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Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
George Dasant Translation (1842): [GYLFAGINNING]

Rasmus Björn Anderson Translation (1872)
[PROLOGUE][
GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916): [PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL
 
 
The Extended Prologue to Gylfaginning
from Codex Wormianus [W]
with the extended portions highlighted in red.

See Also: The manuscripts of the Formáli/Prologue side-by-side
Snorra Edda The Younger Edda
 
SNORRI STURLUSON
13th Century
Translated by
Rasmus Björn Anderson
1879
 
Fórmáli

Prologue

1. Almáttigr guð skapaði í upphafi himin ok jörð ok alla þá hluti, er þeim fylgja, og síðast menn tvá, er ættir eru frá komnar, Adam ok Evu, ok fjölgaðist þeira kynslóð ok dreifðist um heim allan. En er fram liðu stundir, þá ójafnaðist mannfólkit. Váru sumir góðir ok rétttrúaðir, en miklu fleiri snerust eftir girnðum heimsins ok órækðu guðs boðorð, ok fyrir því drekkði guð heiminum í sjóvargangi ok öllum kykvendum heimsins nema þeim, er í örkinni váru með Nóa.  Eftir Nóaflóð lifðu átta menn, þeir er heiminn byggðu, ok kómu frá þeim ættir, ok varð enn sem fyrr, at þá er fjölmenntist ok byggðist veröldin, þá var þat allr fjölði mannfólksins, er elskaði ágirni fjár ok metnaðar, en afrækðust guðs hlýðni, ok svá mikit gerðist at því, at þeir vildu eigi nefna guð. En hverr myndi þá frá segja sonum þeira frá guðs stórmerkjum? Svá kom, at þeir týndu guðs nafni, ok víðast um veröldina fannst eigi sá maðr, er deili kunni á skapara sínum. En eigi at síðr veitti guð þeim jarðligar giftir, fé ok sælu, er þeir skyldu við vera í heiminum. Miðlaði hann ok spekðina, svá at þeir skilðu alla jarðliga hluti ok allar greinar, þær er sjá mátti loftsins ok jarðarinnar. Þat hugsuðu þeir ok undruðust, hví þat myndi gegna, er jörðin ok dýrin ok fuglarnir höfðu saman eðli í sumum hlutum ok þó ólík at hætti.  Þat var eitt eðli, að jörðin var grafin í hám fjalltindum ok spratt þar vatn upp, ok þurfti þar eigi lengra at grafa til vatns en í djúpum dölum. Svá er ok dýr ok fuglar, at jafnlangt er til blóðs í höfði ok fótum. Önnur náttúra er sú jarðar, at á hverju ári vex á jörðinni gras ok blóm, ok á sama ári fellr þat allt ok fölnar, svá ok dýr ok fuglar, at vex hár ok fjaðrar ok fellr af á hverju ári. Þat er in þriðja náttúra jarðar, þá er hon er opnuð ok grafin, þá grær gras á þeiri moldu, er efst er á jörðinni. Björg ok steina þýddu þeir móti tönnum ok beinum kvikenda. Af þessu skilðu þeir svá, at jörðunni væri kvik ok hefði líf með nökkurum hætti, ok vissu þeir, at hon furðuliga gömul at aldartali ok máttug í eðli. Hon fæddi öll kykvendi, ok hon eignaðist allt þat, er dó. Fyrir þá sök gáfu þeir henni nafn ok tölðu ætt sína til hennar. 
Þat sama spurðu þeir af gömlum frændum sínum, at síðan er talið váru mörg hundruð vetra, þá var in sama jörð ok sól ok himintungl, en gangr himintunglanna var ójafn. Áttu sum lengra gang, en sum skemmra. Af þvílíkum hlutum grunaði þá, at nökkurr myndi vera stjórnari himintunglanna, sá er stilla myndi gang þeira at vilja sínum, ok myndi sá vera ríkr mjök ok máttigr. Ok þess væntu þeir, ef hann réði fyrir höfuðskepnunum, at hann myndi ok fyrr verit hafa en himintunglin, ok þat sá þeir, ef hann ræðr gangi himintunglanna, at hann myndi ráða skini sólar ok dögg loftsins ok ávexti jarðarinnar, er því fylgir, ok slíkt sama vindinum loftsins ok þar með stormi sævarins. Þá vissu þeir eigi, hvar ríki hans var, en því trúðu þeir, at hann réð öllum hlutum á jörðu ok í lofti, himins ok himintunglum, sævarins ok veðranna. En til þess at heldr mætti frá segja eða í minni festa, þá gáfu þeir nöfn með sjálfum sér öllum hlutum, ok hefir þessi átrúnaðr á marga lund breytzt, svá sem þjóðirnar skiptust ok tungurnar greindust, var efnat þat smíði er mest hefir verit í v<er>öldunni.
1. In the beginning Almighty God created heaven and earth, and all things that belong to them, and last he made two human beings, from whom the races are descended (Adam and Eve), and their children multiplied and spread over all the world. But in the course of time men became unequal; some were good and right-believing, but many more turned them after the lusts of the world and heeded not God's laws; and for this reason God drowned the world in the flood, and all that was quick in the world, except those who were in the ark with Noah. After the flood of Noah there lived eight men, who inhabited the world, and from them the races are descended; and now, as before, they increased and filled the world, and there were very many men who loved to covet wealth and power, but turned away from obedience to God, and so much did they do this that they would not name God. And who could then tell their sons of the wonderful works of God? So it came to pass that they lost God's name; and in the wide world the man was not to be found who could tell of his Maker. But, nevertheless, God gave them earthly gifts, wealth and happiness, that should be with them in the world; he also shared wisdom among them, so that they understood all earthly things, and all kinds that might be seen in the air and on the earth. This they thought upon, and