, i. 60, 61, where it is defined; fimm búar skulu skilja um bjargkviðu alla, heimilis-búar þess manns er sóttr er, nema …, vide also 48, 49, 53, 55, 56, etc.

bjarg-leysi, n. starvation, destitution, Grág. i. 238, Gþl. 272, Band. 43.

bjarg-ráð, n. pl. a law term, help or shelter given to an outlaw, in the phrase, úalandi, úráðandi öllum bjargráðum, Grág. ii. 162, etc., Nj. 40.

bjarg-rifa, u, f. a rift in a rock, Eg. 390, Stj. 450.

bjarg-rúnar, f. pl. runes for helping women in labour, Sdm. 9.

bjarg-rýgr, jar, f. pl. ir, a Norse law term, a female witness in a case of paternity, defined, N. G. L. i. 358.

bjarg-ræði, n. and bjargræðisvegir, m. pl. means for support.

bjarg-skora, u, f. a scaur or scar on a hill, Anal. 177, Ann. 1403, Hkr. iii. 323.

bjargs-maðr, m. a hard-working man, Bs. i. 309.

bjarg-snös, f. = bergsnös, a crag. Fas. i. 324, Eg. 389, v. l.

bjarg-vel, adv. well enough, Fms. viii. 68, 126, v. l.

bjarg-vættr, f. (in mod. usage m.), [bjarg, mons, or bjarga, servare], a helping friendly sprite, a good genius, answering to the Christian good angel; according to the heathen belief, the country, esp. hills and mountains, were inhabited by such beings; in the northern creed the bjargvætter are generally a kind of giant of the gentler kind: in mod. usage, a supporter, helper in need; muntu verða mér hinn mesti (masc.) b., Fas. ii. 438, vellum MS. of 15th century; en mesta (fem.) b., Bárð. 168, new Ed. 12.

bjarg-þrota, adj. destitute of means to live.

BJARKAN, n. the Runic letter B, Skálda, v. Introduction.

BJARKEY-, in the word bjarkeyjar-réttr, m. town-law, used as opposed to landslög or landsréttr, county-law, Sks. 22; sökin veit til landslaga en eigi til bjarkeyjarréttar, Fms. vii. 130; vide N. G. L. i. 303–336. It is an illustration of this curious word, that the Danes at present call a justice ‘birkedommer,’ and the district ‘birk;’ cp. local names, as in Sweden,—in Birchâ civitate regiâ, Johann. Magnus 542 (Ed. 1554); civitas Birchensis, 556; in Birchâ civitate tum maxima, 541; in Norway, Bjarkey is one of the northern islands, whence the famous Norse family Bjarkeyingar took their name; v. Munch, the pref. to Norge’s Beskrivelse. Etym. uncertain; hedged in with birch (?).

BJARMI, a, m. the beaming or radiance of light, not the light itself; sólar-bjarmi, dags-bjarmi; very freq. in mod. usage; no instances from old writers are on record; akin to brími, bjartr, etc. II. pl. Bjarmar (and Bjarmaland n., bjarmskr adj.), name of a people or tribe of the Russian empire, the Perms of the present day; vide K. Alfred’s Orosius i. 1, 14 sq., Ó. H. ch. 122, Fas. ii. 511 sqq.

Bjarmskr, adj. Permic (a Tchudic people), Hkr. i. (in a verse).

bjarnar-, v. björn.

bjarn-báss, m. a pit for catching bears, Gþl. 457; used proverb., Hkr. i. 235.

bjarn-dýri, and mod. bjarndýr, n. a bear, Fms. vi. 298, Nj. 35, Fs. 27, 148, 182.

bjarn-eggjan, f. the egging a bear on to figbt, a Norse law term, of a brutal provocation, N. G. L. i. 74.

bjarn-feldr, m. a bear’s fell, bear-skin cloak, Vm. 91, Pm. 120, Jm. 28.

bjarn-fell, n. id., Vm. 22, Ám. 81.

bjarn-gjöld, n. pl. ‘bear-gild,’ reward for killing a bear, Fs. 150.

bjarn-húnn, m. a young bear, Þórð. 17 (Ed. 1860).

bjarn-ígull, m. echinus terrestris urseus, Rb. 348, Hb. 29 (Ed. 1865).

bjarn-ólpa, u, f. an outer jacket of bear-skin, Korm. 114.

bjarn-skinn, n. a bear-skin, B. K. 83, Ld. 114, Korm. 112.

bjarn-staka, u, f. a bear-skin, Edda (pref.) 151.

bjarn-sviða, u, f. a large knife for killing bears, Eb. 298, Fas. iii. 546.

bjarn-veiðar, f. pl. bear-hunting. N. G. L. i. 46.

bjarn-ylr, s, m. bear’s warmth, the vital warmth of an ice-bear; it was believed in Icel. (vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 610) that a child born on the hide of an ice-bear would be proof against frost and cold; people hardy against cold are therefore said ‘to have bear’s warmth’ (bjarnyl), vide Háv. 39.

bjart-eygr and -eygðr, adj. bright-eyed, Fms. iv. 38, Bs. i. 66, Hkr. iii. 184, Ó. H. 245.

bjart-haddaðr, adj. a fair-haired lady, Lex. Poët.

bjart-leikr, m. brightness, Hom. 60, Rb. 336, Fms. i. 228, Magn. 468.

bjart-leitr, adj. of bright countenance, bright-looking, Fms. v. 319.

bjart-liga, adv. (and -ligr, adj.), clearly, Stj. 26.

bjart-litaðr, adj. = bjartleitr, Hkv. Hjörv. 27.

BJARTR, adj. [Ulf. bairts = δηλος; A. S. beorht; Engl. bright; Hel. berht; in Icel. per metath. bjartr; cp. birti, etc.], bright; Lat. clarus is rendered by bjartr, Clar. 128; bjart ljós, Fms. i. 96; bjart tunglskin, Nj. 118; sólskin, Fms. ii. 300; veðr, i. 128: of hue, complexion, b. líkami, Hkr. iii. 179, Nj. 208; hönd, Bb. 3. 20. 2. metaph. illustrious; með b. sigri, Fms. x. 253; in a moral sense, Stj. 141.

bjart-viðri, n. bright weather, Bárð. 175.

BJÁLFI, bjálbi, a, m. a fur, skin, Fms. v. 207, 236; esp. in the cornpds hrein-bjálfi, geit-bjálbi, flug-bjiálbi, Haustl. 12. Etym. uncertain, perh. a Slav. word. 2. used as a pr. name, Landn.

BJÁLKI, a, m. [Hel. balco; Swed. and Dan. bjelke; Germ. balke; prob. akin to bálkr], a balk, beam, Gþl. i. 346.

bjástra, að, (bjástr, n.), to drudge, work hard, (mod.)

bjáta, ad, to beat, knock; only in the metaph. phrase, það bjátar á, to strike against, of reverses, misfortune, (mod.)

BJOÐA, bauð, buðu, boðit; pres. byð; pret. subj. byða; pret. sing. with the suffixed negative, bauðat, Edda 90 (in a verse); the obsolete middle form buðumk, mibi obtulit, nobis obtulerunt, occurs in Egil Höfuðl. 2; [Ulf. biudan; A. S. biodan; Engl. bid; Germ. bieten; Swed. biuda; Dan. byde]:—Lat. offerre, proferre, with dat. of the person, acc. of the thing: I. to bid, offer; þeir höfðu boðit honum laun, they had offered him rewards, Fms. i. 12; Þorsteinn bauð at gefa Gunnlaugi hestinn, Ísl. ii. 213; b. grið, to offer pardon, Fms. i. 181; þeir buðu at gefa upp borgina, ix. 41; bauð hann þeim, at göra alla bændr óðalborna, i. 20; býðr, at hann muni görast hans maðr, xi. 232; en ek býð þér þó, at synir mínir ríði með þér, Nj. 93; Írar buðu sik undir hans vald, Fms. x. 131. 2. reflex, to offer oneself, volunteer one’s service; buðusk honum þar menn til fylgðar, Fms. ix. 4; mun ek nú til þess bjóðask í sumar á þingi, Ld. 104, Sks. 510; þeim er þá býðsk, Grág. i. 284; Þóroddr bauðsk til þeirrar farar, Hkr. ii. 247; ef þú býðsk í því, Fms. xi. 121. 3. metaph., b. ófrið, ójöfnuð, rangindi, liðsmun, of ill usage, Ld. 148, Rb. 418; b. e-m rangt, to treat one unjustly, Hom. 155: with an adverb, b. e-m sæmiliga, to treat one in seemly sort, Ld. 66; b. á boð e-s, to outbid one, N. G. L. iii. no. 49. II. to bid, invite, cp. boð, a banquet; prob. ellipt., hospitality or the like being understood; Özurr bauð þeim inn í búðina at drekka, Nj. 4; heim vil ek b. þér í sumar, 93; honum var boðit til boðs, 50; hann bauð þá þegar þar at vera Gizuri Hallssyni, Bs. i. 128; gékk Bárðr móti honum ok fagnaði honum, ok bauð honum þar at vera, Eg. 23; b. mönnum til boðs, to bid guests to a banquet, wedding, or the like, Ld. 104. III. to bid, order, Lat. imperare, cp. boð, bidding; sem lög buðu, as the law prescribed, Fms. i. 81; svá bauð oss Guð, Post. 645. 88; b. af landi, to order one out of the land, make him an outlaw, Fms. vii. 20; b. af embætti, to depose, Sturl. ii. 119; b. út, a Norse milit. term, to call out, levy, cp. útboð, a levy; b. út leiðangri, b. út liði, skipum, to levy troops, ships, Fms. i. 12, 61, vi. 219, 251, 400, x. 118, Eg. 31, cp. N. G. L. i. ii; b. e-m crendi, to commit a thing to one’s charge, Fms. vii. 103; b. varnað á e-u, or b. til varnanar, to forbid, xi. 94, Edda 59: with prepp., b. e-m um (cp. umboð, charge), to delegate to one, commit to one’s charge; þeim manni er biskup hefir um boðit, at nefna vátta, K. Þ. K. 64; þess manns er biskup bauð um at taka við fé því, K. Á. 96, Sks. 460 B; hann keypti til handa Þorkatli þá hluti er hann hafði um boðit, the things that he had given charge about, Grett. 102 A; Hermundr bauð nú um Vermundi, at vera fyrir sína hönd, Rd. 251. 2. eccl. to proclaim, announce, esp. as rendering of mid. Lat. praedicare; b. sið, trú, Kristni, to proclaim, preach a new religion, Nj. 156, 158, Fms. i. 32; b. messudag, sunnudag, to proclaim a holy day, N. G. L. i. 348. IV. of a mental state, to bode, forebode; e-m býðr hugr (cp. hugboð, foreboding), one’s heart bodes, Fms. v. 38, 24, Eg. 21; mér býðr þat eitt í skap (my heart bodes), at þú verðir meira stýrandi en nú ertu, Bs. i. 468; mér byðr þat fyrir, which makes me forbode, Fms. ii. 193; e-m býðr hugr við (whence viðbjóðr, dislike), to abhor, dislike; er honum hafði lengi hugr við boðit, Bs. i. 128. 2. impers., mér býðr ávallt hita (acc.) er ek kem í þeirra flokk, a boding comes over me, i. e. I feel uneasy, whenever …, Fms. iii. 189; mér bauð ótta (acc.), I felt a thrilling, Bs. i. 410; b. úþekt, to loathe, Grett. 111 A; b. þekt, to feel pleasure; bauð þeim mikla þekt er þeir sá líkit, Bs. i. 208: the phrase, e-m býðr við at horfa, of a frame of mind, to be so and so minded; miklir eru þér frændr borði, ef yðr býðr svá við at horfa, Band. 7 (MS. 2845). β. the phrase, þat býðr, it beseems, becomes; eptir þat fer veizla fram, eptir því sem býðr, as is due, Fms. x. 15, Fb. l. c. has byrjaði; sem býðr um svá ágætan höfðingja, Fms. x. 149. V. with prepp.; b. fram, Lat. proferre, to produce; b. fram vitni, to produce a witness, Eg. 472; með fram boðnum fégjöfum, Sturl. iii. 232; b. upp, b. af hendi, to give up, leave off; þá býðr hann upp hornit, gives up the horn, will not drink more, Edda 32; b. undan, a law term, to lay claim to; er þá kostr at b. undan þeim manni varðveizluna fjárins, Grág. i. 196; eigi skal undan manni b., áðr undir mann kemr féit, id.; cp. the following chapter, which treats ‘um undan-boð fjár;’ nú eru þeir menn svá þrír, at eigi býðr undan fjárvarðveizluna, viz. who are privileged guardians of the property of a minor, viz. father, brother, mother, and who cannot be outbidden, 192; b. við, a trade term, to make a bid; b. við tvenn verð, to bid double, Ld. 146; ek býð þér jafnmörg stóðhross við, id.; at þú byðir Rúti bróður þínum sæmiliga, 66; kaupa svá jörð sem aðrir menn b. við, N. G. L. i. 95: b. fyrir is now more usual. VI. part. pass. boðinn used as an adj., esp. in the alliterative phrase, vera boðinn ok búinn til e-s, to be ready and willing to do a thing, to be at one’s service; skulu vér bræðr vera búnir ok boðnir til þess sem þér vilit okkr til nýta, Eg. 50; til þess skal ek boðinn ok búinn at ganga at þeim málum fyrir þina hönd, Ld. 792.

BJÓÐR, m.; as the word is used masc. in A. S. as well as in Ulf., we have in Haustl. 5 to alter breiðu bjóði into breiðum bjóði; [Ulf. biuds = τράπεζα; A. S. beôd; Hel. biod; O. H. G. biud.] I. Lat. mensa, a table, Rm. 4, 28, 29, Haustl. l. c. II. soil, ground, cp. the Fr. plateau; á Engla bjóð, on English ground, Höfuðl. 2; áðr Börs synir bjóðum um ypðu, Vsp. 4.

bjóðr, m. [bjóða], poët. one who invites, Lex. Poët; cp. also compds such as við-bjóðr, disgust, from bjóða við.

bjór-blandinn, part. mixed with beer, El. 21.

BJÓRR, m. [O. H. G. pior or bior; Low Germ. and mod. Germ. bier; Fris. biar; A. S. bior; Engl. beer], no doubt a word of German extraction, öl (öldr), ale, being the familiar word used in prose:—bjór hardly ever occurs, vide however Hkr. iii. 447, Bk. 48, 89, 96 (Norse); and is a foreign word, as is indicated even by the expression in the Alvismál—öl heitir með mönnum, en með Ásum bjór, ale it is called by men, by gods beer: bjór however is very current in poetry, but the more popular poems, such as the Hávamál, only speak of öl or öldr, Hm. 11, 13, 65, 80, 132, 138.

BJÓRR, m. [Lat. fiber; A. S. beofar], a beaver, esp. the beaver’s skin, Eg. 71, in the phrase, b. ok savali. 2. a triangular cut off piece of skin, [cp. provincial Swed. bjaur]; þat eru bjórar þeir er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eðr hael, Edda 42; still used in Icel. in that sense. II. metaph. a small piece of land (an απ. λεγ. as it seems); bjór lá ónuminn fyrir austan Fljót, Landn. 284.

BJÓRR, m., must be different from the preceding word, synonymous with brjóstþili, a wall in a house, a party wall, but also in the 13th and 14th centuries freq. a costly tapestry used in halls at festivals and in churches; hrindum hallar bjóri, let us break down the wall of the hall, Hálfs S. Fas. ii. (in a verse); eingi var bjórrinn milli húsanna, there was no partition between the houses, Sturl. iii. 177; gengu þeir í stofuna, var hón vel tjölduð ok upp settir bjórar, 229; annarr hlutrinn stökk útar í bjórinn, svá at þar varð fastr, Háv. 40. β. of a movable screen between choir and nave, of cloth or costly stuff, different from tjöld (hangings) and reflar; hann lét Atla prest penta allt ræfr innan, ok svá allan bjórinn, Bs. i. 132; kirkja á tjöld umhverfis sik með tvennum bjórum, Vm. 153; kirkja tjölduð sæmiligum tjöldum ok þrír bjórar, 171, D. I. i. 402; bjórr framan um kór, tjöld um alla kirkju, Pm. 103; b. slitinn blámerktr yfir altari, 108, Bs. ii. 476, 322; vide bjórþili.

bjór-reifr, adj. merry with beer, tipsy, Ls.

bjór-sala, u, f. beer-keeping, N. G. L. iii. (Fr.)

bjór-salr, m. a beer-hall (A. S. beor-sele), Vsp. 41.

bjór-skinn, n. a beaver-skin, Eg. 55, 57, Fms. x. 379.

bjór-tappr, m. a tapster, beer-house keeper, N. G. L. iii. 13.

bjór-tjöld, n. tapestry, = bjórr, Vm. 135: b. um sönghús, id.

bjór-tunna, u, f. a beer-tun, barrel of beer, Bs. i. 389.

bjór-veig, f. a draught of beer, Hým.

bjór-verpill, m. a beer-cask, Jb. 378.

bjór-þili, n. a party wall, = bjórr; b. var í milli ok vóru gluggar á, Vápn. Ný Fél. xxi. 124, Bs. ii. 322, v. l.

bjúga, n. (pl. bjúgu), a sausage, v. mörbjúga, Bs. i. 357, 810.

bjúg-hyrndr, adj. crook-horned, of cattle.

bjúg-leikr, m. crookedness, MS. 1812. 18.

bjúg-leitr, adj. of crooked countenance (nose), Rb. 344.

bjúg-nefjaðr, adj. with a hooked nose, Fms. i. 155.

BJÚGR, adj. bowed, hooked, crooked, bent; fætr lágu bjúgir við lendar, Hom. 114; með bjúgum þornum, Sks. 419; hann var b. á baki, he sat bent or bowed (from age) on horseback, Fs. 183; b. í vexti, Eg. 710; með bjúgum hring, Sks. 198, Rb. 344, Band. 9: metaph., hvárt er yðr þykir bjúgt eðr beint (MS. brátt), whether it seems to you crooked or straight, i. e. whether you like it or not, Fms. viii, 436: cp. boginn, baugr, etc.

bjúgr, s, m., medic., Lat. tumor; in many compds: skyr-bjúgr, scorbuticus, Engl. scorbutic; vind-bjúgr, tumor aereus; vatns-bjúgr, tumor oedematosus, Fél. ix. 197.

bjúg-viðr, m. a crooked branch; bjúgviðr hausa, poët. the crooked branches of the head, i. e. the horns, Km.

BJÖRG, f., gen. bjargar [v. bjarga], help, deliverance, out of need or danger, e. g. feeding the hungry, saving one’s life; unlawful ‘björg’ is that of giving help to an outlaw, who is ‘úráðandi öllum bjargráðum,’ one on whom no help must be bestowed, neither food, shelter, nor ferry; Grág. in several passages, and there commonly used in plur. (bjargir) when in this particular sense; it was liable to a heavy punishment, and the case was to be summoned before the Fifth Court, Grág. Þ. Þ. ch. 25, Ld. 42. β. lögmæt björg, a lawful point of defence in pleading in the Court (v. bjarga sök), Grág. i. 73. 2. means of subsistence, stores, provisions, food; fjögurra (átta) missera b., Grág. i. 197, 286. 3. a freq. pr. name of a woman, Ingibjörg, Þorbjörg, Guðbjörg, etc.; in Swed.-Dan. ‘-borg,’ as in Ingeborg, etc. COMPDS: bjargar-lauss, adj. starving. bjargar-leysi, n. = bjarg-leysi, Band. 15. bjargar-vist, f. serving for food and clothing, Hrafn. 6; cp. bjargræði (above).

BJÖRK, f., gen. bjarkar, [A. S. beorc; Swed. björk; Dan. and Scot. birk; Engl. birch; Germ. birke; Lat. betula; v. birki], a birch, Edda (Gl.), Bs. ii. 5, Jb. 236. In compds bjarkar-.

BJÖRN, m., gen. bjarnar; dat. birni, pl. n. birnir; acc. björnu, mod. birni, [an enlarged form, cp. Goth, biari, by which word Ulf. renders the Gr. θηρίον, Titus i. 12; A. S. bera; Engl. bear; Germ. bär; but Swed. and Dan. björn]:—a bear; hvíta-björn, the white bear or ice-bear; and skóg-björn, híð-björn, við-björn, the black bear or wood-bear, Germ. wald-bär; the ice-bear was unknown in Europe till the discovery of Iceland at the end of the 9th, and Greenland at the end of the 10th century. The very first ice-bear was brought to Europe by Ingimund the Old as a gift to the king of Norway about A. D. 900, Landn., Fs. (Vd.) 27; Isleif, the first bishop of Iceland, also brought one as a present to the German emperor about A. D. 1050, Bs. i. 61, Hv. ch. 2; cp. the little story of Audun in Fms. vi. 297–307, Sks. 186, Sturl. iii. 82, Grág. ii. 181, Am. 17, where a hvítabjörn is mentioned, Fs. (Flóam. S.) 148; as to the black bear, vide esp. Grett. ch. 23, Finnb. ch. 11, Glúm. ch. 3, Fas. i. 50; cp. an interesting paper, ‘Waldbär und Wasserbär,’ by Konrad Maurer, upon this subject; winter is called ‘the bear’s night;’ hence the saying, ‘löng er bjarnar-nótt;’ cp. langar eigu þeir bersi nætr, Mkv. Björn and Bjarni are freq. pr. names; also in compd. names, Þorbjörn, Ásbjörn; and as a prefix, Bjarngrímr, Bjarnhéðinn, etc.; vide Landn. (Gl.) COMPDS: bjarnar-broddr, m., botan. nartheticum, Hjalt. 166. bjarnar-hamr, m. the hide, shape of a bear. Fas. i. 53. bjarnar-híð, n. a black bear’s lair, N. G. L. i. 35. bjarnar-hold, n. the flesh of a bear, Fas. i. 54. bjarnar-hrammr, m. a bear’s paw, Rb. 382, Ver. 26. bjarnar-slátr, n. meat of a slaughtered bear, Fas. i. 54: botan., Ivar Aasen records bjonnabær, rubus caesius; bjonnakamb, osmunda spicans; bjonnmosa, polytrichum commune. For popular tales of the bear vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 608–611.

BLAÐ, n. [A. S. bläd; Germ. blatt; Hel. blad. Ulf. renders the Gr. φύλλον by laufs, Engl. leaf, Icel. lauf. The Engl. say a blade of grass or corn, a leaf of a tree; and so, in Icel., herbs or plants have blað, trees lauf]:—a leaf; blöð þess grass er … heitir, Pr. 472; blöð á lauk, Hervar. S. (in a verse): metaph. a veil, svá er mér sem hangi b. fyrir auga, Fms. iii. 126. 2. of leaf-like objects, a leaf in a book, Germ. blatt, (never lauf, cp. blaðsiða, u, f. a page), Rb. 210, Ísl. ii. 460: of a painted diptych or the like, þar eru blöð tvau pentuð, Pm. 103. β. the skirt of a kirtle (skaut), Stj. 481, Eb. 226, Orkn. 474: Icel. now say kjól-laf, the skirt of a coat. γ. a blade, in various connections: the flat part of a thing, the blade of an oar, árar-blað, N. G. L. i. 59: of a rudder, Fms. ix. 503; knífs-bíað, the blade of a knife, Bs. i. 385: a sword’s blade is in mod. usage called ‘blað,’ but in old writers brandr; spón-blað, the mouth-piece of a spoon; herðar-blað, the shoulder-blade, etc. Botan., blaðka, u, f., e. g. horblaðka, menyanthes: hófblaðka, caltha palustris; but rjúpnalauf, dryas, Hjalt.: blaðkr, m. in eyrna-blaðkr, ear-lap.

blaðra, að, prob. an onomatopoëtic word, like Lat. blaterare, Scot. blether, Germ. plaudern, in the phrase, b. tungunni, to talk thick, Hom. 115; tungan var úti ok blaðraði, Fbr. 77 new Ed.; hann blaðraði tungunni ok vildi við leita at mæla, Fms. v. 152: metaph. to utter inarticulate sounds, bleat, as a sheep. blaðr, n. nonsense.

blaðra, u, f. a bladder, Pr. 472: a blain, watery swelling, Stj. 273, Bs. i. 182. blöðru-sótt, f. a stone in the bladder, Pr. 475.

BLAK, n. a slap; fyrir pústr (a buffet) fjórar merkr, fyrir blak (a slap) tvær merkr (as a fine), Gþl. 177, 187.

blaka, að, to slap, Ann. 1394. 2. neut. to wave, flutter, of the wings of birds, b. vaengjum, to flutter with the wings, Stj. 74: of the leaves on a tree moved by a soft breeze, lauf viðarins blakaðu hægliga, Barl. 161; austan blakar laufið á þann linda, Fornkv. 129; blakir mér þari um hnakka, Fms. vi. 376 (in a verse). In mod. usage, blakta, að or t, is freq. used of leaves, of the flaring of a light, ljós blaktir á skari, the flame flutters on the wick; hence metaph., öndin blaktir á skari, Snót 128; blaktir önd á brjósti, 121: the phrase, blaktir ekki hár á höfði, not a hair moves on one’s head.

blaka, u, f. a veil of silk, Fas. iii. 337; a pan, Mar. 153: now also = blaðka, v. above s. v. blað.

blakk-fjallr, adj. black-skinned, epithet of a wood-bear, Akv. 11.

blakkr, m. (for. word), a sort of measure, N. G. L. i. 324.

blakkr, m., poët. a horse, cp. Blanka, the mythical horse of Thideric (Dietrich) of Bern, Lex. Poët.

BLAKKR, adj. [A. S. blac; Engl. black; O. H. G. plak: in Icel. svartr, as in A. S. and other kindred tongues swart, etc., represents the Lat. niger; while blakkr corresponds to the Lat. ater, dead or dusky black], in poetry used as an epithet of wolves, etc., Lex. Poët., in prose it is very rare, Fas. iii. 592; hence blekkja, to defraud: the mod. Icel. blek, n. ink, Swed. blak, Dan. blæk, come from blakkr, corresponding to Lat. atramentum, Str. 63 (blez), Pr. 474. II. = bleikr, pale; blakkr hestr, Ghv. 18 (perh. corrupt for bleikr, pale, cp. fölvan jó, Hkv. 2. 47), the colour of death; to dream of riding on a pale horse forebodes death, Bjarni 136; on a red horse a bloody death, Fs. (Vd.) 67.

blakra, að, [blakra, Ivar Aasen, to shake, of leaves], to blink; b. augum, Hom. 89; now blakta, að, e. g. b. augum, to move the eyes, and also used of the beating of the heart; hón fann að hjartað blaktaði, in the story of the Beauty and the Beast (Skrýmslið Góða), Kvöldv. ii. 176: blakra vængjum = blakta vængjum, to flutter with the wings, Barl. 88; of sails, Úlf. 3. 14.

bland, n. in the adverbial phrase, í bland, among, Dan. i blandt, Bs. i. 802, Stj. 231, Matth. xiii. 25, (rare in mod. usage.)

BLANDA, in early Icel. poetry and prose a strong verb; pres. 1st pers. blend, Ls. 3; 3rd pers. blendr, Grág. ii. 389; reflex. blendsk, Symb. 30; pret. 1st pers. blétt, Am. 79, Greg. 50; reflex. blézk, Orkn. 104 (in a verse from about A. D. 1046); pl. bléndu, bléndum, Ls. 9, Greg. 60, Edda 47; reflex. bléndusk, Hkm. 8; subj. reflex. bléndisk, Mart. 129; blandinn (freq.), Sdm., Ýt., etc., vide Lex. Poët., Skálda 164; but in the 13th century and later the weak form (blanda, að) prevailed in all tenses except the part. pass., where the old blandinn = blandaðr may still be used, though the weak is more common; imperat. blanda, Pr. 471, 472, N. G. L. i. 12; pres. blandar, 13; part. blandaðr, Sks. 349, Pr. 470, 472 (MS. about A. D. 1250), [Ulf. blandan, a redupl. verb; A. S. bland; Engl. blend; O. H. G. blantan; lost in N. H. G.; Swed. blanda]:—to blend, mix, the beverage in acc., the mixed ingredient in dat.; b. mjöð (drykk), eitri, meini, Greg. l. c.; drottning ok Bárðr blönduðu þá drykkinn ólyfjani, Eg. 210: adding ‘við,’ lítið (acc. instead of dat.) verðr ok við blandit, Skálda 164; maturt blandin við upsa-gall, Pr. l. c.; þar fellr Jórdan í gegnum, ok blendsk eigi (does not blend) við vötnin, Symb. l. c.; tak skógar súru ok blanda (imperat.) við fornt vín, Pr. l. c.; b. með, id., Rb. 164; b. saman, to mix together, Pr. l. c. II. metaph. to mix together, of fellowship or association, but partic. used of carnal intercourse, cp. the Gr. μιγηναι, Lat. misceri; b. mötuneyti (dat.) við e-n, to eat together with one, N. G. L. l. c.; blandask í samfélagi, to associate with, Mart. l. c.; vér megum eigi hjálp né heilsu af Guði fá, nema vér blandimk við hans orð, 625. 181; þeir blönduðusk þá meir við mannfólk enn nú, they had more intercourse with, Fas. i. 391: to have carnal intercourse, vár skal éingi blandask við búfé, N. G. L. i. 18; þat fell í hórdómum, ok blönduðusk við þær konur er af heiðnum þjóðum vóru, Sks. 588. III. part. blandinn is used as an adj. with the notion mixed, mingled, bad, of temper, character, manner; Helgi var blandinn mjök (had a mixed, mingled creed), hann trúði á Krist, en hét á Þór til harðraeða ok sjófara, Landn. 206; þú ert maðr vaskr ok vel at þér (thou art bold and brave), en hon er blandin mjök, but she is a woman of mixed report, Nj. 49.

blanda, u, f. any mixture of two fluids, Fs. 145 (of watery blood); but esp. a beverage of hot whey mixed up with water, Vm. 60, Fms. ix. 360. Blanda also is the local name of a stream of glacier water in the north of Icel., v. Landn. β. metaph. the name of a book, miscellanea; skal sjá skrá … heita B., því at saman er blandað skyldu tali ok úskyldu, Rb. 4, v. l., in MS. Am. 625, 4to. blöndu-horn, n. a cup of blanda, a cognom., Landn. 278.

blandan, f. mixing, N. G. L. i. 153.

blasa, t; sup. blasað, [Engl. blaze], of places, in the phrase, b. við, to lie full and open before the eye (mod.)

blauð-hugaðr, adj. soft of heart, cowardly, Fbr. 108.

blauð-klæddr, part. soft-clad, b. mann, a rendering of Matth. xi. 8, a man clothed in soft raiment, 625. 95.

blauð-liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. cowardly, Hkr. iii. 162.

BLAUÐR, adj. [A. S. bleâðe; Scot. blate = bashful, shy; Hel. blothi; Germ. blöde; cp. Goth. blauþjan = ακυρουν, and Hel. blôdan = infirmare], it properly means soft, weak, Lat. mollis, Gr. μάλακος, and is opposed to hvatr, brisk, vigorous; hence the proverb, fár er hvatr er hrörask tekr, ef í barnæsku er blauðr, Fm. 6, cp. Fms. viii. 49. β. metaph. blauðr means feminine, hvatr masculine, but only used of animals, dogs, cats, fishes; hvatr-lax = hæingr = salmo mas; bleyða, u, f., is a dam, and metaph. a coward; blauðr is a term of abuse, a bitch, coward; hafi hendr á (hundinum, add. p. 149) ok drepi þótt b. sé, take the dog and kill it, though it be a bitch, Gísl. 63; blauðir hundar, Fms. ii. 163, xi. 10. 2. metaph., Hallgerðr mælti við Gunnar, jafnkomit er á með ykkr, er hvárttveggi er blauðr (a taunt addressed to the beardless Njal), Nj. 59; bíð nú ef þú ert eigi b., Nj. 205, cp. Skr. 114, 496, in the last passage used = blautr; blauðir eru vér nú orðnir, Niðrst. 6.

blaut-barn, n. a baby, in the phrase, frá blautbarns beini = blautu barns beini, Barl. 41.

blaut-fiskr, m. a fresh fish, cod, Bs. i. 853.

blaut-holdr, adj. having soft, smooth flesh; mær b., Karl. 479.

blaut-hugaðr, adj. faint, soft-minded, Glúm. 309.

blaut-leikr, m. effeminacy, Stj. 345.

blaut-lendr, adj. soft, moist-soiled, Fms. v. 230.

blaut-liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. faintly, effeminate, Stj. 362; b. kossar, 417; b. kvæði, soft, amorous ditties, Bs. i. 237.

BLAUTR, adj. [A. S. bleât = miser; Germ. blozs = nudus; Scot. blait = nudus (Jamieson); Dan. blöd; Swed. blödig = soft; the Dan. and Swed. blott, blotted, = stripped, are borrowed from Germ.; Ivar Aasen distinguishes between blaú = shy, and blaut = wet, damp; blauðr and blautr are no doubt only variations of the same word]. I. soft, Lat. mollis, in a good sense; this sense of the word remains only in a few compds, v. above, and in a few phrases, e. g. frá blautu barns beini, from babyhood, Fms. iii. 155, Magn. 522, Al. 71; b. fiskr, fresh (soft) fish, Bs. i. 853, opp. to harðr (dried) fiskr; in Swed., however, it means soaked fish: in poetry, b. sæing, a soft bed, Gísl. (in a verse): of stuffs, but only in less classical writers or translated romances; b. purpuri, Bret. 32; lerépt, Sks. 400 A; dúnn, Mart. 126; blautir vindar, soft breezes, Sks. 214 B: a single exception is, Edda 19, fjöturinn var sléttr ok b. sem silkiræma, soft and smooth as silk lace. 2. = blauðr, faint, imbecile; blautir menn, Al. 34, Fas. i. 161: a paraphrasis of blauðr in Fm. 6. II. but commonly metaph. = soaked, wet, miry, [cp. Swed. blöt, and the phrase, lägga sit hufuud í blöt, to beat one’s brains: cp. also bleyta, mud; bloti, thaw; blotna, to melt]; þar vóru vellir blautir, því at regn höfðu verit, Eg. 528; keldur blautar, 266; þeir fengu ekki blautt um Valbjarnar-völlu, Bs. i. 509, etc.; cp. Scot. and North. E. soft road, soft weather, = wet, Scott’s Black Dwarf, ch. 3 note.

blá, f., pl. blár, an απ. λεγ. in a verse Ísl. ii. 233, where it seems to mean the billows, blue waves. Ivar Aasen records ‘blaa’ a Norse term for the blue horizon; cp. the Icel. phrase, út í bláinn (as from blár, m.), into the blue, of what is thrown away, words spoken without need or end. In the east of Icel. blá means a meadow covered with snow half melted away, Erik Jonsson, Dict. s. v.

blá-ber, n. pl., botan., Lat. vaccinium, as a cognom., Ann. 1393; aðalbláber, vaccinium myrtillus, the bleaberry, Hjalt.

blá-brúnaðr, adj. dark blue coloured, of stuff, Bs. i. 506.

blá-djúp, n. the blue sea, i. e. deep, open sea, Bs. ii. 179, 181.

blá-eygr and -eygðr, adj. blue-eyed, Nj. 29, Fms. vii. 101, Hkr. iii. 250.

blá-fastr, adj. very strong, Karl. 551.

blá-fáinn, adj. with a blue polish [fá, to paint], Sks., Rm. 26.

blá-feldr, m. a cloak of blue fur, N. G. L. i. 75.

blá-fjallaðr, adj. blue-black, epithet of the raven, Landn. (in a verse).

blá-flekkóttr, adj. blue-flecked, Völs. R.

blá-góma, u, f. labrus luscus.

blá-gras, n. a sort of geranium, the g. pratense.

blá-grýti, n. blue hard stones rolled in the surf, Eggert Itin. § 477.

blá-hattr, m. scabiosa, Ivar Aasen; a cognom., Sturl. ii. 207.

blá-hvítr, adj. white-blue, Gh. 4; bláhvíta logn, a blue-white calm.

blá-kaldr, adj. blue-cold, of purling water or iron, cp. the phrase, berja fram blákalt, hammering the iron cold, of obstinate, dogged reasoning.

blá-kápa, u, f. a blue cape or cloak. blákápu-maðr, m. a blue cloaked man, Gísl. 37.

blá-kinn, f. with a blue (black) chin, Landn. 201.

blá-klukka, u, f., botan. campanula rotundi-folia, Hjalt.

blá-klæddr, part. blue-clad, Fms. iii. 116.

blá-leitr, adj. blue-faced, Karl. 5.

blá-lenzkr, adj. Ethiopian, from Bláland, n. Ethiopia, Nigritia, and North-west Africa in general; Blálendingar, m. pl. Ethiopians; cp. 625. 625, Al. 51, Rb. 568, Stj. 253, 254.

blá-maðr, m. a black man, negro, i. e. an Ethiopian, Al. 51, Orkn. 364 (referring to A. D. 1152), distinguished from the Saracens and Arabians; three ‘blámenn’ were sent as a present to the German emperor Frederic the Second, Fms. x. 3: in romances blámenn are mentioned as a kind of ‘berserkers,’ q. v., Finnb. ch. 16, Kjalnes. S. ch. 15; cp. Scott’s Ivanhoe, note B.

bláman, f. the livid colour of a bruise, Stj. 46. Gen. iv. 23.

blá-mengdr and -mengjaðr, part. blue-mingled, Dipl. i. 168.

blá-merktr, part. marked, variegated with blue, Vm. 149, 153.

blámi, a, m. a blue, livid tint, metaph. a blemish.

blá-mær, f. [mœrr = moor, cp. landamæri, borders, Caes. Bell. Gall, vi. ch. 23], the blue moor, an απ. λεγ. in the Norse poet Eyvind Skáldaspillir as an epithet of the sea about A. D. 960, Hkr. i. 154; cp. Landn. 54, which reads borðmærar, and attributes the verse to another poet. The word is still in use in Norway in the popular phrase, ut aa blaamyra: vide Ivar Aasen s. v. blaamyr, the sea.

blána, að, to become black, livid, Nj. 203 (iron in fire); Hkr. i. 103 (of a plague-stricken corpse), Fms. ii. 42.

BLÁR, adj., fem. blá, neut. blátt, [Scot. bla, which has the Icel. sense of dark blue, livid: cp. A. S. bleov; Engl. blue; Germ. blau; Swed.-Dan. blå: cp. also A. S. bleo = colour], prop. Lat. lividus; of the colour of lead, Snót 231; blár sem Hel, cp. Engl. black as death, Eb. 314, cp. Edda 13; of the livid colour caused by a blow, in the alliterative phrase, blár ok blóðugr, Korm. 108; sárir eða lostnir svá blátt eðr rautt sé eptir, Grág. ii. 13: blár is the colour of mourning, tjalda blám reflum, Fms. xi. 17; falda blá, to wrap the head in black, Ísl. ii. 351 (in a verse); cp. kolblár, Blámaðr, etc.; blár logi, a pale ‘lowe,’ of a witch’s flame, Gullþ. 5: of cloths; möttull, Nj. 24; kápa, 255; kyrtill, 184; mörk, stripes, Ld. 244. β. metaph. foolish, insipid; cp. bláheimskr; hann er ekki blár innan, a popular phrase, he is no goose.

blá-rendr, adj. [rönd], blue-striped; brækr, Nj. 184.

BLÁSA, blés, blésu, blásit; pres. blæss, [Ulf. blêsan, a redupl. verb; Germ. blasen; Swed. blåsa; cp. Engl. blow (blast); A. S. blâvan; Lat. flare.] I. to blow, Lat. flare, of the wind; the naut. alliterative phrase, blásandi byrr, a fresh breeze, Fms. vii. 287; vindrinn blæs og þú heyrir hans þyt, John iii. 8. 2. act. to blow a trumpet, sound an alarm, with dat. of the people and the instrument, the act of blowing in acc.; b. lúðri, Fms. vii. 287; var blásinn herblástr, sounded an alarm, ix. 358; b. liði (troops) til ofangaungu, Orkn. 350, Bret. 46; b. til stefnu, to a meeting, Fms. vii. 286; konungr lét b. öllum mönnum ór bænum, ix. 304; b. til þings, viii. 210; til héraðstefnu, ix. 255, v. l.: absol., þá bað hann b., sound the attack, viii. 403. β. to blow the bellows; blástu (imperat.) meir, Landn. 270 (in a verse), Edda 69, 70. γ. to melt, cast, the metal in acc.; hann blés fyrstr manna rauða á Íslandi, ok var hann af því kallaðr Rauðabjörn, Landn. 71, cp. Sks. 163; b. gullmálm, Bret. 4; sumir blésu ok steyptu af málmi Guðs líkneski, Barl. 139; sem af glóanda járni því er ákafliga er blásit í eldi, Fms. viii. 8; yxn tveir ór eiri blásnir (cast), Bret. 22. δ. to swell, blow up; létt sem belgr blásinn, Fms. x. 308. II. to breathe, Lat. spirare; svá sem andi blæsk af munni, Eluc. 4: to blow with the mouth, hann blés í kross yfir drykk sínum, Fs. 103; bléss hann á þá og sagði, með-takið þeir Heilagan Anda, John xx. 22; b. við, to draw a deep breath; hón blés við ok svarar, Clem. 50; jarl blés þá við mæðiliga, Fs. 10, Magn. 444: to sigh, of a sick man, Gísl. 47; b. hátt við, Bjarn. 24: without ‘við,’ Sturl. i. 20; b. eitri, eldi (of serpents or dragons), to snort, Edda 42; of a horse, Greg. 49. 2. theol. to inspire; Guð blés sínum anda (dat.) í brjóst honum, Fms. i. 142, 199; Guð blés henni því í brjóst, Stj. 160 (cp. innblástr). 3. b. móti e-m, to conspire against one, Fms. vii. 164: in the phrase, ‘to blow not a hair off one’s head,’ Jarl mælti, at eingi skyldi b. hár af höfði Sveini, no one should dare to make a hair move on his head, Orkn. 252. III. impers.: 1. medic. to ‘boulne,’ swell, from sickness, wounds …, the wound or swollen limb in acc.; hann svall svá ákafliga, at allan blés kviðinn, Bs. i. 319; sár Gríms varð illa, ok blés upp fótinn, Dropl. 36, Grett. 153; hann blés allan, Bs. i. 116. 2. of land, to be laid bare, stripped of the turf by wind; hafði blásit hauginn ok lá silfrið bert, Fms. iv. 57. 3. in supine, and partic. the personal construction reappears; á Ormarsstöðum þar sem er blásið allt, where all is stripped, barren, Landn. 280; meltorfa blásin mjök, stripped, barren, Hrafn. 27: medic., hin hægri geirvartan var blásin upp, 655 xxxii. 10; hans hörund var allt blásit, Fas. i. 286, Rb. 374; sýndist fótrinn blásinn ok kolblár, Grett. 152.

blá-saumaðr, part. blue-embroidered, Pm. 12.

blá-silfr, n. bad silver, opp. to skírt silfr; þrim tigum sinna skal b. vega móti gulli, tíu sinnum skírt silfr móti gulli, 732. 16: the proportion of bad to pure silver is thus as three to one.

blá-síða, u, f., cp. grásíða, a cognom., Ísl. ii. 52.

blá-stafaðr, adj. blue-striped; segl. b., Fms. x. 345.

blá-stjarna, u, f. the blue star, i. e. Hesperus, Snót 131.

blástr, rs, m., dat. blæstri, blæsti, Hom. 47; pl. blástrar: 1. to blast, Sks. 213. 2. breath; b. af lopti, Eluc. 19; málit görisk af blæstrinum, Skálda 170: the blast of a trumpet, Fms. ix. 30: hissing of serpents, breathing of whales (hvala blástr), Gullþ. 8: blowing a bellows, Edda 70. 3. medic. swelling, mortification, Nj. 209, Dropl. 36, Bs. i. 182. COMPDS: blástr-belgr, m. a bellows, Karl. 18. blástr-hol, n. the blow-hole of a whale. blástr-horn (blástrarhorn), n. a trumpet, horn, 655. 8, Rb. 372. blástr-járn, n. blast iron, cast, not wrought, Grág. i. 501, Jb. 345. blástr-samr, adj. windy, Sks. 41. blástr-svalr, adj. cold blowing, Sks. 41, v. l.

blá-tönn, f. a cognom. having a blue, black tusk, Fas. ii. 390.

bleðja, að, [blað], pret. bladdi; a part. ‘bladdr’ occurs, Post. 606; prop. to prune, lop trees and plants, Bs. ii. 165, N. G. L. i. 241: esp. in the metaph. phrase, b. af, to destroy, kill off one by one; mun hann svá ætla at b. hirðina, Fms. ii. 55, vii. 36, Fs. 96.

blegðr, m. [bleyg and blöyg, Ivar Aasen; Germ. pflock; Engl. plug], a plug, Krók. 56, where in pl.

bleik-álóttr, adj., bleikálingr, m., and bleikála, f. a dun horse with a dark stripe down the back, Nj. 81, Sturl. ii. 145, Grett. 91.

bleik-haddaðr, adj. light-haired, auburn, Gsp.

bleik-hárr, adj. auburn, Hkr. iii. 174, Fms. vii. 101.

bleik-hvítr, adj. of yellowish white colour, Hkr. iii. 250.

bleikja and bleika, u, f. chalk paint; draga með bleiku, Hkr. ii. 341, Fms. iv. 96. 2. salmo levis, Fél. i. 11.

bleikja, t, ð, [Swed. bleka; Germ. bleichen], to bleach; b. lérept, to bleach linen, Fas. ii. 71: in the phrase, b. hadda (cp. haddblik), of ladies, to wash and comb the hair, Edda 75.

BLEIKR, adj. [A. S. blâc or blæc; Engl. bleached and bleak; Swed. blek; Germ. bleich and blass]:—pale, wan, of the colour of gold, Fms. v. 345; of bad silver, Grág. i. 500; of fruits, Stj. 161; of ripe barley fields, b. akrar, Nj. 112, and N. T. John iv. 35, a rendering of λευκός in the Gr.; of animals, a fawn-coloured horse is in Icel. called Bleikr, m., a mare Bleik, f., Flov. 33, Vígl.; an ox, Vápn. 21; of hair, auburn, Fær. 156; bleikt hár, the fair locks of a baby, Rm. 31, where ‘bleak and bright’ are alliterative; Homer’s ξανθός is in Icel. rendered by bleik-hárr. 2. = Lat. pallidus, the colour of ashes, pale from fright, loss of blood, or emotion, Fms. i. 216; fiskbleikr, pale as a fish, vii. 269; b. sem bast, pale as bast, etc.: of the moonshine, Sks. 627: the colour of death, því ligg ek b. í brúki, of a corpse mouldering at the bottom of the sea, Fms. vi. 376.

blek, n. ink, v. under ‘blakkr.’ blek-horn, n. an ink-horn, Th. 76.

blekkiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. [blakkr], delusively, Mar., Al. 36.

blekking, f. delusion, fraud, H. E. i. 506, Fms. x. 207, Hkr. iii. 112.

blekkja, t, að, [blakkr], to impose upon, Stj. 335, Fms. i. 215, Hkr. ii. 317, Magn. 466.

blendingr, m. a blending, mixture. 2. metaph. a being half man and half giant, not a downright giant (troll); b. en ekki fullkomit troll, Fas. iii. 179; b. þurs einn, Grett. 135.