wondered at, how it could come to pass that the earth and the beasts and the birds had the same nature in some things but still were unlike in manners. One evidence of this nature was that the earth might be dug into upon high mountain-peaks and water would spring up there, and it was not necessary to dig deeper for water there than in deep dales; thus, also, in beasts and birds it is no farther to the blood in the head than in the feet. Another proof of this nature is, that every year there grow on the earth grass and flowers, and the same year it falls and withers; thus, also, on beasts and birds do hair and feathers grow and fall off each year. The third nature of the earth is, that when it is opened and dug into, then grass grows on the mould which is uppermost on the earth. Rocks and stones they explained to correspond to the teeth and bones of living things. From these things they judged that the earth must be quick and must have life in some way, and they knew that it was of a wonderfully great age and of a mighty nature. It nourished all that was quick and took to itself,  all that died. On this account they gave it a name, and numbered their ancestors back to it. This they also learned from their old kinsmen, that when many hundred winters were numbered, the course of the heavenly bodies was uneven; some had a longer course than others. From such things they suspected that some one must be the ruler of the heavenly bodies who could stay their course at his own will, and he must be strong and mighty; and of him they thought that, if he ruled the prime elements, he must also have been before the heavenly bodies, and they saw that, if he ruled the course of the heavenly bodies, he must rule the sunshine, and the dew of the heavens, and the products of the earth that follow them; and thus, also, the winds of the air and therewith the storms of the sea. They knew not where his realm was, but they believed that he ruled over all things on the earth and in the air, over the heavens and the heavenly bodies, the seas and the weather. But in order that these things might be better told and remembered, they gave him the same name with themselves, and this belief has been changed in many ways, as the peoples have been separated and the tongues have been divided [, taking that work which was the greatest in the world.]
Í elli sinni skiptir Nói heiminum með sonum sínum. Ætlaði hann Cham vestrhálfu, en Japheth norðrhálfu, en Sem suðrhálfu með þeiri parteran sem síðar greinir í þriðjunga skipti heimsins. Í þann tíma sem synir þessara manna váru í veröldinni, þá öflgaðisk þegar ágirni til fjár ok mannmetnaðar af því at þá kendusk þær margar listir sem áðr höfðu ekki fundnar verit, ok hóf sik hverr eptir sinni íþrótt. Ok svá langt fœrðu þeir fram sinn metnað at þeir Affricani komnir af Cham herjuðu í þann hluta veraldar sem bygði afspringr Sems frænda þeira. Ok sem þeir höfðu þá yfir unnit, þótti þeim sér eigi nægjask heimrinn ok smíðuðu einn stöpul með tigl ok grjót, þann er þeir ætluðu at vinna skyldi til himins, á þeim velli er kallask Sennaar. Ok þá er þetta smíði var svá mikit vorðit at þat tók upp ór veðrum, ok eigi höfðu þeir at minni fýsi til at halda fram smíðinni, ok sem guð sér hversu þeira ofsi geisar hátt, þá sér hann at hann verðr með einshverju niðr at slá. Ok sá sami guð, sem alls er voldugr ok allt þeira verk mátti á einu augabragði niðr slá en þá sjálfa láta verða at dupti, þá vildi hann þó heldr með því eyða þeiri fyrirætlan at þeir mætti við kennask sinn lítilleik með því at engi þeira skildi hvat annarr talaði ok því vissi engi þeira hvat hverr bauð öðrum, ok braut þat annarr niðr sem annarr vildi uppreisa, þar til er þeir stríddusk á sjálfir ok með því eyddisk öll þeira fyrirætlan í upptekinni stöpulsmíð. Ok sá e[r] fremstr var hét Zoroastres, hann hló fyrr en grét er hann kom í veröldina. En forsmiðir váru tveir ok sjau tigir, ok svá margar tungur hafa síðan dreifzk um veröldina eptir því sem risarnir skiptusk síðan til landa ok þjóðirnar fjölguðusk. Í þessum sama stað var gör ein hin ágætasta borg ok dregit af nafni stöpulsins ok köllut Babilon, ok sem tungnaskiptit var orðit þá fjölguðusk svá nöfnin mannanna ok annarra hluta. Ok sjá sami Zoroastres hafði mörg nöfn, ok þó at hann undirstœði at hans ofsi væri lægðr af sagðri smíð, þá fœrði hann sik þó fram til veraldligs metnaðar ok lét taka sik til konungs yfir mörgum þjóðum Assiriorum. Af honum hófsk skurðgoðavilla, ok sem hann var blótaðr var hann kallaðr Baal, þann köllum vér Bel. Hann hafði ok mörg önnur nöfn, en sem nöfnin fjölguðusk, þá týndisk með því sannleikrinn. Ok af fyrstu villu þá blótaði hverr maðr eptirkomandi sinn formeistara, dýr eða fugla, loptin ok himintunglin ok ýmisliga dauðliga hluti, þar til er þessi villa gekk um allan heim ok svá vandliga týndu þeir sannleiknum at engi vissi skapara sinn, utan þeir einir menn sem töluðu ebreska tungu, þá sem gekk fyrir stöpulsmíðina. Ok þó týndu þeir eigi líkamligum giptum er þeim váru veittar, ok því skilðu þeir alla hluti jarðligri skilningu, at þeim var eigi gefin andlig spekðin. Svá skilðu þeir at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nökkuru efni.

2. In his old age Noah shared the world with his sons: for Ham he intended the western region, for Japheth the northern region, but for Shem the southern region, with those parts which will hereafter be marked out in the division of the earth into three parts. In the time that the sons of these men were in the world, then increased forthwith the desire for riches and power, from the fact that they knew many crafts that had not been discovered before, and each one was exalted with his own handiwork; and so far did they carry their pride, that the Africans, descended from Ham, harried in that part of the world which the offspring of Shem, their kinsman, inhabited. And when they had conquered them, the world seemed to them too small, and they smithied a tower with tile and stone, which they meant should reach to heaven, on the plain called Sennar. And when this building was so far advanced that it extended above the air, and they were no less eager to continue the work, and when God saw how their pride waxed high, then he sees that he will have to strike it down in some way. And the same God, who is almighty, and who might have struck down all their work in the twinkling of an eye, and made themselves turn into dust, still preferred to frustrate their purpose by making them realize their own littleness, in that none of them should understand what the other talked; and thus no one knew what the other commanded, and one broke what the other wished to build up, until they came to strife among themselves, and therewith was frustrated, in the beginning, their purpose of building a tower. And he who was foremost, hight Zoroaster, he laughed before he wept when he came into the world; but the master-smiths were seventy-two, and so many tongues have spread over the world since the giants were dispersed over the land, and the nations became numerous. In this same place was built the most famous city, which took its name from the tower, and was called Babylon. And when the confusion of tongues had taken place, then increased the names of men and of other things, and this same Zoroaster had many names; and although he understood that his pride was laid low by the said building, still he worked his way unto worldly power, and had himself chosen king over many peoples of the Assyrians. From him arose the error of idolatry; and when he was worshiped he was called Baal; we call him Bel; he also had many other names. But as the names increased in number, so was truth lost; and from this first error every following man worshiped his head-master, beasts or birds, the air and the heavenly bodies, and various lifeless things, until the error at length spread over the whole world; and so carefully did they lose the truth that no one knew his maker, excepting those men alone who spoke the Hebrew tongue, — that which flourished before the building of the tower,— and still they did not lose the bodily endowments that were given them, and therefore they judged of all things with earthly understanding, for spiritual wisdom was not given unto them. They deemed that all things were smithied of some one material.

2. Veröldin var greind í þrjár hálfur, frá suðri í vestr ok inn at Miðjarðarsjó; sá hlutr var kallaðr Affríká. Inn syðri hlutr þeirar deilðar er heitr, svá at þar brennr, af sólu. Annarr hlutr frá vestri til norðrs ok inn til hafsins; er sá kallaðr Evrópá eða Énéá. Inn nyrðri hluti er þar svá kaldr, at eigi vex gras á ok eigi má byggja. Frá norðri ok um austrhálfur allt til suðrs, þat er kallat Asíá. Í þeim hluta veraldar er öll fegrð ok prýði ok eignir jarðar-ávaxtar, gull ok gimsteinar. Þar er ok mið veröldin. Ok svá sem þar er jörðin fegri ok betri öllum kostum en í öðrum stöðum, svá var ok mannfólkit þar mest tignat af öllum giftunum, spekinni ok aflinu, fegrðinni ok alls konar kunnustu. 3. The world was divided into three parts, one from the south, westward to the Mediterranean Sea, which part was called Africa; but the southern portion of this part is hot and scorched by the sun. The second part, from the west and to the north and to the sea, is that called Europe, or Enea. The northern portion of this is cold, so that grass grows not, nor can anyone dwell there. From the north around the east region, and all to the south, that is called Asia. In that part of the world is all beauty and pomp, and wealth of the earth's products, gold and precious stones. There is also the mid-world, and as the earth there is fairer and of a better quality than elsewhere, so are also the people there most richly endowed with all gifts, with wisdom and strength, with beauty and with all knowledge.
3. Nær miðri veröldinni var gert þat hús ok herbergi, er ágætast hefir verit, er kallat Trjóa, þar sem vér köllum Tyrkland. Þessi staðr var miklu meiri gerr en aðrir ok með meira hagleik á marga lund með kostnaði ok föngum, en þar váru til. Þar váru tólf konungdómar ok einn yfirkonungr, ok lágu mörg þjóðlönd til hvers konungdómsins. Þar váru í borginni tólf höfðingjar. Þessir höfðingjar hafa verit um fram aðra menn, þá er verit hafa í veröldu, um alla manndómliga hluti. Leikr þat sízt á tvímæli hverr frœðimaðr sem frá þeim hefir sagt ok af því at allir formenn norðrhálfunnar telja þangat sínar ættir ok setja þá í guða tölu alla sem formenn váru staðarins, einkanliga svá sem sjálfan Príamum setja þeir fyrir Vóden. Má þat eigi undarligt kalla þvíat Príamus var kominn af Saturno þeim sem norðrhálfan trúði langan tíma sjálfan guð verit hafa. 4. Near the middle of the world was built the house and inn, the most famous that has been made, which was called Troy, in the land which we call Turkey. This city was built much larger than others, with more skill in many ways, at  great expense, and with such means as were at hand. There were twelve kingdoms and one overking, and many lands and nations belonged to each kingdom; there were in the city twelve chief languages.* Their chiefs have surpassed all men who have been in the world in all heroic things. No scholar who has ever told of these things has ever disputed this fact, and for this reason, that all rulers of the north region trace their ancestors back thither, and place in the number of the gods all who were rulers of the city. Especially do they place Priamos himself in the stead of Odin; nor must that be called wonderful, for Priamos was sprung from Saturn, him whom the north region for a long time believed to be God himself. 