BLESI, a, m. and blesóttr, adj. the blaze or white star on a horse’s forehead, and as a pr. name of the horse himself, Landn. 70, Fms. vi. 414.

BLESTR and blesmæltr, adj. lisping, Skálda 170, Sturl. i. 60, Barl. 15.

BLETTR, s, m., pl. ir, [Engl. blot; Dan. plet], loc. a spot, blot, Fms. iii. 123 in a paper MS., the vellum MS. Fb. i. 228 reads ‘flekkr:’ blot, mjök grandvarr af blettum, without stain, blotless, 655 xxxii. 19: now much used in a loc. sense, a spot.

bleyða, u, f. [blauðr], a craven, Hkr. i. 338.

bleyðask, dep. to lose heart as a craven, Fms. vi. 312: impers. with dat., viii. 137.

bleyði, f. cowardice, Fms. ii. 306: softness, in a good sense (rare), Sks. 496 B. COMPDS: bleyði-maðr, m. a coward, Nj. 54, Fms. vi. 260. bleyði-mannligr, adj. cowardly, Fms. ii. 69. bleyði-mark, n. a mark of cowardice, Tistr. bleyði-orð, n. a charge of cowardice, Fas. ii. 530; leggja b. á bak e-m, Grett. 102.

bleyta, u, f. [blautr], mud, Clem. 35: mire, Hrafn. 27 (freq.)

bleyta, tt, to soak, moisten; b. húð, a hide, Fas. i. 289; leir, clay, Bret. 106. 2. to soften, Greg. 38, 655 v. B (rare in that sense).

bleyti, n. soaking.

BLEZA, bletza, mod. blessa, að, [A. S. bletzian; Engl. bless; akin to blót, blóta, denoting worship]:—to bless; an English word, which came to Icel. and Norway along with the Gospel; in Norway it never took root, and soon died out, and is at present unknown in Scandinavia; whilst in Icel. it grew from a term of worship into a household word of endearment and affection; the guest or traveller is met with a ‘Guð blessi þig,’ God bless thee, in reply to his greeting, ‘hér sé Guð,’ when entering a house; it is also the reply to one returning thanks. The Norseman, Swede, and Dane say, ‘Gud signe dig’ (cp. Germ. segnen), whilst ‘signa’ (signare) in Icel. usage only means to make the sign of the cross. Bleza is used as a standing epithet of the sun, blessuð sólin, the blessed sun: so also the alliterative phrase, blessað barnið, the blessed bairn; blessaðr, blessuð, in addressing, cp. Engl. bless you! In old writers it answers to Lat. benedicere: α. with acc., Stj. 28, 655 ix, ‘benedictus’ þýðir b., xxi, Fms. i. 230, K. Á. 120. β. with dat., rare and now unusual; Guð b. fiskum ok fuglum, Stj. 18, Eluc. 40, Blas. 40; blessuð ertú á meðal kvenna, N. T. Luke i. 28. 2. reflex. to give good luck, succeed.

blezan, f. a blessing, benediction, Bs. i. 562; bliss, Hom. 13, Greg. 79. COMPD: blezanar-andi, a, m. spirit of b., Stj. 242.

blezing, f. id., 655 viii. 2.

BLIAT, a kind of stuff, (for. word), El. 21, Str. 12, 79.

BLIK, n. [cp. Germ. blick and blitz; Engl. blink (in ice-blink, the gleam of distant ice-fields), and blaze], gleam, sheen, Scot. glint, Lat. nitor; barach þýðir b. eðr brjánda, Stj. 389. The original notion of fulgor is alien to Icel.; even augnablik, q. v., is of Dan. and Germ. extraction; a dead-calm sea is in Danish havblik and blikstille, but in Icel. blæja-logn. The gleam of metal (shields) is called blik, Edda 86 (poët.): of the sky, Breiðablik is the heavenly abode of the god Baldr, Gm. 12. 2. bleaching, Dan. bleg; blæjur á bliki, Fas. ii. (in a verse); lérept á bliki, N. G. L. i. 381. 3. hadd-blik, Edda 77. II. (for. word), the vizor on a helmet, in writers of the 14th and 15th centuries, Fas. iii. 229, Ann. 1393.

blika, u, f. light clouds foreboding storms, such as the Engl. call ‘mare’s tails,’ (regn-blika, vind-blika), hence the saying, e-m lízt ekki a blikuna, when matters look threatening; freq. in mod. usage, though no instance is on record in old writers. 2. medic. pallor, Dan. blegesot, Fél. ix. 201.

blika, að, and blíkja, bleik, bliku, an old obsolete poët. form, of which only remain the forms, 3rd pers. pl. pret. bliku, fulgebant, Vkv. 6, Fas. i. 186 (in a verse): infm., blíkja, Hkr. i. 96 (in a verse); 3rd pers. pl. pres. blíkja, fulgent, Grág. ii. 170, in an old law form; part. blíkjanda, Edda 231, [Lat. fulgere; Germ. blicken, cp. blitzen; Engl to blink]:—to gleam, twinkle, Lat. micare; the stars ‘blika,’ the sun ‘skín;’ used of arms, skildir bliku þeirra við hinn skarða mána, Vkv. l. c.; bliku reið er Regin átti, Fas. l. c.; á baki létu blíkja (of the shields), Hkr. l. c.; skildir blika við 1 Rauðaskriðum, Nj. 143, cp. Grág. ii. 170; blikuðu þar skildir við, Eg. 724; blika við sólu, Fbr. 156; blíkjanda (part.) böl, gleaming bale, of the hall of Hela, Edda l. c.

blik-hvítr, adj. white-gleaming, of a shield, Lex. Poët.

bliki, a, m. a drake; andar-bliki, æðar-bliki, etc.

blikna, að, [bleikr], to become pale, Fms. ii. 240, iv. 166, Flov. 41.

blikra, að, [Ivar Aasen blikra, to flutter], to blink; impers. with dat., kvaðst hann eigi hirða þó bónda blikraði nokkut til hvat fyrir væri (= blöskraði, felt a shudder), Grett. 100 A (rare).

blinda, að, [Ulf. blindjan], to blind, deprive of sight, Fms. v. 268, vii. 207, Stj. 619: metaph. to deceive, Fms. ii. 46, v. 217, Gþl. 215.

blindi, f. indecl., mod. blindni, blindness, Stj. 620, Greg. 35: metaph., Blas. 47: snjó-blinda, u, f. snow-blindness; nátt-blinda, nyctalopia; dag-blinda, hemeralopia, Fél.

blindingr, m. a blind or hidden peg, of pegs used to pin planks together edgeways, serving the same purpose as tongue and groove, Edda 232.

blindleikr, m. blindness, Fms. ii. 241, Stj. 122: metaph., H. E. i. 462.

BLINDR, adj. [Ulf. blinds; A. S. and Engl. blind; O. H. G. plint; Germ. blind; common to all Teut. idioms, whilst Gr. τύφλος and Lat. caecus are of different roots]:—blind; blindr borinn, born blind, Nj. 152, Fms. vi. 389: proverb, misjafnir eru blinds manns bitar: metaph., with gen., mjök er mannfólkit blint ens sauna um forlögin, blind as to the fate, Al. 23: neut. as adv., dark, ekki er þat blint hvers þú eggjar, Fms. iv. 133; Einarr lét sér þat blint vera, i. e. said that he knew nothing about it, viii. 10; Grettir segir at þeim var blint til þess at ætla, a blind matter for them to guess at, Grett. 148 A: a thick storm is called ‘blind-bylr;’ (but the Icel. call thick darkness ‘niða-myrkr,’ Dan. bælgmörke); the Germans call blind what is hidden and cannot be seen; this is rare in Icel., yet blind-sker, a hidden skerry (rock) in the sea; cp. also blindingr.

blíða, u, f. [Ulf. bleiþei], literally blitheness, but in usage gentleness, grace, of a woman; alla blíðu lét hón uppi við mik, Nj. 18; hófst þá enn at nýju b. (friendly intercourse) með þeim mágum, Fms. ix. 450: in mod. usage, balminess of the air: fair words, blandishment, Sks. 540. COMPD: blíðu-bragð, n. a token of grace, caressing, Stj. 90, Fms. vii. 108: in a less good sense, of outward shew, Fas. iii. 151, 209.

blíðask, að, dep. = bliðkask, Thom. 183.

blíðka, að, to render ‘blithe,’ caress, coax, Ld. 286: reflex., Stj. 142.

blíðkan, f. caressing, Stj. 186.

blíð-látr, adj. mild, sweet, Mirm.

blíðleikr and -leiki, m. mildness, balminess, of the air, Fms. x. 336, Rb. 336: blandishment, Pass. 31. 10.

blíðleitr, adj. of mild countenance, Fms. xi. 215, v. l.

blíðliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. blithely, graciously; taka, fagna e-m b., Nj. 4, Sks. 370, Fms. vii. 107, ix. 411.

blíð-lundaðr and -lyndr, adj. of gentle disposition, Magn. 474.

blíð-lyndi, n. gentle disposition.

blíð-læti, n. caressing, Bs. i. 140, Greg. 51.

blíð-mæli, n. fair words, blandishments, Fms. x. 307, i. 109, Pass. 6. 6.

blíð-mæltr, adj. bland, Sturl. ii. 189, Fms. xi. 215, vii. 239.

BLÍÐR, adj. [Ulf. bleiþs, οικτίρμων, misericors; and bleiþi, οικτίρμός; gableiþjan, οικτείρειν; A. S. bliðe; Engl. blithe; Hel. blithi = clarus, laetus]:—in usage, mild, gentle, soft; blíðr is a word of endearment, but as it denotes the outward expression of mildness in the eyes, look, voice, it also has a bad sense, bland, fawning, enticing: alliterative proverb, blíð er bætandi hönd; b. ok þekkr, Bs. i. 131; b. orð, Fms. x. 292; b. ok kátr, Eg. 45; blíð ok eptirmál, mild and charming, of a wife, Nj. 13: of the air, blítt veðr, mild, balmy, Fms. ii. 76, vi. 378: metaph., blítt ok strítt, whether it pleases or not, in fine weather or foul, Sturl. i. 193; fyrir blíðu né stríðu, neither by fair nor foul means, 625. 95: agreeable, eigi blíð baksletta, Al. 90; e-m er blíðara, ‘tis more pleasant for one, one is better pleased, Fms. x. 353.

blíð-skapr, ar, m. mildness, kindness, friendly terms, Fms. i. 102; með blíðskap, m. friendly terms, Eg. 740, Stj. 192.

blíð-veðr and blíðviðri, n. mild weather, 655 xii. 2, Thom. 167.

blíð-yrði, n. blandishment, Sks. 530, Fms. x. 292.

BLÍFA, [Germ. bleiben; akin to leifa, q. v.], to remain; this word was taken from Luther’s Bible into Icel., and is used by theol. writers; pret. sing. is never used, but pret. pl. blifu. Pass. 50. 4.

BLÍGJA, ð, [Swed. bliga = to gaze, stare], to gaze; b. augum, Mirm. 70.

blígr, m. staring, gazing, a cognom., Eb.

blína, d, to store, gaze, [cp. A. S. blin.]

blístra, u, f. the month-piece of bellows, Vm. 177.

BLÍSTRA, að, to whistle, Fb. i. 553, Fas. iii. 337, Bret. 26: the phrase, b. í spor e-m, prob. a hunting term, to run whistling after one, Korm. 62, Fms. viii. 60. 2. of snakes, to hiss, Fr.

blístran, f. (blístr, n.), whistling, Mar. 61, Konr. 58 (Fr.): the mod. phrase, standa á blístri, to be swoln like bellows, is curious, and indicates a relation between blása and blístra.

bljótr, m. a sacrificer, worshipper, Eg. (in a verse); also blœtr.

bljúgr, adj. [Swed. blyg], bashful, shy, modest, Pass. 16. 14 (penitent).

blossi, a, m. a flame, Dan. bluss, (mod.), Pass. 3. 2.

BLOTI, a, m. [blautr], a thaw, melting of snow (freq.)

blotna, að, to become moist or soft: metaph. to lose courage; blotnar hann eigi við þat, Ísl. ii. 330, Fms. viii. 137.

BLÓÐ, n. [Ulf. bloþ, common to all Teut. idioms]:—the blood, Lat. sanguis; ‘dreyri’ is cruor; ‘hlaut,’ q. v., is blood shed in sacrifice, cp. Eb. ch. 4, Nj. 107, Eb. 242, Fms. i. 46; nema, láta (mod. taka) b., to take, let blood (blóðlát), vii. 269, Grág. ii. 133; ganga blóði, to have a hemorrhage, Bs. i. 337: the phrase, blanda blóði saman, to mix blood together, Ls. 9, refers to the old heathen rite of entering foster-brothership, defined in Gísl. 11, Fbr. 7, Fb. ii. 93, Fas. iii. 376: metaph. offspring, Stj. 47; hjart-blóð, heart’s blood; dauða-blóð, life-blood, gore: metaph. compound words are rare. In poets ‘blood of Quasir’ means poetry; the blood of the giant Ymir, the sea, vide Edda 47, 5. Fél. ix. 198, 199, records many medic, compounds, blóðfall and blóðlát, menorrhagia; blóðhella, congestio ad viscera; blóðkýli, ulcus; blóðmiga, haematuria; blóðnasir, f. pl. epistaxis; blóðrás, hemorrhagia; blóðsótt, dysenteria; blóðhrækjur, haemoptysis; blóðspýja, haematemesis, etc. Other COMPDS: blóða-brúðgumi, a, m., Stj. 42. Exod. iv. 25, the ‘bloody husband’ of the Engl. text. blóðs-akr, m. the field of blood, Matth. xxvii. 8. blóðs-litr, m. blood-colour, 656. 6, Eb. 26. blóðs-peningar, m. pl. the price of blood, Matth. xxvii. 6. blóðs-úthelling, f. a shedding of blood, Fas. i. 73.

blóð-band, n., mostly in pl. a bandage to stop bleeding, Bs. i. 625, 376.

blóð-bogi, a, m. a gush of blood, Nj. 210, Fms. vi. 419, Sd. 178.

blóð-drefjar, f. pl. spatterings of blood, Grett. 111 A.

blóð-drekkr, m. one who drinks blood, Fas. iii. 573: epithet of a fox.

blóð-dropi, a, m. a drop of blood, Bs. i. 45, Fms. i. 270.

blóð-drykkja, u, f. drink of blood. Thom. 150.

blóð-fall, n. and blóðfalls-sótt, f. bloody flux, dysentery, Bs. i. 317, ii. 108, 618.

blóð-flekkr, m. a fleck or stain of blood, Eb. 242.

blóð-fors, m. a gush of blood, Nj. 244.

blóð-fullr, adj. full of blood, Fbr. 12.

blóðga, að, to make bleed, Nj. 82: reflex, to become bloody, Str. 78.

blóði, a, m., poët. a brother, consanguineus, Edda (Gl.), Haustl. 14.

blóðigr, adj., contr. blóðgir, -gum, etc.; in mod. usage uncontracted through all cases, and so it is freq. in old writers, e. g. blóðigan (acc.), Bjarn. 50 vellum MS.; blóðugri (dat. f.), Grág. ii. 192: bloody, Nj. 19, Ísl. ii. 771, etc.

blóð-járna, að, to shoe a horse to the quick, (mod.)

blóð-kýll, m. a blood-bag; metaph. a blood-sucker, a leech, Fms. ii. 317.

blóð-lauss, adj. (blóðleysi, n.), bloodless, Str. 5.

blóð-lát, n. loss of blood, Hkr. ii. 24: medic. blood-letting, bleeding, Fms. vii. 269, Str. 28, N. G. L. iii. 15.

blóð-látinn, part. having blood let, bled, Bs. i. 848, Str. 27.

blóð-lifr, ar, f. pl. clotted blood, Nj. 171.

blóð-ligr, adj. bloody, Stj. 161.

blóð-litr = blóðslitr, Landn. 335.

blóð-lækr, jar, m. a river of blood, Fms. vi. 407.

blóð-maðkr, m. a maggot bred in putrefying blood, Stj. 91.

blóð-mikill, adj. plethoric.

blóð-nasar, f. pl. a bleeding of the nose, (mod.)

blóð-nætr, f. pl. bloody nights; it may originally have been a law term, the night next after a murder or homicide; in the proverb, blóðnætr eru hverjum bráðastar, i. e. the thirst for revenge rises highest during the bloody nights, Glúm. 344, Fs. 39, Bs. i. 142.

blóð-rauðr, adj. blood-red, Fms. i. 217, Art. 120.

blóð-rás, f. a ‘blood-rush,’ hemorrhagia, Ld. 140, Fms. x. 395, Pr. 473: mod. also circulation of blood.

blóð-refill, m. the point of a sword, Nj. 246, Eg. 216, 306, Hkr. i. 70; a curious word; does refill here mean a snake? cp. refil-stígar, semita serpentis; cp. also Korm. ch. 9.

blóð-reiðr, adj. very wrath, Fms. iv. 182.

blóð-risa, adj. ind. [Germ. blutrise = saucius, cruentus], bruised and bloody, Eb. 46; in the alliterative phrase, blár ok b., blue and bloody from blows, Grett. 147, Stj. 91: as to the root, cp. hár-ramr, the outside, but hold-rosa, u, f. a tanner’s term, the inside of a skin; yet blóðrisa in the MSS. is not spelt with a y.

blóð-segi and blóðsigi, a, m. a clot of blood, Bs. i. 334, Fas. iii. 296.

blóð-skuld, f. blood-guilt, Pass. 2. 10, 25. 7.

blóð-sótt, f. monthly courses, Stj. 318, 256: dysenteria, Fél. ix. 199.

blóð-spýja, u, f. a spitting of blood, Fs. 153, Ann. 1393.

blóð-stjarna, u, f. the bloody star, prob. Mars, Rb. 110.

blóð-stokkinn, part. (mod. blóð-storkinn, stark with blood), gory all over, Bs. i. 626, Niðrst. 3.

blóð-straumr, m. a stream of blood, Fas. i. 499.

blóð-sveiti, a, m. a bloody sweat, Pass. 2. 12 (Luke xxii. 44).

blóð-taka, u, f. a blood-letting, blóðtöku-maðr, m. a blood-letter.

blóð-tjörn, f. a pool of blood, Eb. 200.

Blóðug-hadda, u, f. the bloody-haired, one of the names of the daughters of Ran, Edda.

Blóðug-hófi, a, m. the name of a mythical steed, Edda; cp. the O. H. G. lay or charm, ‘Phol ende Wodan,’ etc.

blóð-vaka, u, f. [vekja blóð, cp. vökvi, m. fluid], a law term, the letting blood flow; svá hart at b. yrði, Bs. i. 871.

blóð-varmr, adj. blood-warm, warm as blood, Karl. 240.

blóð-varta, u, f. a part of a sword, Edda (Gl.)

blóð-ær, f. a sheep (ewe) fit for slaughter, Fms. xi. 36.

blóð-æsar, f. pl. (v. æsar), a bad reading instead of blóðnætr, Bs. i. 142.

blóð-örn, m. ‘blood eagle,’ in the phrase ‘rísta b.,’ to cut a blood eagle, a cruel method of putting to death in the heathen times, practised, as it seems, only on the slayer of one’s father if taken alive in a battle: the ribs were cut in the shape of an eagle and the lungs pulled through the opening, a sort of vivisection described in Orkn. ch. 8, Fas. i. 293, 354 (Ragn. S.): so king Ella was put to death by the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok, Fms. iii. 225: it is called a sacrifice to Odin of the victim, cp. the phrase, ok gaf hann Óðni til sigrs sér, Orkn. l. c.; the old rite ‘marka geirsoddi,’ q. v., is analogous, not identical; cp. also upon the subject Grimm D. R. A., and Hm. 139.

blóð-öx and -ex, f. bloody axe, a cognom. of king Eric, Fms.

BLÓM, n. [Ulf. bloma, Matth. vi. 28; Engl. bloom; Germ. blume; A. S. blosma, Engl. blossom, answers to blómstr, qs. Lat. flos. The Icel. has not the primitive verb. Hel. blôan; Germ. blühen]:—a bloom, blossom, flower; hvít blóm á grasi, El. 24; lauf ok blóm ok aldin, 19; gras ok blóm, flowers, Edda 145 (pref.), Fms. v. 345; þótti honum á einum kvistinum fegrst b., Bárð. 164; ekki þótti henni blómit (the bloom or blossom on the tree) svá mikit á vera sem hón vildi, Ísl. ii. 14; kóróna af dýrligum blómum, Bret. COMPDS: blóma-mikill, adj. rich-blossoming, Bárð. l. c. blóm-berandi, part. bloom-bearing, Stj. 14. blóm-beranligr, adj. id., Fms. iii. 174.

blómgan, f. blooming, flourishing, Stj. 29.

blómganligr, adj. blooming, Bs. ii. 183.

blómgast, að, dep. to flourish, Magn. 502, Sks. 610: part. blómgaðr, adj. which has blossom upon it, Fms. xi. 9.

blómi, a, m. [Ulf. bloma, m., Matth. vi. 28; v. blóm]. 1. pl. blooms, blossoms, flowers; þar hrörna aldri fagrir blómar, Clem. 40; hafa rauða blóma (acc. pl.), 655 xiv; allskonar fagra blóma, Fms. x. 241; heilir blómar, flores integri, Magn. 468; this use is now rare. 2. sing. blooming; þat tré stendr ávalt síðan með blóma, in full bloom, 656 A. 23. 3. esp. metaph. full bloom, prosperity; stóð hagr hans með hinum mesta blóma, Ísl. ii. 14, Band. 2, Fms. v. 346; í bloma aldrs síns (æsku blómi), in the bloom of life, viii. 29, vii. 108 (with blooming face); á þeirra veldi var b. mjök langa hríð, Ver. 45, Sks. 758. 4. the yolk in an egg; the phrase ‘lifa sem blómi í eggi,’ to live like the yolk in an egg, i. e. to live in perfect comfort.

blómstr, rs, m. bloom, blossom; allan akrsins blómstr, Stj. 29; sætan b., Sks. 630 B, 499; ‘flos’ is rendered by b., Stj. (pref.): in writers since the Reformation always neut.; allt eins og blómstrið eina, and glóandi blómstrið frítt, Hallgrímr, Snót 45; blóm and blómstr are synonymous, but blómi in common usage is metaph. = prosperity.

BLÓRAR, a, m. [cp. Dan. blår, the refuse of flax, and the phrase, at kaste een blår í öjnene, to throw dust in one’s eyes] in Icel. only used in the metaph. phrase, at göra e-t í blóra við e-n, to commit an offence behind another person so that suspicion falls upon him: and blóra-maðr, m., en ef svá verðr sem mér er grunr á at, dóttir þín sé með barni, þá eru þar fáir blóramenn, ok vil ek ganga við faðerni. Fas. iii. 344.

BLÓT, n. [Ulf. renders λατρεία and σέβασμα by blutinassus, cp. also A. S. compd words such as blôtmônad]:—gener. worship, and worship including sacrifice, spec. a sacrificial feast or banquet, used freq. in pl. when in general sense; the feasts were, esp. the three great annual feasts, when the winter set in (Oct.), at Yule time and mid-winter (Dec. or Jan.), and when the summer began (April), Ó. H. ch. 94–96, Hkr. i. 139 sqq., Hák. S. G. ch. xvi sqq., and the verse of Kormak, Hafit maðr ask né eski, id., Hkr. (Ó. T.) i. 272, Fms. x. (Ó. T.) ch. 50, Fas. (Hervar. S.) i. 531, 512. Hervar. S. the last chapter, Eb. ch. 10, Eg. 257, Fb. i. 22; at Uppsölum vóru blót svá mikil í þann tíma, at hvergi hafa verit meiri á Norðrlöndum, Fas. i. 255; þann vetr fékk Ingólfr at blóti miklu ok leitaði sér heilla um forlög sín, Landn. 33, cp. Hým. 1, Vsp. 62; þar vóru áðr blót ok hörgar, Bs. i. 20 (Kr. S.), Fms. i. 131, Eb. 4; there are mentioned álfa-blót, dísa-blót, etc. 2. blót, or more correctly blœti, n. an idol, amulet, engi maðr skal hafa í húsum sínum, stalla, vit eðr blót (blœti) … nú ef blot (blœti) er funnit í húsi láslausu, mat-blót (dough idol) eðr leir-blót (clay idol) gört í mannslíki af leiri eðr deigi, þá …, N. G. L. i. 383, 389; cp. Fs. (Hallfr. S.) 97. II. metaph. in Christian times the name of the heathen worship became odious, and blót came to mean swearing, cursing, freq. in Sturl. and Bs., and in mod. usage, Sturl. ii. 106, 152, iii. 101, Fs. (Vd.) 36, Gísl. The terms for swearing in the heathen times were ‘troll, gramir,’ etc., q. v.

BLÓTA, in old use a strong (and originally a redupl.) verb, blóta—blét—blétu—blótinn; pres. blœt, and with the suffixed negative blœtka (I worship not), Stor. 22 (the Ed. wrongly blotka, without change of vowel); this form also occurs K. Þ. K. (Kb.) ch. 7, the Ed. 1853 has wrongly blœt(a)r, but a few lines below blótar (weak), probably altered from blœtr; pret. sing. blét, Hkr. (Yngl.) 56, 269; pl. blétu, 56; subj. blétim, 623. 61; imperat. blótt, Am. 75; part. blótinn, and sup. blótið are freq., Hkr. i. 34, 35, 239, Landn. 47, Fas. i. 255: more freq. weak, blóta, að; pres. blótar, blótast, Fas. i. 87, Fbr. 78; pret. blótaði, Landn. 224, 291, 322, Bs. i. 6 (Kr. S.), Nj. 272, Gísl. 140, Fær. 272, Fas. i. 463, 531, Bret., Fms. ii. 263, Hkr. i. 34, 35, Ísl. ii. 109, Fs. 50; only the weak sup. and part. are rare in old writers; blótuð, Hom. 153 (Norse); blótað (sup.), Bs. i. 5 (paper transcript); in Yngl. S. Hkr. i. 34, 35, Unger’s Edition has the old form blét, blótið, but Cod. Fris. l. c. the later mod. form.: [Ulf. blotan (redupl. verb) = λατρεύειν, σέβεσθαι, cp. guþbloteins = παράκλησις, guþblostreis = θεοσεβής; A. S. blôtan = immolare; O. H. G. blozan; the root is probably akin to bletsian, Engl. to bless]:—gener. to worship, to worship with sacrifice; with acc. of the being worshipped, but dat. of the object sacrificed; thus b. hof, lund, fors, goð, álfa, vættir, to worship temple, grove, force, gods, elves, beings; but b. mönnum, þrælum, kvikendum, to sacrifice with men, thralls, beasts, i. e. to sacrifice, slay them: also used absol.: I. with acc. or absol. to worship; skal Þórólfr b. ok leita heilla þeim bræðrum, Eg. 257, 623. 61, Landn. 40, Hkr. i. 34 sqq., Fs. 41; heiðnar vættir, Nj. 272, Fær. 139, cp. Bret. 84, 94, Landn. 36, Ib. ch. 7, Bs. i. 25; b. til friðar, sigrs, langlífis, árs, byrjar, to make a sacrifice for peace, victory, long life, good season, fair wind, Hkr. i. 239, 34, 56, 11. 97, Fs. 173: of the worship of natural objects, at Giljá stóð steinn (a stone), er (acc.) þeir frændr höfðu blótað, Bs. i. 5, Harð. S. Ísl. ii. 109; hann blótaði lundinn, he worshipped the grove (cp. Tacitus, sacrum nemus), Landn. 224; hann blótaði forsinn, 291: worship of men (rare), Gríms sonar þess er blótinn var dauðr fyrir þokkasæld ok kallaðr Kamban, 47, Fb. ii. 7; þau vóru bæði blótuð, Edda 83: b. hof, in the phrase, heiðnir menn hof b., Grág., Ísl. ii. 381; blót er oss ok kviðjat, at vér skulum eigi b. heiðit goð, né hauga né hörga, N. G. L. i. 18: worship of animals, Ögvaldr konungr blét kú eina, Hkr. i. 269, Fas. i. 255. β. with dat. (extremely rare); blótar hann einum gölt (sic!), prob. corrupt = einn (acc.) gölt, Fas. i. 187 a paper transcript. II. with dat. to sacrifice; sacrifices of men are recorded, Hkr. i. 34, 35, 56, 239, Gísl. 140, Eb. l. c., Fas. i. 452 (Hervar. S.): slaves and criminals were esp. sacrificed, thus representing the executions of modern times; heiðingjar blóta enum verstum mönnum, ok hrinda þeim fyrir björg ok hamra …; enir heiðnu menn höfðu þá stefnu, ok tóku þat ráð at b. tveim mönnum ór hverjum fjórðungi, Bs. i. (Kr. S.) 23: captives, Ó. H. ch. 131; kom þat ásamt með þeim at hafa Hallfreð til blóta, Fs. 102; b. þrælum, Fms. x. 323; b. mönnum ok fé, Fs. (Vd.) 50, Am. 75, Fms. i. 174: a sort of self-immolation is recorded Fb. ii. 72. III. to curse, swear, vide blót II; with dat. or absol., hann blótar hestunum, Fbr. 78; eigi kvíði ek því þótt biskup blóti mér eðr banni, Bs. i. 708; blótuð verð þú, Hom. 153: reflex, blótask, to go about swearing, Fms. viii. 294: vide Maurer, Bekehr. ii. 195 sqq.

blótan, f. sacrificing, 623. 57. II. cursing, swearing, Fms. viii. 293.

blót-auðigr, adj. rich in sacrifices; b. hof, Mart. 116.

blót-bað, n. a sacrificial bath, Post. 138.

blót-biskup, m. a heathen priest, Bret. 34 (Laocoon), Fms. x. 323.

blót-bolli, a, m. a sacrificial bowl, Fms. ii. 309.

blót-dómr, m. idolatry, Stj. 106.

blót-drykkja, u, f. a sacrificial feast, Fms. x. 393, cp. Eg. 257.

blót-fé, n. a sacred or accursed thing, Stj. 363 (Josh. vii. ii), Edda 83.

blót-goði, a, m. a heathen priest, Post. 656 B. 10, Hkr. i. 8.

blót-gröf, f. a sacrificial den in which to kill the victim, Fs. 49, 50.

blót-guð, m. a heathen god, Fms. ii. 76.

blót-gyðja, u, f. a heathen priestess, Hkr. i. 8.

blót-haugr, m. a sacrificial mound or cairn, cp. N. G. L. i. 18; defined Fms. v. 164; about cairns of that kind among the Perms (Bjarmar), vide Fms. iv. 299, cp. also Hkr. i. 16.

blót-hús, n. a heathen house of worship, sometimes less than the ‘hof,’ used like Christian chapels for private worship, Fms. ii. 263, Ísl. ii. 109: a temple in general, Stj. 391.

blót-jarl, m. a surname of the heathen earl Hacon, Fms. ii. 122.

blót-kálfr, m. the golden calf, Stj. 312.

blót-kelda, u, f. a fen near the heathen temples, in which animals (or men) were killed by drowning, Ísl. (Kjaln. S.) ii. 404.

blót-klæði, n. garments used at sacrifices, Fs. 42.

blót-kona, u, f. = blótgyðja, Stj. 428.

blót-lundr, m. a sacred grove, Fms. xi. 382, Stj. 391, cp. Landn. 222.

blót-maðr, m. a heathen worshipper, Bret. 57, Eg. 179, Fms. i. 294, 263, Andr. 65.

blót-matr, m. the meat of the victims, Hkr. i. 139.

blót-naut, n. an ox worshipped and enchanted, Hkr. i. 269, Fms. iii. 132, Fas. i. 255; hence in mod. use a mad bull is called blótneyti, n. 2. a bull to be sacrificed, a heathen sacrifice connected with the old holmgang, q. v., Eg. 506, cp. Korm. 212, 214, Gísl. 80.

blót-neyti, id., Fas. i. 425.

blót-prestr, m. a heathen priest, Sks. 575.

blót-risi, a, m. an enchanted champion (?), απ.λεγ., Korm. 242.

blót-skapr, m. idolatry, heathen worship, sacrifice, Fms. i. 31, xi. 134, Stj. 650, N. G. L. i. 351: things belonging to worship, Stj. 391, Fagrsk. 28, Fms. v. 239.

blót-skógr, m. = blótlundr, Stj. 650, Róm. 199.

blót-spánn, m. divining rods or chips used at sacrifices, cp. Tacitus Germ. ch. x, and Amm. Marc. xxxi. 2. in the phrase, fella blót-spán, ramos sortidicos jactare; þá feldi hann b. ok vitraðist svá, at hann skyldi hafa dagráð at berjast, Fagrsk. 40, in the passage of Vellekla (the source of the narrative) the poet uses the word teinn lautar, qs. hlautar-teinn, the rod of the sacrificial blood, cp. the phrase, kjósa hlaut-við, Vsp. 62; and hrista teina, Hým. 1; þá feldi Önundr blótspán til, at hann skyldi verða víss …, Landn. 193; síðan var feldr blótspánn, ok gékk svá fréttin, at…, Fas. i. 526, 452 (Hervar. S.)

blót-staðr, m. a place of heathen sacrifice, Hom. 175, Hkr. i. 6, Fms. xi. 40, Fagrsk. 29.

blót-stallr, m. a heathen altar, Stj. 391.

blót-tré, n. a sacred tree, Mart. 115.

blót-trygill, m. [trog], a sacrificial trough, Fs. 108.

blót-veizla, u, f. a sacrificial banquet, Hkr. i. 139, Fms. i. 35, iv. 237.

blót-viðr, m. = blótlundr, Greg. 80.

blót-villa, u, f. a heathen heresy, Fms. x. 243.

blót-völlr, m. a bewitched field; eigi munu vér Nú optar ganga appá b. þinn, Fms. viii. 157.

blunda, að, to doze; éta blundandi, Edda 72; cp. mod. ganga blindandi, to go blinking, half asleep; b. augum, to shut the eyes, Bs. ii. 481.

BLUNÐR, m. sleep, dozing: slumber, a nickname, Landn. 80.

blund-skaka, að, to blink with the eyes, Stj. 81.

blund-stafir, m. pl. rods causing sleep, in the phrase, bregða blund-stöfum, to awake, Sdm. 3; cp. stinga svefnþorn, Ísl. Þjóðs.

blygð, f. [bljúgr], shame, Grett. 159 A, Vígl. 20. COMPD: blygðar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), blameless, Grett. 161 A.

blygða, ð, to put to shame, Fas. iii. 655, Fms. iii. 89. β. reflex, to be ashamed, Sks. 494; = bleyðast, to lose heart, Fas. iii. 411; b. sín, to be ashamed, to repent, (mod.)

blygðan, f. shame, disgrace, nakedness, Pass. 24. 3. COMPD: blygðunar-lauss, adj. (-leysi, n.), impudent.

blygjast, ð, = blygðast, Sks. 494, v. l.

BLYS, n. [Dan. blus], a torch, Dipl. iii. 4, Bs. i. 804.

BLÝ, n. [Germ. blei; O. H. G. pli; Lat. plumbum], lead; sökkva sem b., Blas. 49, Dipl. v. 18. COMPDS: blý-band, n. a leaden band, Fms. x. 172. blý-kleppr, m. a plummet, Rb. 472. blý-ligr, adj. leaden, 732. II. blý-skeyti, n. a leaden missile, Stj. 74, Pr. 401. blý-steyptr, part. cast in lead, Sks. 392. blý-stika, u, f. a leaden candlestick, Vm. 38. blý-stokkr, m. a leaden box, Sd. 191. blý-bungr, adj. heavy as lead.

blý-þekja, þakði, to thatch, i. e. roof, with lead, Bs. i. 235.

blæða, dd, to bleed, to flow, of blood, Pr. 473; blæddu nasar hans (blóð-nasir), Bs. i. 521: impers., e-m blæðir, one loses blood, Grág. ii. II, Sturl. iii. 113, Sd. 139, Eb. 242: absol., laust hana í andlitið svá at blæddi, Nj. 18: metaph. phrase, e-m blæðir e-t í augu, it bleeds into one’s eyes, i. e. one is amazed at a thing.

blæja, u, f. [cp. Germ. blege = limbus, prob. derived from A. S. bleoh = colour; prob. an Engl. word, cp. Enskar blæjur, Eb. 256]:—a fine, coloured cloth; hon hafði knýtt urn sik blæju, ok vóru í mörk blá, Ld. 244: a burial sheet, Am. 101, Gkv. 1. 13, Grág. i. 207: the cover of a bed, Gg. 7, 25, Rm. 20, Bb. 1. 12, Eb. l. c.: cover of an altar table, Vm. 65, Dipl. iii. 4: poët., hildar b., a shield, the b. of the mast = the sail, etc.: mod. a veil. COMPDS: blseju-endi, a, m. the end of a b., Ld. l. c. blæju-horn, n. the corner of a b., Ld. 246. blæju-hvalr, m. [Germ. bleie], a kind of whale, alburnus, Edda (Gl.)

BLÆR, m. [cp. Engl. to blare], a gentle breeze, puff of air, esp. with a notion of warmth; b. hitans, Edda 4: kenna blæ (to feel a draft) á andliti sér. Clem. 35; vinds blær, Stj. 78; þá kom kaldr blær (a cold stream of air) á Skutu or jarðhúsinu, Rb. 319: poet, the blue sky, the pure air, undir blæ himins blíðan, Pass. 25. 10; blærinn hýrnar við dægrið hvert, Bb. 1. 18. 2. in mod. usage metaph. the air, character of a speech, writing, or the like; sögu-blær, frásagnar-blær, rit-blær. II. a ram, Edda (Gl.), hence blœsma.

blœsma, adj. ind. [blær, a ram], a ewe or goat at heat, Grág. i. 427, Fbr. 212, Stj. 178; cp. yxna of a cow, breyma of a cat, rœða of a sow.

blökku-maðr, m. [blakkr], a blackamoor, sometimes a negro, (mod.)

BLÖKU-MENN, m. pl. Walachians, and Blökumanna-land, Walachia, Fms. v. 283; hann sviku Blakumenn í útfaru, Broc. Runstone, p. 179.

BLÖSKRA, að, to blench: 1. absol., hann brá sér eigi við né blöskraði, Fms. vii. 157; hygg at vandlega hvárt ek b. nökkut, xi. 150, and so also Jomsv. 47, and Fb. i. 198. 2. e-m blöskrar—ok bað þá at hyggja hvárt honum blöskraði nökkuð, Sturl. iii. 43—ought perhaps to be ‘hann;’ the mod. use is constant, ‘e-m b.,’ one blenches, is shocked at a thing.

BOBBI, a, m. a snail-shell, Eggert Itin., hence metaph. puzzle, in the phrase, komast í bobba, to get into a puzzle.

BOÐ, n. [Ulf. buzns; Germ. bote, gebot; cp. bjóða]. 1. a bid, offer; konungr bauð (offered) at fá Gunnari kvánfang ok ríki mikit…Gunnarr þakkaði konungi boð sitt, Nj. 46; bjóða boð fyrir e-n, to make bids or offers for one, Lv. 25, Vígl. 28; hvat er í boði, what is the bidding? metaph. from an auction, O. H. L. 71. 2. a feast, wedding, banquet, to which the guests are ‘bidden;’ veizlan fór vel fram, en er boði var lokit, when the feast was past, Nj. 25; fóru þeir allir til boðsins, the wedding feast, Fms. xi. 106; skyldi boð vera at Marðar, Nj. 4; hafa e-n í boði sínu, to entertain at one’s feast, Fms. i. 40; haust-boð, Gísl. 27. 3. [A. S. bebod], a bidding, commandment, Fms. ii. 30, 168, xi. 246; boð ok bann, v. bann. β. the right of redemption, a Norse law term; skal sá óðalsmaðr er boði er næstr brigð upp hefja, Gþl. 294; ok svá eigu þær boð á jörðum jafnt sem karlar, N. G. L. i. 92, 94, 237. 4. a message; göra e-m boð, to call for one, N. G. L. i. 60. β. metaph. and a law term, a summons, being an arrow, axe, or the like sent to call people to battle or council, as symbolical of the speed to be used, or of the punishment to be inflicted, if the summons be not obeyed; cp. herör; so the Swed. budsticka or budkafle, (till tings, till tings, budkaflen går kring borg och dal! Tegner), and the fiery cross in the Lady of the Lake. In Icel., at least in the west part, a small wooden axe is still sent from farm to farm to summon people to the mantals-thing in the spring; vide Gþl. 433 sqq., Jb. 180, and the compds boðburðr, boðfall, boðskurðr, boðleið, etc. COMPDS: boðs-maðr, m. a guest at a feast, wedding, Nj. 11, Fms. ii. 193. boðs-váttr, m. a witness to a boð, 4. β, N. G. L. i. 237. boðs-vitni, n. id., N. G. L. ii. 99, v. l.

boða, að, 1. to announce, proclaim, esp. as rendering of the eccl. Lat. praedicare, to preach the Gospel, as a missionary; b. Kristni, to preach Christianity, Nj. 157; trú, 158, Fms. x. 298, H. E. i. 510; sjáið, eg boða yðr mikinn fögnuð, Luke ii. 10. β. hón boðaði Þangbrandi heiðni, Nj. 160. 2. to bid, order, with dat.; lét hann b. á sinn fund öllum öldungum, Stj. 649; hann boðaði saman mörgu stórmenni, Bs. i. 470; konungr boðaði honum á sinn fund, the king bade him come, Fær. 131; b. e-n af löndum, to outlaw one, bid him off the land, Fms. vii. 17, 21. 3. to bode, signify; hvat þetta mundi boða, Eb. 270; e-m b. e-t, he has a foreboding of it; mundi þar til draga sem honum hafði fyrir boðat, Eg. 75: impers., e-m boðar ótta, one feels uneasy, Sturl. i. 109, where Bs. i. 410 spells bjóða ótta (better).

boða, u, f. = boð, a command, N. G. L. i. 237.

boðan, f. announcement; b. dagr Maríu, the feast of the Annunciation, the 2nd of July, Mar.: preaching, proclaiming, 623. 11.

boð-angr, m. (qs. boð-vangr), prop. a ‘bidding-place,’ market-place; only in the phrase, hafa e-ð á boðangi, to hold out for sale.

boð-burðr, m. a carrying of the boð, 4. β, Gþl. 432, 436, Jb. 180.

boð-fall, n. dropping the boð, 4. β Gþl. 435, Jb. 182.

boð-fasta, u, f. a fast ordered by the canonical law, H. E. i. 393.

boð-ferð, f. the course of a boð, 4. β, H. E. i. 393.

boð-greizla, u, f. = boðburðr, Jb. 184, Gþl. 437 B; vide boðreizla.

boði, a, m. 1. [vide boð 4, cp. A. S. boda], a messenger, used in poetry; b. hildar, the messenger of war, Lex. Poët.: in prose, Thom. 5, and in compds such as sendi-boði, a messenger, fyrir-boði, aforeboder. 2. esp. as a nautical term, a breaker ‘boding’ hidden rocks; þeir undruðust mjök þenna atburð, er b. féll í logni, þar er engi maðr vissi, at b. hefði fallit fyrr, ok djúp var undir, Magn. 488, Fms. ix. 415, x. 324, xi. 10, Eg. 161, Bs. i. 420, Grág. ii. 385: the phrase, vera sem b. á skeri, like a breaker on a skerry (rock), of a hot-tempered man, never at rest. COMPDS: boða-fall, n. the dash of breakers, Fas. iii. 506. boða-slóð, f. the surf of breakers, Orkn. 322.

boð-leggja, lagði, to offer for sale, Gþl. 302, v. l.

boð-leið, f. a law term, the due course of a boð [4. β] from house to house, defined in Gþl. 432, N. G. L. i. 348, Jb. 181: in the phrase, fara (rétta) b., to go from house to house in due course, skipping none: perhaps the true reading Nj. 185 is, fara boðleið til búðar; some MSS. have bónleið.

boð-ligr, adj. fit to be offered, Háv. 55.

BOÐN, f. [cp. A. S. byden = dolium, Icel. byðna; Norse biðna, Ivar Aasen], one of the three vessels in which the poet, mead was kept, Edda 47, etc., hence poetry is called the wave of the boðn, Lex. Poët.

boð-orð, n. order, bidding; Guðs b., Hom. 34, Ver. 25, Bs. i. 67, Magn. 448: as a law term, an ordinance, K. Á. 192; = penance in eccl. sense, K. Þ. K. 26: in mod. usage, esp. the Ten Commandments (Tiu-laga-boðorð, or with the article, Boðorðin), Sks. 671, cp. Pr. 437, where they are termed ‘Laga-orð.’ COMPDS: boðorða-breytni, f. alteration of a b., Bs. i. 545. boðorða-brot, n. breach of a b., Fms. vii. 108. boð-orða-maðr, m. a public officer, N. G. L. i. 409.

boð-reizla, u, f. = boðgreizla.

boð-rífr, adj. fair bidding, Fms. iii. 122 (poët.)

boðs-bréf, n. a list of subscriptions, (mod.)

boð-seti (beð-seti, N. G. L. i. 315), a, m. a dub. Norse term, the benches in a law-court(?), the bar(?); hverr þeirra manna er gengr fyrir boðseta (acc. pl.) fram, nema hann eigi at sækja eðr verja, sá er sekr níu ertogum við konung ok bæjarmenn, N. G. L. i. 323, 315; beðseti, qs. bekkseti (?).

boð-skapr, m. a bidding, ordinance, Stj. 82, H, E. i. 471, 677. 6, Fms. ii. 61. II. in mod. usage, announcement.

boð-skurðr, m. [skera boð, to carve a boð, 4. β], a message, summons to a meeting, N. G. L. i. 153.

boð-sletta (boð-slotti, a, m., Gþl. 200), also boð-flenna, u, f. an intruder at a feast, an uninvited guest, Jb. 110.

boð-slóð, f. = boðleið, Jb. 181.

boð-stóll, m., in the phrase, hafa e-t á boðstólum, to put a thing out for sale.

bog-fimi, f. archery.