*Dasent translates "hövuðtungur" (chief or head tongues) with "lords," which is certainly an error.
Þessi Saturnus vóx upp í ey þeiri í Grikklandshafi er Krít heitir. Hann var meiri ok sterkari fríðari en aðrir menn. Svá bar vitrleikr hans af öllum mönnum sem aðrar náttúrugjafir. Hann fann ok margar listir þær sem áðr höfðu eigi fundnar verit. Hann var ok svá mikill á þá íþrótt er phítonsanda list heitir at hann vissi fyrir óorðna hluti. Hann fann ok rauða þann í jörðu er hann blés af gull, ok af þessháttar hlutum varð hann skjótt ríkr. Hann sagði ok fyrir árferð ok marga aðra leynda hluti, ok af slíku ok mörgu öðru tóku þeir hann til höfðingja yfir eyna. Ok sem hann hafði litla hríð henni stýrt, þá var þar skjótt nóg allra handa árgæzka. Þar gekk ok engi penningr nema gullpenningr. Svá var þat nógt ok þó at hallæri væri í öðrum löndum, þá kom þar aldri óáran. Mátti af því þangat sœkja alla þá hluti sem þeir þurftu at hafa, ok af þessu ok mörgu öðru ósýniligu kraptaláni er hann hafði trúðu þeir hann guð vera, ok af þessu hófsk önnur villa millum Krítarmanna ok Macedoniorum svá sem hin fyrri meðal Assiriorum ok Chaldeis af Zoroastre. Ok er Saturnus finnr hversu mikinn styrk fólkit þykkisk af honum hafa, þá kallask hann guð vera og segisk stjórnari himins ok jarðar ok allra hluta. 5. This Saturn grew up in that island in Greece which hight Crete. He was greater and stronger and fairer than other men. As in other natural endowments, so he excelled all men in wisdom. He invented many crafts which had not before been discovered. He was also so great in the art of magic that he was certain about things that had not yet come to pass. He found, too, that red thing in the earth from which he smelted gold, and from such things he soon became very mighty. He also foretold harvests and many other secret things, and for such, and many other deeds, he was chosen chief of the island. And when he had ruled it a short time, then there speedily enough became a great abundance of all things. No money circulated excepting gold coins, so plentiful was this metal; and though there was famine in other lands, the crops never failed in Crete, so that people might seek there all the things which they needed to have. And from this and many other secret gifts of power that he had, men believed him to be God, and from him arose another error among the Cretans and Macedonians like the one before mentioned among the Assyrians and Chaldeans from Zoroaster. And when Saturn finds how great strength the people think they have in him, he calls himself God, and says that he rules heaven and earth and all things.
Einn tíma fór hann skipi til Grikklands, þvíat þar var konungsdóttir sú er hann hafði hug á. Hann fekk með því náð henni at einn dag, sem hon var úti meðr þjónustukonum sínum, þá brá hann á sik líki graðungs eins ok lá fyrir henni í skóginum, ok svá fagr at gulls litr var á hverju hári. Ok sem konungsdóttir sér, þá klappaði hon um granarnar. Hann sprettr upp ok brá af sér graðungs líki ok tók hana í fang sér ok bar hana til skips ok flytr heim í Krít. At þessu finnr Juna kona hans. Hann brá henni í kvígu líki ok sendi hana austr í Elfarkvíslir ok lét hennar geyma þræl þann er Argulus hét. Þar var hon tólf mánaði áðr hann skipaði aptr. Marga hluti gørði hann þessum líka eða undarligri. Hann átti þrjá syni, hét einn Jupiter, annarr Neptunus, þriði Plutus. Þeir váru allir atgervismenn hinir mestu ok var Jupiter langt fyrir þeim. Hann var stríðsmaðr ok vann mörg konunga ríki. Hann var ok listugr sem faðir hans ok brá á sik ýmissa dýra líki ok með því kom hann mörgu fram því sem manndóminum er ómöguligt at gøra, ok af slíku ok öðru hræddusk hann allar þjóðir. Því er Jupiter settr fyrir Þór svá sem allar óvættir hræddusk hann. 6. Once he went to Greece in a ship, for there was a king's daughter on whom he had set his heart. He won her love in this way, that one day when she was out with her maid-servants, he took upon himself the likeness of a bull, and lay before her in the wood, and so fair was he that the hue of gold was on every hair; and when the king's daughter saw him she patted his lips. He sprang up and threw off the bull's likeness and took her into his arms and bore her to the ship and took her to Crete. But his wife, Juno,found this out, so he turned her (the king's daughter) into the likeness of a heifer and sent her east to the arms of the great river (that is, of the Nile, to the Nile country), and let the thrall, who hight Argulos, take care of her. She was there twelve months before he changed her shape again. Many things did he do like this, or even more wonderful. He had three sons: one hight Jupiter, another Neptune, the third Pluto. They were all men of the greatest accomplishments, and Jupiter was by far the greatest; he was a warrior and won many kingdoms; he was also crafty like his father, and took upon himself the likeness of many animals, and thus he accomplished many things which are impossible for mankind; and on account of this, and other things, he was held in awe by all nations. Therefore Jupiter is put in the place of Thor, since all evil wights fear him.
Saturnus lét upp gøra í Krít tvær borgir ok sjau tigu, ok sem hann þykkisk fullkominn í ríki sínu, þá skiptir hann því með sonum sínum sem hann setti sik fyrir guð ok skipaði hann Jupiter himinríki, en Neptuno jarðríki, en Pluto helvíti. Ok þótti honum sá hlutr ókjörligastr ok því gaf hann honum hund sinn þann er hann kallaði Serberum til þess at geyma helvítis. Þenna Serberum segja Grikkir Erkulum hafa dregit ór helvíti ok á jarðríki, ok þó at Saturnus hefði skipt Jupiter himinríki, þá girntisk hann eigi at síðr at eignask jarðríki ok herjar nú upp á ríki föður síns. Ok svá segisk at hann léti taka hann ok gelda, ok fyrir slík stórvirki segir hann sik guð vera ok þat segja Macedonii at hann léti taka sköpin ok kasta út á sjóinn, ok því trúðu þeir langa ævi at þar af hefði vorðit kona. Þá kölluðu þeir Venerem, ok því er Venus alla ævi síðan kölluð ástargyðja, ok settu hana í guða tölu at þeir trúðu at hon mætti þíða allra manna hjörtu til ástar karla ok kvenna. Sem Saturnus var geldr af Jupiter syni sínum, þá flý<ði> hann austan ór Krít ok hingat í Italia. Þabygðu þá þessháttar þjóðir sem ekki erfiðaðu ok lifðu við akarn ok við grös, ok lágu í hellum eða jarðholum. Ok sem Saturnus kom þar, þá skipti hann nöfnum ok kallaði sik Njörð, sakir þess at hann hugði at Jupiter son hans mundi þá síðr frétta hann upp. Hann kendi þar fyrstr manna at plœgja ok planta víngarða. Þar var góð jörð ok hrá ok gørðisk þar skjótt ár mikit. Tóku þeir hann til höfðingja ok svá eignaðisk hann öll þessháttar ríki ok lét gøra þar margar borgir. 7. Saturn had built in Crete seventy-two burgs, and when he thought himself firmly established in his kingdom, he shared it with his sons, whom he set up with himself as gods; and to Jupiter he gave the realm of heaven; to Neptune, the realm of the earth, and to Pluto, hell; and this last seemed to him the worst to manage, and therefore he gave to him his dog, the one whom he called Cerberos, to guard hell. This Cerberos, the Greeks say, Herakles dragged out of hell and upon earth. And although Saturn had given the realm of heaven to Jupiter, the latter nevertheless desired to possess the realm of the earth, and so he harried his father's kingdom, and it is said that he had him taken and emasculated, and for such great achievements he declared himself to be god, and the Macedonians say that he had the members taken and cast into the sea, and therefore they believed for ages that therefrom had come a woman; her they called Venus, and numbered among the gods, and she has in all ages since been called goddess of love, for they believed she was able to turn the hearts of all men and women to love. When Saturn was emasculated by Jupiter, his son, he fled from the east out of Crete and west into Italy. There dwelt at that time such people as did not work, and lived on acorns and grass, and lay in caves or holes in the earth. And when Saturn came there he changed his name and called himself Njord, for the reason that he thought that Jupiter, his son, might afterward seek him out. He was the first there to teach men to plow and plant vineyards. There the soil was good and fresh, and it soon produced heavy crops. He was made chief and thus he got possession of all the realms there and built many burgs.
Jupiter son hans átti marga syni, þá sem ættir eru frá komnar: hans son var Dardanus, hans son Herikon, hans son Lamedon, faðir Príami höfuðkonungs. Príamus átti marga syni. Einn af þeim var Ektor, er ágætastr hefir verit allra manna í veröldu at afli ok vexti ok atgørvi ok öllum manndómligum listum riddarligrar slektar. Ok þat finnsk skrifat, þá er Grikkir ok allr styrkr norðrhálfu ok austrhálfu börðusk við Trojumenn, þá hefði þeir aldri sigraðir vorðit nema Grikkir hefði heitit á guðin, ok gengu svá fréttir at ekki mannligt eðli mátti þá sigra nema þeir yrði sviknir af sjálfs síns mönnum, sem síðan gerðisk. Ok af þeira frægð gáfu eptirkomandi menn sér þeira virðingarnöfn, ok einkanliga svá sem Rómverjar, er ágætastir menn hafa verit at mörgum hlutum eptir þeira daga, ok svá segisk at þá er Róma var algör at Rómverjar venduðu sínum siðum ok lögmáli sem næst máttu þeir komask eptir því sem Troju menn höfðu haft forfeðr þeira. Ok svá mikill kraptr fylgði þessum mönnum at mörgum öldrum síðar, þá er Pompeius einn höfðingi Rómverja herjaði í austrhálfuna, flýði utan Óðinn ór Asía ok hingat í norðrhálfuna, ok þá gaf hann sér ok sínum mönnum þeira nöfn ok kallaði Príamum hafa heitit Óðin, en dróttning hans Frigg, ok af því tók ríkit síðan nafn ok kallaði Frigía þar sem borgin stóð. Ok hvárt er Óðinn sagði þat til metnaðar við sik, eða þat hafi svá verit með skipti tungnanna, þá hafa þó margir frœðimenn haft þat fyrir sannenda sögn, ok þat var lengi ævi eptir at hverr sem mikill höfðingi var tók sér þar dœmi eptir. 