BOGI, a, m. [A. S. boga; Engl. bow; Germ. bogen], a bow, Nj. several times; skjóta af boga, 29, 96; benda b., Fas. ii. 88, Landn. 288, Fms. ii. 321, iii. 228; álm-bogi, hand-bogi, lás-bogi, ý-bogi, q. v. 2. metaph. an arch, vault, Sks. 116: the rainbow, Stj. 62: metaph., bera mál ór boga, to disentangle a case, Sks. 654; himin-bogi, the sky; blóð-bogi, a gush of blood; regn-bogi, a rainbow; öln-bogi, an elbow. 3. a spurt as from a fountain or a vein; þá stóð bogi úr kaleikinum, Bs. i. 321; blóð-bogi. COMPDS: boga-dreginn, adj. bow-sbaped, curved. boga-háls, m. the tip of a bow, where the string is fastened, Al. 142, Fas. ii. 88. boga-list, f. archery, now used metaph. boga-mynd, f. the form of a bow, Fas. i. 271. boga-skot, n. bow-shot, sbooting with a bow, Fms. ii. 169. boga-strengr, m. a bow-string, Nj. 115, 136. boga-vápn, n. a bow, Fms. viii. 184, v. 1.

boginn, adj. bent, bowed, curved, Al. 8; prop. a part. from a lost strong verb bjúgan; cp. Goth. bjúgan = καμπτειν.

bog-maðr, m. a bowman, archer, Fas. i. 382, Ingv. 34, Lv. 63, Fær. 56, Fms. vi. 413. bogmanns-merki, n. the zodiacal sign, Arcitenens, Rb. 102.

bog-mannliga, adv. bowmanlike, Fms. ii. 450.

bogna, að, to become curved, bent, Hkr. ii. 365, Flov. 34: to give way, Fms. viii. 403, Al. 57.

bog-nauð, n. the ‘bow-need,’ i. e. the hand. Lex. Poët.

bogra, að, to creep along bowed or stooping; þá boru bograr (creeps) hann inn, Fas. i. 393; bogra fyrir e-m, to bow before one, Þorst. St. 53.

bog-sterkr, -styrkr, adj. stark or strong at the bow, Hkr. iii. 264.

bog-sveigir, m. bow-swayer, a nickname, Fas. ii.

BOKKI, a, m., means probably a he-goat, [cp. Germ. bock; Dan. bukk; Engl. buck], a familiar mode of address; Höttr heiti ek, bokki sæll, and, skaltu nú bana mér, bokki, my good fellow, ‘old buck,’ Fas. i. 66; muntú festa, bokki, tindinn í kambi mínum (the old woman addressing the bishop), Fb. iii. 446: stærri bokkar, bigger men, 352, vide stór-bokki.

bokkr, m. a buck, Lex. Poët.

bola, að, prop. to fell trees, to cut through the bole (bolr), Fas. i. 106. II. [boli, a bull], to bully; b. e-n út, to push one out, as a bull with the horns: reflex, bolast, a wrestling term, of two wrestlers pushing or butting at one another with their heads.

boldang, n. a sort of thick linen, (for. word.)

bol-fimligr, adj. slender, agile of body, Fas. iii. 372.

bol-hlíf, f. a covering for the body, opp. to the helmet, Bs. i. 667.

BOLI, a, m. a bull, Boll. 336, Edda 99, Ísl. ii. 26; in Icel. esp. of a bull-calf, bola-kálfr, etc.

bol-járn = bolöx(?), Ingv. 13.

bol-klæði, n. pl. garments (coat, waistcoat) for the body, Grett. 147 A.

BOLLI, a, m. [A. S. bolla], a bowl, Stj. 310, Rm. 4; blótbolli, a measure = ½ ask, Gþl. 525: a pr. name, Ld.

BOLR and bulr, m. the bole or trunk of a tree, Sks. 555 B. 2. metaph. the trunk of a body, N. G. L. i. 80, Nj. 275, Fms. x. 213, ED. 244, Anec. 4: the phrase, ganga milli bols ok höfuðs á e-m, to go through between one’s trunk and head, i. e. to knock one quite dead, deal severely with, Ld. 244, Eb. 240. 3. an old-fashioned waistcoat.

bolungr, v. bulungr.

bol-vöxtr, m. the growth, form of the body; vel at bolvexti, a well-grown, stout man, Bs. i. 66, Fas. iii. 605.

bol-öx, f. [Swed. bolyxa], a pole-axe; in present usage opp. to skaröxi, a carpenter’s axe, Stj. 401. Judg. ix. 48, Fms. ix. 357, Fbr. 179, Thom. 343, Ingv. 24, Vápn.

boppa, að, to wave up and down, onomatopoëtic and common.

BOPS, n. an onomatopoëtic word, [Germ. bumbs], bump or plump; mikit fall, svá at b. kvað í skrokkinum, Þórð. 16. β. the faint bark of a dog: also bopsa, að.

bora, u, f. a bore-hole, Grett. 125, 133, Fas. i. 393, Vm. 65. COMPD: boru-foli, a, m. a Norse law term, a stolen article put into an innocent man’s house; even if officers ransacked a house without having their persons searched, and find something, þá er b. ok liggr ekki búanda við, then it is b. and the farmer is free, N. G. L. i. 255.

BORA, að, [Lat. forare; A. S. borian; Engl. bore; O. H. G. poran], to bore, to bore holes in, Fms. ix. 447, Ld. 116, Edda 48, 49, Eb. 182, D. I. i. 243: metaph., b. atsúg at e-u, to doa thing thoroughly, v. atsúgr: reflex., borast fram, to press one’s way through a crowd, Fms. v. 180, Fb. ii. 112.

BORÐ, n. [Ulf. baurd, in fotubaurd = υποπόδιον; Hel. bord = margo; A. S. borð; Engl. board]. 1. a board, plank, Lat. tabula; tók hann þá borð ok lausa viðu, ok rak um þvera stofuna, Grett. 140, N. G. L. i. 100. β. of a ship, the side (cp. starboard, larboard); höggr hann þá tveim höndum borð (sides) skútunnar, ok gengu í sundr borðin (the planks) um tvau rúm, Nj. 19; þeir Erlingr hjuggu raufar í drómundinum, sumar í kafi niðri, en sumar uppi á borðunum, Fms. vii. 232, Nj. 42; hence the nautical phrases, á borð, on each side; á tvau borð, á bæði borð, on both sides, Eg. 171; með endilöngum borðum, Fms. ii. 273, Eg. 122; leggja borð við borð = síbyrða, to lay a ship alongside of another, so as to board, Fas. ii. 534; bera skip borði, to make the bulwarks rise, Fms. ii. 218; fyrir borð, overboard, Eg. 124, Fms. xi. 140; á borði, on land, Jb. 327; borð 4 stjórn = stjórn-borði, the starboard side, Gþl. 518. The planks in a ship’s side have different names, e. g. aur-borð, skaut-borð, sól-borð. 2. metaph. phrases, at vera mikill (lítill, nokkur) borði, to be of a high (or lowly) bearing, metaphor from a ship floating high out of, or deep in, the sea, Eg. 8, Sturl. iii. 196: verða (allr) fyrir borð borinn, to be (quite) thrown overboard, i. e. ill-used, Eb. 126, Fær. 234; verða allr fyrir borði, id., Ölk. 35; hans hlutr mundi eigi fyrir borð vera borinn, id., Rd. 239; e-n brestr á borði, to fail, be beaten (metaphor from rowing), Fms. ix. 507; taka skamt frá borði, to fall short, Lv. 45; ganga at borði við e-n, to come to terms, yield, submit, Bs. i. 889; gékk Egill tregt at borð um þetta mál, E. was hard, unyielding, 696; hverigum skyldi úhætt, nema þeir gengi at borði við hann, unless they came to terms with him, 727, 778; á annað borð, on the other hand; harðr maðr á annat borð, a hard one to pull against, Fms. xi. 39: but also on the other hand, otherwise, else; hann vildi með engu móti kalla á Þormóð sér til bjargar, þó at hann félli ofan á annað borð, though he was sure to tumble down otherwise (i. e. unless he called), Fbr. 88; hence freq. in mod. usage, e. g. ef eg á annað borð göri það, i. e. if I do it at all: navig., ganga til borðs, á borð, to go to one’s business, Fagrsk. 167, Bárð. 166. 3. [A. S. bord = labrum], the margin between the rim of a vessel and the liquid; er nú gott berandi borð á horninu, Edda 32; hence, fjöru-borð, the shore between high and low water, vide 33, 34; cp. the saying, fullt skal frömum bera, þó skal borð á vera, i. e. it is clownish to bring a cup full to the brim, and, fullt skal föntum bera og ekkert borð á vera. II. a board, table, Lat. mensa; rísa frá borði, to rise from the board, from table, Rm. 17, or simply and ellipt. rísa, 30; borð is freq. used in pl., as in the old halls small tables were set at meal time, and removed after the meal; hence phrases, borð (pl.) ofan (upp) tekin, the tables being removed, cp. Virgil’s mensisque remotis, Nj. 176, Fms. i. 41, iv. 265, v. 126, Bs. i. 854, Eg. 408; til þess er borð fóru brott, 551; setjast undir borð (pl.), to sit down; sitja undir borðum, to be at table, Nj. 68, Eb. 306; ganga undir drykkju borð, Fms. iii. 93; koma undir borð (acc. pl.), 96; ganga til borða, iv. 114, 129; koma til borðs (sing.), 202, cp. Ó. H. 86, Fms. iv. 246; sitja yfir borðum, iii. 155, iv. 113; sitja yfir matborði, v. 126, viii. 212; sitja yfir borð (acc. pl.), id., Bs. i. 843: the rhyming phrase, vera þar at orði, sem hann er ekki at borði, vide Safn i. 91. It was the custom for kings or princes to give audience or receive poets whilst sitting at table, Fms. vi. 195, Eg. ch. 63. β. maintenance at table (cp. Engl. board and lodging); vera á borði með e-m, B. K. 124, D. N. (Fr.): of a chess-board, Bs. i. 635. COMPDS: borða-munr, m. difference in the height of ships (in battle), Fms. viii. 292, cp. 288. borða-víti, n. pl. a ‘board-fee,’ sconce, cp. víti, Fms. iii. 155. borðs-tilgangr, m. going to table, Fms. iii. 155.

borða, að, to sit at table, eat, dine, Fas. iii. 219.

borð-búnaðr, m. table-service, Eg. 94, Fms. i. 292, iv. 262, Orkn. 226.

borð-diskr, m. a plate, Fas. iii. 222, vide diskr; (now freq.)

borð-dúkr, m. a table-cloth, Nj. 176. Hkr. ii. 189, cp. Fms. vi. 322, Rm. 28.

borð-fastr, adj. maintained at one’s table, Sks. 259.

borð-fjöl, f. a plank, Sturl. ii. 109.

borð-færi, n., in the phrase, taka sér borðfæri, = ganga til borðs, vide above, Grág. ii. 119.

borð-gestr, m. a guest at table.

borð-hald, n. one’s ‘board,’ fare, Edda 23, Hkr. ii. 36, Thom. 68.

borð-hár, adj. a ship rising high, Fms. ii. 314, Orkn. 362.

borð-hús, n. a room where the plate is kept, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 18, Sturl. iii. 191 C.

borð-hæð, f. the height of a ship out of the water, Fas. iii. 260.

BORÐI, a, m. [cp. Engl. border; O. H. G. porto; Germ. borti; prob. akin to borð]:—a border, Lat. limbus; byrða á borða (acc.), t o embroider, Gkv. 2. 16; bregða borða, to leave off embroidering, 17; rekja borða, to embroider, Heir. 1, Og. 18; b. ok hannyrðir, Fas. i. 430, 523; kona sat við borða, a lady sat embroidering, Fms. ii. 148; slá borða, to embroider, Fas. i. 113; cp. borða skögul, gná, etc., a poët. circumlocution of a lady, Lex. Poët.: tapestry, b. fimtigi alna, Dipl. iii. 4, Pm. 10, Bs. i. 77: of the tapestry of a church, esp. the choir, Nj. 6. 2. poët. a shield, Lex. Poët.

borð-ker, n. a cup at table, loving-cup, Hkr. iii. 181; b. er vá átta merkr, Bs. i. 76.

borð-kista, u, f. a box for keeping the table-service in, D. N. (Fr.)

borð-knífr, m. a table-knife, Ann. 1339.

borð-leiðangr, m. a levy commuted for victuals (Norse), D. N. (Fr.)

borð-lægr, adj., b. viðr, timber fit for cutting into planks, Vm. 176.

borð-maðr, m. a table-companion, Sks. 262.

borð-mikill, m. = borðhár, Fms. ii. 50, Hkr. i. 238.

borð-prestr, m. a ‘board-priest,’ who says grace at a bishop’s table, Bs. ii. 129.

borð-prýði, n. the ornaments of a table, Fas. iii. 374.

borð-sálmr, m. a ‘board-psalm,’ grace, Bb. 1. 15 (Mark xiv. 26).

borð-siðir, m. pl. rules for behaviour at table.

borð-skutill, m. a small movable table, Bs. i. 537, Mar.

borð-stokkr, m. the bulwarks of a ship, Grett. 125.

borð-stóll, m. a chair used at table, D. N.

borð-sveinn, m. a butler, waiter, Mag. 66; cp. skutilsveinn.

borð-tafl, n. a chess-board, Sturl. ii. 184, v. l.

borð-vegr, m. = borðstokkr, Bs. ii. 50, 179, Mar.

borð-vers, m. = borðsálmr, N. G. L. i. 406.

borð-viðr, m. boards, planks, Fms. viii. 374, D. N.

borð-þak, n. a ‘thatch’ or covering of planks, Hkr. ii. 11.

borð-þekja, þakti, to cover with planks, Fms. v. 331.

borð-þili, n. the sides of a ship, Gkv. 1. 7.

BORG, ar, f., pl. ir, [Ulf. baurgs = πόλις, and once Nehem. vii. 2. = arx, castellum; A. S. burg, burh, byrig, = urbs and arx; Engl. borough and burgh; O. H. G. puruc, purc; late Lat. burgus; Ital. borgo; Fr. bourg; cp. Gr. πύργος; the radical sense appears in byrgja, to enclose; cp. also berg, a hill, and bjarga, to save, defend. Borg thus partly answers to town (properly an enclosure); and also includes the notion of Lat. arx, Gr. ακρόπολις, a castle. Old towns were usually built around a hill, which was specially a burg; the name is very freq. in old Teut. names of towns.] I. a small dome-shaped hill, hence the Icel. names of farms built near to such hills, v. Landn. (Gl.) Hel. once uses the word in this sense, 81; v. the Glossary of Schmeller; brann þá Borgarhraun, þar var bærinn sem nú er borgin (viz. the volcanic hill Eld-borg), Landn. 78; göngum upp á borgina (the hill) ok tölum þar, Ísl. ii. 216; er borgin er við kend, Landn. 127; Borgar-holt, -hraun, -dalr, -höfn, -fjörðr, -lækr, -sandr; Arnarbælis-borg, Eld-borg (above) in the west of Icel. It may be questioned, whether those names are derived simply from the hill on which they stand (berg, bjarg), or whether such hills took their name from old fortifications built upon them: the latter is more likely, but no information is on record, and at present ‘borg’ only conveys the notion of a ‘hill;’ cp. hólar, borgir og hæðir, all synonymous, Núm. 2. 99. II. a wall, fortification, castle; en fyrir innan á jörðunni görðu þeir borg (wall) umhverfis fyrir ófriði jötna … ok kölluðu þá borg Miðgarð, Edda 6; cp. also the tale of the giant, 25, 26; borg Ása, Vsp. 28; þeir höfðu gört steinvegg fyrir framan hellismunnann, ok höfðu sér þat allt fyrir borg (shelter, fortification), Fms. vii. 81; hann let göra b. á sunnanverðu Morhæfi (Murrey), Orkn. 10, 310, 312, 396, Fms. i. 124, xi. 393, Eg. 160; the famous Moussaburg in Shetland, cp. Orkn. 398. III. a city, esp. a great one, as London, Hkr. ii. 10; Lisbon, iii. 234; York, 156; Dublin, Nj. 274; Constantinople, Fms. vii. 94; Nineveh, Sks. 592; Zion, Hom. 107, etc. This sense of the word, however, is borrowed from the South-Teut. or Engl. In Scandin. unfortified towns have -bæ or -by as a suffix; and the termin. -by marks towns founded by the Danes in North. E. COMPDS: borgar-armr, m. the arm, wing of a fort, Fms. v. 280. borgar-greifi, a, m. a borough-reeve, bur-grave (Engl.), Stj. borgar-görð, f. the building of a fort, Edda 26, Fms. viii. 180. borgar-hlið, n. the gate of a fort, Edda 26, Stj. 350, Hkr. i. 217, Ver. 25. borgar-hreysi, n. the ruins of a fort, Karl. 101. borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a fort is built, Fms. viii. 284. borgar-kona, u, f. a townswoman, Stj. 426. borgar-lið, n. a garrison, Ver. 96. borgar-lím, n. lime for building a fort, Bret. 106. borgar-lýðr, m. townsfolk, Fms. viii. 416, v. l. borgar-maðr, m. a townsman, citizen, Eg. 244, Fms. i. 103, Sks. 649, mostly in pl., Lat. concivis is rendered by b., Hom. 17. borgar-múgr, m. the mob of a city, Fas. i. 4. borgar-múrr, m. a city-wall, Stj. 352. borgar-siðr, m. city-manners, urbanity, Clem. 27. borgar-smíð, f. the building of a town (fort), Stj., cp. Edda 28. borgar-staðr, m. the site of a town, Edda 152. borgar-veggr, m. the wall of a fort (town), Orkn. 376, Fms. i. 104, Hkr. i. 217, Ver. 24. Borgar-þing, n. the fourth political subdivision (þing) of Norway, founded by St. Olave, cp. O. H. L. 23, and Munch’s Geography of Norway. borga-skipan, f. a (geographical) list of cities, Symb. 32.

borga, að, [Engl. to borrow and bargain; Germ. borgen; related to byrgja and bjarga; O. H. G. porgen only means parcere, spondere, not mutuare. In Icel. the word is of foreign origin; the indigenous expressions are, lána, ljá, to lend; gjalda, to pay; selja, veðja, to bail, etc.; the word only occurs in later and theol. writers]:—to bail; vil ek b. fyrir Árna biskup með mínum peningum, Bs. i. 770 (thrice): now obsolete in this sense. 2. to pay, as in Matth. xviii. 25; but in old writers this sense hardly occurs.

borgan, borgun, f. bail, security, Bs. i. 749, 770, Dipl. v. 14, Stj. COMPD: borganar-maðr, m. a bailsman, Bs. i. 770, Jb. 112, Band. 33 new Ed.

borgari, a, m. [for. word; Germ. bürger; Dan. borger], a citizen, N. G. L. iii. 144; rare and hardly before A. D. 1280. COMPD: borgara-réttr, m. civic rights, id.

borg-firzkr, adj. one from the district Borgarfjörðr, Landn.

borg-hlið, f. = borgarhlið, Edda 30, Bret. 94.

borgin-móði, a, m., poët name of the raven, bold of mood, Lex. Poët.

borgin-orðr, adj. cautious in words, reticent, reserved (= orðvarr), Fms. vi. 208: at present b. and borgin-mannligr, adj., mean vainglorious, braggart.

Borgund, f. a local name, an island in Norway. Borgundar-hólmr, m., Dan. Bornholm, Knytl. S.

borkn, m. a name of a wolf, Edda(Gl.), cp. Grims-borken in Norse legends.

borr, m. (com. bor-járn, n.), a borer; stórviðar-borr, skipa-borr, Od. ix. 384: metaph. the pipe of a marrow-bone, Eg. (in a verse). II. a less correct form of börr, q. v.

BOSSI, a, m. [Swed. buss, cp. Germ. bursch], a boy, fellow; occurs once in the Jomsv. S., Fms. xi. (in a verse), from A. D. 994. It is still in use in Icel. in the compd word hvata-buss, a boyish fellow who is always in a bustle; hence also hvatabuss-legr, adj. hurried.

bossi, cp. the American word boss, of which their slang ‘old-boss’ is a corruption.

BOTN, m. [Lat. fundus; A. S. botm; Engl. bottom; Hel. bodm; Germ. boden; Swed. batten; Dan. bund]:—the bottom; of a vessel, tunnu-botn, kistu-botn, etc., Nj. 133, Sturl. ii. 107, Hkr. ii. 245: the bottom of other things, e. g. of a haycock, Eb. 324; marar-botn, the bottom of the sea. β. the head of a bay, firth, lake, dale, or the like; fjarðar-botn, vatns-botn, vágs-botn, dals-botn: Botn is a local name in Icel., Fms. xi. 125: in pl. even = bays, nú er at segja hvat móts gengr við Grænaland ór botnum þeim er fyrir eru nefndir, MS. A. M. 294; Hafs-botnar, Trolla-botnar, the Polar Sea between Greenland and Norway; the ancients fancied that these bays were the abode of the giants.

botn-hola, u, f. a pit; in the phrase, at vera kominn í botnholu, to have got into a hole, i. e. into a scrape, metaphor from fox-hunting, Sturl. ii. 62, Fms. viii. 186.

bóand-, v. búand-.

BÓFI, a, m. [Germ. bube, büberl, spitzbube, v. Grimm], a knave, rogue, in Icel. only in a bad sense; cp. the rhyming phrase, þjófar og bófar, thieves and knaves; no reference from old writers is on record (though it is common enough at the present day), except that in Eb. it is used as a nickname, Freysteinn Bófi; in Swed. it occurs as a pr. name, Baut. 1478, 1483.

bóg-limir, m. pl., poët. = arms, Lex. Poët.

bóg-lína, u, f. bow-line, Edda (Gl.)

BÓGR, m., old acc. pl. bógu, Nj. 95, Fms. v. 163, etc.: mod. bóga; old dat. bægi, Hlt., Vkv. 31, Stj. 249, [A. S. bôg; Dan. boug; Engl. bow of a ship; and in Old Engl. bowres are the muscles of the shoulder]:—the shoulder of an animal, (armr of a man); á hinum hægra bæginum, Stj. 249; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir aptan bóguna, Nj. l. c., Fms. l. c.; lær uxans tvau ok báða bógana, the shoulder-piece of the ox (the Ob. bóguna), Edda 45; cp. bœgsli or bæxli, the shoulder of a whale or dragon, v. Lex. Poët.:—the bow of a ship, v. bóglína above. 2. mod. metaph. of the side of a person or thing; á hinn, þann bóginn, on this, on that side; á báða bóga, on both sides, etc.

BÓK, ar, f. [Lat. fāgus; Gr. φηγός; A. S. bôc; Engl. beech; Germ. buche (fem.); Swed. bok; Dan. böge, etc.]:—a beech, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. Owing to the absence of trees in Icel., the word rarely occurs; moreover the collect. beyki, n., is more freq.

BÓK, gen. bókar, but also in old writers bækr, pl. bækr, [Ulf. renders by bôca the Gr. βίβλος, γράμματα, επιστολή, etc.; A. S. bôc; Engl. book; Germ. buch (neut.); Swed. bok; Dan. bog: the identity between bók fāgus and bók liber seems certain; the gender is in all Scandinavian idioms the same; modern German has made a distinction in using buche fem., buch neut.; both are akin to the Gr.-Lat. fāgus, φηγός; cp. also the analogy with Gr. βίβλος and Lat. liber (book and bark): bók-stafr also properly means a beech-twig, and then a letter. In old times, before the invention of parchment, the bark of trees was used for writing on]:—a book. I. the earliest notion, however, of a ‘book’ in Scandin. is that of a precious stuff, a textile fabric with figures, or perhaps characters, woven in it; it occurs three or four times in old poems in this sense; bók ok blæja, bjartar váðir, Skv. 3. 47; bækr (bekr) þínar enar bláhvítu ofnar völundum (of bed-sheets?), Hðm. 7, Gh. 4: bók-rúnar, Sdm. 19, may refer to this; or is it = runes engraven on beech-wood? II. a book in the proper sense. Icel. say, rita and setja saman bók (sögu), to write and compose a book (story); old writers prefer saying, rita ‘á’ bók (dat. or acc.) instead of ‘í,’ perhaps bearing in mind that the earliest writings were on scrolls, or even on stones or wooden slabs—barbara fraxineis pingatur runa tabellis; they also prefer to use the plur. instead of sing. without regard to volumes (as in Engl. writings); það finst ritað á bókum, Fms. i. 157; á bókum Ara prests hins Fróða, iii. 106; historia ecclesiarum á tveim (sjau) bókum, Dipl. v. 18; á bókum er sagt, Landn. (pref.); á bókum Enskum, id.; á bók þessi (acc.) lét ek rita fornar frásagnir, Hkr. (pref.); but svá segir í bók þeirri sem Edda heitir, Skálda 222; þá hluti sem frammi standa í bók þessi, 159; svá sem hann (viz. Ari) hefir sjálfr ritað í sínum bókum, Ó. H. 188; þeir er Styrmir reiknar í sinni bók, Fb. ii. 68; hér fyrr í bókinni. III. a book, i. e. a story, history (Saga), since in Icel. histories were the favourite books; cp. Íslendinga-bók, Konunga-bók, bók Styrmis; Landnáma-bók; bækr þær er Snorri setti saman, Sturl. ii. 123. It is used of the Gospel in the law phrases, sem búar virða við bók, vinna eið at bók (bókar-eiðr), of a verdict given or an oath taken by laying the hand upon the Gospel, Grág. (Þ. Þ.) several times; as the Engl. phrase ‘to swear on the book’ is common; of a code (of law) = Jóns-bók, after A. D. 1272 or 1281, Bs. i. 720, 723, vide Ann. those years; hafa bók even means to hold the book, i. e. to hold the office of lögmaðr (law-man, judge); Þórðr Narfa son hafði bók, Ann. (Hol.) A. D. 1304; á bókarinnar vegna, on the part of the book, i. e. the law, D. N. ii. 492. Mod. phrases: skrifa, rita, semja bók, to write it; lesa í bók, to read it; but syngja á bók, to sing from a book; fletta bók, to turn over the leaves; líta, blaða, í bók, to peruse, look into a book (hann lítr aldrei í bók, he never looks into a book); lesa bók ofan í kjölinn, to read a book carefully, v. lesa bók spjaldanna í milli, to read it from end to end:—sálma-bók, flokka-bók, a hymn-book; kvæða-bók, ljóða-bók, a book of poems; sögu-bók, of histories; lög-bók, of laws; Guðs orða-bók, God’s word-book, a religious book:—also of MSS., Flateyjar-bók (Cod. Flateyensis), Orms-bók, Uppsala-bók, Konungs-bók, Staðarfells-bók, Skálholts-bók, etc.:—phrases relating to books: það er allt á eina bókina lært, all learnt from the same book, i. e. all of one piece (esp. denoting one-sidedness); blindr er bóklauss maðr, blind is a bookless man; læra utan-bókar, to learn without book, by heart; bókvit, ‘bookwit,’ knowledge got from books; mannvit, mother-wit, common sense; allra manna vit er minna en þeirra er af bókum taka mannvit sitt, Sks. 22:—also, setja e-n til bækr, to set one to book, i. e. put one to school in order to make him priest; berja e-n til bækr, to thrash one to the book, i. e. into learning, Bs. i; a book has spjöld, boards; kjöl, keel, back; snið, cut; brot, size. COMPDS: bóka-gull, n. gold for gilding books, Vm. 117. bóka-görð, f. the transcription (or writing) of books, Bs. i. 168. bóka-kista, u, f. a book-box, Bs. i. 423, D. I. i. 402, Vm. 71. bóka-lectari, a, m. a reading-desk, lectern, Vm. 91. bóka-list, f. book-lore, learning, scholarship, Bs. i. 127. bókar-blað, n. a leaf of a book, Mar. bókar-bót, f. an appendix to a book, 1812. 72. bókar-eiðr, m. an oath upon the Gospel, Dipl. ii. 2. bókar-eiðstafr, m. the wording of a b., D. N. bókar-lag, n. a lawful prize fixed in the code, Dipl. v. 5. bókar-skeyting, f. a written deed, Gþl. 225. bókar-skrá, f. an old scroll, Am. 100. bókar-stóll, m. a reading-desk, Vm. 22, 9. bókar-tak, n. the touching the Gospel in taking an oath, D. N. bókar-vitni, n. witness upon the Gospel, Gþl. 400, Jb. 276, D. N. bóka-skápr, m. book-shelves, (mod.) bóka-steinn, m. paint to illuminate MSS., Bs. i. 341. bóka-stokkr, m. a book-case, Pm. 112.

bóka, að, to affirm by oath on the book (Gospel), Gþl. 151; bókaðr eiðr, vitni, = bókareiðr, D. N. i. 81, ii. 230: mod. to record, register.

bók-fell, n. [A. S. bôcfell], ‘book-skin,’ parchment, vellum, Skálda 165, Vm. 12, Dipl. v. 18: an A. S. word, as writing materials were imported from abroad.

bók-fróðr, adj. book-wise, learned, Barl. 129.

bók-fræði, f. book-knowledge, Stj. 46, Bs. i. 138, Barl. 12.

bók-hlaða, u, f. a library, (mod.)

bók-lauss, adj. (bók-leysi, n.), book-less, void of learning, Bs. ii. 125, Mar. 145; = utanbókar, Clem. 60.

bók-lest, f. [lesa], a legend of the saints, N. G. L. i. 347.

bók-ligr, adi. bookish, literary, Bs. i. 680.

bók-list, f. book-lore, learning, Stj. 84, Sks. 16.

bók-ljóst, n. adj., so bright that one cannot see to read, Ann. 1341.

bók-lærðr, part. book-learned, Hom. 160: the clergy, Grág. ii. 165.

bók-mál, n. the book language, learned language, i. e. Latin, Hom. 138: en at bókmáli (in Latin) verða öll hundruð tíræð, Sks. 57, Rb. 54, 516; Heilagt b., the Holy Scriptures, Str.; blót þau sem fyrirboðin eru at bókmáli, i. e. in the canon of the church, N. G. L. i. 351.

bók-mánuðr, m. a calendar month, Clem. 22.

bók-mentir, f. pl. science, letters, (mod.)

bók-nám, n. (bók-næmi, Bs. i. 793), book-training, learning; setja e-n til b., Bs. i. 793; vera at b., to be a-reading, opp. to at riti, a-writing, 91, 265.

bók-rúnar, v. bók.

bók-saga, u, f. a written narrative; hlýða bók sögum, Bs. i. 108.

bók-setja, setti, to commit to writing, Sks. 6.

bók-skygn, adj. sharp-sighted at reading a book, Sturl. ii. 185.

bók-speki, f. book-wisdom, Greg. 17.

bók-stafr, m. [Hel. bôcstabo; A. S. bócstæv; Germ. buchstabe], a letter of the alphabet, Skálda 168, Hom. 1.

bók-sögn, f. = bóksaga, Stj. 6.

bók-tal, n. a ‘book-tale,’ written computation, Rb. 4.

bók-vit, n. ‘book-wit,’ learning, erudition, Bs. i. 793, Acts xxvi. 24.

bók-víss, adj. ‘book-wise,’ a scholar, Landn. 13, Bs. i. 65. (a cognom.)

BÓL, n. [A. S. botl and bolt, byld, = aedes, mansio; cp. bytlian = aedificare; Engl. to build. In Scandin. contracted in the same way as nál for nadal: böl and böll are very freq. in Dan. local names, and even mark the line of Scandin. settlements]:—‘built,’ i. e. reclaimed and cultivated land, a farm, abode, esp. in Norway, where ból answers to Icel. jörð, Dan. gård; the value of the Norse farms is denoted by merkr-ból, eyris-ból, or the like; taka bóli, to take a farm, Gþl. 328, 354. In Icel. this sense is almost obsolete, and only remains in such words as, ból-staðr, ból-festa; in local names as, Hörðu-ból, Sæ-ból, Lauga-ból, Ból-staðr, Breiðaból-staðr; in such phrases as, á bygðu bóli (opp. to wilderness), hvergi á bygðu bóli, i. e. nowhere, nowhere among men; and in a few law passages, Grág. ii. 279, Fms. x. 153, Otherwise, in Icel. ból and bæli denote the lair or lying place of beasts or cattle; ból and kvía-ból, the place where sheep and cows are penned; bæla fé, to pen sheep during the night. β. a den, Eg. 41, Fas. iii. 345, cp. Edda 74 (the lair of a serpent); tóku sumir heyhjálma nokkura ok görðu sér af ból, a bed of hay, Fms. vii. 296; liggja í bólinn, to lie a-bed, of a lazy fellow; cp. bæli.

BÓLA, u, f. a blain, blister (cp. Engl. boil), Stj. 272, Mar. 655 xxxii. 2. small pox, Ann. 1349: also bólna-sótt, f., Ann. 1310, 1347; bólu-grafinn, part. pock-marked: bólu-setja, to vaccinate: bólu-setning, f. vaccination.

BÓLA, u, f. the boss on a shield, a for. word, perhaps the Lat. bulla, Valla L. 213.

bóla, að, impers., b. á e-u, to be just visible.

ból-festa, u, f. abode, Gþl. 354: in the phrase, taka sér b., to abide.

bólginn, part. of a lost strong verb, swoln, Fas. iii. 307; b. sem naut, Bs. 1. 644: metaph. swollen with anger, reiði b., b. ilsku, Mar.; so, b. af retði, Fas. iii. 630; cp. bylgja, belgr.

bólgna, að, [Engl. ‘boulne,’ Levins Manipul.], to ‘boulne,’ grow swollen, Mar.: metaph., 655 xi. 2.

ból-göltr, m. a pig kept in the homestead, Nj. 109, v. l.

ból-skapr, m. household, D. N. (Fr.)

ból-staðr, m. a homestead; hon á þar bólstaði mikla, Edda, where Ed. A. D. 1848 has bústaði, which is a more household Icel. word; hálfan b., half the farm, Grág. i. 396, ii. 222 A. COMPD: bólstaðar-görð, f. the building a homestead, Eg. 130.

BÓLSTR, rs, [A. S. bolster; Germ. polster], a bolster, N. G. L. i. 351, 362, Am. 6, Gkv. 1. 15: rare and poët., metaph. in pl. piles of clouds, Bjarni 59; also ský-bólstrar.

BÓN, f. [A. S. bene; Engl. boon, in Chaucer bone], a petition, Fas. i. 408, Ann. 1418; cp. bæn. COMPDS: bónar-maðr, m. a beggarman, H. E. ii. 585. bóna-vetr, m. begging winter, Ann. l. c.

BÓNDI, a, m.: older form búandi, or even bóandi, pl. búendr or bóendr; gen. búanda, bóanda; dat. buöndum, bóöndum, Edda 28, Grág. i. 370, 371. Ó. H. 203, 209–211, 215, Nj. 14, 220; búanda (gen. pl.), 211, 212, 215–217, 220; búöndum, 219; bóandi, Grág. i. 114, 157, 187, 377, Nj. 52; but the common Icel. form is bóndi, pl. bændr; gen. dat. pl. in old writers either bónda, bóndum, or as at present keeping the æ throughout all plur. cases (bænda, (gen.) bændum): properly a part. act. from búa (turned into a noun subst., cp. frændi, fjándi), A. S. buan; Germ. bauer, and therefore originally a tiller of the ground, husbandman, but it always involved the sense of ownership, and included all owners of land (or bú, q. v.). from the petty freeholder to the franklin, and esp. the class represented by the yeoman of England generally or the statesman of Westmoreland and Cumberland: hence it came to mean the master of the house, A. S. bond and hûsbond, Engl. husband. 1. a husbandman. The law distinguishes between a grið-maðr a labourer, búðsetu-maðr a cottager, and a búandi or bóndi a man who has land and stock. In the Icel. Commonwealth only the b. (but neither cottager or labourer) could act as judge or neighbour who gave witness in acquittal of a culprit (cp. þingheyjandi); the griðmaðr could only partly be admitted to the tylptarkviðr, not to the búakviðr, Grág. i. 35, 114; ek ryð þessa tvá menn ór kviðburðinum fyrir þá sök, at þeir eru búðsetu-menn en eigi bændr, Nj. 236; cp. l. c. below, where the distinction between both is defined. The Norse law, on the other hand, distinguishes between hersir or lendir menn (barons) and búandi, cp. the interesting passage Fms. vi. 279 (verðr mér þá lends manns nafn ekki at virðingu; nú vil ek heldr heita bóndi sem ek á ætt til); the Norse hauldr- or óðals-bóndi nearly answers to the Engl. ‘yeoman.’ In the more despotic Norway and Denmark, as in continental Europe, ‘bóndi’ became a word of contempt, denoting the common, low people, opp. to the king and his ‘men’ (hirð), the royal officers, etc.; just as the Engl. boor degenerated from A. S. gebur, Germ. bauer, Dutch boer; and in mod. Dan. bönder means plebs, a boor; such is the use of bóndi in the Fms., esp. Sverr. S. and Hák. S. In the Icel. Commonwealth the word has a good sense, and is often used of the foremost men—Sighvatr bóndi, Sturl. ii. 78; Rafn bóndi (i. e. Sveinbjarnarsson), Bs. i. Rafn. S. several times; Rútr talaði þá til Marðar, hugsa þú svá um bóndi (Mord Gigja), Nj. 3; optar hefir þú glaðari verit, búndi, en nú, 174 (of Flosi); Njáll bóndi, id.; Þorsteinn bóndi, Illugi bóndi, Gunnl. S. Ísl. ii; Björn bóndi, Safn i. 657; Björn bóndi Einarsson (Jórsalafari), Ann. 1393; Ari bóndi, Daði bóndi, Bs. ii. 474, 505; it is only opp. to the clerks (clergy) or knights, etc. This notion of the word (a franklin) still prevails in the mind of Icelanders. 2. a husband, A. S. hûsbond; eigi var skegglauss Þorvaldr bóandi þinn, Nj. 52, Grág. i. 371, 377, Fms. i. 149; hjá hvílu búanda þíns, Nj. 14. [The learned Icel. clergyman Eyjulf on Vellir (died A. D. 1747) has written a short essay upoii the word bóndi, Icel. MSS. Bodl. no. 71.] COMPDS:—(in mod. use always bænda- if pl., bónda- if sing.)—bónda-bani, a, m. a slayer of a bóndi, Fms. vi. 104. bónda-ból, n. (bónda-bær, m.), a farm, Grett. 96 A. bónda-dóttir, f. a bóndi’s daughter, Eg. 24, Snót 18. bónda-eiðr, m. a bundi’s oath, Gþl. 67. bónda-far, n. a bóndi’s ferry-boat, Hkr. ii. 292. bónda-fé, n. a provincial fund, Gþl. 11. bónda-fólk, n. a class of bændr, Fms. vii. 293. bónda-fylking (búanda-), f. a host of bændr, Fms. viii. 126. bónda-herr, m. an army of bændr, Fms. i. 162. bónda-hlutr. m. = bóndatíund. Fr. bónda-hus, n. a bóndi’s house, K. Þ. K. 26. bónda-hvíla, u, f. a bóndi’s bed, El. 9. bónda-kirkja (búanda-), u, f. the church belonging to the bóndi in Thingvalla, where the parliament was held; and búanda-kirkjugarðr, m. the churchyard to that church, vide Nj. and Grág. This church was erected about the middle of the 11th century, vide Kristni S., Fms. vi. 266. bónda-kona, u, f. a good wife of a bóndi, Gþl. 511. bónda-laus, adj. husband-less, widowed, Stj. 420. bónda-lega, u, f. the burial place of bændr, N. G. L. i. 368. bónda-lið, n. = bóndaherr, Fms. ii. 48. bónda-ligr, adj. farmer-like. bónda-múgr, m. a crowd, host of bændr, Fms. xi. 248. bónda-nafn, n. the name, title of bóndi, Fms. vi. 279, Gþl. 106. bónda-réttr (búanda-), m. the right of a bóndi, Fms. ix. 135. bónda-safnaðr (-samnaðr) = bóndamúgr, Hkr. ii. 307, Fms. vii. 320. bónda-skapr, m. the state of the bændr, opp. to the clergy, Bs. i. 590. bónda-son, m. the son of a bóndi, Eg. 232. bónda-tala, u, f., vera í b., to be told or counted among bændr, Fas. ii. 326. bónda-tíund, f. tithe to be paid by bændr, Vm. 104. bónda-ungi, a, m. a young bóndi, Hkr. iii. 275. bónda-val, n. the elite of bændr; var þá gott b., there were choice bændr to be found, Sturl. i. 130, Landn. 236. bónda-ætt, f. a bóndi’s extraction, Fms. vi. 278.

bón-leið, f. a begging path; in the phrase, fara b., to go begging from house to house, Nj. 185: in mod. use, fara bónarveg (að e-m) is to entertain, v. however boðleið.

bón-orð, f. wooing, courtship; hefja b. við, to woo; síðan hóf Þórólfr bónorð sitt við Sigurð ok bað Sigríðar dóttur hans, Eg. 38, 97; vekja b., Ld. 99, Nj. 17. COMPDS: bónorðs-för, f. a wooing journey; fara b., to go a-wooing, Nj. 16. bónorða-mál, n. the business of wooing, Ld. 92. As to wooing and courtship in old times, cp. Ld. ch. 7, 23, 68, Nj. ch. 2, 9, 13, 27, 33, 98, Gunnl. S. ch. 5, 9, Hænsa Þ. S. ch. 10, Glúm. ch. 11, Lv. ch. 5, Harð. S. ch. 3, Eb. ch. 28, 41, Vd. ch. 3, 12, Korm S. ch. 7, Gísl. 9, Hallfr. S. ch. 4, Bs. i. 53–56 (the story of bishop Ísleif), Þorl. S. ch. 5, Sturl. i. 197, 198, 200, 206–208 (the two sisters there), etc. The meeting of the parliament, where people from all parts of the island were gathered together, was a golden opportunity for ‘bónorð’ (v. the passages above). 2. = begging, Gísl. 85.

BÓT, ar, f., pl. bætr, [Ulf. bota; A. S. bôt; Engl. boot, booty, to boot; O. H. G. puoz; Germ. büsse; akin to bati, better, etc.]:—bettering, improvement: 1. a cure, remedy, mental as well as bodily, from sickness, loss, sorrow, etc.; fá bót e-s, meina, Fms. vii. 251, ix. 427, Fas. i. 175; allra meina bót; vinna e-m b., to comfort one, Landn. 212; bera til bóta, to amend, Fms. xi. 236; berja … e-n til óbóta is to beat … one so that he never recovers from it. 2. as a law term, almost always in pl., atonement, compensation, and esp. = mann-bætr, weregild, cp. vígs-bætr, sak-bætr, etc., Fms. vii. 36, Hrafn. 4, 9, Eb. 106, Ísl. ii. 272, and in endless cases in Grág. (Vl.) and Nj.: bætr and mann-gjöld are often used indiscriminately, e. g. tvennum bótum, or tvennum manngjöldum, a double weregild; cp. also the phrase, halda uppi bótum, to discharge, pay the b.; the sing. is rare in this sense, Nj. 58, Grág. ii. 182. 3. in such phrases as, e-t berr til bóta (impers.), it is a comfort, satisfaction, Nj. 58, Fms. x. 264; (mikilla) bóta vant, very shortcoming, Ld. 328. 4. a patch, of an old torn garment; enginn setr bót af nýju klæði á gamalt fat, Matth. ix. 17; svört bót var milli herða honum, Sturl. ii. 230. COMPDS: bóta-lauss, adj. a law term, ‘bootless,’ getting no redress; hafa sár bótalaust, Rd. 269: irreparable, Fms. i. 264, Hom. 121. bóta-maðr, m. a law term, a man who has to receive ‘bætr’ for hurt or damage suffered, Ann. 1372, Gþl. 160; hence óbótamaðr, exlex, an outlaw, who has forfeited his right to ‘bætr.’ bóta-verðr, adj. worth redress, Fbr. 33.

BÓTI, a, m. [Fr. botte; a for. word], a boot, Nj. 190, Fms. vii. 186, N. G. L. iii. 13.

bót-leysi, n.; lemja e-n til b. = til óbóta above, Grett. 154.

bót-sama, ð, to make better, repair, Grág. i. 123, ii. 335.

bót-þarfi (-þarfa), adj. ind. needing ‘bætr’ or satisfaction, Fms. vii. 154, Sturl. iii. 123.

braga, að, of the northern lights, to flicker, Bjarni 69.