8. Jupiter, his son, had many sons, from whom races have descended; his son was Dardanos, hisson Herikon, his son Tros, his son Hon,his son Laomedon, the father of the chief king Priamos. Priamos had many sons; one of them was Hektor, who was the most famous of all men in the world for strength, and stature and accomplishments, and for all manly deeds of a knightly kind; and it is found written that when the Greeks and all the strength of the north and east regions fought with the Trojans, they would never have become victors had not the Greeks invoked the gods; and it is also stated that no human strength would conquer them unless they were betrayed by their own men, which afterward was done. And from their fame men that came after gave themselves titles, and especially was this done by the Romans, who were the most famous in many things after their days; and it is said that, when Rome was built, the Romans adapted their customs and laws as nearly as possible to those of the Trojans, their forefathers. And so much power accompanied these men for many ages after, that when Pompey, a Roman chieftain, harried in the east region, Odin fled out of Asia and hither to the north country, and then he gave to himself and his men their names, and said that Priamos had hight Odin and his queen Frigg, and from this the realm afterward took its name and was called Frigia where the burg stood. And whether Odin said this of himself out of pride, or that it was wrought by the changing of tongues; nevertheless many wise men have regarded it a true saying, and for a long time after every man who was a great chieftain followed his example.
Einn konungr í Trjóu er nefndr Múnón eða Mennón. Hann átti dóttur höfuðkonungsins Príamí. Sú hét Tróan. Þau áttu son. Hann hét Trór, er vér köllum Þór. Hann var at uppfæðslu í Trakíá með hertoga þeim, er nefndr er Lóríkús, en er hann var tíu vetra, þá tók hann við vápnum föður síns. Svá var hann fagr álitum, er hann kom með öðrum mönnum, sem þá er fílsbein er grafit í eik. Hár hans er fegra en gull. Þá er hann var tólf vetra, þá hafði hann fullt afl. Þá lyfti hann af jörðu tíu bjarnarstökkum öllum senn, ok þá drap hann Lóríkúm hertoga, fóstra sinn, ok konu hans, Lórá eða Glórá, ok eignaði sér ríkit Trakíá. Þat köllum vér Þrúðheim. Þá fór hann víða um lönd ok kannaði allar heimshálfur ok sigraði einn saman alla berserki ok alla risa ok einn inn mesta dreka ok mörg dýr. Í norðrhálfu heims fann hann spákonu þá, er Síbíl hét, er vér köllum Sif, ok fekk hennar. Engi kann at segja ætt Sifjar. Hon var allra kvinna fegrst. Hár hennar var sem gull. Þeira sonr var Lóriði, er líkr var feðr sínum. Hans sonr var Einriði, hans sonr Vingeþórr, hans sonr Vingener, hans sonr Móda, hans sonr Magi, hans sonr Seskef, hans sonr Beðvig, hans sonr Athra, er vér köllum Annan, hans sonr Ítrmann, hans sonr Heremóð, hans sonr Skjaldun, er vér köllum Skjöld, hans Bjáf, er köllum Bjár, hans sonr Ját, hans sonr Guðólfr, hans sonr Finn, hans sonr Fríallaf, er vér köllum Friðleif. Hann átti þann son, er nefndr er Vóden. Þann köllum vér Óðin. Hann var ágætr maðr af speki ok allri atgervi. Kona hans hét Frígíða, er vér köllum Frigg. 9. A king in Troy hight Munon or Mennon, his wife was a daughter of the head-king Priamos and hight Troan; they had a son who hight Tror, him we call Thor. He was fostered in Thrace by the duke, who is called Loricos. But when he was ten winters old he took his father's weapons. So fair of face was he, when he stood by other men, as when ivory is set in oak; his hair was fairer than gold. When he was twelve winters old he had full strength; then he lifted from the ground ten bear skins all at once, and then he slew Loricos, the duke, his foster-father and his wife, Lora or Glora, and took possession of Thrace; this we call Thrudheim. Then he visited many lands and knew the countries of the world, and conquered singlehanded all the berserks and all the giants, and one very big dragon and many beasts. In the north region he found that prophetess who hight Sibyl, whom we call Sif, and married her. None can tell the genealogy of Sif; she was the fairest of all women, her hair was like gold. Their son was Loride (Hloride), who was like his father; his son was Henrede; his son Vingethor (Vingthor); his son Vingener (Vingner); his son Moda (Mode); his son Magi (Magne); his son Kesfet; his son Bedvig; his son Atra, whom we call Annan; his son Itrman; his son Heremod (Herraod); his son Skjaldun, whom we call Skjold; his son Bjaf, whom we call Bjar; his son Jat; his son Gudolt', his son Fjarlaf, whom we call Fridleif; he had the son who is called Vodin, whom we call Odin; he was a famous man for wisdom and all accomplishments. His wife hight Frigida, whom we call Frigg.