BRAGÐ, n. [cp. bregða]. I. the fundamental notion is that of a sudden motion: 1. temp. a while, moment, cp. auga-bragð; in adverb, phrases, af bragði, at once, Hrafn. 17, Gs. 18, Am. 2; af (á) skömmu bragði, shortly, Fms. vi. 272, viii. 236, 348; í fyrsta bragði, the first time (rare), Gþl. 532, Js. 129; skams bragðs, gen. used as adv. quickly, in a short time, Bs. i. 336, 337, Fms. viii. 348, v. l.; cp. ‘at a brayd,’ ‘in a brayd,’ Engl. Ballads. 2. loc. a quick movement; við-bragð (cp. bregða við), knífs-bragð (cp. bregða sverði), a slash with a knife. 3. metaph. in many phrases, verða fyrri (skjótari) at bragði, til bragðs, to make the first move; þeir hafa orðit fyrri at b. at stefna en vér, Nj. 241, Bs. ii. 106; svá at þú verðir skjótari at b. at veiða þenna níðing, Fms. i. 206, ix. 288; vera í bragði með e-m, to lend one a helping hand, mostly in something uncanny, Gísl. 5, Bs. i. 722; snarast í bragð með e-m, id., Ld. 254; taka e-t bragðs, til bragðs or bragð, to take some step to get clear out of difficulties, Nj. 263, 199, Fms. ix. 407, Grett. 75 new Ed.; þat var b. (step, issue) Atla, at hann hljóp …, Háv. 53; úvitrligt b., a foolish step, Nj. 78; karlmannligt b., a manly issue, 194; gott b., Fs. 39; úheyriligt b., an unheard-of thing, Finnb. 212. II. [bregða A. III], a ‘braid,’ knot, stitch, chiefly in pl.; hekla saumuð öll brögðum, a cloak braided or stitched all over, Fms. ii. 70; fáguð brögðum, all broidered, v. 345, Bret. 34; rístu-bragð, a scratched character. 2. in wrestling, bragð or brögð is the technical phrase for wrestlers’ tricks or sleights; mjaðmar-bragð, leggjar-bragð, hæl-bragð, klof-bragð …, the ‘bragð’ of the hip, leg, heel …, Edda 33; [fang-bragð, wrestling], hence many wrestling terms, fella e-n á sjálfs síns bragði, to throw one on his own bragð. 3. gen. a trick, scheme, device, [A. S. brægð, bræd; Engl. braid = cunning, Shakesp.], chiefly in pl., með ymsum brögðum, margskyns brögð, Fas. i. 274, Fms. x. 237; brögð í tafli, a trick in the game, a proverb, when things go not by fair means, Bs. ii. 318; ferr at fornum brögðum, in the old way, Grett. 79 new Ed.: but also sing., sér konungr nú bragð hans allt, Fms. xi. 106; hafði hann svá sett bragðit, x. 305, Eg. 196 (a trick); ek mun finna bragð þar til, at Kristni mun við gangast á Íslandi, Hkr. i. 290; bragð hitta þeir nú í, Lv. 82. β. with a notion of deceit, a trick, crafty scheme; með brögðum, with tricks, Hkr. ii; búa yfir brögðum, to brood over wiles, Fas. i. 290; hafa brögð undir brúnum, to have craft under one’s eyebrows, look crafty, Band. 2; undir skauti, under one’s cloak, id., Bs. i. 730; beita e-n brögðum, metaphor from hunting, to deal craftily with one, Rm. 42, Ísl. ii. 164; hafa brögð við e-n, Njarð. 382, 378; vera forn í brögðum, old in craft, of witchcraft, Ísl. ii. 399: hence such phrases as, bragða-karl, a crafty fellow, Grett. 161; bragða-refr, a cunning fox; brögðóttr, crafty, etc. In Swed. ‘bragder’ means an exploit, action, whilst the Icel. implies some notion of subtlety or craft; yet cp. phrases as, stór brögð, great exploits, Fb. ii. 299; hreysti-brögð, hetju-brögð, great deeds, (above I. 3.) III. [bregða C; cp. A. S. bræd, Engl. breath], countenance, look, expression; hón hefir hvíti ok b. várt Mýramanna, Ísl. ii. 201, v. l.; þannig er bragð á þér, at þú munir fás svífast, thou lookest as if …, cp. brögð undir brúnum above, Fms. ii. 51; heilagleiks b., to look like a saint, Bs. i. 152; þat b. hafði hann á sér sem, Ld. 24; ekki hefir þú b. á þér sem hérlenzkir menn, Fms. x. 227; þannig ertu í bragði sem …, thou lookest as if …, Ísl. ii. 149; með illu bragði, ill-looking, Sturl. i. 170; með hýru, glöðu b., Bs. ii. 505; með beztu bragði, stern, Pass. 21. 1; með hryggu bragði, with gloomy look; með betra bragði, in a better mood, Nj. 11; bleyði-mannligr í b., cowardly, Fms. ii. 69: metaph., Sturla görði þat bragð á, at hann hefði fundit …, S. put that face on a thing, Sturl. ii. 176. IV. [bergja, gustare], taste; vatns-bragð, beisku-bragð, bitter taste, of water; ó-bragð, a bad flavour, etc. 2. [= bragr], mode, fashion; in vinnu-brögð, working; hand-bragð, handicraft; lát-bragð, manners; trúar-brögð, pl. religion, mode of faith; afla-brögð, mode of gaining one’s livelihood, etc.: very freq. in mod. usage, but in old writers no instance bearing clearly upon the subject is on record; cp. however the phrase, bragð er at e-u, a thing is palpable, tangible: lítið bragð mun þar at (it must be very slight) ef þú finnr ekki, Ld. 136; ærit b. mun at því, Nj. 58; görðist þar at svá mikit b., it went so far that …, Fms. i. 187, Grett. 158 new Ed.

bragða, að, I. = braga, of light, Sks. 202 B. II. [Engl. to breathe], to give signs of life, of a new-born babe, of one swooning or dying; þá fæddi hón barnit, ok fanst eigi líf með, ok hér eptir bragðaði fyrir brjóstinu, i. e. the infant began to draw breath, Bs. i. 618, ii. 33; þat bragðar sem kvikt er, Þiðr. 114. III. to taste = bergja, freq. in mod. usage.

bragð-alr, m. a brad-awl, used in Icel. for producing fire, bragðals-eldr, m. fire produced by a b., Bs. i. 616; hann tók b. millum tveggja trjó, ii. 176.

bragð-illr, adj. ill-looking, Fms. x. 174.

bragð-lauss, adj. (-leysi, f., medic. pallor), pale, insipid.

bragð-ligr, adj. expedient, Karl. 451: mod. well-looking.

bragð-mikill, adj. expressive looking, Sturl. iii. 129.

bragð-samr, adj. crafty, El.

bragð-vísi, f. craft, subtlety, Edda 110.

bragð-vísligr (and -víss), adj. cunning, Fms. ii. 140.

BRAGGA, að, [Engl. brag], to throw off sloth, Bb. 1. 24.

Bragi, a, m. the god of poetry Bragi, also a pr. name: in pl. bragnar, poët. heroes, men, Edda, Lex. Poët.; cp. A. S. brego = princeps.

brag-löstr, m. a metrical fault, Sighvat.

bragningr, m., poët. a hero, king. Lex. Poët.

BRAGR, ar, m. [akin to bragð, braga, bragi, etc.] I. best, foremost; b. kvenna, best of women, Skv. 2. 15; Ása b., best of Ases, Skm. 34; b. karla eðr kvenna, Edda 17: only used in poetry or poët. language, cp. the A. S. brego (princeps) Egypta, Norðmanna, Israelita, Gumena, Engla, etc.:—hence the compd bragar-full or braga-full, n. a toasting cup, to be drunk esp. at funeral feasts; it seems properly to mean the king’s toast (cp. Bragi = princeps), i. e. the toast in the memory of the deceased king or earl, which was to be drunk first; the heir to the throne rose to drink this toast, and while doing so put his feet on the footstool of his seat and made a solemn vow (stíga á stokk ok strengja heit); he then for the first time took his father’s seat, and the other guests in their turn made similar vows. For a graphic description of this heathen sacred custom, vide Yngl. S. Hkr. i. 49, Hervar. S. Fas. i. 417 and 515, Hkv. Hjörv. 32, Ragn. S. Fas. i. 345. It is likely that the b. was mostly used at funeral banquets, though the passages in the Ragn. and Hervar. S. (cp. also Hænsaþ. S. ch. 12) seem to imply its use at other festivals, as weddings; cp. also the description of the funeral banquet, Hkr. i. 231, where ‘minni hans’ (the toast of the dead king) answers to bragarfull; cp. also the funeral banquet recorded in Jómsvik. S., where the Danish king Sweyn made the vow ‘at bragarfulli’ to conquer England within three winters. This is said to have been the prelude to the great Danish invasion A. D. 994, Fagrsk. 44, and Hkr. to l. c. The best MSS. prefer the reading bragar- (from bragr, princeps), not braga-. II. nearly like Lat. mos, a fashion, habit of life, in compds as, bæjar-bragr, heimilis-bragr, híbýla-bragr, house life; sveitar-bragr, country life; bónda-bragr, yeoman life; héraðs-bragr, lands-bragr, etc. Icel. say good or bad bæjarbragr, Bb. I. 15. III. poetry; gefr hann (viz. Odin) brag skáldum, Hdl. 5, Edda 17: in mod. usage chiefly melody or metre. COMPDS: bragar-bót, f. a sort of metre, Edda 130: mod. palinode. bragar-fræði, f. prosody, Icel. Choral Book (1860), pref. 7. bragar-laun, n. pl. a gift for a poem dedicated to a king or great person, Eg. 318, Ísl. ii. 223, 230 (Gunnl. S.), etc. bragar-mál, n. pl. poetical diction, Edda 134; of using obsolete poët. forms, Skálda 189.

BRAK, n. [Ulf. brakja = πάλη; A. S. and Hel. ge-bræc; cp. Lat. fragor], a creaking noise, Hkr. iii. 139, Bárð. 160, Fms. ii. 100.

braka, að, [cp. Ulf. brikan = κλαν; A. S. brecan; Engl. to break; Lat. frangere]:—to creak, of timber, Hom. 155, Fs. 132, Gísl. 31, Fas. ii. 76.

brakan, f. a creaking, Fms. iv. 57.

BRAKUN, m. [Engl. word], a broker, Fms. v. 183; O. H. L. 56 reads brakkarnir.

BRALLA, að, to trick, job; hvat er það sem börn ei b., Jón. Þorl.

BRAML, n. (bramla, að), a crash, Safn i. 93, Ísl. Árb. v. ch. 128.

bramla, að, to brawl, make a noise, Skiða R. 74.

BRANA, u, f. a freq. name of a cow, [brana = juvenca, cited by Du Cange from old Spanish Latin deeds; it probably came into Spain with the Goths.] brönu-grös, n. pl., botan. Satyrium Albidum; in Icel. lore this flower plays the same part as the German alraun or English mandrake; the b. are also called ‘Friggjar-gras’ (Frigg = Freyja, the goddess of love), and ‘elsku-gras,’ flower of love, as it is thought to create love between man and woman, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 648. Gen. xxx. 14.

branda, u, f. a little trout: the Manks call the salmon braddan.

brand-erfð, f. a Norse law term, originating from the heathen age when dead bodies were still burnt, vide arfsal, a sort of clientela, giving life-long support to a man; ‘til brands eðr báls,’ i. e. ad urnam, and inheriting him when dead; defined N. G. L. i. 50.

brand-gás, f. anas tadorna, Edda (Gl.)

brand-krossóttr, adj. brindled-brown with a white cross on the forebead (of an ox), Brand. 59; cp. bröndóttr, a brindled ox.

BRANDR, m. I. [cp. brenna, to burn; A. S. brand (rare)], a brand, firebrand; even used synonymous with ‘hearth,’ as in the Old Engl. saying, ‘este (dear) buith (are) oun brondes,’ E. Engl. Specimens; b. af brandi brenn, Hm. 56; at bröndum, at the fire-side, 2, Nj. 195, 201; hvarfa ek blindr of branda, id., Eg. 759; cp. eldi-brandr. 2. [cp. Dan. brand, Germ. brand], a flame; til brands, ad urnam, N. G. L. i. 50 (rare); surtar-brandr, jet; v. brand-erfð. II. [A. S. brand, Beow. verse 1454; Scot. brand = ensis; cp. to brandish], the blade of a sword; brast þat (viz. the sword) undir hjaltinu, ok fór b. grenjandi niðr í ána, Fas. ii. 484, Korm. 82, Eb. 238, Fms. i. 17, Bs. ii. 12; víga-brandr, a war-brand, a meteor. III. a freq. pr. name of a man, Brand.

B. On ships, the raised prow and poop, ship’s beak, (svíri and brandr seem to be used synonymously, Konr. S. l. c.); fellr brattr breki bröndum hærri, the waves rise high above the ‘brandar,’ Skv. 2. 17; brandar af knerri (a b. on a merchant-ship), Grett. 90 new Ed., Fms. ix. 304; hann tók um skipstafninn; en menn hans tóku af hendr hans, því at bráð var eigi af brandinum (sing. of the ‘high prow’ of a ship), viii. 217; leiddist mér fyrir Þórsbjörgum, er brandarnir á skipum Bagla stóðu í augu mér, 372, 247; gyltir brandar ok höfuð, Konr., where some MSS. ‘höfuð ok svirar.’ 2. ships’ beaks used as ornaments over the chief door of dwellings, always in pl.; af knerri þeim eru brandar veðrspáir fyrir dyrum, before (above?) the door, Landn. 231, cp. Grett. 116, where it can be seen that the b. were two, one at each side of the door; hann sá fatahrúgu á bröndum, heaps of clothes on the b., 179; b. ákafliga háfir fyrir höllinni svá at þeir gnæfðu yfir bust hennar (b. exceeding high over the door so that they rose above the gable), gyltir vóru knappar á ofanverðum bröndunum, Konr. S.: these doors are hence called branda-dyrr, Sturl. ii. 106, iii. 200, 218.

brand-reið, f. [A. S. brandreda], a grate, Stj. 310, 315, Exod. xxx. 3, xxxvii. 26, Mar. 50; steikja á b., to roast on a grate, Mar. (Fr.)

brand-skjöldóttr, adj. of cattle, brindled, red and white spotted.

brand-stokkr, m. a dub. απ. λεγ. a high trunk of a tree in the middle of the hall of the mythical king Völsung, Fas. 1. 119; Vr. 142 reads botstokk.

branga, u, f. an απ. λεγ. and dub., Hðm. 21: cp. old Germ. brang = pracht.

brasa, að, to braze (Shakesp.), to harden in the fire: cp. brösur, f. pl. in the metaph. phrase, eiga í brösum, to be always in the fire, always quarrelling.

BRASS (cp. brasaðr, Fms. viii; brasi, ix. 8), m. [cp. Germ. bras = epulae; Swed. brasa; Dan. brase = to roast; Engl. to braze], a cook, an απ. λεγ., Am. 59.

brasta, að, [Germ. brasten], to bluster. Band. 8.

bratt-gengni, f. skill in climbing, Fms. ii. 275.

bratt-gengr, adj. skilful in climbing, Fms. ii. 169: steep, Greg. 62.

bratt-leitr, adj. with projecting forehead, Fb. i. 540.

bratt-lendi, n. a steep land.

BRATTR, adj. [A. S. brant, bront; Swed. brant; North. E. brant and brent], steep, of hills, etc.; brött brekka, a ‘brent’ hill, Hrafn. 20; bárur, high waves, Sks. 40: metaph., bera bratt halann, metaphor from cattle, to carry the tail high (in mod. usage vera brattr), opp. to lægja halann, to droop the tail, Ísl. ii. 330, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 20; reynt hefi ek fyr brattara, cp. Lat. graviora passus, I have been in a worse plight, Ann. 56; einatt hefi ek brattara átt, Grett. 133: mér hefir opt boðizt brattara, id., etc.,—a metaphor from mountaineers.

bratt-steinn, m. a stone column, Hým. 29.

BRAUÐ, n. [A. S. bread; Engl. bread; Germ. brod; Dan. bröd]. This word, which at present has become a household word in all branches of the Teutonic, was in early times unknown in its present sense: Ulf. constantly renders αρτος as well as ψωμίον by hlaibs; Engl. loaf; A. S. hlâf; the old A. S. poetry also has hlâf, and the old heathen Scandin. poems only hleifr, Hm. 40, 51, Rm. 4, 28. In Engl. also, the words lord, lady,—A. S. hlâford, hlâfdige, which properly mean loaf-warder, loaf-maid,—bear out the remark, that in the heathen age when those words were formed, breâd, in the sense of panis, was not in use in England; in old A. S. the word is only used in the compd beobreâd of the honeycomb (Gr. κηρίον), cp. Engl. bee-bread; O. H. G. bibrod; Germ. bienenbrod; and this seems to be the original sense of the word. The passage in which doubtless the Goths used ‘braud,’ Luke xxiv. 42—the only passage of the N. T. where κηρίον occurs—is lost in Ulf. Down to the 9th century this word had not its present sense in any Teut. dialect, but was, as it seems, in all of them used of the honeycomb only. The Icel. calls thyme ‘bráð-björg’ or ‘broð-björg’ (sweet food?); cp. the Lat. ‘redolentque thymo fragrantia mella;’ the root of ‘brauð’ is perhaps akin to the Lat. ‘fragrare.’ The transition from the sense of honeycomb to that of bread is obscure: in present usage the ‘bread’ denotes the substance, ‘loaf’ the shape; b. ok smjör, Eg. 204; b. ok kál, Mar.; heilagt b., Hom. 137; the Icel. N. T. (freq.) 2. food, hence metaph. living, esp. a parsonage, (mod.) The cures in Icel. are divided into þinga-brauð and beneficia.

brauð-bakstr, m. bread-baking, Greg. 55.

brauð-diskr, m. a bread-plate, Post. 686 B.

brauð-görð, f. bread-making, Stj. 441.

brauð-hleifr, m. a loaf of bread, Greg. 57, Orkn. 116.

brauð-járn, n. a ‘bread-iron,’ Scot. and North. E. girdle, D. N.

brauð-kass, n. a bread-basket, Fms. ii. 164.

brauð-moli, a, m. a crumb of bread, Stj. 155.

brauð-ofn, m. a bread-oven, H. E. i. 394, N. G. L. ii. 354.

brauð-skífa, u, f. a slice of bread, Andr. 68.

brauð-skorpa, u, f. a bread-crust.

brauð-sneið, f. = brauðskífa.

brauð-sufl, n. spice eaten with bread, Anal. 180.

brauk, n., braukan, f. cracking, Konr. 30, Mag. 5; cp. Brak.

BRAUT, f., dat. brautu, pl. ir, [a purely Scandin. word, formed from brjóta, braut, as Engl. road from Ital. rotta, via rupta]:—a road cut through rocks, forests, or the like, and distinguished from vegr, stigr, gata (path, track); Önundr konungr lét brjóta vegu um markir ok mýrar ok fjallvegu, fyrir því var hann Braut-Önundr kallaðr, Hkr. i. 46; ryðja b., to cut a road, Ísl. ii. 400; braut … eigi breiðari en götu breidd, Eg. 582. II. as adv. away, either with or without the prep. ‘á’ or ‘í,’ á braut or á brautu, which is the oldest form; but the common form in the old writers is brot, or with a double consonant, brott; later by metath. burt, burtu [Dan.-Swed. bort], which are the mod. forms, but not found in very early MSS.: it occurs in a verse in the Skálda—reið Brynhildar bróðir | ‘bort’ sá er hug né ‘skorti:’—braut, brautu; braut hvarf or sal sæta, Korm. (in a verse), Hm. 88; þraut, fer ek einn á brautu, Grett. (in a verse); in the Grág. freq., esp. in the old fragment Ed. A. D. 1852, pp. 19–26, where Kb. reads brott; the Miracle-book, Bs. i. 333 sqq., constantly gives braut; so also Ó. H. vellum of the middle of the 13th century: brott, Eg. 603, Nj. 132, Grág. i. 275: burt, burtu, in MSS. of the 15th century; the MSS. freq. use an abbreviated spelling b∞t (∞ denoting ro and or), so that it is difficult to see whether it is to be read brot or burt or bort. It is used with or without notion of motion; the acc. forms braut, brott, burt, originally denote going away; the dat. brautu, burtu, being away; but in common use both are used indiscriminately; þat var brott frá öðrum húsum, far off from other bouses, Eg. 203; vera rekinn brott (braut), to be driven away, Nj. 132; fara braut, to go away, Fms. x. 216; af landi brott, Grág. i. 275, 331, 145, 258, 264, cp. also Nj. 10, 14, 26, 52, 196, Fms. ix. 431, Eg. 319, 370, and endless instances. COMPDS: brautar-gengi, n. a law term, help, furtherance, Ísl. ii. 322, Ld. 26 (advancement). brautar-mót, n. pl. a meeting of roads, Grág. ii. 114; cp. þjóð-braut, a high road; vetrar-braut, via lactea, etc. brautar-tak, n. a law term, bail, security, N. G. L. i. 44.

braut- in compds, v. brott.

brautingi, a, m. a beggar, tramp, Hbl. 6, Fms. ii. 73: the proverb, bráð eru brautingja erindi, the tramp cannot afford delay, Fas. ii. 262, cp. Hm. 2; the poor had in old times to go from house to house; cp. göngu-maðr, föru-maðr; therefore misery and tramping are synonymous, e. g. válaðr, miseria; cp. A. S. vædl = ambitus:—not till the establishment of Christianity were poor-rates and other legal provisions made for the poor.

brauttu, adv. a shouting, = braut-þú, away thou! begone! Eirsp. 247.

BRÁ, f. [Ulf. braw; A. S. bræv; Engl. brow; Germ. brau], an eye-lid; brár (gen. sing.), Edda 15; brár (nom. pl.), 6; brám (dat. pl.), Vþm. 41; brá (gen. pl.), Ad. 5; cp. Baldrs-brá, Gull-brá, Ísl. Þjóðs.: in poetry the eyes are called brú-tungl, -máni, -sól, -geisli, moon-, sun-beam of the brow; tears are brá-regn, -drift, rain of the brow; the head brá-völlr, field of the brow, etc., Lex. Poët.

brá, ð, to intermit, give relief, of intense pain, grief, illness; only in the phrase, það bráir af.

BRÁD, f. [A. S. brad; Germ. brat], meat, raw flesh, esp. venison; blóðug bráð (a law term), raw meat, Grág. ii. 192, N. G. L. i. 82; brytja í bráð, to chop into steaks, Fb. i. 321: pl. metaph. prey of beasts, varmar bráðir, Hkv. 2. 41, Fas. i. 209; villi-bráð, venison; val-bráð, black spots on the face. II. sól-bráð, sun-burning.

BRÁÐ, n. tar, pitch, Fms. viii. 217, Anecd. 60, Vm. 21, Sks. 28, Krók. 57; fúna undir bráðinu, Fær. 195.

BRÁÐ, f. (broþ, Bs. i. 341), denoting haste (cp. bráðr), but only used in adverb. phrases, í bráð, at the moment, Sturl. i. 58, Ld. 302, Bs. l. c.; bráð ok lengðar (mod. í bráð og lengd), now and ever, Fms. i. 281. II. in many compds, meaning rash, sudden, hot. COMPDS: bráða-bugr, m. in the phrases, göra, vinda bráða-bug at e-u, to hasten to do a thing, without a moment’s delay, Grett. 98. bráða-fangs, gen. used as adv. at once, in great haste, Fms. iv. 230. bráða-sótt, f. sudden illness, a plague, Fms. vii. 155, Játv. 26: chiefly of cattle, murrain, Gþl. 498. bráða-þeyr, m. a rapid thaw, Eg. 766.

bráða-birgð, f. a provisional matter, Thom. 474.

bráð-banvænligr, adj. deadly, absolutely mortal, Orkn. 120, v. l.

bráð-björg (commonly proncd. blóð-berg, n.), f. thyme, Hjalt., Björn.

bráð-dauði, a, m. a sudden death, Hom. 12.

bráð-dauðr, adj. dead in a moment, in the phrase, verða b., to die suddenly, Ver. 47, Fms. i. 18, Ísl. ii. 45, 59, Stj. 196.

bráð-endis, adv. of a sudden, Ld. 192, Fms. viii. 199.

bráð-fari, adj., verða b., to travel in baste, Krók. 59.

bráð-feginn, adj. exceeding glad, Fms. xi. 256.

bráð-feigligr (-feigr), adj. rushing to death, Fs. 74.

bráð-fengis = bráðafangs, Fms. xi. 35, Orkn. 28 old Ed.

bráð-fengr, adj. hot, hasty, Fms. vi. 109.

bráð-geðr, adj. hot-tempered, Fms. vi. 220, 195.

bráð-görr, adj. early ripe, of a young man, Fms. vii. 111, xi. 328.

bráð-görviligr, adj. of early promise, Glúm. 338.

bráð-hættligr, adj. most dangerous, Lv. 59.

bráð-kjörit, n. part. hastily chosen, Sturl. iii. 151.

bráð-kvaddr, part. suddenly ‘called;’ verða b., to die suddenly.

bráð-lauss, adj. not pitched, Hkr. ii. 281.

bráð-látinn, part. = bráðdauðr, Fms. xi. 444.

bráð-látr, adj. eager, impatient, Bs. i. 172.

bráð-liga (bráðla, brálla), adv. soon, hastily, at once, Sks. 596, N. G. L. i. 12, Fms. x. 419, i. 29: quickly, ii. 180, Hkr. i. 111: rashly, Bs. i. 722, Sks. 775.

bráð-litið, n. part. [líta], göra b. á e-t, to look (too) hastily at a thing, Fms. v. 284, Fbr. 141.

bráð-lyndr, adj. hot-tempered, Anecd. 48.

bráð-læti, n. impatience, Bb. 3. 29.

bráð-mælt, n. part. hastily spoken, Eg. 251.

bráðna, að, to melt, of snow, etc., Fms. iii. 193, Rb. 356.

bráð-orðr, adj. hasty of speech, Lv. 85, Bjarn. 14.

BRÁÐR, adj., neut. brátt, [Swed. bråd; Dan. brad; cp. bráð], sudden, hasty: the allit. law phrase, b. bani, a sudden, violent death, Nj. 99, Fms. v. 289, Sks. 585 (of suicide); b. atburðr, a sudden accident, Fms. x. 328: metaph. hot-tempered, eager, rash, bráð er barn-æskan (a proverb), Am. 75; b. barns-hugir, id., Bev. Fr.; b. í skaplyndi, Nj. 16, Hm. 21; þú hefir verið hölzi b. (too eager, too rash), í þessu máli, Vápn. 13; b. ok ákafr, rash and headlong, Fms. ix. 245; b. hestr, a fiery horse, Bs. i. 743. II. brátt, bráðum, and bráðan used adverb., soon, shortly; þá var brátt drukkinn einmenningr, Eg. 551; brátt fanst þat á, it could soon be seen that …, 147; vánu bráðara (Lat. spe citius), (mod., vonum b.), very soon, in a very short time, Fms. xi. 115; sem bráðast, as soon as possible, the sooner the better, Eg. 534: the phrase, e-t berr bráðum (or bráðan) at, a thing happens of a sudden, with the notion of surprise, 361; en öllum féllusk hendr (i. e. were startled), at bráðan bar at, as it came so suddenly, Hkr. ii. 152, cp. Orkn. 50.

bráð-ráðinn, part. suddenly or rashly decided, Fms. ii. 25, Fær. 236; b. tíðindi, sudden news, Fms. v. 289; bráðrakinn, Lex. Poët., seems only to be a bad reading = bráðráþinn, the lower part of the þ having been obliterated.

bráð-reiðr, adj. very wrathful, Barl. 25.

bráð-ræði, n. rashness, Fs. 53; glappaverk ok b., 184, Fms. ii. 25.

bráð-sinnaðr, adj. hot-tempered, Nj. (Lat. Vers.) 219, v. l. (mod. word.)

bráð-sjúkr, adj. taken suddenly ill, Fms. vi. 104.

bráð-skapaðr, adj. part. of hasty disposition, Sturl. iii. 123, Nj. 219, v. l., Fas. iii. 520: mod. skap-bráðr, hot-tempered.

bráð-skeyti, n. rashness, Sks. 250, Karl. 495.

bráð-skeytligr, adj. rash, Str. 9.

bráð-skeyttr, adj. rash, Fms. vi. 109, Ísl. ii. 316, Karl. 341, 343.

bráð-sýnn, adj. soon seen, Fr.

bráðung, f. hurry, O. H. L. 19: gen. bráðungar, as adv. of a sudden, Fms. xi. 70; af bráðungu, at a moment’s notice, 27.

bráð-þroska (-aðr), adj. early ripe, early grown (þroski, growth), Finnb. 222, v. l., Fs. 126.

brá-hvítr, adj. white-browed, epithet of a lady, Vkv.

BRÁK, f., Engl. brake (v. Johnson), a tanner’s implement, in the form of a horse-shoe, for rubbing leather, Eggert Itin. 339: a nickname, Eg. bráka, að, in the phrase, brákaðr reyr, a bruised reed, Isaiah xlii. 3.

BREÐI, a, m. [Norse bræ], a glacier, common in Norway, where the glaciers are called ‘bræer’ or ‘fonn;’ in Icel. an απ. λεγ., Fas. (Völs. S.) i. 116.

BREF, n. [for. word, from Lat. brĕve, like Engl. and Germ. brief; Dan. brev], in Icel. proncd. with a long e, bréf:—a letter, written deed, rescript, etc. Letter-writing is never mentioned in the true Icel. Sagas before the end of the old Saga time, about A. D. 1015. Bréf occurs for the first time as a sort of dispatch in the negotiation between Norway and Sweden A. D. 1018; lét þau fara aptr með bréfum þeim er Ingigerðr konungs dóttir ok þau Hjalti sendu jarli ok Ingibjörgu, Ó. H. ch. 71; bréf ok innsigli Engla konungs (viz. king Canute, A. D. 1024), ch. 120: a royal letter is also mentioned Bjarn. 13 (of St. Olave, A. D. 1014–1030). The earliest Icel. deeds on record are of the end of the 11th century; in the D. I., Sturl., and Bs. (12th and 13th centuries) letters of every kind, public and private, are freq. mentioned, vide D. I. by Jon Sigurdsson, Bs. i. 478–481, etc., Fms. vii–x, Sturl. freq. [In the Saga time, ‘orð ok jartegnir,’ words and tokens, is a standing phrase; the ‘token’ commonly was a ring; the instances are many, e. g. Ld. ch. 41, 42, Bjarn. 7, Gunnl. S.; cp. the interesting passage in the mythical Akv. verse 8, where the sister ties one hair of a wolf in the ring—hár fann ek heiðingja riðit í hring rauðan—as a warning token; cp. also the story of the coin used as a token in Gísl. ch. 8. In the old Sagas even runes are hardly mentioned as a medium of writing; but v. rune.] COMPDS: bréfa-bók, f. a register-book, N. G. L. ii. 409. bréfa-brot, n. breach of ordinances, H. E. i. 422, Bs. i. 706. bréfa-görð, f. letter-writing, Bs. i. 475, Fms. ix. 260. bréfa-maðr, m. a letter-carrier, public courier, Fms. ix. 20. bréfa-sveinn, m. a letter-boy, Fms. ix. 467.

bréfa, að, to give a brief account of, Fms. ii. 257, Al. 66.

brefer, n. breviary, Dipl. v. 18, Vm. 8.

bréf-lauss, adj. briefless, without a written document, Th. 78.

bréf-sending, bréfa-sending, f. a sending of letters, Fms. viii. 111.

bréf-setning, f. the composition of a letter, Fms. viii. 298.

BREGÐA, pret. sing. brá, 2nd pers. brátt, later brást; pl. brugðu, sup. brugðit; pres. bregð; pret. subj. brygði: reflex, (sk, z, st), pret. brásk, bráz, or brást, pl. brugðusk, etc.: poët. with the neg. suff. brá-at, brásk-at, Orkn. 78, Fms. vi. 51.

A. ACT. WITH DAT. I. [A. S. bregdan, brædan; Old Engl. and Scot. to brade or braid; cp. bragð throughout]:—to move swiftly: 1. of a weapon, to draw, brandish; b. sverði, to draw the sword, Gísl. 55, Nj. 28, Ld. 222, Korm. 82 sqq., Fms. i. 44, ii. 306, vi. 313, Eg. 306, 505; sverð brugðit, a drawn sword, 746; cp. the alliterative phrase in Old Engl. Ballads, ‘the bright browne (= brugðinn) sword:’ absol., bregð (imperat.), Korm. l. c.: b. knífi, to slash with a knife, Am. 59; b. flötu sverði, to turn it round in the band, Fms. vii. 157; saxi, Bs. i. 629: even of a thrust, b. spjóti, Glúm. 344. 2. of the limbs or parts of the body, to move quickly; b. hendi, fingri, K. Þ. K. 10, Fms. vi. 122; b. augum sundr, to open the eyes, iii. 57, cp. ‘he bradde open his eyen two,’ Engl. Ballads; b. fótum, Nj. 253; b. fæti, in wrestling; b. grönum, to draw up the lips, 199, Fms. v. 220. 3. of other objects; b. skipi, to turn the ship (rare), Fms. viii. 145, Eb. 324; b. e-m á eintal, einmæli, to take one apart, Fms. vi. 11, Ölk. 35; b. sér sjúkum, to feign sickness, Fagrsk. ch. 51; bregða sér in mod. usage means to make a short visit, go or come for a moment; eg brá mér snöggvast til …, etc. 4. adding prepp.; b. upp; b. upp hendi, höndum, to hold up the hand, Fms. i. 167; b. upp glófa, 206, Eb. 326: b. e-m á lopt, to lift aloft, Eg. 122, Nj. 108; b. e-u undan, to put a thing out of the way, to hide it, Fas. i. 6; undir, Sturl. ii. 221, Ld. 222, Eb. 230: b. e-u við (b. við skildi), to ward off with …, Vápn. 5; but chiefly metaph. to put forth as an example, to laud, wonder at, etc.; þínum drengskap skal ek við b., Nj. 18; þessum mun ek við b. Áslaugar órunum, Fas. i. 257; nú mun ek því við b. (I will speak loud), at ek hefi eigi fyr náð við þik at tala, Lv. 53: b. e-u á, to give out, pretend; hann brá á því at hann mundi ríða vestr til Miðfjarðar, Sturl. iii. 197, Fms. viii. 59, x. 322. β. to deviate from, disregard; vér höfum brugðit af ráðum þínum, Fær. 50, Nj. 13, 109, Ísl. ii. 198, Grág. i. 359; b. af marki, to alter the mark, 397. 5. to turn, alter, change; b. lit, litum, to change colour, to turn pale, etc., Fms. ii. 7, Vígl. 24; b. sér við e-t, to alter one’s mien, shew signs of pain, emotion, or the like, Nj. 116; b. e-m í (or b. á sik) e-s líki, to turn one (by spell) into another shape, Bret. 13; at þú brátt þér í merar líki, Ölk. 37; hann brá á sik ýmissa dýra líki, Edda (pref.) 149. II. to break up or off, leave off, give up; b. búi, to give up one’s household, Grág. i. 153, Eg. 116, 704; b. tjöldum, to break up, strike the tents, Fms. iv. 302; b. samvist, to part, leave off living together, ii. 295; b. ráðahag, to break off an engagement, esp. wedding, 11; b. boði, to countermand a feast, 194; b. kaupi, to break off a bargain, Nj. 51, Rd. 251; b. sýslu, to leave off working, Fms. vi. 349; b. svefni, blundi, to awake, Sdm. 2; smátt bregðr slíkt svefni mínum, Lv. 53; b. tali, to break off talking, Vápn. 22; b. orustu, to break off the battle, Bret.: esp. freq. in poetry, b. hungri, föstu, sulti, to break or quell the hunger (of the wolf); b. gleði; b. lífi, fjörvi, to put to death, etc., Lex. Poët. 2. to break faith, promise, or the like; b. máli, Grág. i. 148; trúnaði, Nj. 141; brugðið var öllu sáttmáli, Hkr. ii. 121; b. heiti, Alvm. 3: absol., ef bóandi bregðr við griðmann (breaks a bargain), Grág. i. 153. 3. reflex., bregðask e-m (or absol.), to deceive, fail, in faith or friendship; Gunnarr kvaðsk aldri skyldu b. Njáli né sonum hans, Nj. 57; bregðsk þú oss nú eigi, do not deceive us, Fms. vi. 17; vant er þó at vita hverir mér eru trúir ef feðrnir b., ii. 11; en þeim brásk framhlaupit, i. e. they failed in the onslaught, vii. 298; þat mun eigi bregðask, that cannot fail, Fas. ii. 526, Rb. 50; fáir munu þeir, at einörð sinni haldi, er slíkir brugðusk við oss, Fms. v. 36, Grett. 26 new Ed. III. [A. S. brædan, to braid, braider], to ‘braid,’ knot, bind, the band, string being in dat.; hann bregðr í fiskinn öðrum enda, he braided the one end in the fish, Finnb. 220; hón brá hárinu undir belli sér, she braided her hair under her belt; (hann) brá (untied) brókabelti sínu, Fas. i. 47; er þeir höfðu brugðið kaðli um, wound a cable round it, Fms. x. 53; hefir strengrinn brugðizk líttat af fótum honum, the rope had loosened off his feet, xi. 152: but also simply and with acc., b. bragð, to braid a braid, knit a knot, Eg. (in a verse); b. ráð, to weave a plot, (cp. Gr. ράπτειν, Lat. suere), Edda (in a verse); in the proper sense flétta and ríða, q. v., are more usual. 2. in wrestling; b. e-m, the antagonist in dat., the trick in acc., b. e-m bragð (hæl-krók, sveiflu, etc.) 3. recipr., of mutual strife; bregðask brögðum, to play one another tricks; b. brigzlum, to scold one another, Grág. ii. 146; b. frumhlaupum, of mutual aggression, 13, 48; bregðask um e-t, to contest a thing, 66, cp. i. 34. 4. part., brugðinn við e-t, acquainted with a thing; munuð þit brátt brugðnir við meira, i. e. you will soon have greater matters to deal with, Fs. 84; hann er við hvárttveggja b., he is well versed in both, Gísl. 51. IV. metaph. to upbraid, blame, with dat. of the person and thing; fár bregðr hinu betra, ef hann veit hit verra (a proverb), Nj. 227; Þórðr blígr brá honum því (Thord threw it in his face), á Þórsnesþingi, at …, Landn. 101; Kálfr brá mér því í dag, Fms. vi. 105; b. e-m brizglum, Nj. 227.

B. NEUT. OR ABSOL. without a case, of swift, sudden motion. I. b. á e-t, as, b. á leik, gaman, etc., to start or begin sporting, playing; Kimbi brá á gaman, K. took it playfully, i. e. laughed at it, Landn. 101; b. á gamanmál, Fms. xi. 151; þeir brugðu á glímu ok á glens, they started wrestling and playing, Ld. 220; bregðr hann (viz. the horse) á leik, the horse broke into play, ran away, Fms. xi. 280; Glúmr svaraði vel en brá þó á sitt ráð, Glum gave a gentle answer, but went on in his own way, Nj. 26, Fas. i. 250: the phrase, hönd bregðr á venju, the hand is ready for its old work, Edda (Ht.) verse 26, cp. Nj. ch. 78 (in a verse). 2. b. við, to start off, set about a thing without delay, at a moment’s notice, may in Engl. often be rendered by at once or the like; brá hann við skjótt ok fór, he started off at once and went, Fms. i. 158; þeir brugðu við skjótt, ok varð þeim mjök við felmt, i. e. they took to their heels in a great fright, Nj. 105; þeir brugðu við skjótt, ok fara þaðan, 107; bregðr hon við ok hleypr, Grett. 25 new Ed., Bjarn. 60; hrossit bregðr nú við hart, id.; en er Ólafr spurði, at Þorsteinn hafði skjótt við brugðit, ok hafði mikit fjölmenni, Ld. 228. β. b. til e-s, þá brá Ingimundr til utanferðar, Ingimund started to go abroad, Sturl. i. 117; b. til Grænlands ferðar, Fb. i. 430. II. reflex, to make a sudden motion with the body; Rútr brásk skjótt við undan högginu, Nj. 28, 129; b. við fast, to turn sharply, 58, 97; bregðsk (= bregðr) jarl nú við skjótt ok ferr, the earl started at once, Fms. xi. 11; hann brásk aldregi við (he remained motionless) er þeir píndu hann, heldr en þeir lysti á stokk eðr stein, vii. 227. 2. metaph. and of a circumlocutory character; eigi þætti mér ráðið, hvárt ek munda svá skjótt á boð brugðisk hafa, ef …, I am not sure whether I should have been so hasty in bidding you, if …, Ísl. ii. 156; bregðask á beina við e-n, to shew hospitality towards, Fms. viii. 59, cp. bregða sér above. β. b. yfir, to exceed; heyra þeir svá mikinn gný at yfir brásk, they heard an awful crash, Mag. 6; þá brásk þat þó yfir jafnan (it surpassed) er konungr talaði, Fms. x. 322, yet these last two instances may be better read ‘barst,’ vide bera C. IV; bregðask úkunnr, reiðr … við e-t, to be startled at the novelty of a thing, v. 258; b. reiðr við, to get excited, angry at a thing, etc.

C. IMPERS. I. the phrase, e-m bregðr við e-t, of strong emotions, fear, anger, or the like; brá þeim mjök við, er þau sá hann inn ganga, it startled them much, when they saw him come in, Nj. 68; Flosa brá svá við, at hann var í andliti stundum sem blóð, 177; en þó brá fóstru Melkorku mest við þessi tíðindi, i. e. this news most affected Melkorka’s nurse, Ld. 82; aldri hefi ek mannsblóð séð, ok veit ek eigi hve mér bregðr við, I wot not how it will touch me, Nj. 59; brá honum svá við, at hann gerði fölvan í andliti … ok þann veg brá honum opt síðan (he was oft since then taken in such fits), þá er vígahugr var á honum, Glúm. 342; en við höggit brá Glæsi svá at …, Eb. 324; Þorkell spurði ef honum hefði brugðit nokkut við þessa sýslu.—Ekki sjám vér þér brugðit hafa við þetta, en þó sýndist mér þér áðr brugðit, Fms. xi. 148. β. bregða í brún, to be amazed, shocked, Fms. i. 214; þá brá Guðrúnu mjök í brún um atburð þenna allan saman, Ld. 326, Nj. 14; þat hlægir mik at þeim mun í brún b., 239; nú bregðr mönnum í brún mjök (people were very much startled), því at margir höfðu áðr enga frétt af haft, Band. 7. II. with prepp. við, til, í, af; of appearances, kynligu, undarliga bregðr við, it has a weird look, looks uncanny, of visions, dreams, or the like; en þó bregðr nú kynligu við, undan þykir mér nú gaflaðit hvárt-tveggja undan húsinu, Ísl. ii. 352, Nj. 62, 197, Gísl. 83; nú bregðr undrum við, id., Fms. i. 292. III. e-m bregðr til e-s, one person turns out like another, cp. the Danish ‘at slægte en paa;’ þat er mælt at fjórðungi bregði til fóstrs, the fostering makes the fourth part of the man, Nj. 64; en því bregðr mér til foreldris míns, in that I am like my father, Hkr. iii. 223; er þat líkast, at þér bregði meir í þræla ættina en Þveræinga, it is too likely, that thou wilt show thyself rather to be kith and kin to the thrall’s house than to that of Thweræingar, Fb. i. 434; b. til bernsku, to be childish, Al. 3. β. bregðr af vexti hans frá öðrum selum, his shape differs from that of any other seals, Sks. 41 new Ed. (afbrigði). IV. to cease; e-u bregðr, it ceases; svá hart … at nyt (dat.) bregði, (to drive the ewes) so fast that they fail (to give milk), Grág. ii. 231; þessu tali bregðr aldri (= þetta tal bregzk aldri), this calculation can never fail, Rb. 536; veðráttu (dat.) brá eigi, there was no change in the weather, Grett. 91; skini sólar brá, the sun grew dim, Geisü 19; fjörvi feigra brá, the life of the ‘feys’ came to an end (poët.), Fms. vi. 316 (in a verse); brá föstu, hungri, úlfs, ara, the hunger of wolf and eagle was abated, is a freq. phrase with the poets. V. of a sudden appearance; kláða (dat.) brá á hvarmana, the eye-lids itched, Fms. v. 96: of light passing swiftly by, þá brá ljóma af Logafjöllum, Hkv. 1. 15; ljósi bregðr fyrir, a light passes before the eye; mey brá mér fyrir hvarma steina, a maid passed before my eyes, Snót 117; þar við ugg (dat.) at þrjótum brá, i. e. the rogues were taken by fear, 170.

breið, f. = breiða.

breiða, dd, [Ulf. braidjan; Germ. breiten], to ‘broaden,’ unfold; b. feld á höfuð sér, to spread a cloak on the head, Nj. 164; b. út, to lay out for drying, Sd. 179, Ld. 290, Fbr. 17, chiefly of hay; b. völl and b. hey a völl, Jb. 193; b. e-t yfir e-n, to cover one in a thing, chiefly of the bed-clothes, Nj. 20, Fms. viii. 237; b. út hendr, to stretch out the hands, vii. 250, Th. 9; b. faðm, id., Rm. 16, Pass. 34. 2; b. borð (mod., b. á borð), to lay the cloth on the table, Bs. ii. 42.

breiða, u, f. a drift, flock, of snow, hay, or the like; also fjár-breiða, a flock of white sheep; ábreiða, a cover, etc.

breið-bælingr, m. a nickname, a man from Breiðabólstað, Sturl.

breidd, f. [Goth. braidei], breadth, Alg. 372, Grág. i. 498, Symb. 22, Fms. x. 272: metaph., Skálda 175.

breið-dælskr, adj. from Broaddale in Iceland, Landn., Nj.

Breið-firðingr, m. a man from Broadfirth in Iceland, Nj., Landn., etc.

breið-firzkr, adj. belonging to, a native of Broadfirth, Landn., etc.

breiðka, að, to grow broad, Krók. 52.

breið-leiki (-leikr), a, m. breadth, Stj. 56.

breið-leitr, adj. broad of face, aspect, Hkr. ii. 405, Grett. 90 A.

BREIÐR, adj. neut. breitt, [Ulf. braids; Scot. brade; A. S. brâd; Engl. broad; Germ. breit], broad, Ld. 276, Nj. 35, 91, Grág. i. 500, Fms. iv. 42, vi. 297; fjörðr b. ok langr, Eb. 8; breiða stofa, b. búr, the broad chamber, Dipl. iii. 4, v. 2. β. á breiðan, adv. in breadth, Fms. viii. 416, x. 13: neut. as adv., standa breitt, to spread over a wide space, Edda 10.

breið-vaxinn, part. broad-framed, stout, Grett. 89.

breið-öx, f. [old Dan. breth ôxa; Germ. breitaxt; A. S. brâd æx], a broad axe, N. G. L. i. 101, Fms. ix. 33, Ísl. ii. 210, v. l., Bret. 84, Bjarn. 36, Orkn. 360; ‘brand-ox,’ Ed. l. c., is a false reading.

BREK, n. a law term, a fraudulent purchase of land, liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 241, 242: hence the proverb, sá hafi b. er beiðist, let him have b. that bids for it, i. e. volenti non fit injuria, Grett. 135 new Ed., Fas. iii. 202. 2. pl. freaks, chiefly of children; að barna þinna brekum skalt | brosa ei né skemtan halt, Húst. 49.

breka, að, to keep asking, of importunate requests, Fms. vi. 246: the proverb, látum barn hafa þat er brekar, Þiðr. 51, 110: neut., b. til e-s, Al. 114.

BREKAN, n. [Gael. braecan = tartan], a stitched bed cover.

brek-boð, n. a fraudulent bidding (of land), Grág. ii. 242.

breki, a, m., poët. a breaker, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.

BREKKA, u, f. [Swed. and Engl. brink], a slope, Orkn. 244, Eg. 766, Gísl. 33, Glúm. 395; b. brún, the edge of a slope, Sturl. ii. 75; hvel, Sks. 64, freq. in local names in Icel.: as a law term, the hill where public meetings were held and laws promulgated, etc., hence the phrase, leiða í brekku, to proclaim a bondsman free; ef þræli er gefit frelsi, ok er hann eigi leiddr í lög eðr b., Grág. i. 358. COMPDS: brekku-brún, v. above. brekku-megin, n. strength to climb the crest of a hill.

brek-laust, n. adj. fraudless, Grág. i. 137, 200.

brek-ráð, n. pl. a law term, an attempt at fraudulent acquisition (v. brek), Glúm. 347, Boll. 352.

brek-samr, adj. wayward, Merl.

brek-sekð, f. a law term, a fraudulent, mock outlawry in order to disable one from pleading his case, defined Grág. i. 121.

brek-vísi, f. an importunate request. Ld. 134.

brella, u, f. a trick; veiði-brella, a ruse, brellinn, adj. = bellinn.

brengla, að, to distort, = beygla, Fas. iii.

BRENNA, an old obsol. form brinna; pret. brann, 2nd pers. brant, mod. branst; pl. brunnu; sup. brunnit; pres. brenn, 3rd pers. brennr; old breðr, Grág. ii. 295, Fms. vii. 20 (in a verse); brenn (dropping the r), Hm. 56; with the neg. suffix, brennr-at (non urit), 153, [Ulf. brinnan; A. S. byrnan; Early Engl. to ‘brenn;’ Germ. brennen; the strong form is almost obsolete in Germ.]:—to burn: 1. of a light; þeir þóttust sjá fjögr ljós b., Nj. 118, Fas. i. 340; hrælog brunnu (blazed) af vápnum þeirra, Bs. i. 509: of a candle, to burn out, eigi lengr en kerti þat brennr, Fas. i. 341, 342; cp. Fms. viii. 276. 2. to be consumed by fire; kyrtillinn var brunninn, Fms. xi. 420; nú breðr viðara en hann vildi, the fire spreads wider than he would, Grág. l. c. β. of a volcano; er hér brann hraunit, er nú stöndu vér á, Bs. i. 22; brann þá Borgarhraun, Landn. 78, Ann. several times. γ. b. upp, to be burnt up. Grág. i. 459, K. Þ. K. 42; b. inni, to perish by fire, Gþl. 252, Nj. 198, 200. δ. to fester, Fms. xi. 288. ε. to be scolded, Eb. 198; skulu grónir grautar dílarnir þeir er þú brant, 200. 3. metaph. in the phrase, e-t or e-s hlutr brennr við, one’s lot or portion of meat gets burnt in the cooling, one gets the worst of it; broth ‘brennr við,’ is burnt: ortu bændr þegar á um bardagann (they made an onslaught), en þó brann brátt þeirra hlutr við, but it grew soon too hot for them, Fms. iv. 250; Sigurðr kvað sitt skyldu við brenna, quoth Sigurd, he would get the worst of it, i. e. it would never do, Fær. 236: the phrase, e-t brennr fyrir, or e-t rautt brennr fyrir, of bright hopes, rautt mun fyrir b. ok til virðingar snúa, Fs. 68; mun enn nokkut fyrir b. er þér komit heim, Fas. iii. 81.

brenna, d, with acc. to burn; b. bál, to burn or light a balefire, Hervar. S. (in a verse). 2. to destroy by fire, devastate, Fms. xi. 391, Ann. 1329, 1289: b. upp, to burn up, Eg. 49; b. e-n inni, to burn one alive, Nj. 115, Grág. ii. 128, Landn. 215, v. l. 3. medic. to cauterise (of hot iron), Grág. ii. 133; b. e-m díla, to burn spots on one’s back, body (medic.), Bs. 1. 644. β. metaph. to brand one’s back; eigi þurfu Danir at hælast við oss Norðmenn, margan díla höfum vér brent þeim frændum, Hkr. iii. 148; b. e-m illan díla, id., Fbr. 190 (in a verse). γ. b. kol, to burn, i. e. make charcoal (cp. charcoal-burner), Grág. i. 200. δ. part., brennt silfr, gull = skírt silfr, gull, pure silver, gold, K. Þ. K. 172, 152; eyrir brendr (= eyrir brends silfrs), mörk brend, Fms. ix. 421, Hkr. iii. 12; b. gull, Fms. xi. 77.

brenna, u, f. fire, burning, Grág. ii. 129, Nj. 158, 199; Njáls brenna, Blundketils brenna, etc., Ann. 962, 1010: the burning of a dead body, Edda 38 (= bálför). β. astron., according to Finn Magnusson (Lex. Mythol.) Sirius is called Loka brenna, the conflagration of Loki, referring to the end of the world. COMPDS: brennu-maðr, m. an incendiary, Nj. 203. brennu-mál, n. action for fire, Nj. 210. brennu-saga, u, f. a tale of a fire, Nj. 269. brennu-staðr, m. the place where a fire has been, Grág. ii. 128. brennu-sumar, n. a summer of fires, Sturl. i. 165. brennu-vargr, m. a law term, an incendiary (outlawed), defined N. G. L. i. 46, Sturl. iii. 261.

brennandi, m. fire, Fms. i. 63 (in a verse).

brenn-heitr, adj. burning-hot, Mkv.

brennir, m. id., Edda (Gl.)

brenni-steinn (brennu-steinn, brenna-steinn), m. brimstone, sulphur, Sks. 391; Icel. sulphur mentioned in the 12th and 13th centuries, Arna b. S., D. I., H. E., etc.; b. logi, a sulphur lowe or flame, Rb. 336; b. vatn, a sulphur well, Stj. 91; b. þefr, a smell of brimstone, id.

BRESTA, pret. brast, pl. brustu; part. brostinn; pres. brest, [A. S. berstan, per metath.; Engl. to burst; Germ. bersten; Swed. brista; Dan. briste]:—to burst, be rent; jörðin brast (the earth burst) undir hesti hans, Nj. 158; steinninn brast, the rock was rent, Bs. i. 5. β. to break with a crash; brast þú boginn í tvá hluti, Hkr. i. 342, Gísl. 81; brestr röng, the rib of a barrel creaks, Jb. 398: the hoops of a vessel bresta (burst), Fs. 132; skulfu lönd, en brustu bönd (of a tub), Jón Þorl. 2. to crash, of the sound alone; hófarnir brustu í veggjunum, the hoofs dashed against the wall, Grett. 25 new Ed.; hvat brast þar svá hátt, Hkr. i. 342; þá brast strengr á skipi, then twanged the bowstring on the ship, Fms. i. 182; brestandi bogi, the twanging bow, Hm. 84. β. to burst forth, of a stream, avalanche, or the like; brestr flóð, of an avalanche, Gísl. 33; skriða brast, id., Fms. v. 250; blóð brestr út, the blood bursts out, from a blow, N. G. L. i. 342. γ. a milit. term, flótti brestr, the ranks break in flight, when the host is seized by panic; þá brast flótti í liði Flosa, Nj. 246; er meginflóttinn brast, Fms. viii. 229; brast þá flótti á Vindum, xi. 233; bardagi brestr, the battle bursts out, begins, (rare and as it seems απ. λεγ.), Fas. i. 34. δ. b. or b. á, to burst or break out, a storm, gale, cp. Bs. i. 78 (vide however s. v. bera C. IV): b. or b. út, to ebb, but only of the first turning of the tide, Bb. 2. 15; augu b., the eyes break in death, v. auga; hence helbrostið auga. II. impers., e-n (acc.) brestr e-t (acc.), one lacks, falls short of; brast Sigríði (acc.) fimm tigi hundraða, Dipl. v. 3; ef oss brestr á borði, if we fall short, get the worst of it, Fms. ix. 507; eigi brestr mik árædi, Fs. 62; á mið þau er aldri mun fisk (Ed. wrongly fiskr) b., Bárð. 169; ef eitt orð (acc.) brysti, Fms. iv. 71; hann vissi þessa sína ætlan brostna (frustrated), Bs. i. 289; þat mun aldri b., that will never fail, Grett. 24 new Ed.: hamingjuna brestr, Fms. vi. 155 (Ed. hamingjan).

brestr, m. pl. ir, (old acc. pl. brestu, Jd. 25), an outburst, crash, Eb. 230, of a blow against a metal ring; steinarnir kómu saman, ok varð þar við b. hár, Glúm. 375 (cp. heraðs-brestr, vá-brestr), Fms. xi. 6, 7, Fbr. 148, Hkr. i. 342; her-brestr, the crash produced by a sort of powder (cp. Albertus Magnus), Bs. i. 798, 799; í þeim eldi léku laus björg stór sem kol á afli, svá at í þeirra samkomu urðu brestir svá stórir, at heyrði norðr um land (of a volcano), 803; mátti heyra stóra bresti, i. e. the clash of spears, Flov. 33. II. a chink, fissure, esp. in jewellery; b. á gulli, Vkv. 25, cp. 24; vóru gimsteinar svá heilir at eigi var b. á þeim, Joh. 623. 20; kom mér þá í hug, at b. hafði verit á hringnum, … fleiri brestina, Ld. 126; cp. the phrase, berja í brestina, v. berja, to cry off a bargain, Nj. 32. 2. metaph. a crack, chink; bresti er í þeim ráðahag hafa verit, Ld. 128. β. want, loss; hvert ábati eðr b. í varð, Fms. xi. 441; þar eptir fylgir b. bús, Bb. i. 12; hýbýla-brestr, domestic misfortune, Gísl. 79. III. a rattle (hrossa-brestr).

bretta, tt. [brattr], to turn upwards; b. halann, Hkv. Hjörv. 20; cp. bera halann bratt: in mod. use of the clothes, sleeves, etc., to fold up; b. nefið, brýrnar: hence brettur, f. pl. comical contortions of the face.

breyma, used as adj. ind., b. köttr, a she-cat at heat.

breysk-leikr (-leiki), m. weakness of body, Stj. 21: in moral sense, Magn. 504, K. Á. 200.

BREYSKR, adj. (akin to brjósk), properly brittle: b. leirpottr, a brittle earthen pot, Sks. 543; kerin b., Stell. 1. 72: chiefly metaph. in moral sense, weak, infirm; andinn er fús, en holdið er b. . Matth. xxvi. 41, Stj. 55, 248, Sks. 688. 13: in mod. writing often spelt with i.

BREYTA, tt, [braut, via], to alter, change: bregða implies the notion of breach, breyta simply denotes change: with dat.; b. farveg (of a river), to form a new channel, Grág. i. 350, Nj. 4, Ld. 158, Fms. ii. 158, Fb. i. 292; flestar Þjóðir þurfa at b. (transform) nafni hans til sinnar tungu, Edda 14; þá vóru snjóvar miklir ok breyttir (changed, become impassable) vegir allir, Eg. 543, Rb. 262 (where the acc. is wrong;). β. reflex., hafa þau ekki breyzk síðan, they have not changed since, Fms. viii. 5. γ. to vary; b. háttum, to vary the metre, Edda 121; b. hári sínu, to dress the hair, Greg. 45; b. málum, to speak rhetorically, dress one’s words, Fms. vi. 392; réttr ok b., plain and artificial, Edda 120; úbreyttr, plain. II. metaph., absol. without case, to conduct oneself, act, do, behave; ef við breytum svá, if we do so, Nj. 202, Ísl. ii. 181, Fms. i. 150; b. eptir e-m, to imitate, Symb. 15; b. til e-s, to attempt, Grág. ii. 94. 2. in mod. use chiefly in moral sense, to behave, conduct oneself; b. vel, illa, kristilega, cp. breytni, N. T., Vidal., Pass.

breyti-liga, adv. strangely, Fs. 42, Korm. 54. Lv. 77, Fms. vi. 374.

breyti-ligr, adj. strange, Sturl. iii. 302.

breyting, f. change, N. G. L. i. 382.

breytinn, adj. variable, Post. 645. 90.

breytni, f. change; göra b. á um e-t, to make an alteration in a thing, Fas. iii. 155, Mag. 5, Fs. 98; b. í klæðnaði, fashion, N. G. L. iii. 262: new fashion, Grág. i. 338; ný-breytni, Snót 68; hann kvaðst eigi nenna enn um sinn at hafa þessa b., he said that he was not yet minded to, viz. to be baptized, Fs. 77, Nj. 13 (shape, nature). 2. in mod. usage chiefly moral conduct, acting; eptir-breytni, imitation.

Brezkr, adj. Welsh, Fms., etc.; mod. British.

BRIGÐ, f. [bregða A. H.], a law term, ‘jus retrahendi,’ a right to reclaim, chiefly of landed property; eiga b. til lands; fyrnist þá eigi brigðin, then the right of reclamation will not be lost, Grág. ii. 202 sqq.; cp. Landbrigð and Landbrigða-þáttr, one of the sections of the law; cp. also óðals-brigð (Norse), vide Gþl. 295 sqq.: also brigð á dómi, change of a doom or sentence, Sks 588 B: kaupa e-t í brigð við annan, to purchase a thing already bought by another man, Rd. 252; engi brigð (neut. acc. pl. enga?) mun ek her á göra, where brigð nearly means protest, Fms. ii. 25. 2. gener. breaking, breach; vináttu-brigð, breach of friendship, fickleness, Hm. 83. COMPD: brigðar-maðr, m. a law term, one whose lands are escheated, but may be redeemed, Grág. ii. 253, Gþl. 290.

brigða, ð, (mod. að), [bregða], a law term, to escheat; with acc., b. land, lönd, Grág. ii. 202 sqq.; b. e-m frelsi, to abrogate, i. 203; b. fé (of the forfeiture of a deposit), 183. In the Norse sense, vide Gþl. 295 sqq., Jb. 188 sqq., Dipl. v. 16. 2. with dat. (irreg.), b. jörðu, Gþl. 300: to make void, b. dómi, 23; b. sáttmáli, Stj. 382: part. brigðandi = brigðarmaðr, Grág. ii. 204.

brigði, n. = brigð, Anecd. 14, Mk. 144: cp. compds lit-brigði, gloaming; veðr-brigði, change of weather; af-brigði, etc.

brigði-ligr (brigðligr), adj. and -liga, adv. variable, Stj. 117, Sks. 203, 627 B, 677. 8, 2.

brigð-kaup, n. a void bargain, because of another man having a prior right of purchase, N. G. L. iii. 177.

brigð-lyndi, f. fickleness, Hkr. iii. 273.

brigð-lyndr, adj. fickle, Sturl. iii. 123.

brigð-mæli, n. breach of promise, Korm. 56, Fms. vii. 305.

brigðr, adj. faithless, fickle, Hm. 90, 125; brigt (unsafe) þyki mér at trúa Þrándi, Fær. 226.

brigð-ræði, n. fickleness, a whimsy, Edda 110 (new Ed. i. 544, note 26).

brigð-ull, adj. variable, fickle, unsafe, Fas. iii. 456.

brigð-verpi, n. a cast in another man’s fishery, Gþl. 426.

brigzla, að, (derived from brigð and bregða), to upbraid, with dat. of the person and thing; b. oss því, at vér …, Fms. ii. 227; honum sé því brigzlat, that it be thrown in his teeth, Fær. 100, Al. 2: with acc. of the thing (rare), Stj. 42, Anecd. 30: in mod. use, b. e-m um e-t, Mar. 153 (Fr.): absol., b. e-m ok hæða, Mar. l. c. II. medic. of broken bones (brixla saman) when they are only rudely healed.

brigzli and brigzl, n., chiefly in pl. blame, shame, Stj. 176. Gen. xxx. 23; b. ok álygi, Hom. 76, Fms. i. 270, ii. 69; eilíft b., everlasting shame, x. 222; færa e-m e-t í brigzli, to throw a thing in one’s teeth, Lv. 59; hafa at brigzlum, Nj. 223; brigzla-lauss, blameless, Fms. viii. 136. II. medic. callificatio ossium, the callus left after bone-fractures.

brigzl-yrði, n. pl. words of blame, Nj. 223, v. l.

BRIM, n. [A. S. brim = aestus], surf, Fær. 174, Eg. 99; boðar ok b., Grág. ii. 385; sker ok b., Eg. 161, Landn. 84, 276, Hkr. i. 228. β. poët. the sea.

brim-dúfa, u, f. anas torquala multicolor.

brim-gangr, m. the dashing of surf, Ann. 1312.

brim-hljóð, n. the roar of surf.

brimill, m. pl. lar, [bremol, Ivar Aasen], phoca fetida mas, also called brim-selr = útselr, a big sort of seal, Höfuðl. 5: Brimils-gjá, a local name.

brim-lauss, adj. (-leysa, u, f.), surfless, calm, N. G. L. i. 139.

brim-orri, a, m. anas nigra, a duck, Edda (Gl.)

brim-rót, n. furious surf.

brim-rúnar, f. pl. wave-runes, charms, Sdm.

brim-saltr, adj. salt as the sea.

brim-sorfinn, part. (rocks) surf-worn, Eg. 142.

brim-steinn, m. brimstone (?), a nickname, Fms. ix.

brim-stormr, m. a gale raising surf, Stj. 26, 89.

brim-tog, n. a rope used to tug a boat through the surf, Gþl. 427.

brim-önd, f. a kind of duck, a ‘surf-duck.’

BRINGA, u, f., Lat. sternum, the chest (brjóst, pectus), Nj. 24, Eb. 182, Eg. 719: the phrase, e-m skýtr skelk í bringu, one gets frightened, Eg. 49, Fb. i. 418. β. the breast-piece, brisket, Stj. 310. Exod. xxx. 27, = bringu-kollr. γ. metaph. a soft grassy slope, hence Gull-bringur, the golden slopes, whence Gullbringu sýsla in Icel. COMPDS: bringu-bein, n. the breast-bone, Finnb. 256. bringu-breiðr, adj. broad-chested, Ld. 296, Sturl. ii. 133. bringu-kollr, v. above. bringu-sár, n. a wound in the chest, Sturl. ii. 138, Ld. 140. bringu-teinar, m. pl. = bringspalir, Fas. iii. 392.

bring-spelir, m. pl. (mod. bringspalir, Ísl. ii. 55, 447, or bringsmalir, f. pl.), the ‘breast-rails, breast-bars,’ the brisket or part where the lower ribs are joined with the cartilago ensiformis (the hertespone of Chaucer), Ísl. l. c., Fms. ii. 151, Gullþ. 21; bringspölum (dat.), Grág. ii. 16; bringspölu (acc.), Gísl. 106; bringspala (gen.), Sturl. i. 140; bringspeli (acc.), Grett. 123 new Ed.: often in such phrases as, finna til (to feel pain) fyrir bringspölunum; [cp. Fr. espalier.]

brinni, a, m. a flame, Haustl. 13.

BRIS, n., medic. schirrus, gristle, Fél. ix. 208: the phrase, bíta á brisinu, metaphor from a gristly piece of meat.

bris-heitr, adj. fire-hot, see the following word.

BRÍK, f., gen. ar, pl. bríkr, [Engl. brick; Fr. brique; Swed. bricka; Dan. brikke = chess-man in a game], properly a square tablet, e. g. altaris-brík, an altar-piece, Vm. 10, Bs. ii. 487: in the Sagas often of a low screen between the pillars (stafir), separating the bedrooms (hvílurúm) from the chief room, Gþl. 345, Fms. v. 339, Sturl. ii. 228, iii. 219, Korm. 182:—in mod. usage brík means a small tablet with carved work, one at the foot and one at the head of a bed, (höfða-brík, fóta-brík.) β. in Norway (Ivar Aasen) used of a small table placed at the door; in this sense it seems to be used Bs. i. (Laur. S.) 854. COMPDS: bríkar-búningr, m. and bríkar-klæði, bríkar-tjald, n. covering for a tablet, D. I. i. 268, Vm. 10, 24. bríkar-nef, n. a nickname, Bs. i.

brími, a, m. fire, poët., Edda (Gl.): brímir, m., poët. a sword, Lex. Poët.: a mythic. abode, Vsp. 43.

brísingr, m. [cp. Fr. braise], fire, poët.,—an interesting mythol. word, now unknown in Icel., except in the adj. brís-heitr, fire-hot, used in the same connection as fun-heitr, q. v. In Norway brising is any beacon or bale-fire, e. g. Jonsoko-brising = the fire kindled on the 24th of June, (in the Alps called Johannis-feuer.) In olden times the necklace of Freyja was called Brísinga-men, n. the flame-necklace; it was said to be hidden in the deep sea; Loki and Heimdal fought at the rock Singa-stone for this necklace; this ancient legend was represented on the roof of the hall at Hjarðarholt, and treated in the poem Húsdrápa, Ld., Edda.

brjá, ð, (cp. braga), to flicker, Stj. 389, Þiðr. 114; brjándi birti, Bs. ii. (in a verse). brjándi, part. flickering, Stj. 389.

brjál, n. showy trifles, in a poem of A. D. 1410; cp. orða-brjál, showy words.

brjála, að, to flutter; to confound, disorder: reflex., Orkn. 204 old Ed. (mod. word). brjálaðr, part. one deranged of mind.

BRJÓSK, n. [Swed. and Dan. brusk], gristle, cartilage, Fas. i. 351; bein eða b., Grág. ii. 12, 120.

BRJÓST, n. (brysti, provinc. Icel.), [Ulf. brusts, f. pl. = στηθος and σπλάγχνα; A. S. breost; Engl. breast; Hel. briost, n. pl.; Swed. bröst; Dan. bryst, n.; Germ. brust, f.]:—the breast; b. ok kviðr, Eg. 579, Nj. 95; önd í brjósti, K. Þ. K. 26; Lat. uber, a woman’s breast, in pl., fæða barn á brjósti, feed a bairn at the breast, Bs. i. 666, Str. 18, Stj. 429: mod. chiefly in pl. = Lat. mammae; hafa barn á brjóstum; brjósta-mjólk, milk from the breast; brjósta-mein, medic. ulcus or abscessus mammarum, Fél. ix. 202; brjósta-verkr, mastodynia (of women), id. II. with the ancients the breast was thought to be the abode of the mind, as well as of feeling, hence it is poët. called hug-borg, mun-strönd, reið rýnis, minnis knörr, etc., the castle, strand, wain, ship of mind, of thought, of memory, etc., vide Lex. Poët., Edda 105, Höfuðl. 1, Stor. 18; thus brjóst freq. metaph. means feeling, temper, disposition; hafa ekki b. til e-s, to have no heart for it; kenna í brjósti um e-n, to ‘feel in the breast’ for one, feel compassion for; mun hann vera þrályndr sem faðir hans, en hafa brjóst verra, a harder heart, Sturl. iii. 144, Bs. ii. 70, 41; láta eigi allt fyrir brjósti brenna, of a hardy, daring man; e-m rennr í brjóst, of a light slumber, esp. of one sick. β. the front, of a wave, Bs. i. 484; b. fylkingar, of a line, Eg. 268, Fms. v. 77. γ. metaph. the breast-work or protector of one; b. ok hlífskjöldr, Hom. 95; bera (vera) b. fyrir e-m, to be one’s defender, to shield one, Fms. vii. 263, x. 235; the phrase, vinna eið fyrir brjósti e-s, on one’s behalf, Gþl. 484.

brjóst-afl, n. strength of chest, Sks. 372.

brjóst-barn, n. a child at the breast, Stj. 227, Fs. 154.

brjóst-björg, f. a breast-plate, Sks. 406.

brjóst-bragð, n. compassion, Barl. 4.

brjóst-búnaðr, m. a breast ornament, brooch, Js. 78.

brjóst-drekkr, m. = brjóstbarn, Grág. i. 240.

brjóst-fast, n. adj. fixed in the heart, Fms. xi. 433.

brjóst-festa, t, to fix in mind, Barl. 142.

brjóst-friðr, m. peace of mind, 655 xxvii. 16.

brjóst-gjörð, f. a saddle-girth, Stj. 397. Judg. viii. 26, Lv. 82.

brjóst-góðr, adj. (brjóst-gæði, n. pl.), tender-hearted.

brjóst-heill, adj. having a sound chest, Fbr. 94, Mar. 655 xxxii.

brjóst-kringla, u, f. a ‘breast-disk,’ brooch, Vkv. 24, 34.

brjóst-leysi, n. heart-sinking, prostration, Bs. i. 387.

brjóst-megin, n. strength of mind or heart, Bs. i. 238, Mag. 88.

brjóst-mikill, adj. broad-chested, Sks. 227 (of waves).

brjóst-milkingr, m. a suckling, Matth. xxi. 16.

brjóst-reiðr, adj. enraged, Þiðr. 116.

brjóst-reip, n. a breast-rope, girdle, a nickname, Orkn.

brjóst-stofa, u, f. a front room, D. N. (Fr.)

brjóst-sullr, m. a tubercle in the lungs, Greg. 74.

brjóst-sviði, a, m. heartburn, Fas. iii. 392, Fél. ix.

brjóst-veiki, n. (brjóst-veikr, adj.), chest-disease, Fél. ix.

brjóst-veill, adj. having a delicate chest.

brjóst-vit, n. mother-wit, Bs. i. 164, Pass. 44. 17.

brjóst-vitra, u, f. id., Bs. ii. 11.

brjóst-þili, n. = bjórþili, a front wall, Sturl. ii. 66, Hom. 94.

brjóst-þungt, n. adj., Bs. i. 644, (-þyngsli and -þreyngsli, n.), asthma.

BRJÓTA, pret. braut; 2nd pers. brautt is obsolete; commonly brauzt or brauztu, Ó. H. 24 (in a verse), Fms. vi. 139 (in a verse of A. D. 1050); pl. brutu; sup. brotið; pres. brýt: [this word does not occur in Ulf. and is unknown in Germ.; the A. S. has breâtan, breôtan, but rarely and in the sense to destroy, demolish: but the Scandin. dialects all have it; Swed. bryta; Dan. bryde; whereas the Goth. braican, Germ. brechen, Engl. break are unknown to the Scandin. idioms. Du Cange records a Latin-Spanish britare = destruere; it is therefore likely that it came into Spain with the Goths, although Ulfilas does not use it]:—to break; with acc., Nj. 64, Bs. i. 346; þeir brutu báða fótleggi í honum, Hom. 115; sumir brutu (hurt) hendr sínar, sumir fætr, Bs. i. 10; ef maðr brýtr tennr or höfði manns, Grág. ii. 11; hvárz þat er höggit, eðr brotið, cut or broken, id.; þeir kómu við sker ok brutu stýri, Fms. ix. 307; Þormóðr kvað betra at róa minna ok brjóta ekki, Grett. ch. 50: phrases as, b. á bak, to break the back, Fms. vii. 119; á háls, the neck, Vígl. 21; b. í hjóli (hveli), to break on the wheel, of capital punishment, Fms. xi. 372, Hom. 147; í þeim hring stendr Þórs steinn, er þeir menn vóru brotnir um (on which the men were broken) er til blóta vóru hafðir, Eb. 26. 2. denoting to destroy, demolish; b. skurðgoð, Fms. x. 277, Bs. i. 10; þeir höfðu brotið hof en kristnað land, Fms. i. 32; Valgarðr braut krossa fyrir Merði ok öll heilög tákn, Nj. 167. β. b. skip, to shipwreck (skip-brot); brutu þar skipit allt í span, Nj. 282, Ld. 8, Landn. 149: absol., hón kom á Vikarsskeið, ok braut þar, 110: nú er á (a river) brýtr af annars manns landi, Gþl. 419; cp. land-brot. 3. adding prepp.; niðr, sundr, af, upp, to break down, asunder, off, or the like; sá er niðr braut alla Jerusalem, 673. 51; b. niðr blótskap, Fms. iii. 165, viii. (pref.); brutu þá Baglar af brúna, B. broke the bridge off, x. 331; b. sundr, ix. 482; b. upp, to break up; þeir brutu upp þilit, Eg. 235; þeir brutu upp búr hans (of burglars), 593; b. upp kirkju, Fms. ix. 12; b. upp hlið, to break up a fence, K. Þ. K. 84. β. b. upp, to break up a package, unpack; brýtr hann nú upp gersemar sínar, Fær. 6:—as a naut. term, b. upp means to bring out victuals for the mess, Dan. bakke op; jarl ok hans menn b. upp vistir ok setjast til matar, Fms. xi. 147: milit., b. upp vápn means to take arms, prepare for battle (in a sea fight); brjóta upp vápn sín ok berjask, Fær. 85; menn brutu upp um annan öll vápn, Fms. vi. 313 (in a verse). γ. b. or b. saman, to fold (clothes or the like); b. sundr, to unfold, Nj. 171: in mod. usage also b. bréf, to fold a letter (hence brot, to denote the size of a book); b. upp bréf, to break a letter open, Barl. 181; b. blað, to fold down a leaf in a book, etc.; b. út, to break (a channel) through, Landn. 65 (of a river); þá var út brotinn óssinn, Bs. i. 315. 4. various metaph. phrases; b. bág við, to fight, v. bágr, Fas. i. 43; b. odd af oflæti sínu, to break the point off one’s pride, to humble oneself, Nj. 94 (where to disgrace oneself); b. straum fyrir e-u, to break the stream for one, metaphor from a post or rock in a stream, to bear the brunt of battle, Orkn. 344; b. bekrann, vide bekri, Grett. 5. metaph. to break, violate, lög, rétt, etc.; mun ek þó eigi fyrir þínar sakir brjóta lögin né konungs tignina, eða svá landsréttinn, Fms. iv. 263; en þér, konungr, brutuð lög á Agli, you broke the law in Egil’s case, Eg. 416, Fms. x. 401; at þú brjótir lög þín, xi. 93; engi skyídi annars ráð brjóta, Bret.; b. á bak, to infringe, Fas. i. 528 (cp. lög-brot, laga-brot); b. af við e-n, to wrong one, iii. 551: in theol. sense, H. E. i. 460 (vide af-brot, mis-brot, crime, sin): absol. to transgress, brjóta þau ok bæði, ok göra hórdóm, K. Á. 134. β. denoting force, to force, compel; b. menn til Kristni, Ld. 178, Fms. i. 142; til trúar, Fs. 98; til hlýðni, to force to submission; allt landsfólk var undir brotið ríki þeirra, all people were brought under their rule, Fms. iv. 64; hón er í hernaði ok brýtr undir sik víkinga, Odd. 22; b. konu til svefnis, a law term, violare, Grág. i. 338. II. reflex., with prepp. í, ór, um, út, við, or adv. braut; brjótask, to break in, out, etc.; hann brauzk í haug Hrólfs Kraka, Landn. 169; brjótumk vér þá burt ór húsinu, to break out of the house, Fas. i. 88; brjótask á, to break in upon, press; Önundr brauzk á hurðina, Onund tried to break in the door, Fs. 101, Fms. vii. 187; b. fram, to break forth, Bb.; b. milli, to break out between, Bs. i. 634; b. út, to break out, esp. in the metaph. sense of plague, disease, fire, or the like; er út brýzk vökvi ok úhreinindi, Greg. 22 (út-brot, a breaking out, eruption); b. um, to make a hard struggle (e. g. of one fettered or pinioned); því harðara er hann brauzk um, Edda 20; björn einn brauzk um í vök, Fs. 146; af ofrgangi elds þess er um brýtsk (rages) í grundvöllum landsins, Sks. 151; b. við e-t, to struggle (wrestle) hard against; þeir brutusk við skóga eðr stóra steina, of enraged berserkers, Fas. i. 515: metaph. to fight hard against, hann brauzk við heiðinn lýð, Fms. xi. 396; b. við ofrefli, to fight against odds, Ísl. ii. 394: absol. to strive hard, Stj. 411; Hákoni jarli var ekki mikit um at b. við borgargörðina, Haco did not care to exert himself much about making the burg, Fms. ix. 46: with dat., b. við e-u, to fight against (in a bad sense); b. við gæfu sinni, to break with one’s good luck, iv. 233; b. við forlögunum, to struggle against fate, Fs. 20; b. í e-u, to be busy, exert oneself in a thing; eigi þarftú í þessu at brjótask lengr, i. e. give it up, Fms. iii. 102; því at þessi maðr Ólafr brýzk í miklu ofrefli, this man Olave struggles against great odds, iv. 77. 2. recipr., þeir rérust svá nær, at brutusk árarnar fyrir, that they broke one another’s oars, Fms. viii. 216. III. impers. in a pass. sense; skipit (acc.) braut í spán, the ship was broken to pieces, Ld. 142; skip Þangbrands braut austr við Búlandshöfða, Nj. 162; tók út skip Þangbrands ok braut mjök, Bs. i. 15: of a house, or the like, destroyed by wind or wave, þá braut kirkju (acc.), the church was blown down, 30: the phrase, straum (acc.) brýtr á skeri, the stream is broken against a skerry (rock); strauminn braut á öxlinni, the stream broke against his shoulders, Grett. 140 (the new Ed.), the old Ed. straumrinn—not so well; lá (acc.) brýtr, the surf breaks, abates, Edda (Ht. verse 78). IV. part. brotinn, broken; sverð slæ ok brotin, Hkr. i. 343: as adj. in such compds as fót-brotinn, væng-brotinn, háls-brotinn, hrygg-brotinn, etc., with broken leg, wing, etc.

brjótr, m. one that breaks, a destroyer, mostly in compds or poët., Hým. 17, Lex. Poët.

BROÐ, n. [Engl. broth; Germ. brod], broth: still used in the east of Icel.: occurs in the compd word broð-gýgr, a broth-cook, in a verse in the Laufás Edda, and wrongly explained in Lex. Poët. to be = brauð-gýgr.

brodd-geiri, a, m. a spear-formed piece (geiri, goar) of land, Dipl. iv. 15, Grett. 89, new Ed. brot- wrongly.

brodd-högg, n. a blow from a pike, Fms. ix. 528.

BRODDR, m. [A. S. brord; O. H. G. brort; Goth. brozds is suggested], a spike, Eg. 285. β. a kind of shaft, freq. in Lex. Poët., Fms. vii. 211, Fas. ii. 118; handbogi (cross-bow) með tvennum tylptum brodda, N. G. L. ii. 427; örfa skeptra (shafts) eðr brodda, i. 202. γ. a sting, of an insect, Grönd. 46: metaph., dauði, hvar er þinn b., 1 Cor. xv. 55. δ. of the spikes in a sharped horse-shoe or other shoe, mannbroddar, ice-shoes, Þorst. Hv. 46, Eb. 238, 240, Acts ix. 5; in a mountaineer’s staff (Alpen-stock), Bárð. 170. 2. metaph. [cp. O. H. G. prurdi = ordo], milit. the front (point) of a column or body of men, opp. to hali, the rear; b. fylkingar and fylkingar broddr, Al. 56, 32; cp. ferðar-broddr, farar-broddr, Ld. 96, of a train of cattle and sheep. β. the phrase, vera í broddi lífsins, to be in the prime of life, Al. 29. γ. the milk of cows and ewes immediately after calving and lambing. δ. botan. a spike on a plant.

brodd-skot, n. a shot with a shaft (b.), Fms. viii. 359, ix. 528.

brodd-spjót, n. a pike in the form of a bayonet, Fas. ii. 29.

brodd-stöng, f. a (mountaineer’s) pole with an iron spike, Valla L. 212.

brodd-ör, f. a shaft, = broddr, Fas. ii. 344.

BROK, n. bad, black grass; hence Brok-ey, an island, Landn.; cp. broki, a, m. a nickname, Fms. ix.

brokkari, a, m. [brocarius = a cart, Du Cange], prop. a cart-horse, hence a trotter, Karl. 48; from brokk, n. a trot; brokka, að, to trot; freq. but of foreign origin.

BROKKR, m., prop. a badger (?), [Germ., Scot., and Old Engl. brock.] β. the name of a dwarf, Edda. 2. a trotter, of a horse.

BROSA, brosti; pres. brosi; sup. irreg. brosat,—to smile; þá brosti Rútr, Nj. 35, Fms. ii. 197; b. at e-u, to smile at a thing; at því brosi ek, at …, id., Þórð. 26, Orkn. 374, Fms. v. 178; b. við, to smile in reply; Guðrún leit við honum ok brosti við, Ld. 246, Fms. vi. 359; b. lítinn þann, Lat. subridere, iv. 101.

brosa, u, f. so in old writers, in mod. usage always bros, n.,—a smile: in the phrase, mæla, svara, með (við) brosu, to reply with a smile; við brosu, Sturl. ii. 195; með brosu, Orkn. 464.

bros-leitr, adj. of smiling face, Þjal. 18.

bros-ligr, adj. comical, Sturl. i. 24, Fms. iii. 113.

BROSMA, u, f. gadus monopterygius, a fish, Norse brosme, Edda (Gl.)

BROT, n. [brjóta, cp. O. H. G. broti = fragilitas], gener. a broken piece, fragment: 1. esp. in pl., gimsteina brot, 623. 20, 544. 39; brota-silfr, old silver broken to be recast; nú eru tekin Grásíðu brot, Gísl. 18; gullhringrinn stökk í tvá hluti, ok þá er ek hugða at brotunum …, Ld. 126; trogs brotin, 655 xxi; brutu bar í Víkinni ok ætluðu at göra sér skip ór brotunum (a wrecked ship), Grett. 88: in the compds um-brot, fjör-brot, a hard struggle, convulsions, agony; land-brot, desolation of land by sea or rivers. 2. metaph. only in pl. violation; lagabrot, breach of law; mis-brot, af-brot, transgression, freq. in theol. writers: arithm. fractions; tuga-brot, decimals, etc. 3. sing. breaking, bein-brot, q. v.; sigla til brots, to run ashore under full sail, Eg. 405 (skips-brot); cp. haugs-brot, hrygg-brot. β. a fragment; sögu-brot, the fragment of a tale, story; bókar-brot, the fragment of a MS. and the like. γ. a shallow place in a river, a firth, where the stream breaks and widens, Grág. ii. 346. δ. medic. in the phrase, falla brot, to have an epileptic fit; for the etymology see brotfall below: it is not qs. braut (away) because it is constantly spelt with an o, even in MSS. that give ‘braut’ constantly, e. g. the Miracle-book, Bs. i. 332–356; hann féll í brot, ok vissi þá ekki til sín löngum, 335, 336: a skin eruption (út-brot). ε. a sort of sledge of felled trees = broti; lét hann þá færa undir hann brot (a lever?) ok við þetta kómu þeir honum upp ór dysinni, Eb. 315, Mar. 89 (Fr.)

brot-fall, n. [Ormul. broþþ-fall], an epileptic fit; the spelling in the Ormulum shews the true etymology, viz. bróð-fall or bráð-fall, a sudden fall; brot- is an etymologizing blunder, 544. 39; féll sveinninn niðr ok hafði brotfall, 655 xxx; hann görði sér órar, ok lét sem hann félli í brotfall, Landn. (Hb.) 214, Bs. i. 335, 317, 120, where spelt brottfall, COMPD: brotfalls-sótt, f. id., Fms. v. 213, Bs. i, 317.

brot-feldr, adj. epileptic, Karl. 547.

brot-hljóð, n. a crashing sound.

brot-hættr, adj. brittle; b. gler, brittle glass.

broti, a, m. trees felled in a wood and left lying, Fms. vii. 320; þröngvar merkr ok brota stóra, viii. 31, 60, ix. 357.

brot-ligr, adj. guilty, Fms. xi. 444, Jb. 55, 112, 339.

brotna, að, [brotinn], to be broken, Lat. frangi, Nj. 19, K. Þ. K. 54, Fms. iv. 263; b. í span, to be broken to pieces, Eg. 405. This word is used instead of pass. to brjóta.

brotning, f. breaking, Hom. 137; rendering of Gr. κλάσις, Acts ii. 42.

BROTT- [vide braut II]:—away, in many compds.

brott-búningr, m. preparation for departure, Ísl. ii. 59, Fms. ix. 128.

brott-ferð, f. an away-going, departure, Fms. i. 69, Grág. i. 274, Sks. 337, Fs. 7, Eg. 750. brottferðar-öl, n. a parting banquet, Hkr. i. 216.

brott-flutning (mod. -ingr, m.), f. carrying off, Grett. 88, Fms. viii. 251.

brott-fúsliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), eager to depart, Hkr. ii. 100.

brott-fúss, adj. eager to depart, Fms. xi. 128.

brott-fýsi, f. eagerness to come away, Fb. i. 188.

brott-færsla, u, f. transportation, Grág. ii. 358, 379, Jb. 219.

brott-för, f. = brottterð, Eg. 587, Fms. ix. 129, Grág. i. 151. COMPDS: brottfarar-leyfi, n. leave to go away, vacation, Orkn. 60, Hkr. ii. 158. brottfarar-öl, n. = brottferðaröl, Fms. i. 58.

brott-ganga, u, f. departure, Fms. v. 183.

brott-gangr, m. = brottganga. β. a law term, divorce, Ld. 134 (spelt brautgangr). brottgangs-sök, f. a divorce-case.

brott-hald, n. a going away, Fms. vii. 197.

brott-hlaup, n. a running away, Fms. iv. 265, Eg. 422.

brott-hvarf, n. disappearance, Fms. ix. 341.

brott-höfn, f. law term, a taking off, Grág. i. 217, 332, 420.

brott-kváma, u, f. a going away, Fms. ii. 298.

brott-laga, u, f., naut. a retiring, after battle, opp. to atlaga, Fms. ii. 297.

brott-reið, f. a riding away, Sturl. iii. 25.

brott-rekstr, rs, m. a driving away, expulsion, Stj. 43.

brott-sending, f. a sending away, Stj. 41.

brott-sigling, f. a sailing away, Fms. ii. 95.

brott-söngr, m. divine service performed out of the curate’s own parish, Bs., Sturl., D. I.

brott-taka, u, f. (-tekning, f.), a taking away, Ann. 1218.

brott-tækiligr, adj. removable, Stj. 4.

brott-varp, n. a throwing away, Sks. 388.

brott-vist, f. (-vera, u, f.), a being away, absence, Fms. vii. 48.

bróðerni, n. brotherhood, Lat. fraternitas, Bs. ii. 72, Mar. 24 (Fr.)

BRÓÐIR, gen. dat. acc. bróður; pl. nom. acc. bræðr, gen. bræðra, dat. bræðrum: in mod. common usage irregular forms occur, as gen. sing. bróðurs; nom. sing., and gen. dat. acc. are also sometimes confounded, esp. in keeping the nom. form bróðir through all cases, or even the reverse (but rarely) in taking bróður as a nom.; another irregularity is acc. pl. with the article, bræður-nar instead of bræður-na, which latter form only survives in writing, the former in speaking. There is besides an obsolete poetical monosyllabic form brœðr, in nom. dat. acc. sing. and nom. acc. pl.; gen. sing. bræðrs; cp. such rhymes as brœðr—œðri, in a verse of Einar Skúlason (died about 1170); bræðr (dat.) Sinfjötla, Hkv. 2. 8, as nom. sing., Fagrsk. 54, v. l. (in a verse), etc., cp. Lex. Poët. This form is very rare in prose, vide however Nj., Lat. Vers. Johnsonius, 204, 333, v. 1., and a few times in Stj., e. g. síns bræðr, sinn bræðr, 160; it seems to be a Norse form, but occurs now and then in Icel. poetry even of the 15th century, e. g. bræðr nom. sing. rhymes with ræðr, Skáld H. 3. 11, G. H. M. ii. 482, but is quite strange to the spoken language: [Gr. φράτηρ; Lat. frāter; Goth. brôþar; A. S. brôðar; Engl. brother; Germ. bruder; Swed.-Dan. broder, pl. brödre]:—a brother: proverbs referring to this word—saman er bræðra eign bezt at sjá, Gísl. 17; einginn or annars bróðir í leik; móður-bræðrum verða menn líkastir, Bs. i. 134: a distinction is made between b. samfeðri or sammæðri, a brother having the same father or mother, Grág. i. 170 sqq.: in mod. usage more usual al-bróðir, brother on both sides; hálf-bróðir, a half-brother; b. skilgetinn, frater germanus móður-bróðir, a mother’s brother; föður-bróðir, a father’s brother, uncle; afa-bróðir, a grand-uncle on the father’s side; ömmu bróðir, a grand-uncle on the mother’s side; tengda-bróðir, a brother-in-law: in familiar talk an uncle is called ‘brother,’ and an aunt ‘sister.’ The ties of brotherhood were most sacred with the old Scandinavians; a brotherless man was a sort of orphan, cp. the proverb, berr er hverr á baki nema sér bróður eigi; to revenge a brother’s slaughter was a sacred duty; nú tóku þeir þetta fastmælum, at hvárr þeirra skal hefna annars eðr eptir mæla, svá sem þeir sé sambornir bræðr, Bjarn. 58: the word bróðurbani signifies a deadly foe, with whom there can be no truce, Hm. 88, Sdm. 35, Skm. 16, Hdl. 28; instances from the Sagas, Dropl. S. (in fine), Heiðarv. S. ch. 22 sqq., Grett. S. ch. 50. 92 sqq., E ch. 23, Ld. ch. 53 sqq., etc. The same feeling extended to foster-brotherhood, after the rite of blending blood has been performed; see the graphical descriptions in Fbr. S. (the latter part of the Saga), Gísl. ch. 14 sqq., etc. The universal peace of Fróði in the mythical age is thus described, that ‘no one will draw the sword even if he finds his brother’s slayer bound,’ Gs. verse 6; of the slaughter preceding and foreboding the Ragnarök (the end of the world) it is said, that brothers will fight and put one another to death, Vsp. 46. II. metaph.: 1. in a heathen sense; fóst-bróðir, foster-brother, q. v.; eið-bróðir, svara-bróðir, ‘oath-brother;’ leik-bróðir, play-brother, play-fellow: concerning foster-brothership, v. esp. Gísl. ii, Fbr., Fas. iii. 375 sqq., Hervar. S., Nj. 39, Ls. 9, the phrase, blanda blóði saman. 2. in a Christian sense, brother, brethren, N. T., H. E., Bs. β. a brother, friar; Svörtu-bræðr, Blackfriars; Berfættu-bræðr, q. v.; Kórs-bræðr, Fratres Canonici, Bs., etc. COMPDS: I. sing., bróður-arfr, m. a brother’s inheritance, Orkn. 96, Fms. ix. 444. bróður-bani, a, m. a brother’s bane, fratricide, Ld. 236, Fms. iii. 21, vide above. bróðiir-baugr, m. weregild due to the brother, N. G. L. i. 74. bróður-blóð, n. a brother’s blood, Stj. 42. Gen. iv. 10. bróður-bætr, f. pl. weregild for a brother, Lv. 89. bróður-dauði, a, m. a brother’s death, Gísl. 24. bróður-deild, f. = bróðurhluti, Fr. bróður-dóttir, f. a brother’s daughter, niece, Grág. i. 170, Nj. 177; bróðurdóttur son, a brother’s son, N. G. L. i. 76. bróður-dráp, n. the slaying of a brother, Stj. 43, Fms. v. 290. bróður-gildr, adj. equal in right (inheritance) to a brother, Fr. bróður-gjöld, n. pl. = bróður-bætr, Eg. 312. bróður-hefnd, f. revenge for the slaying of a brother, Sturl. ii. 68. bróður-hluti, a, m. the share (as to weregild or inheritance) of a brother, Grág. ii. 175. bróður-kona, u, f. a brother’s wife, K. Á. 142. bróöur-kván, f. id., N. G. L. i. 170. bróður-lóð, n. a brother’s share of inheritance. bróður-son, m. a brother’s son, nephew, Nj. 122, Grág. i. 171, Gþl. 239, 240; bróðursona-baugr, Grág. ii. 179. II. pl., bræðra-bani, v. bróðurbani, Fbr. 165. bræðra-búr, n. a friar’s bower in a monastery, Dipl. v. 18. bræðra-börn, n. pl. cousins (agnate), Gþl. 245. bræðra-dætr, f. pl. nieces(of brothers), Gþl. 246. bræðra-eign, f. property of brothers, Gísl. 17. bræðra-garðr, m. a ‘brothers-yard,’ monastery, D. N. bræðra-lag, n. fellowship of brethren, in heathen sense = fóstbræðralag, Hkr. iii. 300; of friars, H. E., D. I.; brotherhood, Pass. 9. 6. bræðra-mark, n. astron., the Gemini, Pr. 477. bræðra-skáli, a, m. an apartment for friars, Vm. 109. bræðra-skipti, n. division of inheritance among brothers, Hkr. iii. 52, Fas. i. 512. bræðra-synir, m. pl. cousins (of brothers), Gþl. 53.

bróður-ligr, adj. brotherly, Fms. ii. 21, Hom. 26.