4. Óðinn hafði spádóm ok svá kona hans, ok af þeim vísendum fann hann þat, at nafn hans myndi uppi vera haft í norðrhálfu heims ok tignat um fram alla konunga. Fyrir þá sök fýstist hann at byrja ferð sína af Tyrklandi ok hafði með sér mikinn fjölða liðs, unga menn ok gamla, karla ok konur, ok höfðu með sér marga gersamliga hluti. En hvar sem þeir fóru yfir lönd, þá var ágæti mikit frá þeim sagt, svá at þeir þóttu líkari goðum en mönnum. Ok þeir gefa eigi stað ferðinni, fyrr en þeir koma norðr í þat land, er nú er kallat Saxland. Þar dvalðist Óðinn langar hríðir ok eignaðist víða þat land. Þar setti Óðinn til landsgæzlu þrjá sonu sína. Er einn nefndr Vegdeg. Var hann ríkr konungr ok réð fyrir Austr-Saxlandi. Hans sonr var Vitrgils. Hans synir váru þeir Vitta, faðir Heingests, ok Sigarr, faðir Svebdeg, er vér köllum Svipdag. Annarr sonr Óðins hét Baldeg, er vér köllum Baldr. Hann átti þat land, er nú heitir Vestfál. Hans sonr var Brandr, hans sonr Frjóðigar, er vér köllum Fróða. Hans sonr var Freóvin, hans sonr Uvigg, hans sonr Gevis, er vér köllum Gave. Inn þriði sonr Óðins er nefndr Sigi, hans sonr Rerir. Þeir langfeðr réðu þar fyrir, er nú er kallat Frakland, ok er þaðan sú ætt komin, er kölluð er Völsungar. Frá öllum þeim eru stórar ættir komnar ok margar. 10. Odin had the power of divination, and so had his wife, and from this knowledge he found out that his name would be held high in the north part of the world, and honored beyond that of all kings. For this reason he was eager to begin his journey from Turkey, and he had with him very many people, young and old, men and women, and he had with him many costly things. But wherever they fared over the lands great fame was spoken of them, and they were said to be more like gods than men. And they stopped not on their journey before they came north into that land which is now called Saxland; there Odin remained a long time, and subjugated the country far and wide. There Odin established his three sons as a defense of the land. One is named Veggdegg; he was a strong king and ruled over East Saxland. His son wasVitrgils, and his sons were Ritta, the father of Heingest (Hengist), and Sigar, the father of Svebdegg, whom we call Svipdag. Another son of Odin hight Beldegg, whom we call Balder; he possessed the land which now hight Vestfal; his son was Brander, and his son Frjodigar, whom we call Froda (Frode). His son was Freovit, his son Yvigg, his son Gevis, whom we call Gave. The third son of Odin is named Sigge, his son Verer. These forefathers ruled the land which is now called Frankland, and from them is come the race that is called the Volsungs. From all of these many and great races are descended.
Þá byrjaði Óðinn ferð sína norðr ok kom í þat land, er þeir kölluðu Reiðgotaland, ok eignaðist í því landi allt þat, er hann vildi. Hann setti þar til landa son sinn, er Skjöldr hét. Hans sonr var Friðleifr. Þaðan er sú ætt komin, er Skjöldungar heita. Þat eru Danakonungar, ok þat heitir Jótland, er þá var kallat Reiðgotaland. 11. Then Odin continued his journey northward and came into the country which was called Reidgotaland, and in that land he conquered all that he desired. He established there his son, who hight Skjold; his son hight Fridleif; from him is descended the race which hight Skjoldungs; these are the Dane kings, and that land hight now Jutland, which then was called Reidgotaland.
5. Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar sem nú heitir Svíþjóð. Þar var sá konungr, er Gylfi er nefndr. En er hann spyrr til ferðar þeira Ásíamanna, er er æsir váru kallaðir, fór hann í móti þeim ok bauð, at Óðinn skyldi slíkt vald hafa í hans ríki, sem hann vildi sjálfr. Ok sá tími fylgði ferð þeira, at hvar sem þeir dvölðust í löndum, þá var þar ár ok friðr, ok trúðu allir, at þeir væri þess ráðandi, því at þat sá ríkismenn, at þeir váru ólíkir öðrum mönnum, þeim er þeir höfðu sét, at fegrð ok svá at viti. Þar þótti Óðni fagrir vellir ok landskostir góðir ok kaus sér þar borgstað, er nú heita Sigtún,