BRÓK, pl. brækr, [Lat. braca, only in pl.]; this word is of Celtic origin, and identical with the Gaelic braecan = tartan: I. tartan or party-coloured cloth, from Gaelic breac = versicolor. Roman writers oppose the Celtic ‘braca’ to the Roman ‘toga;’ Gallia Bracata, Tartan Gaul, and Gallia Togata; ‘versicolore sagulo, bracas, tegmen barbarum indutus,’ Tac. Hist. 2, 20, where it exactly answers to the Scot. tartan, the national dress of Celts; a similar sense remains in the Icel. names lang-brók, a surname to a lady because of her tall stature, Nj., Landn.; há-brók, the poët. name of the hawk, from his chequered plumage (?), Gm. 44; loð-brók, the name of the famous mythical Danish king, shaggy coat, though the reason for the name is otherwise given in Ragn. S. ch. I; the name of the Danish flag of war Dannebrog, qs. Dana-brók, pannus Danicus. II. breeches. Scot. breeks, the sing. denoting one leg; fótinn ok brókina, Eb. 242; ok let hann leika laust knæt í brókinni, Fms. vii. 170: pl. skyrtu gyrða í brækr, Háv. 39, Ld. 136, Stj. 63. Gen. ix. 22, Fbr. 160, Fms. xi. 150, Vápn. 4; leista-brækr, breeches with the socks fixed to them. Eb. l. c.; blárendar (blue-striped) brækr, Nj. 184; the lesser outlawry might be inflicted by law on a woman wearing breeches, v. the curious passage in Ld. l. c. ch. 35; the passage, berbeinn þú stendr ok hefir brautingja görvi, þatkiþú hafir brækr þínar, bare-legged thou standest, in beggarly attire, without even thy breeches on, Hbl. 6—the poet probably knew the Highland dress; cp. also the story of king Magnús of Norway (died A. D. 1103); hann hafði mjök þá siðu um klæða búnað, sem títt var í Vestrlöndum (viz. Scotland), ok margir hans menn, at þeir gengu berleggjaðir, höfðu stutta kyrtla ok svá yfirhafnir, ok kölluðu margir menn hann Berbein eðr Berfætt, Fms. vii. 63: proverbs, barnið vex, en brókin ekki, the bairn grows, but the breeks not, advice to mothers making the first pair of breeks for a boy, not to make them too tight; þetta verðr aldri barn í brók, this will never be a bairn in breeks, i. e. this will never do. COMPDS: bróka-belti, n. a breeches belt, to keep them up, Sks. 405. Fas. i. 47, Sturl. iii. 190. bróka-vaðmál, n. cloth or stuff for b., Rd. 246. brókar-sótt, f. nymphomania, Fél. ix.

brók-lauss, adj. breekless, Fms. viii. 448.

brók-lindi, a, m. a girdle (lindi) to keep up the b., Fbr. 160, Ld. 78.

bruðningr, m. [bryðja], hard bad food, Snót 216.

brugðning, f. (m., Stj. l. c., v: l.), [bregða]. breach, violation. Stj. 548, 656 A, Skálda 183.

brugg, n. brewing, N. G. L. iii. 197. 2. metaph. machination, scheming, Mar. 52, Thom. 37.

BRUGGA, að. [Germ. brauen; A. S. brewan; Engl. brew; Dan. brygge; Swed. brygga]:—to brew, but rare in this sense, the current word being heita or göra öl, to heat or make ale; cp. öl-hita, öl-görð, cooking, making ale. 2. metaph. with dat. to trouble, confound; b. sáttmáli, Stj. 652: more often with acc., 610: to concoct, scheme (in a bad sense, freq.)

brugginn, part. brewed, an απ. λεγ., Vtkv. 7 (b. mjöðr): the sole relic of a strong verb answering to the A. S. breovan, bráv, and the old Germ. strong verb.

bruggu-kanna, u, f. a brewing can, Fr.

bruggu-ketill, m. a brewing kettle, Fr.

brullaup, v. brúðkaup.

BRUM, I. neut. a bud, Lat. gemma; þá hit fyrsta tók brum at þrútna um várit á öllum aldinviði til laufs, Sks. 105; af bruminu, Bs. ii. 165; birki-brum, a birch-bud, Eyvind (in a verse), Lex. Poët. II. metaph. and masc. spring, only in the phrase, öndverðan brum (acc.), in the early spring time, Sighvat (in a verse); í öndverðan brum þinna daga, Bs. ii. 7. β. a moment, in the phrase, í þenna (sama) brum; í þenna brum kom Hringr Dagsson, in the description of the battle at Stiklastað, Ó. H. 218, cp. Fms. v. 81 (where v. l. tíma); ‘í þessu bruni,’ Fms. ix. 24. is certainly a misspelling for ‘í þenna brum:’ cp. also the compd word nýa-brum, novelty, newfangledness.

brumaðr, part. budded, Lex. Poët.

bruna, að, to advance with the speed of fire; b. fram, of a standard in the heat of battle, Mag. 2: of ships advancing under full sail, Fins, viii. 131, 188: freq. in mod. usage, Helius rann upp af því fagra vatni, og brunaði fram á það eirsterka himinhvolf, Od. iii. 1. Bb. 3. 18.

brundr, m. [Germ. brunft], semen animalium, Sti. 45. brund-tíð, f. the time when the ewes are blæsma (in Icel. usually the month of December), Bs. i. 873, Vm. 80.

BRUNI, a, m. [cp. Ulf. brunsts; Engl. to burn, burning], burning, heat; sólar-bruni, Hkr. i. 5; þá er húsit tók at falla ofan af bruna (from the fire), Orkn. 458; reykr eðr b., Nj. 201, Sks. 197. β. a barren heath or burnt lava-field as a local name in the west of Icel. 2. metaph. a burning passion, mostly in bad sense; b. öfundar, of envy, Fms. ii. 140; losta b., of lust, K. Á. 104; but also trúar b., fire of faith (but rarely), Fms. v. 239: medic. caustic, 655 xi. 2. COMPDS: bruna-belti, n. the torrid zone. bruna-dómr, m. a sentence to be burnt, Stj. 46. bruma-flekkr, m. a burnt fleck (spot), Fms. xi. 38. bruna-hraun, n. a burnt lava-field, Bárð. 179. bruna-vegr = brunabelti, Sks. 197. bruna-þefr m. a smell of burning, 656 B. Bruna-öld, f. the Burning-age, i. e. the heathen time when the dead were burnt, preceding the Hauga-öld (Cairn-age) according to Snorri, Hkr. pref.; at vér munim hafna átrúnaði várum þeim er feðr várir hafa haft fyrir oss, ok allt foreldri, fyrst um Bruna-öld, ok síðan um Hauga-öld, i. 141: the ‘Burning-age’ is in Scandin. pre-historical; relics are only found in the mythological time (v. above s. v. bál) and in law phrases and old sayings, such as branderfð, q. v., til brands ok báls, v. brandr: ‘brendr’ is synonymous to ‘dead’ in the old Hm.; at kveldi skal dag leyfa, konu er brend er, praise no wife till she is ‘burnt’ (i. e. buried), 70; and blindr er betri en brendr sé, nýtr mangi nás, better to be blind than burnt, i. e. better blind than dead and buried, 80; but it does not follow that burning was used at the time when the poem was composed; the saving had become proverbial.

brunn-lækr, m. a brooklet coming from a spring, = bæjarlækr, Grág. ii. 289, Jb. 247, Ísl. ii. 91, Fms. ii. 201.

brunn-migi, a, m. ‘mingens in puteum,’ a kind of hobgoblin who polluted the wells, Hálfs S. ch. 5. Fas. ii. 29, mentioned only here, and unknown to the present Icel. legends:—name of the fox, Edda (Gl.); cp. the proverb, skömm hundum, skitu refar í brunn karls, shame on the hounds, the foxes defiled the carl’s burn, Fms. vii. 21.

BRUNNR (old form bruðr), m. [Ulf. brunna; A. S. bærne; Scot. and North. E. burn; O. H. G. brunna; Germ. brunn, all of them weak forms, differing from the Scandin.-Icel. brunnr; Dan. brönd; Swed. brunn]:—a spring, well; the well was common to all, high and low, hence the proverbs, (allir) eiga sama til brunns að bera, i. e. (all) have the same needs, wants, wishes, or the like; allt ber að sama brunni, all turn to the same well, all bear the same way, Grett. 137; seint að byrgja brunninn er barnið er í dottið, it is too late to shut the well when the bairn has fallen in; cp. the Engl. proverb, ‘It is useless to lock the stable door when the steed is stolen.’ In mythol., the brunnr of Mímer (Edda 10, 11) is the well of wisdom, for a draught of which Odin pawned his eye; probably symbolical of the sun sinking into the sea; the pit Hvergelmir (Edda 3) answers to the Gr. Tartarus; Stj. 612, Fms. ii. 83: the word may also be used of running water, though this is not usual in Icel., where distinction is made between brunnr and lækr, Grág. ii. 289, vide brunn-lækr. 2. metaph. a spring, fountain; b. hita (the sun), A. A. 5; esp. theol. of God, Christ, b. gæzku, miskunnar …, Greg. 33; með brunni Guðlegrar spekðar, 673 A. 49; b. mælsku, Eluc. 56.

brunn-vaka, u, f. a third horn in the forehead of an ox with which he opened the ice during winter to get at the water; hit fjórða horn stóð ór enni, ok niðr fyrir augu honum, þat var b. hans, Ld. 120.

brunn-vatn, n. spring-water, Bs. ii. 177.

brunn-vígsla, u, f. consecration of wells, Bs. i. 450, cp. Ísl. Þjóð.

brutla (brutl, n., brutlan, f.), að, [brytja]:—to waste, spend, esp. in trifles; prop. to chop.

BRÚ, gen. brúar; nom. pl. brúar, Grág. i. 149, ii. 277, Eg. 529; brúr, Bs. i. 65 (Hungrvaka), is a bad spelling, cp. Landn. 332 (Mantissa); mod. pl. brýr, which last form never occurs in old writers; dat. sing. brú, gen. pl. brúa, dat. brúm: [A. S. brycg and bricg; Scot. brigg; Germ. brücke; Dan. bro; cp. bryggja]:—a bridge, Sturl. i. 244, 255, 256, iii. 24. In early times bridges, as well as ferries, roads, and hospitals, were works of charity, erected for the soul’s health; hence the names sælu-hús (hospital), sælu-brú (soul-bridge). In the Swedish-Runic stones such bridges are often mentioned, built by pious kinsmen for the souls of the dead, Baut. 41, 97, 119, 124, 146, 559, 796, 829, 1112, etc. The Icel. Libri Datici of the 12th century speak of sheltering the poor and the traveller, making roads, ferries, churches, and bridges, as a charge upon donations (sálu-gjafir); þat fé þarf eigi til tíundar at telja, er áðr er til Guðs þakka gefit, hvart sem þat er til kirkna lagit eðr brúa, eðr til sælu-skipa, K. Þ. K. 142, cp. D. I. i. 279, 402. COMPDS: brúar-fundr, m. the battle at the Bridge, Sturl. ii. 256 (A. D. 1242). brúar-görð, f. bridge-making, Grág. ii. 266. brúar-sporðr, m. [sporðr, the tail of a fish], tête-de-pont, Germ. brückenkopf, whereas the Icel. takes the metaphor from fishes touching the banks with their tails, Nj. 246, Bs. i. 17.

brúa, að, to bridge over, Fms. i. 123: metaph., Sks. 788.

brúða, u, f. a doll, puppet, Fms. xi. 309; stól-brúða (literally chair-bride), the pillar in carved work on the side of an old-fashioned chair; in Fbr. 98 the head of Thor was carved on the chair; Gríma kona Gamla átti stól einn mikinn, en á brúðum stólsins var skorinn Þórr, ok var þat mikit líkneski, cp. the classical passage Eb. ch. 4; var hár hennar bundit við stólbrúðurnar, Bárð. 175 (in the vellum MS. distinctly bruðrnar UNCERTAIN): a distinction in form and inflexion is always made between brúðr, a bride, and brúða, puppet; hence the saying, ‘to sit like a brúða,’ i. e. motionless, not stirring a limb; bláum skrýddr skrúða, skikkanlegri en brúða, more quiet than a b., Sig. Pét. 229; the sense of κόρη and νύμφη in Greek is analogous.

brúð-bekkr, m. the bride’s bench; in old wedding feasts the bride and bridesmaids were seated on the bride’s bench, the bride in the middle; the ladies were seated on the pallr or þverpallr (the dais or ladies’ bench), turning their faces to look down the hall; the brúðbekkr was the seat of honour, and the central part of the dais; cp. the phrase, brúðr sat ‘a midjum palli,’ i. e. ‘á brúðbekk,’ Ld. 296, Sd. 151, Lv. 37, Ísl. ii. 250, Nj. 50; vide bekkr, pp. 56, 57.

brúð-fé, n. a bride’s fee; cp. the ‘duty to the priest and clerk’ in the Engl. service; the bride’s fee is mentioned in the beautiful heathen poem Þrymskviða (our chief authority in these matters), 29, 32; where it is a fee or gift of the bride to the giant maid. It seems to be a fee paid by the guests for attendance and waiting. Unfortunately there is a lacuna in verse 29, the last part of which refers to the bekkjargjöf (vide 57); the poem is only left in a single MS. and the text cannot be restored. It is carious that Þkv. 32 calls this fee ‘shillings,’ cp. Germ. braut schilling (Grimm); it shews that the bride’s fee was paid in small pieces of money.

brúð-férð and brúð-för, f. a bride’s journey, Landn. 304, cp. Fs. 124, Rd. 255, Fms. iv. 180, Eg. 701, Grág. i. 441 A; as a rule the bridegroom was to carry his bride home, or she was carried home to him, and the wedding feast was held at the house and at the cost of the bridegroom or his parents. The bride came attended and followed by her bridesmaids, friends, and kinsmen, sometimes a host of men; hence originate the words brúðferð, brúðför, and perhaps even brúðhlaup, etc. ‘Dress the hall! now the bride is to turn homeward with me,’ says the bridegroom-dwarf in the beginning of the poem Alvísmál; so the bride Freyja travels to the wedding at the giant’s, Þkv., cp. Rm. 37;—báðu hennar, ok heim óku, giptu Karli, gékk hón und líni, Ld. ch. 7, Nj. ch. 34, Harð. S. ch. 4, Sturl. iii. 181 sqq. In some cases, to shew deference to the father of the bride, the feast might be held at his house, Nj. ch. 2 (skyldi boð vera at Marðar), ch. 10, 14, Lv. ch. 12; cp. the curious case, Sturl. i. 226. In Icel., where there were no inns, the law ordered that a bride and bridegroom, when on the bride’s journey, had the same right as members of parliament on their journey to the parliament; every farmer was bound to shelter at least six of the party, supposing that the bride or bridegroom was among the number, K. Þ. K. 94. One who turned them out was liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. i. 441.

brúð-gumi, a, m. [Ulf. uses bruþfaþs, not bruþguma; A. S. brydguma; Hel. brudigomo; O. H. G. prutigomo; Germ. bräutigam; Dan. brudgom; Swed. brudgumme; from brúðr, a bride, and gumi, a man = Lat. homo; the Engl. inserts a spurious r, bridegroom]:—a ‘bride’s man,’ bridegroom; svá sem gumi er kallaðr í brúðför, Edda 107, Grág. i. 175, Nj. 25, Sturl. iii. 182, Ísl. ii. 250. COMPD: brúðguma-reið, f. a ‘bridegroom’s ride;’ at weddings the bridegroom, as the host, had to meet his guests (boðsmenn) a quarter of a mile from his house; here he entertained them in tents, where they remained and enjoyed themselves till evening; when darkness began to set in, the party rode home in a procession drawn up two and two; this was called brúðguma-reið. The last bridegroom’s ride on record in Icel. was that of Eggert Olafsson, just a hundred years ago, at his wedding at Reykholt in the autumn of 1767 A. D. A minute description of this last Icel. b. exists in a MS. (in the possession of Maurer, in Munich). An interesting treatise upon the wedding feasts in Icel. in the Middle Ages, down to the 18th century, is among the Icel. MSS. in the Bodleian Library, no. 130.

brúð-hjón, n. pl. the wedding pair.

brúð-hvíla, u, f. a bridal bed (lectus nuptialis), Bret.

brúð-kaup and brul-laup, n. a wedding feast, bridal; these two words are identical in sense, but different in etymology; brúðkaup, prop. bride’s bargain, refers to the old notion, that marriage was a bargain or purchase, not that the bride was bought herself, but the word refers to the exchange of mundr (by the bridegroom) and heimanfylgja (by the bride’s father), vide these words; hence the allit. phrase, mey mundi keypt, and mundr and mey (‘mund’ and maid); again, brullaup, [qs. brúð-hlaup, bride’s leap, cp. Germ. brautlauf, M. H. G. brûtlouf, Swed. bröllopp, Dan. bryllup; Grimm mentions an A. S. brydlop (not found in Grein’s Glossary or Bosworth’s A. S. Dictionary); the full form brúðhlaup scarcely occurs in very old MSS., it is found in the Játv. S. MS. A. D. 1360, but only assimilated, Grág. i. 303, 311, l. i] refers either to the bride’s journey = brúðför, or to some bridal procession on the wedding day, probably the first; but in fact both words are only used of the wedding feast, the Engl. ‘bridal,’ A. S. bryd-eala. At the wedding feast the contract, though agreed upon at the espousals (festar), was to be read: to make a lawful ‘brúðkaup’ there must be at least six guests—þá er brullaup gert at lögum, ef lögráðandi fastnar konu, enda sé sex menn at brullaupi et fæsta, ok gangi brúðguminn i ljósi í sama sæing konu, Grág. i. 175; ráða b., to fix the wedding day. Nj. 4; vera at brullaupi, Ld. 70; drekka b., to drink, i. e. hold, a wedding, 16, Fms. iv. 196; koma til b., Sturl. iii. 182; göra b., Fms. i. 150; göra b. til, to wed, Eg. 160, Landn. 243; veita b., Eb. 140: as to the time of wedding, vide Grág. i. 311. COMPDS: brúðkaups-ferð, f. = brúðferð, Sturl. iii. 177. brúðkaups-görð, f. holding a wedding, Fs. 21, K. Þ. K. 114, N. G. L. i. 16. brúðkaups-klæði, n. a wedding-garment, Matth. xxii. ii. brúðkaups-kostr, m. the cost of a wedding, D. N. iv. 174. brúðkaups-stefna, u, f. a wedding meeting, wedding feast, Nj. 40, Fms. ii. 49, vi. 395. brúðkaups-veizla, u, f. a wedding feast, Fms. vii. 278, ix. 345, Hkr. iii. 404. brúðkaups-vitni, n. a marriage-witness, Gþl. 224.

brúð-kona, u, f. a bridesmaid; hafi bann (viz. the bridegroom) brúð-menn, en hon (the bride) brúð-konur, N. G. L. i. 27: þá skal hann (the bridegroom) sitja millum brúðmanna, en hon (the bride) millum brúð-kvenna, ii. 305.

brúð-maðr, m. a bridegroom’s man, N. G. L. i. 27: collect. the bridesmen and bridesmaids when on a bride’s journey, Grág. i. 436, Eg. 201, Rd. 270.

brúð-messa, u, f. the marriage-service, H. E. i. 527.

BRÚÐR, f., dat. acc. brúði; pl. brúðir: [Ulf. renders the Gr. νύμφη by bruþs, Matth. x. 35 (where the Gr. word means nurus); John iii. 29 (where it means bride) is lost in UIf., but no doubt ‘bruþs’ was also used there: A. S. bryde; Engl. bride; O. H. G. prut; Germ. braut; Dan.-Swed. Brud]:—a bride; Germans use ‘braut’ in the sense of betrothed, but Icel. call a girl festar-mey (betrothed) from the espousal till she sets out for the wedding journey, when she becomes ‘bride’; in mod. usage the word only applies to the wedding day; konur skipuðu pall, ok var brúðrin döpr, Nj. 11; sat Hallgerðr á palli, ok var brúðrin allkát, 18; var brúðrin í för með þeim, 50; brúðr sat á miðjum palli, en til annarrar handar Þorgerðr dóttir hennar, 51; brúðr sat á midjan pall ok Þorlaug á aðra ok Geirlaug á aðra (the ladies’ seat of honour was nearest to the bride on her right and left hand), Lv. 37; konur sátu á palli, ok sat Helga hin Fagra næst brúðinni, Ísl. ii. 251. β. in a wider sense, the bridesmaids (= brúðkonur) sitting on the ‘bride’s bench’ are called brides; sat þá Þorgerðr (Ed. and MSS. wrongly Þórhalla) meðal brúða, then Thorgerda was seated among the ‘brides,’ i. e. on the bride’s bench, being herself bride, Ni. 51; cp. also Þkv. 25, hvar sattu ‘brúðir’ (acc. pl.) bíta hvassara? Answ., sáka ek brúðir bíta en breiðara: in poetry, girls, maids in general. Lex. Poët.: metaph. and theol., b. Guðs, b. Kristi = the church, H. E., Vidal., etc. COMPDS: brúðar-bekkr, m. = brúðbekkr. brúðar-efni, n. a bride to be, bride-elect, Bárð. 175. brúðar-gangr, m. the bridal procession; both the procession to and from the church (first the maids and women, then the ladies, and the bride, as the chief person, last); and again, the procession of the bride and ladies from the bride’s room (brúðarhús) into the hall, where the men were assembled with the bridegroom. After grace had been said, both in the stofa, to the men, and in the bride’s-bower, to the ladies, two dishes were served; a toast, called Heilags Anda skál or Heilags Anda minni (Holy Ghost’s toast), perhaps a continuation of the heathen Bragarfull, was then given; at this signal the marshal (siðamaðr) went up to the bride’s room and summoned the brides (ladies) to come down to the stofa and join the men; this was the second procession. The bride then sat on the bride’s chair, and every one took his lady, and the feast went on in common. This custom is obsolete, but the word remains: a slow, stately walk, with an air of importance in measured steps, is called in Icel. a ‘bride’s walk,’ like that of brides on a wedding day; [cp. Germ. brautgang.] brúðar-hús, n. a bride’s chamber, the room where the bride and ladies were seated at a wedding during the morning and the beginning of the wedding feast, 625. 167. brúðar-lín, n. the bride’s veil; the bride was veiled during the wedding, and according to Þkv. 19 she took the veil when she set out for the ‘brúðför.’ This was the only time in life when a woman was veiled, hence ganga und líni, to walk under veil, to be veiled, is synonymous with to wed, marry; giptu Karli, gékk hón und líni, Rm. 37; setjask und ripti, id., 20; bundu þeir Þór þá brúðar líni, Þkv. 191, 15; laut und línn, lysti at kyssa, he (viz. the bridegroom) louted under the veil, him list to kiss, 27; Guðrún (the bride) sat innar á þverpalli, ok þar konur hja henni, ok hafði lín á höfði, i. e. she sat wearing a veil, Ld. 296. brúðar-stóll, m. the bride’s chair, N. G. L. i. 184.

BRÚK, n. dried heaps of sea-weed, Bs. i. 527, Sturl. ii. 69, Njarð. 380, Fms. vi. 376 (in a verse): metaph. big words, Grett. 101 C.

BRÚKA, að, [cp. Lat. Frūgi, frux, fructus, frui; A. S. brucan; Germ. brauchen; Dan. bruge; Swed. bruke, borrowed from Germ.]:—to use, with acc., borrowed from Germ. through Dan.; it seems not to have come into use before the 17th century; it never occurs in the Icel. N. T., and even not in Pass.; in Vídalín (died A. D. 1720) it is used now and then; and at present, although used in common talk, it is avoided in writing. It is curious that the language has no special expression for to use, Lat. uti (hafa, beita neyta, or other words indirectly bearing that sense are used); derived forms—as brúkandi, brúkanligr, adj., óbrúkanligr, adj. unfit, useless—are used, but sound ill. brúkan, f. use, is preferred for brúk, n., Dan. brug = use, etc.

BRÚN, f., old pl. brýnn, mod. brýr; the old form remains in the phrase, bera e-m e-t á brýn (qs. Brýnn):—eye-brow (brá = eye-lid), Fms. xi. 274; kom (the blow) á brúnina, ok hljóp hón ofan fyrir augat…. bindr upp brúnina, Þorst. St. 49; ór brúnunum ofan nefið, Ísl. ii. 368; skegg ok brýnn, Stj. 318; brá eðr brúna. Edda 109. β. in reference to frames of mind; to lift the eye-brows denoting a pleasurable state; to drop them, a moody frame; in phrases, bregða í brún ; (brýnn?), to be amazed, v. bregða; lypta brúnum, to lift the eye-brows, to be glad, cheerful, Fs. 18: hóf þá upp brún (impers.), their faces cleared, Bs. i. 637, Eg. 55; síga lætr þú brýnn fyrir brár, cp. the Engl. to knit the brows, Hkv. Hjörv. 19; er hann sá at Þórr lét siga brýnnar ofan fyrir augun, Edda 28; hleypa brúnum. id., Eg. 305, hence létt-brýnn. glad; þung-brynn, moody; brún-ölvi, id.; hafa brögð undir brúnum, to look uncanny, Band.; vera (so and so) undir brún at líta, to look so and so, esp. in an uncanny sense, Nj. 55, Orkn. 284; bera e-m e-t á brýnn (vide bera B. 1. β), Greg. 51, Rd. 241. II. metaph. the brow of a fell, moor, etc. (fjalls-brún, heiðar-brún, veggjar-brún); is-brún, the edge of ice; á framanverðri brúninni, efstu brúninni, on the mountain edge, Sturl. i. 84: the first beam of day in the sky (dags-brún), litil brún af degi; lands-brún, the ‘lands-brow,’ i. e. the first sight of a mountain above the water. COMPDS: brúna-bein, n. pl. the bones of the brow, Sturl. i. 180, Heiðarv. S. (in a verse). brúna-mikill, adj. heavy-browed, Eg. 304. brúna-síðr, adj. having long overhanging brows. Eg. 304, v. 1. brúna-skurðr, m. cutting the hair straight across the brows (as in the later Roman time), Ld. 272.

BRÚN, f. a kind of stuff or tapestry (for. word), Vm. 24, 31, 146, 177, Pm. 25, Bs. i. 762.

brúnaðr, adj. (dark) coloured, Fms. viii. 217, Sks. 286.

brún-áss, m. the wall-plate, i. e. the beam (áss) along the edge (brún) of the walls on which the cross-beams rest, Nj. 114, 202, Bs. i. 804.

brún-gras, n. ‘brown-grass,’ probably Iceland moss, Finnb. 214; or = brönngrös, q. v. (?)

brún-hvítr, adj. white-browed, epithet of a fair lady, Hým. 8.

brúnka, u, f. a brown mare.

brún-klukka, u, f. ‘brown-bell,’ name of an insect found in stagnant pools, Eggert Itin. § 600.

brún-móalóttr, adj. (a horse) of mouse-grey colour with a black stripe down the back, Hrafn. 5.

BRÚNN, adj. [A. S. brún; Germ. braun], brown, Hkr. iii. 81, Fas. iii. 336; brún klæði, black dress, of the dress of a divine, Bs. i. 800: ‘svartr’ is never used of a horse, but brúnn, dark-brown, whereas a bay is jarpr, Nj. 167, Grett. 122 A, Bs. i. 670, cp. Sturl. ii. 32; a black horse is called Brúnn, a mare Brúnka; dökk-brúnn, rauð-brúnn, dark-brown, red-brown, etc. The word is not much in use.

brún-síðr, adj. = brúnasíðr, with overhanging brows, Þiðr. 179.

brún-ölvi, adj. a word spelt in different ways, found in about three passages. brúnölr, Bjarn. 62; brúnvolvi, Fb. i. 186; brúnvaulfi, iii. 357; brúnölvi, Fms. xi. 114; brúnölfr, Jómsv. S. 32 (Ed. 1824):—frowning, with a wolfish brow, look, [from brún and úlfr, a wolf.]

BRÚSI, a, m. a buck, he-goat, Edda (Gl.): name of a giant, Fms. iii. 214. In Norway (Ivar Aasen), a lock of hair on the forehead of animals is called ‘bruse.’ In Icel. α. an earthen jar, to keep wine or spirits in (cp. Scot. greybeard, Scott’s Monastery, ch. 9), no doubt from their being in the shape of a bearded head. This has given rise to the pretty little poem of Hallgrím called Skeggkarlsvísur, Skyldir erum við Skeggkarl tveir, a comparison between Man and Greybeard (Skeggkarl = Beard-carle); cp. leir-brúsi = brúsi; flot-brúsi, Hym. 26. β. a bird, columbus maximus, called so in the north of Icel., but else heimbrini, Eggert Itin. § 556. II. a pr. name of a man, Landn.

brúskr, m. a ‘brush,’ tuft of hair, crest of a helmet, etc.

brú-steinn, m. pavement, Eb. 120.

brydda, dd, [broddr], to prick, point: α. to sharp or rough a horse, in shoeing him, Hm. 89: to spit, pin, Sturl. iii. 85 C. β. to shew the point; svá langt sem bænar-krossinn á Sævarlandi bryddir undan Melshorni, of a view, just shewing the point, Dipl. iii. 11: metaph. to prick, torment, Str. 25; b. á illu, ójafnaði, to shew, utter, evil, injustice. II. to line a garment, (akin to borð, borði.)

brydding, f. lining, N. G. L. iii. no. 2 and 10, D. N., freq. in mod. use.

bryðja, u, f. a sort of trough, Stj. 178. Gen. xxx. 38. II. a rude woman, a hag, v. the following word.

BRYÐJA, bruddi, brutt, no doubt qs. brytja, prop. to chop with the teeth, used of chewing biscuits or other hard brittle food: cp. provincial Ital. rottà, which is used in the very same sense, from Lat. rumpere, as bryðja comes from brjóta, brytja.

BRYGGJA, u, f. [v. brú, Scot. brigg], a pier, landing-stage, gangway, Eg. 75, 530, Hkr. ii. 11, Ld. 190, Fms. i. 158, ix. 478, 503, xi. 102. The piers were movable, and were carried about in trading ships; hence such phrases as, skjóta bryggjum (skut-bryggja), to shoot out the gangway, for embarking or loading the ship. 2. seldom = bridge, D. I. i. 404. In English local names, Stanfurðu-bryggja, Lundúna-bryggja, Stamford-bridge, London-bridge, Hkr., Fms. vi. COMPDS: bryggju-búð, f. a pier-shop, N. G. L. iii. no. 49. bryggju-fótr, m. the head (end) of a pier, a cognom., Fms. bryggju-ker, n. a tub at the pier, Fms. x. 153. bryggju-lægi, n. a lying with the gangway shot out, Grág. i. 92, Hkr. ii. 213. bryggju-mangari, a, m. a ‘bridge-monger,’ shopkeeper at a landing-pier, N. G. L. iii. bryggju-sporðr, m. the end, head of a pier, Grág. i. 92, Eg. 121, Fms. iv. 41.

bryn-brók, f. war-breeches, Sks. 405.

bryn-glófi, a, m. a war-glove, gauntlet, N. G. L. i. 247, El., Karl., etc.

bryn-hattr and -höttr, m. and -hetta, u, f. a war-hat, Al. 78, Karl. 179, 239.

bryn-hosa, u, f. war-hose, greaves, Stj. 461, Sks. 405. 1 Sam. xvii. 6.

BRYNJA, u, f. [Ulf. brynio; A. S. burn; Hel. bry-nio; O. H. G. brunja; Swed. brynja; Dan. brynie]:—a coat of mail, in olden times woven of rings (hringa-brynja, ring-mail), hence in poetry called hring-skyrta, a chain-mail sark or shirt, with epithets such as ‘iron sewed, knit, woven,’ and the like, Lex. Poët.: the breast-plate, spanga-brynja (Fms. vii. 264, viii. 95, 388), is of later date, viz. of the time of the Crusades and the following ages, vide Fms. i. 43, ii. 309, iv. 65, vi. 410, 411, vii. 45, 46, viii. 403, xi. 137, v. 1. etc. etc., Bs. i. 526, 528, 624. COMPDS: brynju-bítr, m. mail-biter, name of a sword, Sturl. brynju-bönd, n. pl. cords to fasten the b., Karl. brynju-hattr and -hetta = brynhattr. brynju-hálsbjörg, f. a hauberk, brynju-hringr, m. the ring of a coat of mail, Fas. i. 197. brynju-lauss, adj. without a coat of mail, uncovered, Sturl. ii. 146, Fms. vi. 416 (in a verse). brynju-meistari, a, m. a smith of a b., N. G. L. ii. 246. brynju-rokkr, m. a coat [Germ. rock] of mail, Karl.

brynja, að, to cover with a coat of mail, Róm. 219; mostly in part. pass. brynjaðr, wearing a coat of mail, Fms. v. 161, Orkn. 148: reflex. to put on a coat of mail, El. 103.

bryn-klungr, m. a sort of weapon, = Lat. lupus, Sks. 419.

bryn-knífr, m. a war-knife, dirk, Sks. 406.

bryn-kolla, u, f. = mid. Lat. collare, a collar of mail, Fms. viii. 404.

brynna, t, [brunnr], to water cattle, with dat. of the beasts; b. nautum, Skálda 163, Dropl. 34.

bryn-stakkr, m. a mail-jacket, Fær. 110, Lv. 107.

bryn-stúka, u, f. a mail-sleeve, Fms. ii. 323, viii. 387.

bryn-tröll, n. a sort of halberd, Ld. 148, Valla L. 208, Eg. 121, 122, K. Þ. K. 170, Thom. 343, Stj. 461. 1 Sam. xvii. 7, where the translator says of the spear of Goliah—slikt er mí kallat b.

bryn-þing, n. a fray of arms, Sdm.

bryn-þvari, a, m. a sort of halberd, probably synonymous to bryn-tröll, defined in Eg. 285, Fas. iii. 387.

brysti, n. = brjóst, Stef. Ól.

BRYTI, old gen. brytja, mod. bryta, m. [A. S. brytta = villicus; old Dan. bryde], a steward, bailiff. This word occurs twice or thrice in Icel. books, of the bailiffs, of private farms, Nj. 201, Þorf. S. Karl. 408, Fs. 147; also of the two bishops’ bailiffs, Bs. i. 247, 477, 839, 848, where bryti is inferior to ráeth;smaðr, a steward, and denotes the head-labourer in the bishop’s homestead. In Denmark it was more in use, cp. a treatise of N. M. Petersen (‘Bonde og Bryde’) upon the subject, publ. in Ann. for Nord. Oldk. 1847; even used in Denmark as a pr. name, as Steward, Stewart in the Brit. Isles, Hkr. i. 228; bryta eðr hinum bezta manni er í bæ er staddr, Gþl. 428: the bryti was in Norway the head-bondsman, tveir þrælar, þjónn ok bryti, N. G. L. i. 70, 36.

brytja, að, [brjóta-brotinn; A. S. bryttjan = to deal out], to chop, esp. of butcher’s meat, Ísl. ii. 337; svá brytju vér grísina, Sd. 163; b. búfé, Al. 80, Stj. 411. Judg. xiv. 6 (as he would have ‘rent’ a kid); b. niðr, to cut down, as a carcase, Fms. vii. 123; b. mat, to chop meat, viii. 221.

brytjan, f. chopping, Grág. i. 148, 466.

bryt-skálm, f. a chopper, Gísl. 80.

bryt-trog, n. a butcher’s trough, Þryml. 3. 60.

brý, n. a witch, Edda ii. 494.

brýna, d, [brún], to whet, sharpen,bring to an edge’; b. ljá, kníf, sverð, to whet a scythe, knife, sword, Edda 48, Ísl. ii. 348, Fs. 62. β. naut. to drag a boat or ship half a-shore, put her on the ‘edge’ of the sea-board; b. upp skipi, Nj. 19, Fs. 145, 147, Fms. viii. 333, v. 1. 2. metaph. to egg on, incite, Al. 33.

brýna, u, f. whetting; mowers call ‘brýna’ the amount of mowing done before the scythe wants whetting again.

brýni, n. a whetstone, Ísl. ii. 348, Fas. iii. 43, 44. 2. metaph. spices (rendering of the Lat. incitamenta gulae), Róm. 306.

brýning, f. a whetting, sharpening, esp. metaph. egging on, sharpening; ek veit görst um yðr sonu mína, þurfi þér brýningina, Ld. 240; segir, at þá hefði þeir tekið brýningunni, Hkr. ii. 239.

brýnligr, adj. = brýnn.

brýnn, adj. [brún], prop. ‘edged’; but only used metaph. prompt, ready; ef brýn féföng lægi fyrir, ready means, Fms. iv. 298; brýn mála-efni, an evident, plain case, Ld. 66, Gísl. 119, 123; brýn sök, a just, cogent cause, Sturl. iii. 237; brýn vörn, a clear case of defence, Band. 15 new Ed.; brýnt erindi, a pressing errand, business; brýnn byrr, a straight, fair wind, Skúlda 163, Fagrsk. 173 (in a verse). 2. [brún, brow], having such or such a brow, in compds, þung-brýnn, létt-brýnn, sam-brýnn, q. v.

bræða, dd, [bráð], to melt, Sks. 145; b. jökul, snjó, ís, Fms. iii. 180, ix. 355, K. Á. 6; b. lýsi, to make oil. 2. metaph. to hurry; nú seinkaða ek, en þú bræddir heldr, I tarried, but you hurried, Dropl. 25. 3. [bráð, n.], to tar, pitch; b. hús, skip, timbr, kirkju, etc., Fms. i. 291, v. 331, Vm. 62, Eg. 90, N. G. L. ii. 247, Gþl. 81.

bræði, f. [bráðr], anger, ire, temper, Eluc. 41; í bræði, in a passion, Fms. vii. 130, Pass. 8. 14; með bræði, with ire, Stj. 153. brœði-mæli, n. pl. angry language, Sks. 25.

bræðrunga, u, f. [bróðir], a female first cousin, Grág. i. 346, Fms. vii. 274, Post. 656 A. ii. 15.

bræðrungr, m. [bróðir], a first cousin (agnate), Grág. i. 171, ii. 172; also = bræðrunga; hón var bræðrungr, he was first cousin, Ásnýjar, Grett. 87. COMPDS: bræðrungs-barn, n. child of a first cousin, Gþl. 244. brœðrungs- and bræðrunga-baugr, m. the share of weregild due to first cousins, N. G. L. i. 75, Grág, ii. 185.

brækja, u, f. a brackish, bad taste. brækir, m. a cognom., Landn.

bræklingar, m. pl. [brók], ‘breechlings,’ a nickname of the Irish, Morkinsk. (Fr.)

brækta, t, [Dan. brœge; Ivar Aasen, bræka, brœkta], to bleat; b. sem geit, to bleat like a she-goat, Fbr. 212 (rare).

bræla, d, [Fr. brûler], to burn, in the allit. phrase, brenna ok bræla.

bræla, u, f. thick smoke and fire (= svæla).

brögðóttr, adj. [bragð], crafty, cunning, Eg. 283, Glúm. 379, Háv. 56.

brögðu-ligr, adj. cunning-looking, Mag. 7.

BRÖLTA, t, [bratl and bratla, Ivar Aasen], to tumble about (as a cow in a bog), Ld. 328, Nj. 27, Jómsv. S. (Ed. 1824), p. 38 (breylti); Fms. xi. 129 has a false reading breysti. brölt, n. a tumbling about.

bröndóttr, adj. brindled, of a cow; see brandkrossóttr.

brörr, m. [A. S. brœr], a briar, Haustl. 14; the explanation given in Lex. Poët. is scarcely right.

BRÖSK, n. a noise, crackling, Eb. 97 new Ed. note 1.

bröstuliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), in the phrase, láta b., to brag, Sturl. i. 140 C, [cp. braska = to twist, Ivar Aasen.]

budda, u, f. a purse, (mod.)

buði, a, m. a fire, a απ. λεγ., Edda. (Gl.)

BUÐKR, bauðkr, Art. 7, mod. contr. baukr, m. [a for. word derived from Gr. αποθήκη; mid. Lat. apotheca; Ital. bottega; Fr. boutique; O. H. G. buttick; mod. Germ. böttich; hence Germ. böttcher, Dan. bødker, mod. Icel. beykir = a cooper]:—a box, originallv a box to keep herbs and balsams in; tvá buðka með balsamum, Bs. i. 872, Mar. 43: buðkr nokkurr er húsfreyja átti, Glúm. 378, Stj. 215: Bauka-Jón, Pillbox-John, was a nickname given to a bishop in Icel. for having made money by dealing in medicine-boxes; kölluðu óvinir hans hann Bauka-Jón, sögðu hann hafa selt i smá-baukum, þat er hann léti sem væri dýrindi nokkur, Espol. Árb. 1685; hence prob. banka, q. v. COMPD: bauka-gröss, n. pl. herbs kept in a box, Str.

buðlungr, m. a king, poët., Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.

buffeit, n. [Engl. buffet], a buffet, Gisl, 27.

buffeita, tt, (for. word), to buffet, Bær. 20, Mar. 60.

buga, að, to bow; in fishing for trout with nets people in Icel. say, buga fyrir, to draw the net round; but mostly used metaph. and in compds, vfir-buga, to bow down, subdue; 3rd pers. pret. reflex. bugusk, from an obsolete strong verb bjúga, baug, occurs in Eyvind, bugusk álmar, bows were bent, Fms. i. 49.

bugða, u, f. a bow or bent, of a serpent’s coil.

BUGR, m. pl. ir, a bowing, winding; so Icel. call the bight or bend of a river, brook, creek, or the like; renna í bugum, to fiow in bights, hence ár-bugr, lækjar-bugr: the bight (inside) of a ring, finger, bow-string, etc.; í bug hringinum, Eg. 306; b. fingranna, Sturl. i. 189; grípa í bug snærum, poët. to grip the bight of the bow-string, Jd. 27: the scythe has þjó-bugr, q. v.: the concave side of the sails, sá af landi í bug allra seglanna, Fms. vii. 94: a curve, disorder, of a line of men or ships (in battle), rétta þann bug, er á var orðinn flotanum, i. 174; hence the phrase, aka e-m á bug, vide aka; vinda (göra) bráða-bug að e-u, to make haste, Grett. 98 A: á bug, Scot. abeigh (aloof), Úlf. 3. 27; mein-bugir, impediments. β. convexity; b. jarðar, Rb. 468, unusual in this sense.

bug-stafr, m. a crooked staff, Band. (MS.)

bugt, n. bowing, servile homage: bugta, að, to make many bows, Snót 163. β. a bight, bay, Dan. bugt (for. and rare). γ. [boughtes, Spencer] = bugða, Fms. iii. 190, or false reading = beit (?).

bukka, að, to knock; hver bukkar mín hús, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 508.

BUKKR, m. [A. S. bucca; Engl. buck; Germ. bock; Swed.-Dan. bukk; cp. bokki]:—a he-goat, rare; hafr is the common word, Stj. 177, Ó. H. 15:—Lat. aries, a battering ram, Al. 89. COMPDS: bukka-blóð, n. the blood of he-goats, 544. 39. bukka-skinn, n. the skin of he-goats, Sks. 184. bukka-vara, u, f. id., Bs. ii. 177, Sks. 184.

bukk-ram, n. a buck-ram, ram, Vm. 124, Dipl. iii. 4 (a for. word). COMPD: bukkrams-hökull, m. the scapular of a ram, Vm. 70.

BUKL, n. [mid. Lat. bucula], the boss of a shield, Al. 40, (a for. word.)

buklari, a, m. [Fr. bouclier], a buckler, shield, Sks. 374, Eg. 202, Fms. viii. 170, 317, ix. 533, Fas. i. 179, Sturl. ii. 44, 221, etc. COMPDS: buklara-bóla, u, f. the boss of a buckler, Sturl. i. 196. buklara-fetill, m. the strap of a buckler, Sturl, i. 147.

buldra, að, to emit a murmuring sound: buldran, f., N. T.

bulla, að, to boil up; b. og sjóða; cp. Lat. ebullire: metaph. to chat, talk nonsense, and bull, n. nonsense:—all mod.

bulla, u, f. the shaft in a churn or pump, bullu-fótr, m. a pr. name, Grett.

bulungr, m., proncd. buðlungr, [bolr, bulr], a pile of logs, fire-wood, Stj. 593, Ísl. ii. 417.

bumba, u, f. [onomatopoëtic, cp. Engl. bomb, to boom, etc.], a drum, Stj. 289, Sks., Al., Karl., Fas. iii, etc. 2. the belly of a tub, kettle, or any big jar; ketil-bumba, Od. viii. 436.

BUNA, u, f. [akin to ben], a stream of purling water; lækjar-buna, vatns-buna: bunu-lækr, m. a purling brook, Jónas 137; blóð-buna = blóðbogi. 2. one with the stocking hanging down his leg, ungartered; a cognom. (Björn buna), Landn.

buna, að, to gush out, of blood, water-spring, etc.

BUNDIN, n., mod. byndini, Pass. 17. 27, [binda], a sheaf, bundle, Stj. 192. Gen. xxxvii. 7, Greg. 40; korn-bundin, a sheaf of corn, Blanda MS.

bunga, u, f. elevation, convexity.

bunki, a, m. a heap, pile, v. búlki.

bunungr, m. a sort of whale, Edda (Gl.)

bupp, n. the short bark of a dog (from the sound); ormrinn rak upp bupp þá ball honum höggið núna, Skíða R. 163.

burdeiga, að, (a for. word; vide burt), to tilt, Þiðr.