 
12. Thereupon he fared north to what is now called Svithjod (Sweden), there was the king who is called Gylfe. But when he heard of the coming of those Asiamen, who were called asas, he went to meet them, and offered Odin such things in his kingdom as he himself might desire. And such good luck followed their path, that wherever they stopped in the lands, there were bountiful crops and good peace; and all believed that they were the cause thereof. The mighty men of the kingdom saw that they were unlike other men whom they had seen, both in respect to beauty and understanding. The land there seemed good to Odin, and he chose there for himself a place for a burg, which is now called Sigtuna.*

*Near Upsala.


þat var af hans nafni, ok gaf sér konungdóm ok kallaðisk Njörðr, ok því finnsk þat skrifat í fræðibókum at Njörðr hafi heitit hinn fyrsti Svíakonungr. Er þat til þess at Óðinn hefir þar verit göfgastr, ok
Anderson omits this passage, which reads:

that was of his name, and gave the kingdom and called on Njördr, and as it is written in learned books that Njördr was called the first Swedish king. It is because of this that Odin has been honored there, and
skipaði hann þar höfðingjum ok í þá líking, sem verit hafði í Trója, setti tólf höfuðmenn í staðinum at dæma landslög, ok svá skipaði hann réttum öllum sem fyrr hafði verit í Trója ok Tyrkir váru vanir. He there established chiefs, like unto what had formerly existed in Troy; he appointed twelve men in the burg to be judges of the law of the land, and made all rights to correspond with what had before been in Troy, and to what the Turks had been accustomed.
Eftir þat fór hann norðr, þar til er sjár tók við honum, sá er þeir hugðu, at lægi um öll lönd, ok setti þar son sinn til þess ríkis, er nú heitir Nóregr. Sá er Sæmingr kallaðr, ok telja þar Nóregskonungar sínar ættir til hans ok svá jarlar ok aðrir ríkismenn, svá sem segir í Háleygjatali. En Óðinn hafði með sér þann son sinn, er Yngvi er nefndr, er konungr var í Svíþjóðu eftir hann, ok eru frá honum komnar þær ættir, er Ynglingar eru kallaðir. Þeir æsir tóku sér kvánföng þar innan lands, en sumir sonum sínum, ok urðu þessar ættir fjölmennar, at umb Saxland ok allt þaðan of norðrhálfur dreifðist svá, at þeira tunga, Ásíamanna, var eigin tunga um öll þessi lönd. Ok þat þykkjast menn skynja mega af því, at rituð eru langfeðganöfn þeira, at þau nöfn hafa fylgt þessi tungu ok þeir æsir hafa haft tunguna norðr hingat í heim, í Nóreg ok í Svíþjóð, í Danmörk ok í Saxland, ok í Englandi eru forn landsheiti eða staðaheiti, þau er skilja má, at af annarri tungu eru gefin en þessi. 13. Thereupon he fared north until he reached the sea, which they thought surrounded all lands, and there he established his son in the kingdom, which is now called Norway; he is hight Saining, and the kings of Norway count their ancestors back to him, and so do the jarls and other mighty men, as it is stated in the Haleygja-tal.* But Odin had with him that son who is called Yngve, who was king in Sweden, and from him is descended the families called Ynglings (Yngvelings). The asas took to themselves wives there within the land. But some took wives for their sons, and these families became so numerous that they spread over Saxland, and thence over the whole north region, and the tongue of these Asiamen became the native tongue of all these lands. And men think they can understand from the way in which the names of their forefathers is written, that these names have belonged to this tongue, and that the asas have brought this tongue hither to the north, to Norway, to Sweden and to Saxland. But in England are old names of places and towns which can be seen to have been given in another tongue than this. 

*A heroic poem, giving the pedigree (tal) of Norse kings.
Other Translations of Snorri's Edda

Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
George Dasant (1842): [GYLFAGINNING]

Rasmus Anderson Translation (1872): [PROLOGUE][GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916):
[PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL] 
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