BURÐR, ar, m. pl. ir, [Engl. birth; Hel. giburd; Germ. geburt; cp. bera A. II]:—birth, esp. of the birth of Christ; frá Guðs, Drottins, Krists burði, Bs. i. 112, 145, 158, 173; frá hingað-burði Christi, id., 64, 75, 79, 85; til burðar Christi, Rb. 84: of men, sótt burðar = jóðsótt, labours, K. Á. 104. 2. of domestic animals, calving, lambing, hence sauð-burðr, the lambing-time; þeim kúm er bezt búast til burðar, Bs. i. 194. 3. birth, the thing born, an embryo; Fíllinn gengr tvö ár með burðinum, Stj. 70; at þær (viz. the ewes) skyldi sinn burð geta, 178; fæða sinn burð, 97; með konum leysisk burðr (abort), Bs. i. 798. 4. in pl. birth, extraction; heiðinn at burðum (MS. sing.), heathen by birth, Ver. 40; burðir ok ætt, kith and kin, Fms. i. 83; er ekki er til Noregs kominn fyrir burða sakir, ix. 389; Hákon jarl hafði burði til þess, at halda foðurleifð sinni, ok hafa jarlsnafn, i. 223; þykkjumk ek hafa til þess burði ok frænda styrk, Eg. 474; hence in mod. usage burðir means one’s ‘physique,’ strength; burðamaðr mikill, a mighty strong man; hafa litla burði, to have little strength; yfir-burðir, superior strength (cp. bera yfir), and afburðir, q. v. II. the bearing of limbs, body; lima-burðr, fóta-burðr, höfuð-burðr. III. [bera C], the compds at-burðr, við-burðr, til-burðr, hop, accident; fyrir-burðr, vision. IV. answering to bera A. I, vide byrðr, and compds like á-burðr. β. saman-burðr, comparison. COMPDS: burða-munr, m. distance of birth, Fs. 125. burðar-dagr, m. a birthday, Hom. 106; b. Maríu, the nativity of the Virgin Mary, Rb. 8. burðar-maðr, m. a bearer, Fms. i. 271. burðar-sveinn, m. an errand-boy, Fms. vii. 222. burðar-tími, a, m. birth-time, Stj. 97; natal hour, 101.

burðugr, adj. [Germ. ge-bürtig], of high birth, Grett. 161 A, Stj. 238 (unclass.)

burgeiss, m. [Fr. bourgeois; Chaucer burgeis; a for. word, of Teut. origin, from burg]:—a burgess, Fas. iii. 358: in mod. usage, a big man.

buris, m. (a for. word), borax, N. G. L. iii.

burkni, a, m. [Scot. bracken or breckan, cp. Engl. brake,], the common fern, Hjalt.

BURR, m., gen. ar, pl. ir, a son, akin to bera and barn, but poët., being used in prose only in allit. phrases such as, eigi buri við bónda sínum, Stj. 428; sem burr eðr bróðir, Fms. xi. 75; áttu börn og buru (acc. pl.) grófu rætr og muru is a standing peroration of Icel. nursery tales, Ísl. Þjóðs. ii. 319, vide Lex. Poët.: else in prose only used in the weak form in the compd words tví-buri, twins; þrí-buri, three at a birth, (in modern statistics even fleir-buri.)

BURST, f. I. [A. S. byrst, Germ. borste; Swed. bösta], a bristle, Hb. (1865) 22; but also of a hog’s back and bristles, Edda 70; cp. Gullin-bursti, Gold-bristle, the mythical hog of the god Frey; Fas. i. 532 (of the sónargöltr, the sacred hog); Fms. v. 165: the phrase, draga bust ór nefi e-m, to draw a bristle out of one’s nose, to cheat, gull one, Ölk. 36, does not occur anywhere else that we know of; the Engl. say, ‘to lead one by the nose,’ in much the same sense. II. metaph. the gable of a house (hús-burst), Hkr. iii. 14 (of a shrine), Mar. 106, Konr. 57; og gogginn á bustinni brýnir (of a raven sitting on the top of a house and whetting his bill), Sig. Breiðfjörð. COMPDS: bursta-kollr, m. bristle-scalp, a nickname, Nj. 181. burstar-hár, n. bristly hair, Fas. i. 105.

bursti, a, m. a brush, Dipl. v. 18:—from bursta, að, to brush.

burst-ígull, m. a hedge-hog, Thom. 145, 147; vide bjarnígull.

BURT-, v. brott-.

BURT, [Ital. bagordo; Fr. bohourt; bord in Chaucer; vide Du Cange s. v. bohordicum], in the phrase, ríða burt, to ride a tilt; hence burt-reið, f. a tilt, tournament, Bær. 17, Fas. ii. 295, Karl., Þiðr., etc.; freq. in romances. COMPDS: burtreiðar-maðr, m. a tilter, Mag. 8, Fas. iii. 241. burtreiðar-vápn, n. a tilt-weapon, Fas. ii. 281. burt-stöng, f. a lance for tilting, Mag. 8, Fas. iii. 369, Karl., etc.

busi, a, m. a bad, clumsy knife.

BUSSEL, n. (a for. word), a cask, bushel, Art. 99.

bussu-ligr, adj. (see búza), stout, portly, Skýr. 447.

BUST, n. a kind of fish, Edda (Gl.)

BUSTL, n. bustle, Ísl. ii. 59, Snót 217; of a fish splashing in the water, Bb. 2. 28: bustla, að, to bustle, splash about in the water.

BUTTR and butraldi, a cognom., Dipl. v. 26, Fbr.: short, cp. bútr; Dan. butted.

BUZA, u, f. [a for. woid; mid. Lat. bussa; O. H. G. buzo; Dutch buise; Engl. herring-buss], a sort of merchant-ship, Fms. vii. 289, ix. 304, xi. 425; freq. in the Ann. of the 14th century; it occurs first A. D. 1251, then 1299: in the 14th century, during the Hanseatic trade with Icel., nearly every ship was called buza, vide Ann. COMPD: buzu-skip, n. = búza, Ann. 1251, etc., Hkr. iii. 118.

BÚ, n. [Hel. = domicilium; O. H. G. bû; mod. Germ. bau = tillage, cultivation; Hel. also uses beo or beu, = seges, cp. also Teut. bouwt = messis, in Schmeller Heliand Glossary:—the root of this word will be traced more closely under the radical form búa; here it is sufficient to remark that ‘bú’ is an apocopate form, qs. ‘bug’ or ‘bugg;’ the root remains unaltered in the branch to which Icel. bygg, byggja, and other words belong]:—a house; bú and bæ (býr) are twins from the same root (bua); bær is the house,the household; the Gr. οικος (Ϝοικος) embraces both; þeir eta upp bú mitt, Od. i. 251; biðla til móður minnar og eyða búi hennar, 248; bú mitt er á förum, iv. 318; gott bú, ix. 35; etr þú upp bú hans bótalaust, xvi. 431; svo hann er fær uni að veita búinu forstöðu, xix. 161; hús og bújörð, og góðan kvennkost, xiv. 64; the Prose Translation by Egilsson. In the Northern countries ‘bú’ implies the notion of living upon the produce of the earth; in Norway and esp. in Icel. that of living on the ‘milk’ (málnyta) of kine, ewes, or she-goats; þat er bú, er maðr hefir málnytan smala, it is ‘bú’ if a man has a milking stock, Grág. i. 158; the old Hm. says, a ‘bú,’ however small it be, is better to have than not to have; and then explains, ‘though thou hast but two she-goats and a cottage thatched with shingle, yet it is better than begging;’ Icel. saying, sveltr sauðlaust bú, i. e. a sheepless household starves: ‘bú’ also means the stores and stock of a household; göra, setja, reisa bú, to set up in life, have one’s own hearth, Bs. i. 127, Bb. 1. 219, Sturl. i. 197, Eb. 40; bregða búi, to give up farming or household; taka við búi, to take to a farm, Sturl. i. 198; eiga bú við e-n, to share a household with one, 200; ráðask til bús, id.; fara búi, to remove one’s household, flit, 225; hafa bú, hafa rausnar-bú, 226; eiga bú, iii. 79, Eg. 137: allit. phrases, börn og bú, Bs. ii. 498; bóndi er bú-stólpi, bú er landstólpi, the ‘bóndi’ is the stay of the ‘bú,’ the ‘bú’ is the stay of the land; búa búi sínu, Fas. iii. 312; búa umegðar-búi, to have a heavy household (many children), K. Þ. K. 90; hafa kýr ok ær á búi, Nj. 236: housekeeping, in the phrase, eiga einkis í bú at biðja, to have plenty of everything, Bs. i. 131, 132; bæði þarf í búit mjöl ok skreið, Nj. 18: home, house, reið Hrútr heim til bús síns, 4; á búi, adv. at home, Fms. iv. 256, Hm. 82. 2. estates; konungs-bú, royal demesnes; þar er bú hans vóru, Eg. 42, 43, Landn. 124, fara milli búa sinna, to go from one estate to another, id.; eiga bú, to own an estate. 3. the stock in a farmstead; sumir lágu úti á fjöllum með bú sín, Sturl. iii. 75; drepa niðr bú, höggva bú, taka upp bú, to kill or destroy one’s stock, Fms. ix. 473, Stj. 90. COMPDS: bús-afleifar, f. pl. remains of stores, Grág. i. 299. bús-búhlutir, m. pl. implements of husbandry, Grág. i. 200, 220, 221, Dipl. iii. 14, Bs. i, D. I. (freq.) bús-efni, n. pl. household goods, Sturl. i. 197. bús-far, n. = búfar, Bs. i. 477. bús-forráð, n. pl. management of household affairs, Sturl. i. 131, Grett. 107. bús-gagn = búgagn, Jb. 166. bús-hagr, m. the state, condition of a ‘bú,’ Fas. ii. 469. bús-hlutir = búsbúhlutir, Hrafn. 22. bús-hægindi, n. pl. comfortable income derived from a ‘bú,’ Bs. i. 688, Hrafn. 22. bús-kerfi, n. movables of a household, Grág. ii. 339 A, 249, where búskerfi, an obsolete and dubious word. bús-tilskipan, f. the settling of a household, Fms. ii. 68. bús-umsvif, n. pl. the care, troubles of a ‘bú,’ business, Band. ii. bús-umsýsla, u, f. the management of a ‘bú,’ Ld. 22. Eg. 333, 334. Band. l. c.

BÚA, pret. sing. bjó, 2nd pers. bjótt, mod. bjóst; plur. bjoggu, bjöggu, and mod. bjuggu, or even buggu; sup. búit, búið, and (rarely) contr. búð; part. búinn; pret. subj. bjöggi, mod. byggi or bjyggi; pres. sing. indic. bý; pl. búm, mod. búum: reflex. forms býsk or býst, bjósk or bjóst, bjöggusk, búisk, etc.: poët. forms with suffixed negative bjó-at, Skv. 3. 39: an obsolete pret. bjoggi = bjó, Fms. ix. 440 (in a verse); bjöggisk = bjósk, Hom. 118. [Búa is originally a reduplicated and contracted verb answering to Goth. búan, of which the pret. may have been baibau: by bûan Ulf. renders Gr. οικειν, κατοικειν; Hel. bûan = habitare; Germ. bauen; Swed. and Dan. bo. The Icel. distinguishes between the strong neut. and originally redupl. verb búa, and the transit. and weak byggja, q. v.: búa seems to be kindred to Gr. φύω, εφυσα (cp. Sansk. bhû, bhavâmi, Lat. fui); byggja to Lat. făcio, cp. Swed.-Dan. bygga, Scot. and North. E. to ‘big,’ i. e. to build; cp. Lat. aedificare, nidificare: again, the coincidence in sense with the Gr. οικος, οικειν, Lat. vicus, is no less striking, cp. the references s. v. bú above. Búa, as a root word, is one of the most interesting words in the Scandin. tongues; bú, bær, bygg, bygð, byggja, etc., all belong to this family: it survives in the North. E. word to ‘big,’ in the Germ. bauen (to till), and possibly (v. above) in the auxiliary verb ‘to be.’]

A. NEUTER, to live, abide, dwell, = Gr. οικειν, Lat. habitare; sú synd sem í mér býr, Rom. vii. 17, 20; í mér, þat er í mínu holdi, býr ekki gott, 18; hann sem býr í ljósinu, 1 Tim. vi. 16; fyrir Heilagan Anda sem í oss býr, 2 Tim. i. 14; Látið Christs orð ríkulega búa meðal yðar, Col. iii. 16; þá trú … sem áðr fyr bjó í þinni ömmu Loide, 2 Tim. i. 5; þat hit góða sem í oss býr, 14; hann sem býr í ljósinu, þar einginn kann til að komast, 1 Tim. vi. 16; hence íbúð, living in, etc.; in many of those passages some Edd. of N. T. use byggja, but búa suits better: of a temporary abode, hann bjó í tjöldum, he abode in tents, Fms. x. 413. 2. a naut. term; þeir bjuggu þar um nóttina, they stayed, cast anchor during the night, Fms. vii. 3: on board ship, to have one’s berth, sá maðr bjó á skipi næst Haraldi er hét Loðinn, 166; engi maðr skyldi búa á þessu skipi yngri en tvítugr, x. 321. 3. to live together as man and wife; henni hagar að b. við hann, 1 Cor. vii. 12; hagar honum hjá henni að b., 13; b. með húsfrú sinni, Stj. 47; b. við; Helgi prestr bjó við konu þá, er Þórdís hét (of concubinage), Sturl. i. 141; but búa saman, of wedded life, K. Á. 134. 4. b. fyrir, to be present in the place: at Selþórir muni fyrir b. í hverju holti, Fms. iv. 260: recipr., sjór ok skúgr bjoggusk í grend, Skálda 202, Baruch. 5. esp. (v. bú) to have a household, cattle, sheep, and milk; hence búandi, bóndi, bær, and bú; búa við málnytu (milk), ok hafa kýr ok ær at búi, Nj. 236, Grág. i. 168, 335; b. búi (dat.), 153, K. Þ. K. 90; búa búi sínu, to ‘big ane’s ain biggin,’ have one’s own homestead. β. absol., meðan þú vilt b., so long as thou wilt keep bouse, Hrafn. 9; b. vel, illa, to be a good (bad) housekeeper; vænt er að kunna vel að búa, Bb. 3. 1; Salomon kóngur kunni að b., 100; fara að b., to begin housekeeping, 2. 6; b. á jörðu, to keep a farm, gefa þeim óðul sín er á bjoggu, Fms. i. 21. γ. búa á …, at …, i …, with the name of the place added, to live at or in a place; hann bjó á Velli (the farm) á Rangárvöllum (the county), Nj. 1; Höskuldr bjó á Höskuldstöðum, 2: hann bjó at Varmalæk, 22; hann bjó undir Felli, 16; Gunnarr bjó at Hlíðarenda, 29; Njáll bjó at Bergþórshváli, 30, 38, 147, 162, 164, 173, 174, 213, Landn. 39–41, and in numberless passages; Eb., Ld., Eg., Sturl., Bs., Ísl. ii, etc. (very freq.): also b. í brjósti, skapi, huga e-m, to be, dwell in one’s mind, with the notion of rooted conviction or determination, þess hins mikla áhuga, er þér býr í brjósti, Fms. iv. 80; því er mér hefir lengi í skapi búit, 78; ekki muntu leynask fyrir mér, veit ek hvat í býr skapinu, Lv. 16. II. metaph. and with prepp.; b. um e-t, or b. yfir e-u, almost in an uncanny sense, to brood over hidden schemes, designs, resentment, or the like; búa um hverfan hug, to be of a fickle mind, Skv. 3. 39; b. eigi um heilt, to brood over something against one, to be insincere, Fms. xi. 365; b. um skoll, to brood over some deceit, id.; b. um grun, to be suspicious, ii. 87: in good sense, b. um eitt lunderni, to be of one mind, Jb. 17; b. um þrek, hug, to have a bold heart, Lex. Poët.: b. í or undir e-u, to be at the bottom of a thing; en í þessu vináttu merki bjoggu enn fleiri hlutir, Ó. H. 125; mart býr í þokunni (a proverb), many things bide in the mist; en þat b. mest undir ferð Áka, at …, Fms. xi. 45; þóttusk eigi vita hvat undir myndi b., Nj. 62: b. yfir e-u, to brood over something, conceal; (ormrinn) bjó yfir eitri, i. e. the snake was venomous, Fms. vi. 351: the saying, lítill búkr býr yfir miklu viti, little bulk hides mickle wit, Al.; b. yfir flærð ok vélum, to brood over falsehood and deceit, id.; b. yfir brögðum, Fas. i. 290: b. undir, við e-t, to live under or with a thing, to bide, put up with; eiga undir slíkum ofsa at b., to have to put up with such insolence, Fms. xi. 248; at hart mun þykkja undir at b., Nj. 90, 101; ok mun eigi við þat mega b., i. e. it will be too hard to bide, 164; því at bændr máttu eigi við hitt b., Fms. xi. 224. III. in a half active sense; b. at e-u, or b. e-u (with dat.), to treat; þeir höfðu spurt hvern veg Þórólfr hafði búit at herbergjum þeirra, how Th. had used their premises, Eg. 85; þeir bjoggu búi sem þeim líkaði (where with dat.), i. e. they treated it recklessly, Bs. i. 544; Haraldr jarl fór til bús Sveins, ok bjó þá heldr úspakliga kornum hans, Orkn. 424 (in all passages in bad sense): búa vel saman, to live well together, be friendly, Fms. xi. 312; hence sam-búð, living together; b. við e-n, to treat one so and so; sárt býr þú við mik, Þóra, thou treatest me sorely, vii. 203.

B. ACTIVE, to make ready: the sense and form here reminds one of the Gr. ποιειν: [this sense is much used in Old Engl., esp. the part. bone, boon, or boun, ready, (‘boun to go,’ Chaucer, etc.); in later Engl. ‘boun’ was corrupted into ‘bound,’ in such naut. phrases as bound for a port, etc.: from this part, the ballad writers formed a fresh verb, to boun, ‘busk ye, boun ye;’ ‘busk’ is a remnant of the old reflex, búask, see Dasent, Burnt Njal, pref. xvi. note, and cp. below III.] I. to make ready, ‘boun,’ for a journey; b. ferð, för sína; and as a naut. term, b. skip, to make ready for sea; bjoggu þeir ferð sína, Fms. ix. 453; en er þeir vóru búnir, Nj. 122; ok vóru þá mjök brott búnir, they were ‘boun’ for sea, Fms. vii. 101; bjó hann skip sitt, Nj. 128; en skip er brotið, svá at eigi er í för búanda á því sumri, i. e. ship unfit to go to sea, Grág. i. 92; b. sik til göngu, to be ‘boun’ for a walk, Ld. 46; b. sik at keyra, to make one ready for …, Nj. 91. β. as a law term, b. sök, mál, or adding til, b. til sök, mál á hendr e-m, to take out a summons against one, begin a lawsuit; b. mál í dóm, of the preliminaries to a lawsuit, hence málatilbúningr, in numberless cases in the Grágás and Sagas. γ. generally to prepare, make; b. smyrsl, to make ointments, Rb. 82. 2. = Old Engl. to boun, i. e. to dress, equip; b. sik, to dress; svá búinn, so dressed, Fms. xi. 272; hence búningr, dress (freq.); vel búinn, well-dressed, Nj. 3, Ísl. ii. 434; spari-búinn, in holiday dress; illa búinn, ill-dressed; síðan bjó hon hana sem hon kunni, she dressed her as well as she could, Finnb. 258; b. beð, rekkjur, to make a bed, Eg. 236; b. upp hvílur, id., Nj. 168; b. öndvegi, hús, to make a high seat, dress a house for a feast, 175, (hús-búnaðr, hús-búningr, tapestry); búa borð, to dress the table, (borð búnaðr, table-service); b. stofu, Fms. iv. 75. β. búa til veizlu, to make ‘boun’ (prepare) for a feast, Eg. 38, Fms. vii. 307; b. til seyðis, to make the fire ‘boun’ for cooking, Nj. 199; b. til vetrsetu, to make ‘boun’ for a winter abode, Fms. x. 42; til-búa, and fyrir-b., to prepare; eg fer héðan að til-b. yðr stað, John xiv. 3; eignizt það ríki sem yðr var til-búið frá upphafi veraldar, Matth. xxv. 34. γ. b. um e-t, in mod. use with the notion of packing up, to make into a bundle, of parcels, letters, etc.; hence um-búningr and um-búðir, a packing, packing-cover; b. um rúm, hvílu, to make a bed; búa um e-n, to make one’s bed; var búið um þá Þórodd í seti, ok lögðusk þeir til svefns, Th.’s bed was made on the benches, and they went to sleep, Ó. H. 153; skaltú nú sjá hvar vit leggumk niðr, ok hversu ek bý um okkr (of the dying Njal), Nj. 701; er mér sagt at hann hafi illa um búit, of a dead body, 51; þeir höfðu (svá) um sik búit (they had covered themselves so) at þá mátti eigi sjá, 261; kváðu nú Guðrúnu eiga at búa um rauða skör Bolla, said that G. would have to comb B.’s (her husband’s) bloody head, Ld. 244; búa svá um at aldri mátti vökna, pack it up so that it cannot get wet, Fms. vii. 225; Þórólfr lét setja upp skip ok um búa, he had the ship laid up and fenced it round (for the winter), Eg. 199; b. um andvirki, to fence and thatch bay-ricks, Grág. ii. 335: metaph. to manage, preserve a thing, Fms. ix. 52; aumlega búinn, in a piteous state, Hom. 115. 3. to ornament, esp. with metals or artificial work of any kind, of clothes laced with gold; kyrtill hlaðbúinn, Ísl. ii. 434, Nj. 48, Vm. 129: of gloves, B. K. 84: of a belt with stones or artificial work, Fms. xi. 271: of a drinking-horn, D. N. (Fr.); but esp. of a weapon, sword, or the like, enamelled with gold or silver (gull-búinn, silfr-búinn); búin gulli ok silfri, Fms. i. 15; búinn knífr, xi. 271; vápn búit mjök, much ornamented, ii. 255, iv. 77, 130, Eb. 226, 228. β. part., búinn at e-u, or vel búinn, metaph. endowed with, well endowed; at flestum í þróttum vel búinn, Nj. 61, Fms. x. 295; at auð vel búinn, wealthy, 410; vel búinn at hreysti ok allri atgörvi, Eg. 82; bezt at viti búinn, Fms. xi. 51. II. particular use of the part. pass. ‘boun,’ ready, willing; margir munu búnir at kaupa, ready, willing to buy, Fms. vi. 218; hann kvaðsk þess fyrir löngu búinn, Ld. 66, Fms. iii. 123; nefna vátta at þeir eru búnir (ready) at leysa kvið þann af hendi, Grág. i. 54; vóru allir til þess búnir, Fms. xi. 360: compar., engir menn sýna sik búnari (more willing) til liðveizlu, Sturl. i. 103: the allit. phrase, vera boðinn og búinn til e-s, vide bjóða VI: denoting fitted, adapted, ek em gamall, ok lítt b. at (little fit to) hefna sona minna, Nj. 200; þótt ek sé verr til b. en hann fyrir vanheilsu sakir, Fms. vii. 275; eiga við búið (mod. vera við búinn), to keep oneself ready, to be on one’s guard, Bs. i. 537. 2. on the point of doing, about to do so and so; hann var búinn til falls, he was just about to tumble, Fms. x. 314; en áðr þeir kómu var búið til hins mesta váða, ix. 444, v. l. β. neut. búið is used almost adverbially, on the point of, just about to; ok búið við skipbroti, Ísl. ii. 245; búið við váða miklum, Fms. ix. 310; sagði at þá var búit við geig mikinn með þeim feðgum, Eg. 158: this is rare and obsolete in mod. usage; and the Icel. now say, liggja við mér lá við að detta, where an old writer would have said, ek var búinn at detta; the sense would else be ambiguous, as búinn, vera búinn, in mod. usage means to have done; ég er búinn að eta, I have done eating; vera búinn að e-u (a work, business of any kind), to have done with it; also absol., eg er búinn, I have done; thus e. g. vera b. að kaupa, fyrir löngu b., b. at græða, leysa, etc., in mod. sense means to have done, done long ago; only by adding prepp. við, til (vera við búinn, til búinn) the part. resumes its old sense: on the other hand, búinn in the sense of having done hardly ever occurs in old writers. γ. búð (búið) is even used adverbially = may be, may happen; with subj. with or without ‘at,’ búð, svá sé til ætlað, may be, it will come so to happen, Nj. 114; búð, dragi til þess sem vera vill, 185; búð, eigi fari fjarri því sem þú gazt til, id., Ed. Johns. 508, note c; búð, svá þykki sem ek grípa gulli við þá, 9, note 3; búð, eigi hendi hann slík úgipta annat sinn, 42; búð, ek láta annars víti at varnaði verða, 106; búð, vér þurfim enn hlífanna, Sturl. ii. 137 (vellum MSS.; um ríð, Ed., quite without sense), cp. also Eb. 27 new Ed.: in mod. usage it is freq. to say, það er búið, vel búið, albúið, etc., it is likely, most likely that … δ. svá búit, adverbially, and proncd. as if one word, as matters stand, or even temp. at present, as yet; eigi mun hlýða svá búit, i. e. it will not do ‘so done,’ i. e. something else must be done, Eg. 507; eigi munu þér fá at unnit svá búið, i. e. not as yet, Fms. vii. 270; stendr þar nú svá búit (i. e. unchanged), um hríð, xi. 81; en berjask eigi svo búit, not fight as yet, Nj. 229; segja Eyjólfi til svá búins, they tell Eyolf the state of things, viz. that nothing had been done, Gísl. 41; þeir skildu við svá búit; þeir lögðu frá við svá búið, implying ‘vain effort,’ Germ. ‘unverrichteter Sache,’ Ísl. ii, Hkr. i. 340: at svá búnu, adverbially, as yet, at present; hann kvaðsk eigi fýsask til Íslands at svá búnu, Nj. 123, Fms. xi. 131; þenna draum segjum vér engum manni at svá búnu, this dream we will not tell to anybody as yet, Nj. 212; en at svá búnu tjár ekki, Fas. i. 364. III. reflex. to ‘boun’ or ‘busk’ oneself, make oneself ready, equip oneself; gengu menn þá á skip sín, ok bjoggusk sem hvatligast, Fms. v. 15: adding the infinitive of a verb as predicate, bjósk hann at fara norðr til Þrandheims, Eg. 18; or ellipt., where búask thus denotes the act itself, nú býsk hann út til Íslands, i. e. he ‘busked’ him to go …, Nj. 10; bjoggusk þeir fóstbræðr í hernað, they went on a free-booting trip, Landn. 31; seg Agli at þeir búisk þaðan fimmtán, 94: or adding another verb denoting the act, in the same tense, bjósk Haraldr konungr úr Þrándheimi með skipaliði, ok fór suðr á Mæri, he ‘busked’ him … and went south, Eg. 7; the journey added in gen., búask ferðar sinnar, Fms. i. 3; búask menn ferða sinna, Ld. 177. β. denoting intention, hidden or not put into action; fór sá kurr, at Skúli byggisk á land upp, Fms. ix. 483. 2. to prepare for a thing; búask við boði, veizlu, etc., Nj. 10, Korm. 10; b. (vel, kristilega) við dauða sínum, andláti sínu, (eccl.) to prepare for one’s death, Fs. 80, Bs. i. 74; búask við vetri, to provide for the winter, get store in, Fms. xi. 415; b. við úfriði, vii. 23. β. to be on one’s guard, take steps to prevent a thing; nú ríða hér úvinir þínir at þér; skaltu svá við búask, i. e. be sure of that, make up thy mind, Nj. 264; bústu svá við, skal hann kveða, at …, Grág. ii. 244. γ. such phrases as, búask um = búa um sik, to make one’s own bed, encamp, make oneself comfortable, Nj. 259; tjölduðu búðir ok bjöggusk vel um, 219; var hörð veðrátta, svá at ekki mátti úti um búask, Fms. x. 13. Ld. 348; in the last passage the verb is deponent. 3. metaph., b. við e-u, to expect, freq. in mod. usage; in phrases, það er ekki við að búast, it cannot be expected; búast við e-m, to expect a guest, or the like. β. to intend, think about; eg býst við að koma, I hope to come; eg bjóst aldrei við því, I never hoped for that, it never entered my mind, and in numberless cases. 4. passive (very rare and not classical); um kveldit er matr bjósk = er m. var búinn, Fms. ix. 364.

búandi, a, m. = bóndi, q. v.

búand-karl, m. a farmer; b. eðr þorpari, Fms. ii. 48, Eg. 49.

búand-ligr, adj. yeomanlike, sturdy, stout, Ld. 274.

búand-maðr, m. = búandi. Grág. i. 479, 480, Fms. v. 77.

BÚÐ, f. I. [Engl. booth; Germ. bude; Dan. bod: not from búa], a booth, shop; farmanna búðir, merchants’ booths: setja búðir, Eg. 163; hafa búðir á landi, Grág. i. 91, the booths in the harbour being but temporary and being removed as soon as the ship went to sea. β. specially used of the temporary abodes in the Icel. parliament, where, as the meeting only lasted two weeks a year, the booths remained empty the rest of the year; hence tjalda (to dress) búðir, viz. during the session for the use of its owner. But every goði (priest) and every family had their own ‘booth,’ which also took their names from a single man or ruling family, e. g. Allsherjar b., Sturl. ii. 44; Snorra b., 125; b. Skapta, Nj. 220; b. Hafliða, Sturl. i. 44: from families or districts, Ölfusinga b., Nj. 181; Möðruvellinga b., 182, 247; Skagfirðinga b., 182; Jöklamanna b., Sturl. ii. 158; Austfirðinga b., 158, 159; Saurbæinga b., 82; Dalamanna b., Nj. 48; Mosfellinga b., 164; Rangæinga b., 48, 180; Ljósvetninga b., 183, 223; Norðlendinga b., 228; Vatnsfirðinga b., 248; Vestfirðingu b., Bs. i. 21; Svínfellinga b., Lv. 18; Skarðverja b., Sturl. i. 199, etc.: other names, Byrgis-búð, 31; Grýta, ii. 45; Dilkr, 158; Valhöll, 126; Hlað-búð, 82, Nj. 244; Virkis-búð, 247. As the alþing was a public meeting, other booths are also mentioned, e. g. Trúða búðir, booths of Jugglers, Troubadours, Grág. ii. 84; Ölbúð, an Ale-booth, beer-shop, Sturl. ii. 125; Sútara búð, a Souter’s (cobbler’s) booth, Grág. ii. 84; Sverð-skriða b., a Tanner’s booth, id.; and Göngumanna búðir, Beggars’ booths, a troop of beggars being an appendage to any old feast or public meeting, cp. Gísl. 54–56: the law (Grágás) forbade the sheltering of beggars at the parliament, but in vain; see numberless passages referring to alþing or fjórðungsþing, esp. Grág. Þ. Þ., Nj., Sturl., Gísl. l. c., Korm. S., Kristni S. A short treatise, called ‘Catastasis of Booths,’ composed about A. D. 1700, is mentioned in Dasent’s Burnt Njal; but it is the mere work of a scholar, not founded upon tradition. As búð is opposed to bú, as a temporary abode to a permanent fixed one, so búðsetumaðr (búð-seta), a cottager, is opposed to bóndi; fara búðum is to change one’s abode, Hkr. ii. 110; Mýramanna-búð, Band. (MS.) γ. in eccl., Tjald-búð is the Tabernacle. 2. in the compds í-búð, sam-búð, etc., ‘búð’ is a different word, being simply formed from the verb búa, and of late formation, prob. merely a rendering of Lat. habitatio; whilst búð, a booth, is not related to búa. II. esp. in compds, í-búð, living in; sam-búð, living together; vás-búð, a cold berth, i. e. wet and cold; hafa harða, kalda búð, to have a hard, cold abode, Fms. x. 158 (belongs perh. to I.) COMPDS: búðar-dvöl, f. dwelling in a booth, Sturl. i. 147. búðar-dyr, n. pl. door of a booth, Lv. 11, Nj. 37, 165, Eb. 196, Grág. i. 31. búðar-gögn, n. pl. implements of a booth, Grág. ii. 399, 402. búðar-hamarr, m. a pier or rock for embarking, Eb. 196. búðar-ketill, m. a booth-kettle, Eb. 196. búðar-kviðr, m. a law term, a sort of verdict given by the inmates of a booth at the parliament, a kind of búakviðr, defined in Grág. ii. 84, 85, where it is laid down that the inmates of the booths of shopkeepers, jugglers, and beggars cannot be summoned to serve on a jury, nor the dwellers in a booth which has not at least five inmates (five being a minimum in a jury). búðar-lið, n. the inmates of a booth, Sturl. i. 32. búðar-maðr, m. an inmate of a booth, Fær. 222. búðar-nagli, a, m. a booth-peg, Stj. 388. Judges iv. búðar-rúm, n. lodging in a booth, Grág. i. 24, ii. 55, Lv. 93. búðar-setumaðr, m. = búðsetumaðr, Nj. 236. búðar-staðr, m. a booth-stand, N. G. L. i. 342. búðar-sund, n. a passage, lane between two booths, Band. 5, Grett. 115. búðar-tópt, f. the walls of a (deserted) booth, without thatch, Rd. 274, Nj. 166, Ísl. ii. 194. búðar-veggr, m. the wall of a booth, Ld. 290, Eg. 724. búðar-virki, n. a fortification round a booth, Sturl. ii. 126, cp. Virkisbúð. búðar-vist, f. a lodging in a booth, Lv. 11. búðar-vörðr or búðar-verðr, m. [verðr = cibus], the cooking and stewardship in a vessel, work which the crew was bound to do in turn day by day; cooking and dairy work was thought unworthy to be the sole business of a man, and therefore the sailors were obliged to take it turn about, cp. Eb. 194, 196, 220:—metaph. meat, meal, eigi hafða ek þina veðra … mér til búðarvarðar, the rams of thy flock I have not eaten, Stj. 181. Gen. xxxi. 38; lofa mér at búa þér búðarvörð, ‘let me set a morsel of bread before thee,’ in the Engl. V., Stj. 493. 1 Sam. xxviii. 22; ráða til b., to prepare for a meal, Fms. v. 287, viii. 357; honum þótti þar gott til blaut-fisks ok búðarvarðar, Bs. i. 853, D. N. i. 311, ii. 16, Fas. ii. 209.

búða, að, to pitch a booth, Safn i. 89.

bú-deigja, u, f. a dairy-maid; cp. deigja; (Norse.)

búð-fastr, adj. living in a booth, Grág. i. 32.

bú-drift, f. a drove of cattle, D. N.

búð-seta, u, f. living in a cottage. COMPD: búðsetu-maðr, m. a cottager, answering to ‘husmand’ in Norway, or búandi bóndi in Icel., Nj. 236, Grág. i. 294; vide bóndi above.

búðu-nautr, m. a fellow inmate of a booth, Grág, i. 34, 35.

bú-eyrir, m. value in stock, D. N.

bú-fang, n. domestic necessaries. K. Á. 176.

bú-far, n. household condition, Sturl. i. 216, Bs. i. 477.

bú-fellir, m. a failing of stock, starvation of stock, Bs. i. 743.

bú-ferli, n. household, in the phrase, fara búferli, or b. sínn, to move, change one’s household and home; Ólafr fór þangað b. sínu, Eg. 138, Fms. iii. 107: esp. live stock, Hallsteinn fór hit efra með búferli, Gullþ. 12; hafði hann með sér skulda-lið (people, family) ok b. (stock), Eb. 8: but sometimes the word is evidently used masc., an emigrant, mover of one’s household, cp. Róm-ferlar; en búferla (v. l. búferlar) eigu utan at fara þeir er ómögum sínum megu vörð um veita, Grág. ii. 409.

bú-ferski, n. = búskerfi, Grág. ii. 339 B.

bú-fé, n. live stock, esp. the milch kine, Dipl. v. 28, Grág. i. 414, 427, ii. 301, Jb. 192, Eg. 532. COMPDS: búfjár-eyrir, m. = búeyrir, Grág. i. 428. búfjár-ferð, f. = búdrift, D. N. búfjár-fóðr, n. food for cattle. Fms. v. 219. búfjár-gangr, m. = búfjárhagi, Grág. i. 435. búfjár-gildr, adj. a being in proper condition, of cattle, D. N. búfjár-hagar, m. pl. the pasture fields on an estate, esp. the home-pastures or closes, used daily for the home cattle, and opp. to afréttr, q. v.: hence the phrase in Nj., ríða upp ór b., denoting a pale of about three or four miles, 34; í b., within the pale of the b., Glúm. 355. Eb. 54. búfjár-hagr, m. the condition of stock, Vápn. 30. búfjár-hald, n. the keeping of stock, Grág. i. 427. búfjár-lauss, adj. living without stock, Grág. i. 294. búfjár-leiga, u, f. the rent of stock, Gþl. 62. búfjár-matr, m. food for cattle, stores of fodder, Fms. x. 400.

bú-félag, n. fellowship in housekeeping, Fb. ii. 340.

bú-færr, adj. able to set up a house.

bú-færsla, u, f. a removing of one’s household, Landn. 207.

bú-gagn, n. household utensils, B. K. 20.

bú-garðr, m. a farm, esp. a big one, Fms. iii. 85, 251, xi. 422.

bú-görð, f. the making a household, Sturl. ii. 21, Bs. i. 658.

bú-hlífð, f. a sparing of provender, Fms. v. 306.

bú-hlutr = búsbúhlutr above.

bú-höldr, m. a thriving householder.

BÚI, a, m. [búa]. I. a dweller, inhabitant, only in compds as haug-búi, hellis-búi, berg-búi, a dweller in cairns, caves, rocks, of a ghost or a giant; ein-búi, an anchorite, a bachelor; himin-búi, an inhabitant of heaven, an angel; lands-búi, Lat. incola; ná-búi, a neighbour; í-búi or inn-búi, incola, Snót 71; stafn-búi, q. v. II. a neighbour = nábúi; kom Steinn at máli við Þorbjörn búa sinn, Krók. 36; við Bárðr búi minn, Nj. 203; þau sýndu búum sínum úþokkasvip, Fs. 31; Steinólfr b. hans, Landn. 269; cp. búi-sifjar, búi-graðungr, búi-maðr (below), rare in this sense. 2. hence a law term in the Icel. Commonwealth, a neighbour acting as juror; the law distinguishes between neighbours of place and person; as, vetfangs-búar, neighbours of the place where (e. g.) a manslaughter was committed; or neighbours either of defendant or plaintiff, e. g. heimilis-búar, home-neighbours, opposed to dómstaðar-búar, Grág. ii. 405, and þingvallar-búar, neighbours of court or parliament: the number of the neighbours summoned was various; in slight cases, such as compensation for damage or the like, they were commonly five—sem búar fimm meta; in cases liable to outlawry they were usually nine, Grág. ii. 345; the verdict of the neighbour is called kviðr, the summoning kvöð, and kveðja búa, to summon neighbours; the cases esp. in the Grágás and Njála are almost numberless. The standing Icel. law phrase ‘sem búar meta’ reminds one of the English mode of fixing compensation by jury. According to Konrad Maurer, the jury is of Scandinavian origin, and first appears in English law along with the Normans after the Conquest; but this does not preclude an earlier usage in the Scandinavian parts of England. In the old Danish law they were called ‘nævnd,’ in Sweden ‘nämd;’ cp. esp. Nj. ch. 142 sqq. and Grág. Þ. Þ. and Vígslóði. The classical reference for this institution, Grág. i. 167, Kb. ch. 85, is quoted p. 58 s. v. bera B. I. 1. COMPDS: búa-kviðburðr, m. = búakviðr, Grág., Nj. búa-kviðr, m. a verdict of neighbours, opp. to tylptarkviðr, q. v., Nj., Grág. búa-kvöð, f. a summoning of neighbours, Grág. ii. 52. búa-virðing, f. a fixing compensation by verdict of neighbours, Grág. ii. 343. III. a pr. name of a man, Jómsv. S.; mod. Dan. ‘Boye’ or ‘Boy,’ hence the mod. Icel. Bogi, Feðga-æfi, 27.

búi-griðungr, m. a neighbour’s bull, Vápn. 46.

búi-maðr, m. a neighbour-man, Sturl. i. 82 C, 167.

bú-jörð, f. a farm, estate.

bú-karl, m. = búandkarl, Fms. v. 186, vi. 139.

bú-kot, n. a cottage, Hkr. iii. 131.

BÚKR, m. [Hel. bûc = alveus; Germ. bauch], the trunk, body, Eg. 289; esp. the trunk without the head, Nj. 123, Fms. i. 218, Bs. i. 625.

bú-lag, n. joint housekeeping, Sturl. i. 64, 75.

bú-land, n. [Hel. bûland = arvum], home land, Grág. ii. 315, 324, Jb. 51.

bú-lauss, adj. having no ‘bú,’ opp. to búandi, D. N. ii. 14, Jb. 12.

bú-leiga, u, f. rent of a ‘bú,’ H. E. i. 394.

BÚLKI, a, m., in mod. spelling bunki, heap [cp. a ship’s bunks]; this form occurs in the Hrokkinsk., a MS. of the 15th century, vide the references below; [cp. Engl. bulk, in the naut. phrase, to break bulk or begin to land a cargo]:—the cargo or freight of a ship; the allit. phrase, binda bulka, to bind bulk, shut the hold, just when the ship is bound for sea, and leysa b., to break bulk, when in harbour; fyrir framan or aptan búlka, the b. was, namely, in the middle of the ship, Fms. vi. 108, 378, 381, N. G. L. i. 340, 371, Eb. 196, Grág. i. 209, Nj. 134, Fms. ix. 145, 468, Bs. i. 422, Fbr. 53. COMPDS: búlka-brún, f. the edge of the b. as it stood out of the ship, Jb. 398, 407, Fbr. 62 new Ed., where a sailor kept the look out, Sturl. iii. 106. búlka-stokkar, m. pl. the bulwark fencing the búlki in the middle of the ship, Edda (Gl.) In mod. usage, búlkast, að, to be bulky; búlka-legr, adj. bulky.

bú-maðr, m. a husbandman; góðr, mikill b., a good householder, skilled husbandman, Band. 8, Finnb. 334.

bú-missa, u, f. loss in stock, Gþl. 389.

búnaðr, m., gen. ar, [búa.] I. household, housekeeping, Bs. i. 76; reisa búnað—reisa bú, Sturl. iii. 106; færa b. sinn—fara búferli, to move one’s household, Jb. 288; búnaðar-maðr = búmaðr, O. H. L. 30; Búnaðar-bálkr, the name of the section in the code of law Jb. answering to the Landbrigða þáttr of the Grág., treating of household matters; and in mod. times the name of the very famous poem (of Eggert Olafsson), the Icel. ‘Georgics’ (marked Bb. in this Dict.) II. dress, equipment, = búningr, Skálda 181, Fms. iv. 75, xi. 331; but esp. with the notion of ornaments in gold, silver, tapestry, Nj. 131, Eg. 701 (of a shield); altaris dúkr glitaðr með búnaði, Am. 95. β. baggage, luggage, Bjarn. 19. γ. a getting ‘boun’ (ready) for sea; in the naut. term, halda á búnaði sínum, Fms. ii. 254.

búnask, að, dep., in the phrase, e-m b. vel, illa, one has good, bad, luck in his business as bóndi.

bú-nautn, f., in the phrase, til b., for household use, Vm. 96, D. I. i. 419.

búningr, m. [búa], dress, clothing, attire; hvers dags b., every day dress, K. Þ. K. 140; opp. to spari b., Sunday dress; karlmanns b., a man’s dress; kvennmanns b., a woman’s dress, etc., Nj. 190. β. equipment, of a ship; reiði ok b., Fms. v. 103: the dressing and arrangement of a table, Bjarn. 27. γ. ornaments, laces, Nj. 48, v. l. COMPDS: búnings-bót, f. dress-improvement, a piece of new or smart attire, Ld. 208, Fas. ii. 329. búnings-lauss, adj. without ornament, Pm. 65. búnings-munr, m. difference in apparel, Sturl. ii. 94.

bú-nyt, f. the milk of sheep and cattle, on a farm also more usually called málnyt or málnyta, Jb. 375, Hkr. i. 110.

bú-prestr, m. a curate-farmer, Vm. 59.

BÚR, n. [Hel. bûr = habitaculum; A. S. bûr; Engl. bower; Scot. and North. E. byre; Germ. bauer], a word common to all Teut. idioms, and in the most of them denoting a chamber; this sense only occurs a few times in some of the old poems, esp. the Völs. kviður, and even only as an allit. phrase, Brynhildr í búri, Og. 18; björt í búri, Gkv. 2. 1: in prose now and then in translations of foreign romances, El. 22. 2. in Icel. only in the sense of larder, pantry (the North. E. and Scot. byre = cow-stall); this sense is very old, and occurs in Hallfred, Fs. 89, where búri (not brúði) is the right reading, as the rhyme shews—’stæri’ ek brag, fyrir ‘búri;’ skellr nú lass fyrir búrin þeirra Reykdælanna, Bs. i. 512. 601, Ld. 242; defined, búr þat er konur hafa matreiðu í, Grág. i. 459. β. a house where stores are kept = úti-búr, Nj. 74; now called skemma. In Icel. a game, in which children try to force open one’s closed hand, is called að fara í búr e-s, to get into one’s larder.

bú-rakki, a, m. a shepherd’s dog.

bú-ráð, n. household management, Nj. 51, Grág, i. 333.

bú-rán, n. a law term, a kind of burglary, theft, to the amount of three cows at least, or three cows’ value; defined N. G. L. i. 180: metaph. damage, Bs. i. 350.

búr-brot, n. the breaking into a pantry, Sturl.

búr-drífa, u, f. the ‘larder-drift,’ a popular legend that in the new year’s night at a certain hour there falls a drift sweet as honey, filling all larders and covering all the ground; but, unless caught at the moment, it vanishes ere morning. The tale is told in Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 571, and in a lay of Eggert Ólafsson (Búrdrífan á Nýjársnótt).

búr-dyrr, n. pl. a pantry-door, Bs. i. 601.

búr-hilla, u, f. a pantry-shelf, Glúm. 367.

búr-hringr, m. the door ring of a búrhurð, D. N.

búr-hundr, m. a pantry-dog, Fs. 89.

búr-hurð, f. the door of a ‘búr,’ Gpl. 344.

búri, a, m. and búr-hvalr, m. a sort of whale, physiter macrocepbalus Sks. 177 B: for a popular superstition as to this whale v. Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 629.

bú-risna, u, f. the keeping open-house, Sturl. i. 194.

búr-lykill, m. a pantry-key, Sturl. iii. 7.

búr-rakki, a, m. = búrhundr, Ld. 112.

bú-sifjar [qs. búi-sifjar, from búi, a neighbour], f. pl. relation between neighbours; góðar b., a good neighbourhood, Karl. 536; the phrase, veita e-m illar, þungar b., to be a bad neighbour, aggressive, Eg. 730, Fms. iii. 222; má vera at þá batni b. okkar, Fs. 31.

bú-skapr, m. household life, state of life as ‘bóndi,’ D. N.; cp. the saying böl er b., hrygð er hjúskapr, illt er einlífi, og að öllu er nokkuð.

bú-skjóla, u, f. a pail for measuring milk, Jb. 375.

bú-skortr, m. the failure of stores, Nj. 18.

bú-skylft, n. adj.; eiga b., to have an expensive household, Sturl. i. 136.

bú-slit, n., in búslits-maðr, m. a ‘bóndi’ without homestead, Gþl. 330.

bú-slóð, f. cattle and chattels, household gear.

búsmala-reið, f. a kind of rural bacchanalia of the shepherds on St. Thorlac’s Day (21st of July), H. E. i. 300 (note).

bú-smali, a, m. sheep and cattle, sometimes also including horses; naut ok sauði ok annan b., Fs. 26; esp. the milch cattle, Ld. 96, where it is opp. to barren cattle, Fms. i. 151; vide smali.

bú-sorg, commonly proncd. búk-sorg, f. care for worldly affairs, esp. in a bad sense; thirst for gain.

bú-staðr (bóstaðr, Grág. ii. 222), m. a dwelling, abode, Fs. 31; taka sér b., to fix one’s abode, Eg. 127, Landn. 37, 56, Nj. 173.

bústinn, adj. stout, thick, fat, Skýr. 446.

bú-stjórn, f. management of household affairs, Eb. 204.

bú-stýra, u, f. a female housekeeper, Gullþ. 13, Háv. 39.

bú-sýsla, u, f. household business, Glúm. 335, Ísl. ii. 68; búsýslu-maðr = búmaðr, Eg. 2.

bú-sæld, f. wealth, abundance in a household, Bb.

BÚTR, m. a log of wood. búta, að, to cut logs of wood.

bú-verk, n. dairy work in the morning and evening, milking, churning, and the like, Fs. 72; vinna heima b. með móður sinni (as a taunt), Fas. iii. 595; hence búverka, að, to do the dairy work; búverka-tími, a, m. the time, morning and evening, when dairy work is to be done: in the Grág. i. 147 búverk means generally every kind of household work, but esp. the lower part of it.

bú-þegn, m. a husbandman, in allit. phrases, bændr ok b., Fms. i. 33, Sks. 603; illr b., a bad husbandman, Fms. i. 69, where it is used in a morally bad sense; elsewhere a bad householder, vi. 102, Skálda 203.

BYGÐ, f. [búa, byggja]. I. gener. habitation: 1. a settling one’s abode, colonisation; Íslands b., colonisation of Iceland, Íb. (begin.); Grænlands b., id. 2. residence, abode; var þeirra b. ekki vinsæl, Ld. 136; the phrase, fara bygð, or bygðum, to remove one’s house and home, change one’s abode, Grág. i. 457, Nj. 25, 151; færa b. sína, to remove, Fas. ii. 281; banna, lofa e-m bygð, to forbid or allow one’s residence, Grág. l. c.; hitta b. e-s, abode, home, Band. 10: metaph., Hom. 16. II. inhabited land, opp. to úbygðir, deserts; but also opp. to mountains, wild woods, and the like, where there are no human dwellings: bygð thus denotes the dwellings and the whole cultivated neighbourhood; thus in old Greenland there was Eystri and Vestri bygð, the Eastern and Western colony, and úbygðir, deserts, viz. the whole Eastern side of this polar land, cp. Landn. 105, Antt. Amer., and Grönl. Hist. Mind, i-iii. In Norway distinction is made between bygðir and sætr, Fms. i. 5. Icel. say, snjór ofan í b., when the mountains are covered with snow, but the lowland, the inhabited shore, and the bottom of the dales are free; í Noregi er lítil b. ok þó sundrlaus, i. e. Norway is thinly peopled, Fms. iv. 140, viii. 200, 202, 203, Eg. 68, 229, Orkn. 8: spec. = county = hérað, í b. þeirri er Heggin heitir, Fms. ix. 232; b. þeirri er Strönd heitir, 358; heima í bygðum, Gþl. 34; miklar bygðir (great inhabited districts) vóru inn í landit, Fms. i. 226. COMPDS: bygðar-fleygr, adj. rumoured through the bygð, Jb. 161. bygðar-fólk, n. the people of a neighbourhood, Fms. ii. 88. bygðar-lag, n. a district, neighbourhood, county, Grett. 101 A, Jb. 223, Fs. 50. bygðarlags-maðr, m. a neighbour, Stj. 197. bygðar-land, n. and in possession or to be taken into possession, Stj. 74. bygðar-leyfi, n. leave to settle, Fs. 31, Valla L. 208, Grág. i. 457. bygðar-lýðr, m. the people of a land, Bs. ii. 80. bygðar-menn, m. pl. id., Fs. 31, Stj. 649, Dipl. v. 19, Fms. i. 226, etc. bygðar-rómr, m. a rumour going about in the neighbourhood, Krók. 34. bygðar-stefna, u, f. a meeting of the neighbourhood, D. N.

bygð-fleygr, bygð-fleyttr, = bygðarfleygr, N. G. L. i. 389.

bygði, n. a cabin (?), some part of a ship, Edda (Gl.)

BYGG, n. [Scot. and North. E. bigg; Swed. bjugg; Dan. byg; Ivar Aasen bygg; derived from byggja]:—barley, a common word over all Scandinavia, cp. Alm. 33, Edda (Gl.), Stj. 99, Bs. ii. 5, 532. 5; vide barr II.

bygg-brauð, n. barley-bread, 655 xxi. 4.

bygg-hjálmr, m. a barley-rick, Magn. 516.

bygg-hlaða, u, f. a barley-barn, Stj. 344.

bygg-hleifr, m. a barley-loaf, Stj. 393, Rb. 82.

bygg-hús, n. a barley-barn, Orkn. 196.

byggi or byggvi, m. an inhabitant, obsolete, but in compds as Eyr-byggjar, stafn-byggjar, fram-byggjar, aptr-byggjar, etc.

byggi-ligr, adj. habitable, Hkr. i. 108.

bygging, f. habitation, colonisation, Landn. 24, v. l., Stj. 176. 2. tenancy, letting out land for rent, H. E. i. 495: in compds, byggingarbréf, b. skilmáli, an agreement between tenant and landlord. β. buildings or houses, Matth. xxiv. 1; scarcely occurs in old writers in this sense; cp. Dan. bygning, Scot. and North. E. biggin, = building.

BYGGJA, older form byggva, ð, [for the etymology v. búa], gener. to inhabit, settle, people, always in a transitive sense—not neut. as. búa—but often used absol. or ellipt., land being understood: α. to settle as a colonist; Hrollaugr bygði austr á Síðu, Ketilbjörn bygði suðr at Mosfelli, Auðr bygði vestr í Breiðafirði, Helgi bygði norðr í Eyjafirði, all these instances referring to the first settlers of Icel., Íb. ch. 1. 2; en þat vas es hann tók byggva landit, id.; sumar þat er þeir Ingólfr fóru at b. Ísland, the summer before Ingolf settled in Iceland, ch. 6; Íngólfr … bygði fyrstr landit, i. e. Ingolf was the first settler, id.; so in numberless instances, esp. of the Íb. and Landn., e. g. Landn. 42, 334, Eb. 8, Hrafn. 4, Eg. 99, 100; eptir Nóa-flóð lifðu átta menn þeir er heiminn bygðu (peopled), Edda (pref.) β. to inhabit, live in a country; þesskonar þjóð es Vínland hefir bygt, Íb. ch. 6; þá er landit hafði sex tigi vetra bygt verit, Landn. 321; þeir b. þat hérað á Vindlandi er Ré heitir, Fms. xi. 378, H. E. i. 494, Bret. 100: allit. phrases, á bygðu bóli, i. e. among men, where men live; bygðr bólstaðr, possessed land, Grág. ii. 214: the proverb, með lögum skal land byggja, with laws shall man build land, i. e. law builds (makes) lands and home; and some add, en með ólögum eyða; eyða (to lay waste) and byggja are thus opposed to one another, Nj. 106; b. bæ, to settle on a farm; segi ek af því fyrst hversu bærinn hefir bygzk í Skálaholti … Ketilbjörn bygði þann bæ fyrstr er í Skálaholti heitir, Bs. i. 60; hann bygði bæ þann er í Eyju heitir, Gísl. 91, where it does not mean to build houses, as in the mod. use of this phrase, but to settle, Lat. inhabitare. γ. in more special or law phrases, to dwell in, occupy; b. sæng, to keep one’s bed, sleep, Fas. i. 314; b. eina sæng, of married people, Fms. ii. 134; b. með e-m, to cohabit, Stj. 176; b. höll, to occupy a hall, Fms. vi. 147, x. 236; b. á skipum, undir tjöldum, to live aboard ship, in tents, vii. 138; b. hálfrými, a naut. term, viii. 199: metaph., cf Guð byggvir í þeim, Eluc. 52, cp. also the references from the N. T. above under búa, where most of the Icel. Edd. use byggja. 2. to build a house, ship, or the like, [Scot. and North. E. to big; Dan. bygge; Swed. bygga]: this sense, common over all Scandinavia and North Britain, seems not to occur in Icel. writers before the 15th century or the end of the 14th, but is freq. at the present time; it occurs in the Ann. 1401, 1405, etc. Old writers always say, reisa or göra hús, skip …, not byggja. 3. reflex. to be inhabited; Ísland bygðisk fyrst ór Noregi, Íb. ch. 1; Grænland fansk ok bygðisk af Íslandi, ch. 6; hundraði ára fyrr en Ísland bygðisk af Norðmönnum, Landn. (pref.); en áðr Ísland bygðisk, id.; þá er Ísland fansk ok bygðisk af Noregi, id. II. [Goth. bugjan, by which Ulf. renders αγοράζειν, and once πωλειν, which is elsewhere rendered by frabugjan; A. S. bycgean; Engl. buy; Hel. buggean]:—to let out, esp. land or cottage; konungr má b. almenning hverjum sem hann vill, Gþl. 453; ef umboðsmaðr konungs byggir jarðar (acc.) konungs … því at svá skal konungs jarðir b. sem um aðrar jarðir skill í lögum, 336; nú byggir maðr dýrra (lets out at a higher rent) en vandi hefir á verit, 337; Ingimundr bygði þeim Hrolleifi bæinn í Ási, Fs. 34; er þeir bygðu lönd sín eðr tóku sér hjú, Grág. i. 445; hann tók mikit af landnámi Una, ok bygði þat (parcelled it out) frændum sínum, Landn. 244; byggja e-m út, to expel a tenant; b. e-m inn, to settle a tenant on one’s estate. 2. more properly, to lend money at interest; þat er ok ef menn b. dautt fé, eðr krefja framar af þeim hlutum er menn ljá, en innstæða, K. Á. 204; engi skal b. dautt fé á leigu, Bs. i. 684; um okr, er menn b. dautt fé, H. E. i. 459; Rútr … bygði allt féit, R. put all the money out at interest, Nj. 11. 3. the peculiar eccl. law phrase of the forbidden degrees; b. sifjar, frændsemi, to marry into such or such degree; this phrase may refer to buying (cp. brúðkaup), or to cohabitation; þat er nýmæli, at jafn-náit skal b. sifjar ok frændsemi at fimta manni hvárt, i. e. intermarriage in the fifth degree is allowed, according to the decision of the council of Lateran, A. D. 1215, Grág. i. 304; frændsemi er eigi byggjandi, i. e. is forbidden, 307, 308, 321, N. G. L. i. 350; en þat var bannat með Ásum at b. svá náit at frændsemi, Hkr. Yngl. ch. 4. III. part. as subst.

bygg-mjöl, n. barley-meal, Gþl. 100.

byggning = bygging, D. N. (freq.), Fr.

bygg-sáð, n. barley-seed, N. G. L. i. 385.

byggvandi, byggjandi, pl. byggendr, byggvendr, inhabitants, mostly in poetry, Stj. 399, Haustl. 10.

byggvi-ligr = byggiligr.

bygill, m. [Germ. bügel], a stirrup, Gþl. 359.

bygsla, u, f. = bygging, D. N.

BYLGJA, u, f. [cp. Dan. bölge, Swed. bölja, akin to bólginn, belgr], a billow, Stj. 27, Fs. 142, etc.

bylja, buldi, pres. bylr, old byll, to resound, roar, of a gale; byll í öllum fjöllum, Al. 35; buldi í hömrunum. Fas. i. 425; freq. in mod. use.

byljóttr, adj. gusty, Bs. i. 138.

BYLR, m. pl. bylir, gen. sing. byljar or rarely byls, a squall, gust of wind; kom b. á húsit, Gísl. 22; þá er bylirnir kómu, when the squalls passed over, Fms. viii. 52.

bylta, u, f. a heavy fall, Grönd. 147; bylting, f. a revolution; and bylta, t, with dat. to overthrow.

byrða, ð, I. [borði], to embroider, Gkv. 2. 16. II. [borð], to board, in compds = sí-byrða, inn-byrða, to pull on board; þykkbyrt, Fms. viii. 139.

byrða, u, f. a large trough, Stj. MS. 127, Ed. 178 reads bryðjum, N. G. L. i. 255, B. K. 52.

byrði, n. the board, i. e. side, of a ship. Edda (Gl.), Jb. 147.

byrðingr, m. [old Dan. byrthing, from byrðr], a ship of burthen, merchant-ship, Eg. 53, Nj. 281, Fær. 12, 195, 196, Fms. iv. 255, vii. 283, 286, 310, viii. 208, 274, 372, ix. 18, 44, 46, 299, 470, x. 25, xi. 430, etc.; this is the genuine Scandin. word, wilst kjóll, kuggr, karfi (q. v.) are all of foreign origin. COMPDS: byrðings-maðr, m. a merchant-seaman, Fær. 4, Fms. ix. 18. byrðings-segl, n. the sail of a byrðingr, Fms. iv. 259.

byrðr (mod. byrði), f., gen. ar, pl. ar, mod. ir, [bera A. I.]:—a burthen, Nj. 19, Edda 74, Fas. ii. 514, Fms. v. 22, vi. 153, Fb. i. 74: hver einn mun sína byrði bera, Gal. vi. 5. β. metaph. a burthen, task. Fms. ix. 330; hafi sá þá byrði er hann bindr sér sjálfum, 671. 1.

byrgi, n. [borg; A. S. byrgen = sepulcrum], an enclosure, fence, Eb. 132; helvítis byrgi, the gates of hell, Stj. 420, Post. 656 C. 6: metaph., b. hugar = hugborg, the breast, Hom. 148. COMPDS: byrgis-kona, u, f. a concubine, N. G. L. i. 327 (where spelt birg-), Bs. i. 663. byrgis-skapr, m. concubinatus, Fms. iii. 145.

byrging, f. a shutting up, Grág. ii. 110.

byrgja, ð, [borg; cp. A. S. byrgjan, byrian; Engl. to bury]:—to close, shut; b. dyrr eðr vindaugu, Grág. ii. 286; byrgja hús, Grett. 91 new Ed.; Hallfreðr byrgði húsit, Fms. ii. 83; b. sinn munn, to shut one’s mouth, Bs. i. 786; í byrgðum kviði sinnar móður, 655 xxvii. 10: metaph., byrgð syndum, overwhelmed with sins, Greg. 41. 2. adding prepp. aptr, inn, to shut; Grettir byrgði aptr húsit, Grett. l. c. MS. A; b. aptr garð, to shut a fence, Grág. ii. 283; b. aptr hlið á garði, id., Jb. 242; b. inann inni í húsum, to shut a man up in a house, Grág. ii. 110, Sks. 140; hvárki byrgðr né bundinn, 656 C. 32. 3. metaph. to hide, veil, of the face of God, the sun, or the like; sólin því ljóma sinn fékk byrgt, Pass. 44. 1; himna-ljósið var honum byrgt, 3. 2; byrg þig eigi fyrir minni grátbeiðni, Ps. lv. 2. 4. the phrase, b. e-n inni, to shut one in, outwit; alla menn byrgir þú inni fyrir vitsmuna sakir, Fms. x. 247, xi. 31; b. e-n úti, to leave one outside in the cold, and metaph. to prevent, preclude; b. úti váða, to prevent mishap, x. 418, Sks. 44, Mar. 656 A. 18; byrg úti hræðsluna, Al. 25. 5. reflex., Fas. ii. 281. II. [borga], reflex. byrgjask, to be answerable for, vide ábyrgjask.

-byrja in compd úbyrja.

BYRJA, að, [Swed. börja; lost in Dan., which has replaced it by begynde; Germ. beginnen; and probably also extinct in the mod. Norse dialects, vide Ivar Aasen, who seems not to have heard the word; it is in full use in Icel. and is a purely Scandin. word; the root is the part. pass. of bera A. II]:—to begin. I. in the phrase, b. mál e-s, to plead one’s cause, O. H. L. 5; ek skal byrja (support) þitt mál, sem ek kann, Fs. 10, Fms. ii. 65; hann byrjaði hennar mál við Ólaf konung, x. 310; með einum hundraðs-höfðingja þeim er byrjaði mál hans, Post. 645. 96; hefir þú fram byrjat þitt erindi, 655 xxx. 13, Al. 159: this sense, however, is rare and obsolete. II. to begin; b. ferð, to begin one’s journey, to start, Edda 1, Fms. iv. 232, Eg. 106, Ld. 162; b. ræðu, to begin a speech, Sks. 238; b. e-t upp, to begin, Bs. i. 825: reflex., Rb. 210: the word is not very freq. in old writers, who prefer the word hefja, incipere, hence upphaf, beginning; in mod. writers hefja is rather archaïc, but byrja in full use, and is used both as act., impers., and reflex.; Icel. say, sagan byrjar, söguna byrjar, and sagan byrjast, all in the same sense. III. [bera A. II], mostly in pass. to be begotten, Lat. suscipi; Elias af hjúskap byrjaðr, Greg. 16; á þeim mánuðum er barn var byrjað, Grág. i. 340; á þeirri sömu nótt sem hann byrjaðisk, Stj. 176; sem þau hittusk á fjallinu Brynhildr ok Sigurðr ok hon (viz. the daughter Áslaug) var byrjuð, Fas. i. 257; heldr ertu bráðr að byrja þann er bein hefir engin, 250 (in a verse). IV. impers. with dat.: 1. [bera C. III], to behove, beseem, be due; sem konungs-syni byrjar, Fms. i. 81; hann gefr sálu várri slíkan mátt sem henni byrjar, Hom. 157; svá byrjaði (behoved) Christo að líða, Luke xxiv. 46; þat byrjar mér meir at hlýða Guði en mönnum, 623. 11; sem aðiljanum byrjaði, Grág. i. 394; sem þeim byrjaði at manntali, i. e. in due proportion to their number, ii. 381; sem byrjar (as it behoves) hlýðnum syni ok eptirlátum, Sks. 12; er helzt byrjar kaupmönnum at hafa, 52. 2. [byrr], the phrase, e-m byrjar vel, illa, one gets a fair, foul, wind; þeim byrjaði vel, Eg. 69; honum byrjaði vel, 78, Eb. 8; byrjaði þeim vel um haustið, Fms. iv. 293; þeim byrjaði illa, Eg. 158.

byrjun, f. beginning.

byrla, að, [A. S. byreljan and byrljan; whence the word is probably borrowed]:—to wait upon, with dat., esp. to hand the ale at a banquet, (answering to bera öl, Fs. 121); stóð þar upp Snjófrið dóttir Svása, ok byrlaði ker mjaðar fullt konungi, Fms. x. 379, Hkr. i. 102; hann setti annan mann til at b. sér, Post. 656 C. 32: metaph., hann byrlar optliga eitr sinnar slægðar mannkyninu, Fms. ii. 137: to fill the cup, síðan byrlar hann í hornin, Fas. ii. 550: in mod. use, to mix a beverage, esp. in bad sense, by putting poison in it.

byrlari, a, m. [A. S. byrele], a cup-bearer, Fms. i. 291.

byr-leiði, n. a favourable course, Fms. x. 291, Sks. 175.

byr-léttr, adj. gently blowing, Hkr. ii. 143.

byr-leysa, u, f. lack of fair wind, or a foul wind, Ann. 1392.

byrli, a, m. = byrlari, Fms. x. 302.

byr-ligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), promising a fair wind; því at ekki er byrligt, Sd. 174, in the phrase, blása byrlega, to blow fair for one; ekki b. draumr, a bad dream, Fas. i. 14.

byr-lítill, adj. of a light (but fair) breeze, Fms. iv. 297.

BYRR, gen. byrjar, nom. pl. byrir, acc. byri: [Swed.-Dan. bör; cp. usage of Gr. ουριος]:—a fair wind; it is freq. used in pl., esp. in the impers. phrase, e-m gefr vel byri (acc. pl.), one gets a fair wind, rarely, and less correct, byr (acc. sing.), Nj. 10, Vápn. 9, but sing. Nj. 4, Eg. 98; byri gefr hann brögnum, Hdl. 3; með hinum beztuni byrjum, Bs. i. 781; bíða byrjar, Fms. i. 131; liggja til byrjar, to lie by for a fair wind, Eg. 183; byrr rennr á, a fair breeze begins to blow; þá rann á byrr ok sigldu þeir, Nj. 135, Eg. 158; þá féll byrrinn, Eb. 8; þá tók byrr at vaxa, Eg. 390: allit, naut. phrases, blásandi byrr, blíðr byrr, beggja skauta byrr; hagstæðr byrr, fagr byrr. hægr, óðr byrr, Hm. 89; hrað-byri, etc.: also metaph., hafa góðan, mikinn, lítinn byrr, to be well, much, little favoured: in poetry in many compds, byrjar drösull, the horse of the wind, a ship; byr-skíð, byr-rann. a ship; byrr always denotes the wind on the sea. byrjar-gol, n. a fair breeze, Fms. ix. 21.

byrsta, t, [bursti], to furnish with bristles or spikes, Sks. 418; gulli byrstr, Fas. i. 184. 2. metaph. the phrase, b. sik or byrstask, to raise the bristles, to shew anger, Fms. ii. 174, Finnb. 248, Pass. 26. I.

byr-sæll, adj. having good luck, fair wind, Fms. x. 314.

byr-vænligr, byrvænn, adj. promising a fair wind, Orkn. 332, Fms. ii. 5.

BYSJA, [Dan. buse; Swed. busa = to gush], to gush, a defect, verb, occurs only twice or thrice, viz. in pres. sing. býss, Ó. H. (in a verse), busti (pret. sing.), gushed, of blood, Hkv. 2.8; of tears, Edda (append.) 217: the infin. never occurs, and the word is never used in prose.

byssa, u, f. [Lat. pyxis], a box, Vm. 117, D. N.: mod. a gun (Germ. büchse).

bytna, að, [botn], to come to the bottom, Krók. 20 new Ed.: metaph., b. á e-m, to tell on or against one.

BYTTA, u, f. [Dan. bötte], a pail, small tub, K. Þ. K. 82, Stj. 444, Fms. x. 54, Jm. 29, N. G. L. i. 3–27: of the bucket for baling a ship with, Fbr. 131, Grett. 95; hence byttu-austr, the old mode of pumping is defined, Fbr. and Grett. l. c.

byxa, t, to box, Bev. Fr.; byxing, f. boxing, Finnb. 344 (Engl. word).

BÝ, n. [Lat. apis; the Goth. word is not on record; A. S. beo; Engl. bee; O. H. G. pia; Germ. biene, and older form beie, Grimm i. 1367; Swed.-Dan. bi]:—a bee; the spelling in Icel. with ý is fixed by long usage, and by a rhyme in the Höfuðl., Jöfurr sveigði ý | flugu unda bý, where ý (a bow) and bý (bees) rhyme; because perhaps an etymology from bú floated before the mind, from the social habits of bees, Barl. 86; the simple by is quite obsolete in Icel. which only uses the compd,

bý-fluga, u, f. a ‘bee-fly,’ bee, Edda 12, Stj. 91, 210, etc.; bý-flygi, n. id., Bs. i. 210, Stj. 411.

býfur, f. pl. the feet, with a notion of awkwardness; retta býfur, to stretch the legs out in an awkward manner; þar lá Kolfinnr son hennar, ok rétti býfur hölzti langar, Ísl. ii. 416: the passage Od. ix. 298—τανυσσάμενος δια μήλων—Egilsson in his rhymed translation renders graphically, ok meðal búfjár býfur rétti.

býli, n. [ból], an abode, mostly in compds, á-býli, etc.

býll, adj. [ból], living, in compds, ár-býll, harð-býll, þung-býll.

býr, v. bær.

bý-skip, n. the ship of the bees, the air, sky, poët., Höfuðl. 17 (dub.)

BÝSN, n. [cp. A. S. bysen, bisen, which means example, whilst the Icel. word means] a wonder, a strange and portentous thing; commonly Used in pl., urðu hverskonar býsn, 625. 42; þar sem þessi býsn (acc. pl.) bar fyrir, Fms. xi. 13; þetta eru stór býsn, 64; slíkt eru banvæn býsn, Fas. iii. 13 (in a verse); sing., Fms. xi. 10, 64: in mod. use fem. sing., Fb. i. 212, Pr. 76, 91; býsna-veðr, portentous weather, Fms. iii. 137; býsna-vetr, a winter of portents, when many ghosts and goblins were about, Bs., Sturl. i. 115; býsna-sumar, in the same sense, Ann. 1203. In mod. use býsna- is prefixed to a great many words in the sense of pretty, tolerably, Germ. ziemlich; býsna-vel, b. góðr, langr, fljótr, pretty well, pretty good, etc. in early writers the sense is much stronger.

býsna, að, to portend, bode; þetta býsnar tjón ok sorg, Karl. 492; the proverb, býsna skal til batnaðar, i. e. things must be worse before they are better, Old Engl. ‘when bale is highest, bote is nighest,’ Fms. v. 199, (spelt bisna, O. H. L.); er býsna skal at betr verði, x. 261.

býta, tt, [bútr], to deal out, give, with dat. of the thing; býtti Hrafn silfrinu, Fas. iii. 256: esp. býta út, or út býta, to give alms, Hebr. xiii. 16, Gal. vi. 6. β. to exchange, Dan. bytte; býttum við jörðum okkar, Dipl. i. 12, H. E. i. 561.

býti, n. exchange, barter, Krók. 65; býting, f. spending, Ann. 1408.

BÆÐI, [v. báðir, where in p. 54, col. 2, 1. 7, the words ‘rarely Norse’ should be struck out], used adverbially, both, Scot. ‘baithh,’ with conjunctions connecting two parts of a sentence: α. bæði, … ok, bothand; bæði vitr ok framgjarn, both wise and bold, Nj. 6; b. blár ok digr, Fms. vii. 162; vitandi bœði gott ok illt, knowing both good and evil, Stj. 145. Gen. iii. 5; b. fyrir sína hönd ok annarra, Bs. i. 129; b. at viti ok at öðru, 127; b. at lærdómi, vitrleik, ok atgörvi, in learning, wisdom, and accomplishments, 130 (where the subdivision after bæði is triple); b. lönd ok kvikfé, Ísl. ii. 61; mun nú vera rofit bæði búlkinn ok annat, Fms. vi. 381; bæði var at hann kunni betr en flestir menn aðrir, ok hafði betri færi á …, Bs. i. 129; sometimes in inverse order, ok … bæði; hér og á himnum bæði, Pass. 24. 7; fagrt ok fátítt b., Hom. 117; undruðu ok hörmuðu b., 120. β. bæði… enda, where the latter part of the sentence, beginning with ‘enda,’ is of a somewhat disjunctive character, and can scarcely be literally rendered into English; it may denote irony or displeasure or the like, e. g. það er b. hann er vitr, enda veit hann af því, i. e. he is clever, no doubt, and knows it; b. er nú, jarl, at ek á yðr margan sóma at launa, enda vili þér nú hafa mik í hina mestu hættu, it is true enough, my lord, that I have received many good things from you, but now you put me in the greatest danger, i. e. you seem to intend to make me pay for it, Fb. i. 193: or it denotes that the one part of a sentence follows as a matter of course from the other, or gives the hidden reason; b. mundi vera at engi mundi þora at etja, enda mundi engi hafa hest svá góðan, i. e. no one would dare to charge him, as there would hardly be any who had so good a horse, Nj. 89.

bægi-fótr, m. [bágr], ‘lame-foot,’ a cognom., Eb.; Egilsson renders αμφιγυήεις (Od. viii. 349) by bægi-fótr.

bæging, f. thwarting, Finnb. 344.

bæginn, adj. cross-grained, Fms. iii. 95; bægni, f. peevishness; orð-bæginn, q. v.; mein-bæginn, pettish.

bægja, ð, (an old pret. bagði, Haustl. 18), [bágr], with dat. to make one give way, push one back; tröll-konan bægir honum til fjallsins, Bs. i. 464; b. skipi ór lægi, to push the ship from her moorings, Fms. vii. 114; b. vist sinni, to change one’s abode, remove, Eb. 252; þeim bægði veðr, of foul wind, Eg. 245; honum bægði veðr, ok bar hann til eyja þeirra er Syllingar heita, the weather drove him from his course, and he was carried to the islands called Scilly, Fms. i. 145. β. absol. to binder; ef eigi b. nauðsynjar, Grág. i. 446. 2. metaph. to treat harshly, oppress one, Bs. i. 550. 3. reflex. with the prep. við; b. við e-n, to quarrel; þá vill hann eigi við þá bægjask, Ld. 56; þá var við enga at bægjask (none to dispute against) nema í móti Guðs vilja væri, Bs. i. 128. β. bægjask til e-s, to contend about a thing, but with the notion of unfair play; betra er at vægjask til virðingar en b. til stór-vandræða, Fms. vii. 25. γ. impers., bægðisk honum svá við, at …, things went so crookedly for him, that…, Grett. MS.

bæki, v. beyki; bæki-skógr, m. a beech-wood, Fms. xi. 224.

bæklingr, m. [bók], a ‘bookling,’ little book, Lat. libellus, Bs. i. 59.

bæla, d, I. [bál], to burn = bræla, in the allit. phrase brenna ok b., 671. 4, Fms. iv. 142, vi. 176; vide bræla, Fas. i. 4. II. [ból], to pen sheep and cattle during the night; reflex., dýr bælask í þeim stöðum, Greg. 68.

bæli, n. [ból], 1. in the Norse sense, a farm, dwelling, = býli, Gþl: 452. 2. in the Icel. sense, a den, Fas. ii. 231, of a vulture’s nest; arnar-bæli, an eyry, a freq. local name of farms in Icel., Landn.; dreka-bæli, orms-bæli, a dragon’s lair, serpent’s den, Edda; even used of the lair of an outlaw, Grett. 132 (Grettis-bæli), Ld. 250.

BÆN and bón, f. [biðja], prayer, request, boon; these two words are nearly identical in form, and sometimes used indiscriminately as to sense; but in most cases they are different, bæn having a deeper sense, prayer, bón, request, boon; we may say biðja e-n bónar, and biðja e-n bænar, but the sense is different; only bæn can be used of prayer to God; göra e-t at bæn e-s, Fs. 38; er su bæn allra var, at …, we all beg, that…, Eg. 28; skaltú veita mér bæn þó er ek mun biðja þik, Nj. 26; fella bæn at e-m, to pray one earnestly, Ísl. ii. 305. β. prayer to God, often in plur.; vera á bænum, to be at prayers; hon var löngum um nætr at kirkju á bæuum sínum, Ld. 328; hann hellir út bænir fyrir dómstól Krists, Hom. 13, 156; bæn ok ölmusugjafir, Bs. i. 370, Pass. 4. 22, 44. 17: the phrase, vera e-m góðr (illr) bæna (gen. pl.), to turn the ear (or a deaf ear) to one’s prayers, Hom. (St.) 95; ver mér nú svá bæna, sem þú vilt at Guð sé þér á dómsdegi, Orkn. 174; Drottinleg bæn, the Lord’s Prayer; kveld-bæn, evening prayer; morgun-bæn, morning prayer; lesa bænir sínar. to say one’s prayers, etc. COMPDS: bæna-fullting, f. support of prayers, Fms. vi. 114. bæna-hald, n. a holding of prayers, Landn. Hi, Gþl. 41; bænahalds-maðr, a man who prays to God, a religions man, Bs. i. 72, Hom. 154. bæna-hús, n. a chapel, Grág. i. 459, Bs. i. 646; b. tollr, 647: a house of prayer, Matth. xxi. 13. bæna-staðr, m. entreaty, intercession, prayer; þat er b. minn til allrar alþýðu, Nj. 189; ek ætlaða, at þér munduð láta standa minn b. um einn maun, Fms. vi. 101; göra e-t fyrir bænastað e-s, to do a thing because of one’s intercession or prayer, Lv. 13: supplication, Bs. i. 740; með beztu manna ráði ok b., Gþl. 13. bænar-bréf, n. a letter of entreaty, Ann. 1330; bónar-bréf, 1392. bænar-orð, n. pl. prayers, entreaties, Fs. 10, Fms. ii. 235, Sks. 515.

bæna, d, to pray, entreat one; bændi hann til at hann skyldi, Fms. x. 387; prestr sá er bændr er. requested, K. Þ. K. 8, 40; því ætla ek at senda hann til keisarans sem hann bændi (asíed) sjálfr, Post. 645. 98, cp. Acts xxv. 25; grát-bæna, to pray ‘greeting,’ i. e. with tears. β. bæna sik, (in mod. use) to cover the face with the hands in prayer.

bæn-heyra, ð, esp. theol. to hear one’s prayer, N. T.

bæn-heyrsla, u, f. the hearing one’s prayers, eccl., N. T., Vídal.

bæn-hús = bænahús, Pm. 41, Dipl. iii. 2, iv. 9, Vm. 78.

bæn-rækinn, adj. diligent in prayer, Hkr. ii. 191.

BÆR, bœr, or býr, gen. baejar or býjar; gen. biar also occurs, esp. in Norse MSS. of the 14th century, Fb., but is rare and unclassical; pl. -ir, gen. -ja, dat. -jum. In Icel. people say bær; in Norway in Swed. and Dan. (always with y) by; the root word being búa, bú: this word is very freq. in local names of towns and villages throughout the whole of Scandinavia; and wherever the Scandinavian tribes settled the name by or went along with them. In the map of Northern England the use of this word marks out the limits and extent of the Norse immigration, e. g. the name Kirkby or Kirby; about twenty or thirty such are found in English maps of the Northern and Midland Counties, denoting churches built by the Norse or Danish settlers, as Whitby, Grimsby, etc., cp. Kirkjubær in Icel. In Denmark and Sweden local names ending in -by are almost numberless. I. a town, village, this is the Norse, Swed., and Dan. notion; þeir brenna býi at köldum kolum, Fms. xi. 122; til bæjarins (of Niðarós), vii. 30; of Bergen, viii. 360, 438; Tunsberg, ix. 361; of the town residence of the earl of Orkney, Nj. 267: allit., borgir ok bæi, castles and towns, Ann. 1349, etc. etc.; baejar-biskup, a town-bishop, Fms. vii. 32; bæjar-prestr, a town-priest, D. N.; bæjar-lögmaðr, a town-justice, id.; bæjar-lýðr, bæjar-lið, bæjar-menn, town’s-people, Fms. viii. 38, 160, 210, Eg. 240, Bs. i. 78; baejar-brenna, the burning of a town, Fms. x. 30; bæjar-bygð, a town-district, viii. 247; bæjar-gjald, a town-rate, N. G. L. i. 328; bæjar-sýsla, a town-office, Fms. vi. 109; bæjar-starf, id., Hkr. iii. 441; bæjar-seta, dwelling in town, Ld. 73, Ísl. ii. 392. II. a farm, landed estate, this is the Icel. notion, as that country has no towns; bær in Icel. answers to the Germ. ‘hof,’ Norweg. ‘ból,’ Dan. ‘gaard,’ denoting a farm, or farmyard and buildings, or both together; hence the phrase, reisa, göra, setja bæ, efna til bæjar, to build the farmstead, Eb. 10, 26, 254, Ld. 96, 98, Fs. 26, Landn. 126, 127, Eg. 131, Gísl. 8, 28, Bs. i. 26, Þorst. hv. 35; byggja bæ, Bs. i. 60; the phrase, bær heitir…, a farm is called so and so, Ísl. ii. 322, 323, 325, Ann. 1300, Hrafn. 22, Dropl. 5; the allit. phrase, búa á bæ…, Þorst. hv. 37; the passages are numberless, and ‘bær’ has almost become synonymous with ‘house and home;’ and as it specially means ‘the farm-buildings,’ Icel. also say innan-bæjar, in-doors; utan-bæjar, out-of-doors; í bæ, within doors; milii baejar ok stöðuls, K. Þ. K. 78; milli bæja; bæ frá bæ, from house to house; á bæ og af bæ, at home and abroad: things belonging to a bær, bæjar-dyr, the doors of the houses, the chief entrance; bæjar-hurð (janua); bæjar-veggr, the wall of the houses; bæjar-bust, the gable of the houses; bæjar-lækr, the home-spring, well; bæjar-hlað, the premises; bæjar-stétt, the pavement in the front of the houses; bæjar-leið, a furlong, a short distance as between two ‘bæir;’ bæjar-sund, passage between the houses; bæjar-hús, the home-stead, opp. to fjár-hús, etc., where cattle is kept, or barns and the like; fram-bær, the front part of the houses; torf-bær, timbr-bær, a ‘bær’ built of turf or timber: phrases denoting the ‘bær’ as hearth and home, hér sú Guð í bæ, God be in this house, a form of greeting, cp. Luke x. 5; bæjar-bragr, the customs or life in a house; nema börn hvað á bæ er títt (a proverb).

bæra, ð, [bera, báru], to move, stir, esp. reflex. to stir a limb, Bb. 3.31; enginn sá hans varir bærast, no one saw his lips move.

bæri-ligr, adj. fit, seemly, Stj. 141.

bærr, adj. due, entitled to, cp. Germ. gebührend; the proverb, b. er hverr at ráða sínu, every one has a right to dispose of his own property, Ísl. ii. 145; vera b. at dæma um e-t, to be a fit judge in a matter (a proverb); unbecoming, Yt. 11.

bæsa, t, [báss], = bása, to drive cattle into stall, Gísl. 20; the saying, fyrr á gömlum uxanum at b. en kálfinum, Fms. vi. 28.

bæsingr, m., prop. one born in a báss (q. v.); hence, as a law term, the child of an outlawed mother; þat barn er ok eigi arfgengt (that child is also not entitled to inheritance), er sú kona getr er sek er orðin skógarmaðr, þó-at hon geti við bónda sínum úsekjum, ok heitir sá maðr bæsingr, Grág. i. 178. Is not the name Bastard, which first occurs as. the surname of the Conqueror, simply a Norman corruption of this Scandin. law term? The son of an outlawed father was called vargdropi, q. v. 2. poët. the name of a sword, Edda (Gl.) This word is, we believe, derived from báss, a ‘boose’ stall, Goth. bansts; its original sense would then be, one born in a stall or crib; hence as a law term, a bastard; hornungr from horn (a corner) is an analogous term, cp. Germ. winkel-kind, for in ancient Teut. laws and language the bastard or outcast was considered as being born in an out-of-the-way place. Both words, bastarðr and bæsingr (q. v.), are, we believe, one in sense and origin, bastarðr being the older form, bæsingr the later; from Goth. banst-s was formed bastarðr, qs. banstarðr; in Norway and Icel. bansts dropped the t and absorbed the n into the preceding vowel, and became bás-s; from this ‘báss’ was formed bæsingr, with ingr as inflexive syllable, and the vowel changed; whereas bastarðr, we suppose, dates from an early time before vowel-change had taken place. Both words are law terms, the former Normannic (or Frankish), the latter Norse: both occur as the name of a sword,—bæsingr in the mythical tale, Fb. ii, of St. Olave’s sword, ere it was taken out of the cairn; bastarðr in Fms. vii. (12th century), perhaps a sword of Norman workmanship. Literally bastarðr means ‘boose-hardy,’ the hardy one of the stall, the bastard being the boy who got all kinds of rough usage, and so became hardy; we catch an echo of this in the words of the old lay—kóðu ‘harðan’ mjök ‘hornung’ vera, Hðm. 12.

BÆTA, tt, [bót; Ulf. bôtjan = ωφελειν; Hel. bôtian; A. S. bêtan; O. H. G. bôzau; Germ. büssen]:—to better, improve, amend, also t o restore, repair, Nj. 163, Gþl. 411; b. aptr, to restore, Grág. ii. 336; b. upp, to restore, atone for, Fms. ix. 43; b. at e-u, to repair, 367; bæta ráð sitt, to better one’s condition, to marry, Nj. 2: theol. to better one’s life: Guð bætti honum af þessi sótt, God restored him to health, Fms. ix. 391; with gen. of the sickness, O. H. L. 84. β. to mend, put a patch on a garment. 2. reflex., e-m bætisk, one gets better, is restored to health; at föður hans bættisk helstríð, Landn. 146: absol., bættisk honum þegar, he got better at once, Bs. i. 318, 319, 325: with gen., bættisk Búa augna-verkjarins, Ísl. ii. 428 (rare); cp. heilsu-bót, recovery of health. II. a law term, to pay weregild, the person slain in acc., the money in dat.; Hrafnkell bætti engan mann fé, i. e. H. paid no weregild whomsoever he slew, Hrafn. 4; ek vil engan mann fé b., 9; Styrr vá mörg víg, en bætti engin (viz. víg), S. slew many men, but paid for none, Eb. 54; bæta þá menn alla er þar létusk eðr fyrir sárum urðu, 98; b. sakir (acc.) fé (dat.), Grág. ii. 169: the allit. law term, b. baugum, to pay weregild, 174: the amount of money in acc. to pay out, bæt heldr fé þat er þú ert sakaðr við hann, Fms. iii. 22; ok á hann eigi þat at b., he has not to pay that, Grág. ii. 168; b. öfandar bót, Gþl. 358: part. bættr, Eb. 98, 246. 2. metaph. to redress, adjust; b. við e-n, or b. yfir við e-n, to give one redress, make good a wrong inflicted; hefir þú yfir bætt við mik um þetta bráðræði, Fms. ii. 25, xi. 434: also used in a religious sense, skaltu b. við Guð, er þú hefir svá mjök gengit af trú þinni, ii. 213 (yfír-bót, repentance); b. sál, or b. fyrir sál sinni, to do for the health of the soul, iv. 63, Fb. i. 345 Bs. i. 642 (in a verse); b. um e-t, to make a thing better (um-bot, bettering, improvement), Orkn. 442: reflex., ekki bætisk um, matters grow worse, Fms. ii. 53; b. við, to add to (við-bót, addition), Húv. 45. 3. part. pass. used as adj. in compar.; ok er eigi at bættra, þótt …, things are no better, though …, Fms. vii. 36; þykir mér Ólafr ekki at bættari, þótt…, i. e. it is no redress for Olave’s death, though …, Fas. ii. 410; er mér ekki sour minn at bættari þótt Bolli sé drepinn, my son’s death is none the more atoned for though B. is slain, Ld. 226. 4. part. act. as noun; bætandi, pl. -endr, a law term, one who has to pay weregild, Grág. ii. 174, etc.

BÆXL, mod. bæxli, n. [bógr], the shoulder (Lat. armus) of a dragon, whale, shark, or the like, Fms. vi. 351, Bret. 544.16, Gullþ. 7.

BÖÐ, f., gen. böðvar, [A. S. beadu], a battle, only in poetry, in which it is used in a great many compds; hence come the pr. names Böðvarr, Böðvildr, Böðmóðr, vide Lex. Poët.

böðull, m., dat. böðli, [Dan. böddel; A. S. bydel, Engl. bedel, O. H. G. putil, Germ. büttel], an executioner, (mod. word.)

böðvask, að, dep. to rave, Hðm. 21.

BÖGGR, m., dat. böggvi, an obsol. word, a bag; breiðr b., a big bag, in a metaph. sense, Glúm. (in a verse): the dimin. böggull, m. a small bag, is in freq. use as a nickname, Arn. S. Bs. i. bögla, að, to shrivel, v. bagla.

BÖL, n., dat. bölvi, gen. pl. bölva, [cp. Goth. balva-vesei and balveins = βάσανος, κόλασις; A. S. balew; Engl. bale; Hel. balu; O. H. G. balv; lost in mod. Germ. and Dan.]:—bale, misfortune; allit. phrases, böl and bót, ‘bale’ and ‘bote;’ bölva bætr, Stor. 22; þegar böl er hæst er bót næst, ‘when bale is hest, bote is nest,’ Morris, E. Engl. Spec, 100; svá skal böl bæta at bíða annat meira (a proverb), Grett. 123, Fbr. 193; böl er búskapr (a proverb).

böl-bæn, f. imprecation, Sks. 435, Anecd. 10.

böl-fengi, f. malice, O. H. L. 32.

böl-fenginn, adj. bent on evil, ill-willed, Band. (MS.)

böll-óttr, adj. ball-shaped, Sks. 634; b. eggskurn, Stj. 12; b. manna höfuð, Fms. v. 343, Rb. 466.

BÖLLR, m., gen. ballar, dat. belli, [Engl. ball; O. H. G. balla]:—a ball, globe: the ball, in the game of cricket, Gísl. 26 (in a verse, A. D. 963), but hardly ever used, knöttr being the common word: a globe, Al. 18; b. jarðar, Sks. 205 B; b. sólar, id., v. 1.: the front of a phalanx, belli svínfylktar fylkingar, 384 B: a small body of men, Lat. globus, Fms. viii. 406, where some MSS. read bjöllr, probably to avoid the ambiguity: a peak, mountain, in the local name Ballar-á, a farm in the west of Iceland, Eb. 2. anatom. the glans penis, Grág. ii. 16.

bölva, að, [Ulf. balvjan = βασανίζειν], to curse, with dat. or absol., Stj. 37, 199, Sks. 539, 549, Hom. 33. β. to swear, Sturl. iii. 239. bölv, n. swearing, (mod.)

bölvan, f. a curse, Stj. 37, 483: swearing, Fær. 239, Hom. 86.

böl-víss, adj. [Ulf. balva-vesei, Hel. balu-veso, = diabolus], ‘bale-wise,’ detestable, Hbl. 23: a nickname, Hkv.

BÖRGR, m. [Dutch and Germ. barg; Engl. barrow], a barrow-hog, Hd., Lex. Poët.

BÖRKR, m., gen. barkar, dat. berki, bark, Stj. 177, Pr. 473, Am. 17; börku (acc. pl.), N. G. L. i. 242: a pr. name of a man, Landn.

börlask, að (?); baurluðumk ek hér fyrir, Clem. 129 (Unger).

börr, m. a kind of tree, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. II. a son = burr.

böruðr, m., poët. an ox, Edda (Gl.)

böstl, f., pl. böstlar, arrows, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët.