Thomas Percy Translation (1770): [GYLFAGINNING]
George Dasant Translation (1842): [GYLFAGINNING]
Rasmus Björn Anderson Translation (1872) [PROLOGUE][GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
A. Brodeur Translation (1916): [PROLOGUE &GYLFAGINNING][SKÁLDSKAPARMÁL]
The Third English Translation of
|Snorra Edda||The Younger Edda|
Rasmus Björn Anderson
This text contains an English translation
of the |
extended Prologue from Codex Wormianus.
Chapters divisions are not part of the original text
and therefore do not correspond between editions.
Items highlighted in red are not found in the original text.
|Gylfaginning: The Fooling of Gylfe|
|1. Frá Gylfa konungi ok Gefjuni.||
Gylfi konungr réð þar löndum er nú
heitir Svíþjóð. Frá honum er þat sagt at hann gaf einni farandi konu at launum
skemmtunar sinnar eitt plógsland í ríki sínu þat er fjórir öxn drægi upp dag ok
nótt. En sú kona var ein af ása ætt, hon er nefnd Gefjun. Hon tók fjóra öxn
norðan ór Jötunheimum, en þat váru synir jötuns nökkurs ok hennar, ok setti þá
fyrir plóg, en plógrinn gekk svá breitt ok djúpt at upp leysti landit, ok drógu
öxnirnir þat land út á hafit ok vestr ok námu staðar í sundi nökkuru. Þar setti
Gefjun landit ok gaf nafn ok kallaði Selund. Ok þar sem landit hafði upp gengit
var þar eftir vatn. Þat er nú Lögrinn kallaðr í Svíþjóð, ok liggja svá víkr í
Leginum sem nes í Selundi. Svá segir Bragi skáld gamli:
1. Gefjun dró frá Gylfa
1. King Gylfe ruled the lands that are now called Svithjod
(Sweden). Of him it is said that he gave to a wayfaring woman, as a
reward for the entertainment she had afforded him by her story-telling,
a plow-land in his realm, as large as four oxen could plow it in a day
and a night But this woman was of the asa-race; her name was Gefjun. She
took from the north, from Jotunheim, four oxen, which were the sons of a
giant and her, and set them before the plow. Then went the plow so hard
and deep that it tore up the land, and the oxen drew it westward into
the sea, until it stood still in a sound. There Gefjun set the land,
gave it a name and called it Seeland. And where the land had been taken
away became afterward a sea, which in Sweden is now called Logrinn (the
Lake, the Malar Lake in Sweden). And in the Malar Lake the bays
correspond to the capes in Seeland. Thus Brage, the old skald:
8Heimskringla: Ynglinga Saga, ch. v.
|2. Gylfi kom til Ásgarðs.||
Gylfi konungr var maðr vitr ok fjölkunnigr. Hann undraðist
þat mjök, er ásafólk var svá kunnigt, at allir hlutir gengu at vilja þeira. Þat
hugsaði hann, hvárt þat myndi vera af eðli sjálfra þeira eða myndi því valda
goðmögn þau, er þeir blótuðu. Hann byrjaði ferð sína til Ásgarðs ok fór með
leynð ok brá á sik gamals manns líki ok dulðist svá. En æsir váru því vísari, at
þeir höfðu spádóm, ok sá þeir ferð hans, fyrr en hann kom, ok gerðu í móti honum
sjónhverfingar. Ok er hann kom inn í borgina, þá sá hann þar háva höll, svá at
varla mátti hann sjá yfir hana. Þak hennar var lagt gylldum skjöldum svá sem
spánþak. Svá segir Þjóðólfr inn hvinverski, at Valhöll var skjöldum þökð:
2. Á baki létu blíkja,
Gylfi sá mann í hallardurum, ok lék at handsöxum ok hafði
sjau senn á lofti. Sá spurði hann fyrr at nafni. Hann nefndist Gangleri
ok kominn af refilstigum ok beiddist at sækja til náttstaðar ok spurði,
hverr höllina átti.
3. Gáttir allar,
Hann sá þrjú hásæti ok hvert upp frá öðru, ok sátu þrír menn
sinn í hverju. Þá spurði hann, hvert nafn höfðingja þeira væri.
4. "ok stattu fram,
2. King Gylfe was a wise man and skilled
in the black art. He wondered much that the asa-folk was so mighty in
knowledge, that all things went after their will. He thought to himself
whether this could come from their own nature, or whether the cause must
be sought for among the gods whom they worshiped. He therefore undertook
a journey to Asgard. He went secretly, having assumed the likeness of an
old man, and striving thus to disguise himself. But the asas were wiser,
for they see into the future, and, foreseeing his journey before he
came, they received him with an eye-deceit. So when he came into the
burg he saw there a hall so high that he could hardly look over it. Its
roof was thatched with golden shields as with shingles. Thus says
Thjodolf of Hvin, that Valhal was thatched with shields:
In the door of the hall Gylfe saw a man who played with swords so dexterously that seven were in the air at one time. That man asked him what his name was. Gylfe answered that his name was Ganglere;10 that he had come a long way, and that he sought lodgings for the night. He also asked who owned the burg. The other answered that it belonged to their king: I will go with you to see him and then you may ask him for his name yourself. Then the man turned and led the way into the hall. Ganglere followed, and suddenly the doors closed behind him. There he saw many rooms and a large number of people, of whom some were playing, others were drinking, and some were fighting with weapons. He looked around him, and much of what he saw seemed to him incredible. Then quoth he:
He saw three high-seats, one above the other, and in each sat a man. He asked what the names of these chiefs were. He, who had conducted him in, answered that the one who sat in the lowest high-seat was king, and hight Har; the one next above him, Jafnhar; but the one who sat on the highest throne, Thride. Har asked the comer what more his errand was, and added that food and drink was there at his service, as for all in Har’s hall. Ganglere answered that he first would like to ask whether there was any wise man. Answered Har: You will not come out from here hale unless you are wiser.And stand now forth
While you ask;
He who answers shall sit.
9 Heimskringla: Harald Harfager’s Saga, ch. xix.
10 The walker.
11 Elder Edda: Havamal.
|3. Um Alföðr, æðstan goða.||
Gangleri hóf svá mál sitt: "Hverr er
æðstr eða elztr allra goða?"
Hárr segir: "Sá heitir Alföðr at váru máli, en í Ásgarði inum forna átti hann tólf nöfn. Eitt er Alföðr, annat er Herran eða Herjan, þriðja er Nikarr eða Hnikarr, fjórða er Nikuðr eða Hnikuðr, fimmta Fjölnir, sétta Óski, sjaunda Ómi, átta Bifliði eða Biflindi, níunda Sviðurr, tíunda Sviðrir, ellifta Viðrir, tólfta Jálg eða Jálkr."
Þá spyrr Gangleri: "Hvar er sá guð, eða hvat má hann, eða hvat hefir hann unnit framaverka?"
Hárr segir: "Lifir hann of allar aldir ok stjórnar öllu ríki sínu ok ræðr öllum hlutum, stórum ok smám."
Þá mælir Jafnhárr: "Hann smíðaði himin ok jörð ok loftin ok alla eign þeira."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Hitt er þó mest, er hann gerði manninn ok gaf honum önd þá, er lifa skal ok aldri týnast, þótt líkaminn fúni at moldu eða brenni at ösku, ok skulu allir menn lifa, þeir er rétt eru siðaðir, ok vera með honum sjálfum þar sem heitir Gimlé eða Vingólf, en vándir menn fara til Heljar ok þaðan í Niflhel. Þat er niðr í inn níunda heim."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist hann áðr at en himinn ok jörð væri ger?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Þá var hann með hrímþursum."
3. Ganglere then made the following
question: Who is the highest and oldest of all the gods?
Made answer Har: Alfather he is called in our tongue, but in Asgard of old he had twelve names. The first is Alfather, the second is Herran or Herjan, the third Nikar or Hnikar, the fourth Nikuz or Hnikud, the fifth Fjolner, the sixth Oske, the seventh Ome, the eighth Biflide or Biflinde, the ninth Svidar, the tenth Svidrer, the eleventh Vidrer, the twelfth Jalg or Jalk.
Ganglere asks again: Where is this god? What can he do? What mighty works has he accomplished?
Answered Har: He lives from everlasting to everlasting, rules over all his realm, and governs all things, great and small.
Then remarked Jafnhar: He made heaven and earth, the air and all things in them.
Thride added: What is most important, he made man and gave him a spirit, which shall live, and never perish, though the body may turn to dust or burn to ashes. All who live a life of virtue shall dwell with him in Gimle or Vingolf. The wicked, on the other hand, go to Hel, and from her to Niflhel, that is, down into the ninth world.
Then asked Ganglere: What was he doing before heaven and earth were made?
Har gave answer: Then was he with the frost-giants.
|4. Frá Niflheimi ok Múspelli.||
Gangleri mælti: "Hvat var upphaf eða hversu hófst, eða hvat
Hárr svarar: "Svá sem segir í Völuspá:
5. Ár var alda,
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Fyrr var þat mörgum öldum en jörð var
sköpuð er Niflheimr var gerr, ok í honum miðjum liggr bruðr sá, er
Hvergelmir heitir, ok þaðan af falla þær ár, er svá heita: Svöl,
Gunnþrá, Fjörm, Fimbulþul, Slíðr ok Hríð, Sylgr ok Ylgr, Víð, Leiftr.
Gjöll er næst Helgrindum."
6. Surtr ferr sunnan
4. Said Ganglere: How came the world into existence, or how did
it rise? What was before? Made answer to him Har: Thus is it said in the
It was Time’s morning,
When there nothing was;
Nor sand, nor sea,
Nor cooling billows.
Earth there was not,
Nor heaven above.
The Ginungagap was,
But grass nowhere.12
Jafnhar remarked: Many ages before the earth was made, Niflheim had existed, in the midst of which is the well called Hvergelmer, whence flow the following streams: Svol, Gunnthro, Form, Fimbul, Thul, Slid and Hrid, Sylg and Ylg, Vid, Leipt and Gjoll, the last of which is nearest the gate of Hel. Then added Thride: Still there was before a world to the south which hight Muspelheim. It is light and hot, and so bright and dazzling that no stranger, who is not a native there, can stand it. Surt is the name of him who stands on its border guarding it. He has a flaming sword in his hand, and at the end of the world he will come and harry, conquer all the gods, and burn up the whole world with fire. Thus it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
Surt from the south fares
13. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 56.
|5. Upphaf Ymis ok hrímþursa.|
Gangleri mælti: "Hversu skipaðist, áðr en
ættirnar yrði eða aukaðist mannfólkit?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Ár þær, er kallaðar eru Élivágar, þá er þær váru svá langt komnar frá uppsprettum, at eitrkvika sú, er þar fylgði, harðnaði svá sem sindr þat, er renn ór eldinum, þá varð þat íss. Ok þá er sá íss gaf staðar ok rann eigi, þá hélði yfir þannig, en úr þat, er af stóð eitrinu, fraus at hrími, ok jók hrímit hvert yfir annat allt í Ginnungagap."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Ginnungagap, þat er vissi til norðrættar, fylltist með þunga ok höfugleik íss ok hríms ok inn í frá úr ok gustr, en inn syðri hlutr Ginnungagaps léttist mót gneistum ok síum þeim, er flugu ór Múspellsheimi."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Svá sem kalt stóð af Niflheimi ok allir hlutir grimmir, svá var allt þat, er vissi námunda Múspelli, heitt ok ljóst, en Ginnungagap var svá hlætt sem loft vindlaust. Ok þá er mættist hrímin ok blær hitans, svá at bráðnaði ok draup, ok af þeim kvikudropum kviknaði með krafti þess, er til sendi hitann, ok varð manns líkandi, ok var sá nefndr Ymir, en hrímþursar kalla hann Aurgelmi, ok eru þaðan komnar ættir hrímþursa, svá sem segir í Völuspá inni skömmu:
7. Eru völur allar
Prose text has been created here in the translation. The first half stanza following is absent from the Uppsala Codex.
En hér segir svá Vafþrúðnir jötunn:8a. hvaðan Aurgelmir kom
með iötna sonom fyrst,
inn fróði iötunn.
8b. Ór Élivágum
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvernig óxu ættir þaðan
eða skapaðist svá, at fleiri menn urðu, eða trúir þú þann guð, er nú
sagðir þú frá?"
5. Said Ganglere: What took place before the races came into
existence, and men increased and multiplied? Replied Har, explaining,
that as soon as the streams, that are called the Elivogs, had come so
far from their source that the venomous yeast which flowed with them
hardened, as does dross that runs from the fire, then it turned into
ice. And when this ice stopped and flowed no more, then gathered over it
the drizzling rain that arose from the venom and froze into rime, and
one layer of ice was laid upon the other clear into Ginungagap. Then
said Jafnhar: All that part of Ginungagap that turns toward the north
was filled with thick and heavy ice and rime, and everywhere within were
drizzling rains and gusts. But the south part of Ginungagap was lighted
up by the glowing sparks that flew out of Muspelheim. Added Thride: As
cold and all things grim proceeded from Niflheim, so that which bordered
on Muspelheim was hot and bright, and Ginungagap was as warm and mild as
windless air. And when the heated blasts from Muspelheim met the rime,
so that it melted into drops, then, by the might of him who sent the
heat, the drops quickened into life and took the likeness of a man, who
got the name Ymer. But the Frost giants call him Aurgelmer. Thus it is
said in the short Prophecy of the Vala (the Lay of Hyndla):
All the valas are
And on this point, when Vafthrudner, the giant, was asked by Gangrad:
Whence came Aurgelmer
From the Elivogs
Then asked Ganglere: How were the races developed from him? Or what was done so that more men were made? Or do you believe him to be god of whom you now spake? Made answer Har: By no means do we believe him to be god; evil was he and all his offspring, them we call frost-giants. It is said that when he slept he fell into a sweat, and then there grew under his left arm a man and a woman, and one of his feet begat with the other a son. From these come the races that are called frost-giants. The old frost-giant we call Ymer.14. Elder Edda: Hyndla’s Lay, 34.
15. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 30.
16. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 31.
|6. Frá Auðhumlu ok upphafi Óðins.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar byggði Ymir, eða við hvat lifði hann?"
Hárr svarar: "Næst var þat, þá er hrímit draup, at þar varð af kýr sú, er Auðhumla hét, en fjórar mjólkár runnu ór spenum hennar, ok fæddi hon Ymi."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Við hvat fæddist kýrin?"
Hárr svarar: "Hon sleikði hrímsteinana, er saltir váru, ok inn fyrsta dag, er hon sleikði steinana, kom ór steininum at kveldi manns hár, annan dag manns höfuð, þriðja dag var þar allr maðr. Sá er nefndr Búri. Hann var fagr álitum, mikill ok máttugr. Hann gat son þann, er Borr hét, hann fekk þeirar konu, er Bestla hét, dóttir Bölþorns jötuns, ok fengu þau þrjá sonu. Hét einn Óðinn, annarr Vili, þriði Vé, ok þat er mín trúa, at sá Óðinn ok hans bræðr munu vera stýrandi himins ok jarðar. Þat ætlum vér, at hann myni svá heita. Svá heitir sá maðr, er vér vitum mestan ok ágæztan, ok vel meguð þér hann láta svá heita."
6. Then said Ganglere: Where did Ymer dwell, and on what did he live? Answered Har: The next thing was that when the rime melted into drops, there was made thereof a cow, which hight Audhumbla. Four milk-streams ran from her teats, and she fed Ymer. Thereupon asked Ganglere: On what did the cow subsist? Answered Har: She licked the salt-stones that were covered with rime, and the first day that she licked the stones there came out of them in the evening a man’s hair, the second day a man’s head, and the third day the whole man was there. This man’s name was Bure; he was fair of face, great and mighty, and he begat a son whose name was Bor. This Bor married a woman whose name was Bestla, the daughter of the giant Bolthorn; they had three sons,—the one hight Odin, the other Vile, and the third Ve. And it is my belief that this Odin and his brothers are the rulers of heaven and earth. We think that he must be so called. That is the name of the man whom we know to be the greatest and most famous, and well may men call him by that name.
|7. Dráp Ymis ok frá Bergelmi.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat varð þá um þeira
sætt, eða hvárir váru ríkari?"
Þá svarar Hárr: "Synir Bors drápu Ymi jötun, en er hann féll, þá hljóp svá mikit blóð ór sárum hans, at með því drekkðu þeir allri ætt hrímþursa, nema einn komst undan með sínu hýski. Hann kalla jötnar Bergelmi. Hann fór upp á lúðr sinn ok kona hans ok helzt þar, ok eru af þeim komnar hrímþursa ættir, svá sem hér segir:
9. Örófi vetra
7. Ganglere asked: How could these keep peace with Ymer, or
who was the stronger? Then answered Har: The sons of Bor slew the giant Ymer,
but when he fell, there flowed so much blood from his wounds that they drowned
therein the whole race of frost giants; excepting one, who escaped with his
household. Him the giants call Bergelmer. He and his wife went on board his ark
and saved themselves in it. From them are come new races of frost-giants, as is
17. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 35 [The word translated as 'ark' here is lúðr, which means "mill-box", and is often used to indicate the mill itself. It reads: "the wise giant was laid upon lúðr," a mill, like the Grotti Mill churning in the sea, no doubt to be ground into rocks and soil, like Ymir before him. Of this verse, Vigfusson states: þat ek fyrst of man er sá inn fróði jötunn | á var lúðr of lagiðr, Vþm. 35 (referring to some ancient lost myth). Like Dasant, Anderson understands Bergelmir as an Old Norse Noah, and projects that reading onto his translation. The use of the word 'ark' should make that sufficently clear. With the same understanding, later translators and scholars have sought to interpret the wooden 'mill-box' as type of a boat, while others have understood it as a 'coffin'. ]
|8. Borssynir skópu jörð ok himinn.|
Þá segir Gangleri: "Hvat höfðust þá at Bors
synir, ef þú trúir at þeir sé goð?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi er þar lítit af at segja. Þeir tóku Ymi ok fluttu í mitt Ginnungagap ok gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin. Jörðin var ger af holdinu, en björgin af beinunum. Grjót ok urðir gerðu þeir af tönnum ok jöxlum ok af þeim beinum, er brotin váru."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Af því blóði, er ór sárum rann ok laust fór, þar af gerðu þeir sjá, þann er þeir gerðu ok festu saman jörðina ok lögðu þann sjá í hring útan um hana, ok mun þat flestum manni ófæra þykkja at komast þar yfir."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Tóku þeir ok haus hans ok gerðu þar af himin ok settu hann upp yfir jörðina með fjórum skautum, ok undir hvert horn settu þeir dverg. Þeir heita svá: Austri, Vestri, Norðri, Suðri. Þá tóku þeir síur ok gneista þá, er lausir fóru ok kastat hafði ór Múspellsheimi, ok settu á mitt Ginnungap á himin bæði ofan ok neðan til at lýsa himin ok jörð. Þeir gáfu staðar öllum eldingum, sumum á himni, sumar fóru lausar undir himni, ok settu þó þeim stað ok skipuðu göngu þeim. Svá er sagt í fornum vísendum, at þaðan af váru dægr greind ok áratal. Svá sem segir í Völuspá:
10. Sól þat né vissi,
Svá var áðr en þetta
11. Ór Ymis holdi
8. Then said Ganglere: What was done then by the sons of Bor,
since you believe that they were gods? Answered Har: About that there is not a
little to be said. They took the body of Ymer, carried it into the midst of
Ginungagap and made of him the earth. Of his blood they made the seas and lakes;
of his flesh the earth was made, but of his bones the rocks; of his teeth and
jaws, and of the bones that were broken, they made stones and pebbles. Jafnhar
remarked: Of the blood that flowed from the wounds, and was free, they made the
ocean; they fastened the earth together and around it they laid this ocean in a
ring without, and it must seem to most men impossible to cross it. Thride added:
They took his skull and made thereof the sky, and raised it over the earth with
four sides. Under each corner they set a dwarf, and the four dwarfs were called
Austre (east), Vestre (West), Nordre (North), Sudre (South). Then they took
glowing sparks, that were loose and had been cast out from Muspelheim, and
placed them in the midst of the boundless heaven, both above and below, to light
up heaven and earth. They gave resting-places to all fires, and set some in
heaven; some were made to go free under heaven, but they gave them a place and
shaped their course. In old songs it is said that from that time days and years
were reckoned. Thus in the Prophecy of the Vala:
The sun knew not
Of Ymer’s flesh
The earth was made,
And of his sweat the seas;
Rocks of his bones,
Trees of his hair,
And the sky of his skull;
But of his eyebrows
The blithe powers
Made Midgard for the sons of men.
Of his brains
All the melancholy
Clouds were made.19
18. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 8. In Old Norse the sun is feminine, and the moon masculine. See below, sections 11 and 12.
19. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 40, 41. Comp. Vafthrudner’s Lay, 21
|9. Borssynir skópu Ask ok Emblu.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikit þótti mér þeir hafa þá snúit til
leiðar, er jörð ok himinn var gert ok sól ok himintungl váru sett ok
skipt dægrum, ok hvaðan kómu mennirnir, þeir er heim byggja?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Þá er þeir gengu með sævarströndu Borssynir, fundu þeir tré tvau ok tóku upp trén ok sköpuðu af menn. Gaf inn fyrsti önd ok líf, annarr vit ok hræring, þriði ásjónu, mál ok heyrn ok sjón, gáfu þeim klæði ok nöfn. Hét karlmaðrinn Askr, en konan Embla, ok ólst þaðan af mannkindin, sú er byggðin var gefinn undir Miðgarði. Þar næst gerðu þeir sér borg í miðjum heimi, er kölluð er Ásgarðr. Þat köllum vér Trója. Þar byggðu goðin ok ættir þeira, ok gerðust þaðan af mörg tíðendi ok greinir bæði á jörðu ok í lofti. Þar er einn staðr, er Hliðskjálf heitir, ok þá er Óðinn settist þar í hásæti, þá sá hann of alla heima ok hvers manns athæfi ok vissi alla hluti, þá er hann sá. Kona hans hét Frigg Fjörgvinsdóttir, ok af þeira ætt er sú kynslóð komin, er vér köllum ása ættir, er byggt hafa Ásgarð inn forna ok þau ríki, er þar liggja til, ok er þat allt goðkunnug ætt. Ok fyrir því má hann heita Alföðr, at hann er faðir allra goðanna ok manna ok alls þess, er af honum ok hans krafti var fullgert. Jörðin var dóttir hans ok kona hans. Af henni gerði hann inn fyrsta soninn, en þat er Ása-Þórr. Honum fylgði afl ok sterkleikr. Þar af sigrar hann öll kvikvendi.
|9. Then said Ganglere: Much had been done, it seemed to me, when heaven and earth were made, when sun and moon were set in their places, and when days were marked out; but whence came the people who inhabit the world? Har answered as follows: As Bor’s sons went along the sea-strand, they found two trees. These trees they took up and made men of them. The first gave them spirit and life; the second endowed them with reason and power of motion; and the third gave them form, speech, hearing and eyesight. They gave them clothes and names; the man they called Ask, and the woman Embla. From them all mankind is descended, and a dwelling-place was given them under Midgard. In the next place, the sons of Bor made for themselves in the middle of the world a burg, which is called Asgard, and which we call Troy. There dwelt the gods and their race, and thence were wrought many tidings and adventures, both on earth and in the sky. In Asgard is a place called Hlidskjalf, and when Odin seated himself there in the high-seat, he saw over the whole world, and what every man was doing, and he knew all things that he saw. His wife hight Frigg, and she was the daughter of Fjorgvin, and from their offspring are descended the race that we call asas, who inhabited Asgard the old and the realms that lie about it, and all that race are known to be gods. And for this reason Odin is called Alfather, that he is the father of all gods and men, and of all things that were made by him and by his might. Jord (earth) was his daughter and his wife; with her he begat his first son, and that is Asa-Thor. To him was given force and strength, whereby he conquers all things quick.|
|10. Tilkváma Dags ok Nætr.|
|Nörfi eða Narfi hét jötunn, er byggði í Jötunheimum. Hann átti dóttur, er Nótt hét. Hon var svört ok dökk, sem hon átti ætt til. Hon var gift þeim manni, er Naglfari hét. Þeira sonr hét Auðr. Því næst var hon gift þeim, er Ánarr hét. Jörð hét þeira dóttir. Síðast átti hana Dellingr, ok var hann ása ættar. Var þeira sonr Dagr. Var hann ljóss ok fagr eftir faðerni sínu. Þá tók Alföðr Nótt ok Dag, son hennar, ok gaf þeim tvá hesta ok tvær kerrur ok sendi þau upp á himin, at þau skulu ríða á hverjum tveim dægrum umhverfis jörðina. Ríðr Nótt fyrri þeim hesti, er kallaðr er Hrímfaxi, ok at morgni hverjum döggvir hann jörðina af méldropum sínum. Sá hestr, er Dagr á, heitir Skinfaxi, ok lýsir allt loft ok jörðina af faxi hans."||
10. Norfe, or Narfe, hight a giant, who dwelt in Jotunheim. He had a daughter by name Night. She was swarthy and dark like the race she belonged to. She was first married to a man who hight Naglfare. Their son was Aud. Afterward she was married to Annar. Jord hight their daughter. Her last husband was Delling (Daybreak), who was of asa-race. Their son was Day, who was light and fair after his father. Then took Alfather Night and her son Day, gave them two horses and two cars, and set them up in heaven to drive around the earth, each in twelve hours by turns. Night rides first on the horse which is called Hrimfaxe, and every morning he bedews the earth with the foam from his bit. The horse on which Day rides is called Skinfaxe, and with his mane he lights up all the sky and the earth.
|11. Frá Sól ok Mána.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hversu stýrir hann gang sólar eða tungls?"
Hárr segir: "Sá maðr er nefndr Mundilfari, er átti tvau börn. Þau váru svá fögr ok fríð, at hann kallaði son sinn Mána, en dóttur sína Sól ok gifti hana þeim manni, er Glenr hét. En goðin reiddust þessu ofdrambi ok tóku þau systkin ok settu upp á himin, létu Sól keyra þá hesta, er drógu kerru sólarinnar, þeirar er goðin höfðu skapat til at lýsa heimana af þeiri síu, er flaug ór Múspellsheimi. Þeir hestar heita svá, Árvakr ok Alsviðr, en undir bógum hestanna settu goðin tvá vindbelgi at kæla þá, en í sumum fræðum er þat kallat ísarnkol. Máni stýrir göngu tungls ok ræðr nýjum ok niðum. Hann tók tvau börn af jörðunni, er svá heita, Bil ok Hjúki, er þau gengu frá brunni þeim er, Byrgir heitir, ok báru á öxlum sér sá, er heitir Sægr, en stöngin Simul. Viðfinnr er nefndr faðir þeira. Þessi börn fylgja Mána, svá sem sjá má af jörðu."
11. Then said Ganglere: How does he steer the course of the sun and the moon? Answered Har: Mundilfare hight the man who had two children. They were so fair and beautiful that he called his son Moon, and his daughter, whom he gave in marriage to a man by name Glener, he called Sun. But the gods became wroth at this arrogance, took both the brother and the sister, set them up in heaven, and made Sun drive the horses that draw the car of the sun, which the gods had made to light up the world from sparks that flew out of Muspelheim. These horses hight Arvak and Alsvid. Under their withers the gods placed two wind-bags to cool them, but in some songs it is called ironcold (ísarnkol). Moon guides the course of the moon, and rules its waxing and waning. He took from the earth two children, who hight Bil and Hjuke, as they were going from the well called Byrger, and were carrying on their shoulders the bucket called Sager and the pole Simul. Their father’s name is Vidfin. These children always accompany Moon, as can be seen from the earth.
|12. Frá úlfakreppu Sólar.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Skjótt ferr sólin ok nær
svá sem hon sé hrædd, ok eigi myndi hon þá meir hvata göngunni, at hon hræddist
13. Austr býr in aldna
12. Then said Ganglere: Swift fares Sun, almost as if she were afraid, and she could make no more haste in her course if she feared her destroyer. Then answered Har: Nor is it wonderful that she speeds with all her might. Near is he who pursues her, and there is no escape for her but to run before him. Then asked Ganglere: Who causes her this toil? Answered Har: It is two wolves. The one hight Skol, he runs after her; she fears him and he will one day overtake her. The other hight Hate, Hrodvitner’s son; he bounds before her and wants to catch the moon, and so he will at last.20 Then asked Ganglere: Whose offspring are these wolves? Said Har; A hag dwells east of Midgard, in the forest called Jarnved (Ironwood), where reside the witches called Jarnvidjes. The old hag gives birth to many giant sons, and all in wolf’s likeness. Thence come these two wolves. It is said that of this wolf-race one is the mightiest, and is called Moongarm. He is filled with the life-blood of all dead men. He will devour the moon, and stain the heavens and all the sky with blood. Thereby the sun will be darkened, the winds will grow wild, and roar hither and thither, as it is said in the Prophecy of the Vala:
In the east dwells the old hag,
He is filled with the life-blood
21. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 43, 44.
|13. Um Bifröst.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver er leið til himins af jörðu?"
Þá svarar Hárr ok hló við: "Eigi er nú fróðliga spurt. Er þér eigi sagt þat, er goðin gerðu brú af jörðu til himins, er heitir Bifröst? Hana muntu sét hafa. Kann vera, at þat kallir þú regnboga. Hon er með þrimr litum ok mjök sterk ok ger með list ok kunnáttu meiri en aðrar smíðir. En svá sterk sem hon er, þá mun hon brotna, þá er Múspellsmegir fara ok ríða hana, ok svima hestar þeira yfir stórar ár. Svá koma þeir fram."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Eigi þótti mér goðin gera af trúnaði brúna, ef hon skal brotna mega, er þau megu þó gera sem þau vilja."
Þá mælti Hárr: "Eigi eru goðin hallmælis verð af þessi smíð. Góð brú er Bifröst, en enginn hlutr er sá í þessum heimi er sér megi treystast, þá er Múspellssynir herja."
13. Then asked Ganglere: What is the path from earth to heaven? Har answered, laughing: Foolishly do you now ask. Have you not been told that the gods made a bridge from earth to heaven, which is called Bifrost? You must have seen it. It may be that you call it the rainbow. It has three colors, is very strong, and is made with more craft and skill than other structures. Still, however strong it is, it will break when the sons of Muspel come to ride over it, and then they will have to swim their horses over great rivers in order to get on. Then said Ganglere: The gods did not, it seems to me, build that bridge honestly, if it shall be able to break to pieces, since they could have done so, had they desired. Then made answer Har: The gods are worthy of no blame for this structure. Bifrost is indeed a good bridge, but there is no thing in the world that is able to stand when the sons of Muspel come to the fight.
|14. Um bústaði goða ok upphaf dverga.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafðist Alföðr þá
at, er gerr var Ásgarðr?"
15. Þá gengu regin öll
Ok þessi segir hon nöfn þeira dverganna:
17. Nýi, Niði,
En þessir eru ok dvergar ok búa í steinum, en inir fyrri í moldu:
19. Draupnir, Dolgþvari,
En þessir kómu frá Svarinshaugi til Aurvanga á Jöruvöllu, ok er kominn þaðan Lofarr. Þessi eru nöfn þeira:
20. Skirfir, Virfir,
14. Then said Ganglere: What did Alfather do when Asgard had
been built? Said Har: In the beginning he appointed rulers in a place in
the middle of the burg which is called Idavold, who were to judge with
him the disputes of men and decide the affairs of the burg. Their first
work was to erect a court, where there were seats for all the twelve,
and, besides, a high-seat for Alfather. That is the best and largest
house ever built on earth, and is within and without like solid gold.
This place is called Gladsheim. Then they built another hall as a home
for the goddesses, which also is a very beautiful mansion, and is called
Vingolf. Thereupon they built a forge; made hammer, tongs, anvil, and
with these all other tools. Afterward they worked in iron, stone and
wood, and especially in that metal which is called gold. All their
household wares were of gold. That age was called the golden age, until
it was lost by the coming of those women from Jotunheim. Then the gods
set themselves in their high-seats and held counsel. They remembered
how the dwarfs had quickened in the mould of the earth like maggots in
flesh. The dwarfs had first been created and had quickened in Ymer’s
flesh, and were then maggots; but now, by the decision of the gods, they
got the understanding and likeness of men, but still had to dwell in the
earth and in rocks. Modsogner was one dwarf and Durin another. So it is
said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
went all the gods,
And these, says the Vala, are the names of the dwarfs:
But the following are also dwarfs and dwell in the rocks, while the above-named dwell in the mould:
But the following come from Svarin’s How to Aurvang on Joruvold, and from them is sprung Lovar. Their names are:
22. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 12, 14-16, 18, 19.
|15. Frá askinum, Urðarbrunni ok nornum.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvar er höfuðstaðrinn eða
21. Allt veit ek, Óðinn,
Þriðja rót asksins stendr á himni, ok undir þeiri rót er brunnr sá, er mjök er heilagr, er heitir Urðarbrunnr. Þar eiga goðin dómstað sinn. Hvern dag ríða æsir þangat upp um Bifröst. Hon heitir ok ásbrú. Hestar ásanna heita svá: Sleipnir er baztr, hann á Óðinn. Hann hefir átta fætr. Annar er Glaðr, þriði Gyllir, fjórði Glenr, fimmti Skeiðbrimir, sétti Silfrintoppr, sjaundi Sinir, átti Gísl, níundi Falhófnir, tíundi Gulltoppr, ellifti Léttfeti. Baldrs hestr var brenndr með honum, en Þórr gengr til dómsins ok veðr ár þær, er svá heita:
22. Körmt ok Örmt
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Brenn eldr yfir Bifröst?"
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Ef nornir ráða örlögum
manna, þá skipta þær geysi ójafnt, er sumir hafa gott líf ok ríkuligt,
en sumir hafa lítit lén eða lof, sumir langt líf, sumir skammt."
15. Then said Ganglere: Where is the chief or most holy place of the
gods? Har answered: That is by the ash Ygdrasil. There the gods meet in
council every day. Said Ganglere: What is said about this place?
Answered Jafnhar: This ash is the best and greatest of all trees; its
branches spread over all the world, and reach up above heaven. Three
roots sustain the tree and stand wide apart; one root is with the asas
and another with the frost-giants, where Ginungagap formerly was; the
third reaches into Niflheim; under it is Hvergelmer, where Nidhug gnaws
the root from below. But under the second root, which extends to the
frost-giants, is the well of Mimer, wherein knowledge and wisdom are
concealed. The owner of the well hight Mimer. He is full of wisdom, for
he drinks from the well with the Gjallar-horn. Alfather once came there
and asked for a drink from the well, but he did not get it before he
left one of his eyes as a pledge. So it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
The third root of the ash is in heaven, and beneath it is the most sacred fountain of Urd. Here the gods have their doomstead. The asas ride hither every day over Bifrost, which is also called Asa-bridge. The following are the names of the horses of the gods: Sleipner is the best one; he belongs to Odin, and he has eight feet. The second is Glad, the third Gyller, the fourth Gler, the fifth Skeidbrimer, the sixth Silfertop, the seventh Siner, the eighth Gisl, the ninth Falhofner, the tenth Gulltop, the eleventh Letfet. Balder’s horse was burned with him. Thor goes on foot to the doomstead, and wades the following rivers:
Kormt and Ormt
Then asked Ganglere: Does fire burn over Bifrost? Har answered: The red which you see in the rainbow is burning fire. The frost-giants and the mountain-giants would go up to heaven if Bifrost were passable for all who desired to go there. Many fair places there are in heaven, and they are all protected by a divine defense. There stands a beautiful hall near the fountain beneath the ash. Out of it come three maids, whose names are Urd, Verdande and Skuld. These maids shape the lives of men, and we call them norns. There are yet more norns, namely those who come to every man when he is born, to shape his life, and these are known to be of the race of gods; others, on the other hand, are of the race of elves, and yet others are of the race of dwarfs. As is here said:
Far asunder, I think,
Then said Ganglere: If the norns rule the fortunes of men, then they deal them out exceedingly unevenly. Some live a good life and are rich; some get neither wealth nor praise. Some have a long, others a short life. Har answered: Good norns and of good descent shape good lives, and when some men are weighed down with misfortune, the evil norns are the cause of it.
23. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 24.
|16. Enn frá askinum|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er fleira at segja
stórmerkja frá askinum?"
24. Askr Yggdrasils
25. Ormar fleiri liggja
Enn er þat sagt, at nornir þær, er byggja við
Urðarbrunn, taka hvern dag vatn í brunninum ok með aurinn þann, er liggr
um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn, til þess at eigi skuli limar hans
tréna eða fúna. En þat vatn er svá heilagt, at allir hlutir, þeir er þar
koma í brunninn, verða svá hvítir sem hinna sú, er skjall heitir, er
innan liggr við eggskurn, svá sem hér segir:
26. Ask veit ek ausinn,
Sú dögg, er þaðan af fellr á jörðina, þat kalla menn hunangfall, ok þar af fæðast býflugur. Fuglar tveir fæðast í Urðarbrunni. Þeir heita svanir, ok af þeim fuglum hefir komit þat fuglakyn, er svá heitir."
16. Then said Ganglere: What other remarkable things are there to be said about the ash? Har answered: Much is to be said about it. On one of the boughs of the ash sits an eagle, who knows many things. Between his eyes sits a hawk that is called Vedfolner. A squirrel, by name Ratatosk, springs up and down the tree, and carries words of envy between the eagle and Nidhug. Four stags leap about in the branches of the ash and bite the leaves.26 Their names are: Dain, Dvalin, Duney and Durathro. In Hvergelmer with Nidhug are more serpents than tongue can tell. As is here said:
The ash Ygdrasil
More serpents lie
Again, it is said that the norns, that dwell in the fountain of Urd, every day take water from the fountain and take the clay that lies around the fountain and sprinkle therewith the ash, in order that its branches may not wither or decay. This water is so holy that all things that are put into the fountain become as white as the film of an egg-shell As is here said:
An ash I know
The dew which falls on the earth from this tree men call honey-fall, and it is the food of bees. Two birds are fed in Urd’s fountain; they are called swans, and they are the parents of the race of swans.26. The Icelandic barr. See Vigfusson, sub voce.
27. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 35, 34.
28. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 22.
|17. Höfuðstaðir goðanna|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Mikil tíðendi kannt þú at
segja af himninum. Hvat er þar fleira höfuðstaða en at Urðarbrunni?"
27. Sal veit ek standa
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat gætir þess staðar,
þá er Surtalogi brennir himin ok jörð?"
17. Then said Ganglere: Great tidings you are able to tell of the heavens. Are there other remarkable places than the one by Urd’s fountain? Answered Har: There are many magnificent dwellings. One is there called Alfheim. There dwell the folk that are called light-elves; but the dark-elves dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike the light-elves in appearance, but much more so in deeds. The light-elves are fairer than the sun to look upon, but the dark-elves are blacker than pitch. Another place is called Breidablik, and no place is fairer. There is also a mansion called Glitner, of which the walls and pillars and posts are of red gold, and the roof is of silver. Furthermore, there is a dwelling, by name Himinbjorg, which stands at the end of heaven, where the Bifrost-bridge is united with heaven. And there is a great dwelling called Valaskjalf, which belongs to Odin. The gods made it and thatched it with, sheer silver. In this hall is the high-seat, which is called Hlidskjalf, and when Alfather sits in this seat, he sees over all the world. In the southern end of the world is the palace, which is the fairest of all, and brighter than the sun; its name is Gimle. It shall stand when both heaven and earth shall have passed away. In this hall the good and the righteous shall dwell through all ages. Thus says the Prophecy of the Vala:
A hall I know, standing
Then said Ganglere: Who guards this palace when Surt’s fire burns up heaven and earth? Har answered: It is said that to the south and above this heaven is another heaven, which is called Andlang. But there is a third, which is above these, and is called Vidblain, and in this heaven we believe this mansion (Gimle) to be situated; but we deem that the light-elves alone dwell in it now.
29. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 70.
|18. Um uppruna vindsins.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvaðan kemr vindr? Hann
er sterkr, svá at hann hrærir stór höf, ok hann æsir eld. En svá sterkr sem hann
er, þá má eigi sjá hann, því er hann undarliga skapaðr."
28. Hræsvelgr heitir,
18. Then said Ganglere: Whence comes the wind? It is so strong that it moves great seas, and fans fires to flame, and yet, strong as it is, it cannot be seen. Therefore it is wonderfully made. Then answered Har: That I can tell you well. At the northern end of heaven sits a giant, who hight Hrasvelg. He is clad in eagles’ plumes, and when he spreads his wings for flight, the winds arise from under them. Thus is it here said:
Hrasvelg hight he
|19. Um mismun Sumars ok Vetrar.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hví skilr svá mikit, at sumar skal vera
heitt, en vetr kaldr?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi mundi svá fróðr maðr spyrja, því at þetta vitu allir at segja. En ef þú einn ert orðinn svá fávíss, at eigi hefir þetta heyrt, þá vil ek þó þat vel virða, at heldr spyrir þú eitt sinn ófróðliga en þú gangir lengr duliðr þess, er skylt er at vita. Svásuðr heitir sá, er faðir Sumars er, ok er hann svá sællífr, svá at af hans heiti er þat kallat svásligt, er blítt er.
En faðir Vetrar er ýmist kallaðr Vindlóni eða Vindsvalr. Hann er Vásaðar son, ok váru þeir áttungar grimmir ok svalbrjóstaðir, ok hefir Vetr þeira skaplyndi."
|19. Then said Ganglere: How comes it that summer is so hot, but the winter so cold? Har answered: A wise man would not ask such a question, for all are able to tell this; but if you alone have become so stupid that you have not heard of it, then I would rather forgive you for asking unwisely once than that you should go any longer in ignorance of what you ought to know. Svasud is the name of him who is father of summer, and he lives such a life of enjoyment, that everything that is mild is from him called sweet (svasligt). But the father of winter has two names, Vindlone and Vindsval. He is the son of Vasad, and all that race are grim and of icy breath, and winter is like them.|
|20. Frá Óðni ok nöfnum hans.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjir eru æsir, þeir er
mönnum er skylt at trúa á?"
29. Ærr ertu, Loki,
Óðinn heitir Alföðr, því at hann er faðir allra goða. Hann heitir ok Valföðr, því at hans óskasynir eru allir þeir, er í val falla. Þeim skipar hann Valhöll ok Vingólf, ok heita þeir þá Einherjar. Hann heitir ok Hangaguð ok Haftaguð, Farmaguð, ok enn hefir hann nefnzt á fleiri vega, þá er hann var kominn til Geirröðar konungs:
30. Hétumk Grímr
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Geysimörg heiti hafit þér
gefit honum, ok þat veit trúa mín, at þat mun vera mikill fróðleikr, sá
er hér kann skyn ok dæmi, hverir atburðir hafa orðit sér til hvers þessa
20. Then asked Ganglere: Which are the asas, in whom men are bound to believe? Har answered him: Twelve are the divine asas. Jafnhar said: No less holy are the asynjes (goddesses), nor is their power less. Then added Thride: Odin is the highest and oldest of the asas. He rules all things, but the other gods, each according to his might, serve him as children a father. Frigg is his wife, and she knows the fate of men, although she tells not thereof, as it is related that Odin himself said to Asa-Loke:
Odin is called Alfather, for he is the
father of all the gods; he is also called Valfather, for all 81 who fall
in fight are his chosen sons. For them he prepares Valhal and Vingolf,
where they are called einherjes (heroes). He is also called Hangagod,
Haptagod, Farmagod; and he gave himself still more names when he came to
Grim is my name,
Then said Ganglere: A very great number of names you have given him; and this I know, forsooth, that he must be a very wise man who is able to understand and decide what chances are the causes of all these names. Har answered: Much knowledge is needed to explain it all rightly, but still it is shortest to tell you that most of these names have been given him for the reason that, as there are many tongues in the world, so all peoples thought they ought to turn his name into their tongue, in order that they might be able to worship him and pray to him each in its own language. Other causes of these names must be sought in his journeys, which are told of in old sagas; and you can lay no claim to being called a wise man if you are not able to tell of these wonderful adventures.31. Elder Edda. Loke’s Quarrel, 29, 47.
32. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 46-50.
|21. Frá Ása-Þór.|
Þá mælti Gangleri:
"Hver eru nöfn annarra ásanna, eða hvat hafast þeir at, eða hvat hafa þeir gert
33. Fimm hundruð golfa
Þórr á hafra tvá, er svá heita: Tanngnjóstr ok Tanngrisnir, ok reið þá, er hann ekr, en hafrarnir draga reiðna. Því er hann kallaðr Öku-Þórr. Hann á ok þrjá kostgripi. Einn þeira er hamarrinn Mjöllnir, er hrímþursar ok bergrisar kenna, þá er hann kemr á loft, ok er þat eigi undarligt. Hann hefir lamit margan haus á feðrum eða frændum þeira. Annan grip á hann beztan, megingjarðar, ok er hann spennir þeim um sik, þá vex honum ásmegin hálfu. Inn þriðja hlut á hann, þann er mikill gripr er í. Þat eru járnglófar. Þeira má hann eigi missa við hamarskaftit. En engi er svá fróðr, at telja kunni öll stórvirki hans, en segja kann ek þér svá mörg tíðendi frá honum, at dveljast munu stundirnar, áðr en sagt er allt, þat er ek veit."
21. Then said Ganglere: What are the names of the other asas? What is their occupation, and what works have they wrought? Har answered: Thor is the foremost of them. He is called Asa-Thor, or Oku-Thor.33 He is the strongest of all gods and men, and rules over the realm which is called Thrudvang. His hall is called Bilskirner. Therein are five hundred and forty floors, and it is the largest house that men have made. Thus it is said in Grimner’s Lay:
Five hundred floors
Thor has two goats, by name Tangnjost and Tangrisner, and a chariot, wherein he drives. The goats draw the chariot; wherefore he is called Oku-Thor.35 He possesses three valuable treasures. One of them is the hammer Mjolner, which the frost-giants and mountain-giants well know when it is raised; and this is not to be wondered at, for with it he has split many a skull of their fathers or friends. The second treasure he possesses is Megingjarder (belt of strength); when he girds himself with it his strength is doubled. His third treasure that is of so great value is his iron gloves; these he cannot do without when he lays hold of the hammer’s haft. No one is so wise that he can tell all his great works; but I can tell you so many tidings of him that it will grow late before all is told that I know.
33. Oku is derived from the Finnish thunder-god, Ukko.
34. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 24.
35. The author of the Younger Edda is here mistaken. See note on page 82. [Footnote #33 above, and it is Anderson who is mistaken.]
|22. Frá Baldri.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Spyrja vil ek tíðenda af
34. Breiðablik heita,
22. Thereupon said Ganglere: I wish to ask tidings of more of the asas. Har gave him answer: Odin’s second son is Balder, and of him good things are to be told. He is the best, and all praise him. He is so fair of face and so bright that rays of light issue from him; and there is a plant so white that it is likened unto Balder’s brow, and it is the whitest of all plants. From this you can judge of the beauty both of his hair and of his body. He is the wisest, mildest and
Breidablik it is called,
36. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 12.
|23. Frá Nirði ok Skaða.|
Inn þriði áss er sá, er kallaðr er Njörðr. Hann býr á himni, þar sem heitir Nóatún. Hann ræðr fyrir göngu vinds ok stillir sjá ok eld. Á hann skal heita til sæfara ok til veiða. Hann er svá auðigr ok fésæll, at hann má gefa þeim auð landa eða lausafjár. Á hann skal til þess heita. Eigi er Njörðr ása ættar. Hann var upp fæddr í Vanaheimi, en Vanir gísluðu hann goðunum ok tóku í mót at gíslingu þann, er Hænir heitir. Hann varð at sætt með goðum ok Vönum. Njörðr á þá konu, er Skaði heitir, dóttir Þjaza jötuns. Skaði vill hafa bústað þann, er átt hafði faðir hennar, þat er á fjöllum nökkurum, þar sem heitir Þrymheimr, en Njörðr vill vera nær sæ. Þau sættust á þat, at þau skyldu vera níu nætr í Þrymheimi, en þá aðrar níu at Nóatúnum. En er Njörðr kom aftr til Nóatúna af fjallinu, þá kvað hann þetta:
35. Leið erumk fjöll,
Þá kvað Skaði þetta:
36. Sofa ek né máttak
Þá fór Skaði upp á fjall ok byggði í Þrymheimi, ok ferr hon mjök á skíðum ok með boga ok skýtr dýr. Hon heitir öndurgoð eða öndurdís. Svá er sagt:
37. Þrymheimr heitir,
23. The third asa is he who is called Njord. He dwells in Noatun, which is in heaven. He rules the course of the wind and checks the fury of the sea and of fire. He is invoked by seafarers and by fishermen. He is so rich and wealthy that he can give broad lands and abundance to those who call on him for them. He was fostered in Vanaheim, but the vans37 gave him as a hostage to the gods, and received in his stead as an asa-hostage the god whose name is Honer. He established peace between the gods and vans. Njord took to wife Skade, a daughter of the giant Thjasse. She wished to live where her father had dwelt, that is, on the mountains in Thrymheim; Njord, on the other hand, preferred to be near the sea. They therefore agreed to pass nine nights in Thrymheim and three in Noatun. But when Njord came back from the mountains to Noatun he sang this:
Weary am I of the mountains,
Skade then sang this:
Sleep I could not
Then went Skade up on the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheim. She often goes on skees (snow-shoes), with her bow, and shoots wild beasts. She is called skee-goddess or skee-dis. Thus it is said:
Thrymheim it is called
37. Compare Vainamoinen, the son of Ukko, in the Finnish epic Kalevala.
38. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 11.
|24. Frá Frey ok Freyju.|
Njörðr í Nóatúnum gat síðan tvau börn. Hét annat Freyr, en
dóttir Freyja. Þau váru fögr álitum ok máttug. Freyr er inn ágætasti af ásum.
Hann ræðr fyrir regni ok skini sólar ok þar með ávexti jarðar, ok á hann er gott
at heita til árs ok friðar. Hann ræðr ok fésælu manna. En Freyja er ágætust af
ásynjum. Hon á þann bæ á himni, er Fólkvangr heitir. Ok hvar sem hon ríðr til
vígs, þá á hon hálfan val, en hálfan Óðinn, svá sem hér segir:
38. Folkvangr heitir,
Salr hennar Sessrúmnir, hann er mikill ok fagr. En er hon ferr, þá ekr hon köttum tveim ok sitr í reið. Hon er nákvæmust mönnum til á at heita, ok af hennar nafni er þat tignarnafn, er ríkiskonur eru kallaðar fróvur. Henni líkaði vel mansöngr. Á hana er gott at heita til ásta."
24. Njord, in Noatun, afterward begat two children: a son, by name Frey, and a daughter, by name Freyja. They were fair of face, and mighty. Frey is the most famous of the asas. He rules over rain and sunshine, and over the fruits of the earth. It is good to call on him for harvests and peace. He also sways the wealth of men. Freyja is the most famous of the goddesses. She has in heaven a dwelling which is called Folkvang, and when she rides to the battle, one half of the slain belong to her, and the other half to Odin. As is here said:
Folkvang it is called,
Her hall is Sesrynmer, and it is large and beautiful. When she goes abroad, she drives in a car drawn by two cats. She lends a favorable ear to men who call upon her, and it is from her name the title has come that women of birth and wealth are called frur.40 She is fond of love ditties, and it is good to call on her in love affairs.
39. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 14.
40. Icelandic frú (Ger. frau; Dan. frue), pl. frúr, means a lady. It is used of the wives of men of rank or title. It is derived from Freyja.
|25. Frá Tý.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Miklir þykkja mér þessir fyrir sér æsirnir,
ok eigi er undarligt, at mikill kraftr fylgi yðr, er þér skuluð kunna
skyn goðanna ok vita, hvert biðja skal hverrar bænarinnar. Eða eru
fleiri enn goðin?"
Hárr segir: "Sá er enn áss, er Týr heitir. Hann er djarfastr ok bezt hugaðr, ok hann ræðr mjök sigri í orrostum. Á hann er gott at heita hreystimönnum. Þat er orðtak, at sá er týhraustr, er um fram er aðra menn ok ekki sést fyrir. Hann var ok vitr, svá at þat er ok mælt, at sá er týspakr, er vitrastr er. Þat er eitt mark um djarfleik hans, þá er æsir lokkuðu Fenrisúlf til þess at leggja fjöturinn á hann, Gleipni, þá trúði hann þeim eigi, at þeir mundu leysa hann, fyrr en þeir lögðu honum at veði hönd Týs í munn hans, en þá er æsir vildu eigi leysa hann, þá beit hann höndina af, þar er nú heitir úlfliðr, ok er hann einhendr ok ekki kallaðr sættir manna.
25. Then said Ganglere: Of great importance these asas seem to me to be, and it is not wonderful that you have great power, since you have such excellent knowledge of the gods, and know to which of them to address your prayers on each occasion. But what other gods are there? Har answered: There is yet an asa, whose name is Tyr. He is very daring and stout-hearted. He sways victory in war, wherefore warriors should call on him. There is a saw, that he who surpasses others in bravery, and never yields, is Tyr-strong. He is also so wise, that it is said of anyone who is specially intelligent, that he is Tyr-learned. A proof of his daring is, that when the asas induced the wolf Fenrer to let himself be bound with the chain Gleipner, he would not believe that they would loose him again until Tyr put his hand in his mouth as a pledge. But when the asas would not loose the Fenris-wolf, he bit Tyr’s hand off at the place of the wolf’s joint (the wrist; Icel. úlfliðr41). From that time Tyr is one-handed, and he is now called a peacemaker among men.
41. This etymology is, however, erroneous, for the word is derived from oln or öln, and the true form of the word is ölnliðr = the ell-joint (wrist); thus we have ölnboge—the elbow; öln = alin (Gr. φδινη; Latin ulna; cp. Anglo-Saxon el-boga; English elbow) is the arm from the elbow to the end of the middle finger, hence an ell in long measure.
|26. Frá Braga ok Iðunni.|
Bragi heitir einn. Hann er ágætr at speki ok
mest at málsnilld ok orðfimi. Hann kann mest af skáldskap, ok af honum er bragr
kallaðr skáldskapr, ok af hans nafni er sá kallaðr bragr karla eða bragr kvinna,
er orðsnilld hefir framar en aðrir, kona eða karlmaðr. Kona hans er Iðunn. Hon
varðveitir í eski sínu epli þau, er goðin skulu á bíta, þá er þau eldast, ok
verða þá allir ungir, ok svá mun vera allt til ragnarökrs."
26. Brage is the name of another of the asas. He is famous for his wisdom, eloquence and flowing speech. He is a master-skald, and from him song-craft is called brag (poetry), and such men or women as distinguish themselves by their eloquence are called brag-men42 and brag-women. His wife is Idun. She keeps in a box those apples of which the gods eat when they grow old, and then they become young again, and so it will be until Ragnarok (the twilight of the gods). Then said Ganglere: Of great importance to the gods it must be, it seems to me, that Idun preserves these apples with care and honesty. Har answered, and laughed: They ran a great risk on one occasion, whereof I might tell you more, but you shall first hear the names of more asas.
42. Compare the Anglo-Saxon brego = princeps, chief.
|27. Frá Heimdalli.|
Heimdallr heitir einn. Hann er kallaðr hvíti áss. Hann er mikill ok heilagr. Hann báru at syni meyjar níu ok allar systr. Hann heitir ok Hallinskíði ok Gullintanni. Tennr hans váru af gulli. Hestr hans heitir Gulltoppr. Hann býr þar, er heita Himinbjörg við Bifröst. Hann er vörðr goða ok sitr þar við himins enda at gæta brúarinnar fyrir bergrisum. Hann þarf minna svefn en fugl. Hann sér jafnt nótt sem dag hundrað rasta frá sér. Hann heyrir ok þat, er gras vex á jörðu eða ull á sauðum, ok allt þat er hæra lætr. Hann hefir lúðr þann, er Gjallarhorn heitir, ok heyrir blástr hans í alla heima. Heimdallar sverð er kallat höfuð manns. Hér er svá sagt:
39. Himinbjörg heita,
Ok enn segir hann sjálfr í Heimdallargaldri:
40. Níu em ek mæðra mögr,
27. Heimdal is the name of one. He is also called the
white-asa. He is great and holy; born of nine maidens, all of whom were sisters.
He hight also Hallinskide and Gullintanne, for his teeth were of gold. His horse
hight Gulltop (Gold-top). He dwells in a place called Himinbjorg, near Bifrost.
He is the ward of the gods, and sits at the end of heaven, guarding the bridge
against the mountain-giants. He needs less sleep than a bird; sees an hundred
miles around him, and as well by night as by day. He hears the grass grow and
the wool on the backs of the sheep, and of course all things that sound louder
than these. He has a trumpet called the Gjallarhorn, and when he blows it it can
be heard in all the worlds. The head is called Heimdal’s sword. Thus it is here
And again, in Heimdal’s Song, he says himself:
Son I am of maidens nine,
43. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 13.
|28. Frá Heði|
Höðr heitir einn ásinn. Hann er blindr. Ærit er hann sterkr, en vilja mundu goðin, at þenna ás þyrfti eigi at nefna, því at hans handaverk munu lengi vera höfð at minnum með goðum ok mönnum.
28. Hoder hight one of the asas, who is blind, but exceedingly strong; and the gods would wish that this asa never needed to be named, for the work of his hand will long be kept in memory both by gods and men.
|29. Frá Heði|
Víðarr heitir einn, inn þögli áss. Hann hefir skó þjokkvan. Hann er sterkr, næst því sem Þórr. Af honum hafa goðin mikit traust í allar þrautir.
29. Vidar is the name of the silent asa. He has a very thick shoe, and he is the strongest next after Thor. From him the gods have much help in all hard tasks.
|30. Frá Vála.|
Áli eða Váli heitir einn, sonr Óðins ok Rindar. Hann er djarfr í orrostum ok mjök happskeytr.
30. Ale, or Vale, is the son of Odin and Rind. He is daring in combat, and a good shot.
|31. Frá Ulli|
Ullr heitir einn, sonr Sifjar, stúpsonr Þórs. Hann er bogmaðr svá góðr ok skíðfærr svá, at engi má við hann keppast. Hann er ok fagr álitum ok hefir hermanns atgervi. Á hann er ok gott at heita í einvígi.
31. Uller is the name of one, who is a son of Sif, and a step-son of Thor. He is so good an archer, and so fast on his skees, that no one can contend with him. He is fair of face, and possesses every quality of a warrior. Men should invoke him in single combat.
|32. Frá Forseta.|
Forseti heitir sonr Baldrs ok Nönnu Nepsdóttur. Hann á þann sal á himni, er Glitnir heitir. En allir, er til hans koma með sakarvandræði, þá fara allir sáttir á braut. Sá er dómstaðr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir hér:
41. Glitnir heitir salr,
32. Forsete is a son of Balder and Nanna, Nep’s daughter. He has in heaven the hall which hight Glitner. All who come to him with disputes go away perfectly reconciled. No better tribunal is to be found among gods and men. Thus it is here said:
44. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 15.
|33. Frá Loka Laufeyjarsyni.||
|Sá er enn talðr með ásum, er sumir kalla rógbera ásanna ok frumkveða flærðanna ok vömm allra goða ok manna. Sá er nefndr Loki eða Loftr, sonr Fárbauta jötuns. Móðir hans heitir Laufey eða Nál. Bræðr hans eru þeir Býleistr ok Helblindi. Loki er fríðr ok fagr sýnum, illr í skaplyndi, mjök fjölbreytinn at háttum. Hann hafði þá speki um fram aðra menn, er slægð heitir, ok vélar til allra hluta. Hann kom ásum jafnan í fullt vandræði, ok oft leysti hann þá með vélræðum. Kona hans heitir Sigyn, sonr þeira Nari eða Narfi.||
33. There is yet one who is numbered among the asas, but whom some call the backbiter of the asas. He is the originator of deceit, and the disgrace of all gods and men. His name is Loke, or Lopt. His father is the giant Farbaute, but his mother’s name is Laufey, or Nal. His brothers are Byleist and Helblinde. Loke is fair and beautiful of face, but evil in disposition, and very fickle-minded. He surpasses other men in the craft called cunning, and cheats in all things. He has often brought the asas into great trouble, and often helped them out again, with his cunning contrivances. His wife hight Sygin, and their son, Nare, or Narfe.
|34. Frá börnum Loka ok bundinn Fenrisúlfr.|
Enn átti Loki fleiri börn. Angrboða hét gýgr í Jötunheimum. Við
henni gat Loki þrjú börn. Eitt var Fenrisúlfr, annat Jörmungandr, þat er
Miðgarðsormr, þriðja er Hel. En er goðin vissu til, at þessi þrjú
systkin fæddust upp í Jötunheimum, ok goðin rökðu til spádóma, at af
systkinum þessum myndi þeim mikit mein ok óhapp standa, ok þótti öllum
mikils ills af væni, fyrst af móðerni ok enn verra af faðerni, þá sendi
Alföðr til goðin at taka börnin ok færa sér. Ok er þau kómu til hans, þá
kastaði hann orminum í inn djúpa sæ, er liggr um öll lönd, ok óx sá ormr
svá, at hann liggr í miðju hafinu of öll lönd ok bítr í sporð sér.
Hel kastaði hann í Niflheim ok gaf henni vald yfir níu heimum, at hon skyldi skipta öllum vistum með þeim, er til hennar váru sendir, en þat eru sóttdauðir menn ok ellidauðir. Hon á þar mikla bólstaði, ok eru garðar hennar forkunnarhávir ok grindr stórar. Éljúðnir heitir salr hennar, Hungr diskr hennar, Sultr knífr hennar, Ganglati þrællinn, Ganglöt ambátt, Fallandaforað þresköldr hennar, er inn gengr, Kör sæing, Blíkjandaböl ársali hennar. Hon er blá hálf, en hálf með hörundarlit. Því er hon auðkennd ok heldr gnúpleit ok grimmlig.
34. Loke had yet more children. A giantess in Jotunheim, hight Angerboda. With her he begat three children. The first was the Fenris-wolf; the second, Jormungand, that is, the Midgard-serpent, and the third, Hel. When the gods knew that these three children were being fostered in Jotunheim, and were aware of the prophecies that much woe and misfortune would thence come to them, and considering that much evil might be looked for from them on their mother’s side, and still more on their father’s, Alfather sent some of the gods to take the children and bring them to him. When they came to him he threw the serpent into the deep sea which surrounds all lands. There waxed the serpent so that he lies in the midst of the ocean, surrounds all the earth, and bites his own tail. Hel he cast into Niflheim, and gave her power over nine worlds,45 that she should appoint abodes to them that are sent to her, namely, those who die from sickness or old age. She has there a great mansion, and the walls around it are of strange height, and the gates are huge. Eljudner is the name of her hall. Her table hight famine; her knife, starvation. Her man-servant’s name is Ganglate; her maid-servant’s, Ganglot.46 Her threshold is called stumbling-block; her bed, care; the precious hangings of her bed, gleaming bale. One-half of her is blue, and the other half is of the hue of flesh; hence she is easily known. Her looks are very stern and grim.45. Possibly this ought to read the ninth world, which would correspond with what we read on page 72 [Gylfaginning 15], and in the Vala’s Prophecy. See also notes. It may be a mistake of the transcriber.
46. Both these words mean sloth.
Úlfinn fæddu æsir heima, ok hafði Týr einn djarfleik at ganga til at ok
gefa honum mat. En er goðin sá, hversu mikit hann óx hvern dag, ok allar
spár sögðu, at hann myndi vera lagðr til skaða þeim, þá fengu æsirnir
þat ráð, at þeir gerðu fjötur allsterkan, er þeir kölluðu Læðing, ok
báru hann til úlfsins ok báðu hann reyna afl sitt við fjöturinn, en
úlfinum þótti sér þat ekki ofrefli ok lét þá fara með sem þeir vildu. En
it fyrsta sinn, er úlfrinn spyrnði við, brotnaði sá fjöturr. Svá
leystist hann ór Læðingi. Því næst gerðu æsirnar annan fjötr hálfu
sterkara, er þeir kölluðu Dróma, ok báðu enn úlfinn reyna þann fjötur ok
tölðu hann verða mundu ágætan mjök at afli, ef slík stórsmíði mætti eigi
halda honum. En úlfrinn hugsaði, at þessi fjöturr var sterkr mjök, ok
þat með, at honum hafði afl vaxit, síðan er hann braut Læðing - kom þat
í hug, at hann myndi verða at leggja sik í hættu, ef hann skyldi frægr
verða, ok lét leggja á sik fjöturinn. Ok er æsir tölðust búnir, þá
hristi úlfrinn sik ok laust fjötrinum á jörðina ok knúðist fast at,
spyrnði við, braut fjöturinn, svá at fjarri flugu brotin. Svá drap hann
sik ór Dróma. Þat er síðan haft fyrir orðtak, at leysi ór Læðingi eða
drepi ór Dróma, þá er einhver hlutr er ákafliga sóttr.
Eftir þat óttuðust æsirnar, at þeir myndi eigi fá bundit úlfinn. Þá sendi Alföðr þann, er Skírnir er nefndr, sendimaðr Freys, ofan í Svartálfaheim til dverga nökkurra ok lét gera fjötur þann, er Gleipnir heitir. Hann var gerr af sex hlutum: af dyn kattarins ok af skeggi konunnar ok af rótum bjargsins ok af sinum bjarnarins ok af anda fisksins ok af fugls hráka.
Ok þóttú vitir eigi áðr þessi tíðendi, þá máttu nú finna skjótt hér sönn dæmi, at eigi er logit at þér. Sét munt þú hafa, at konan hefir ekki skegg ok engi dynr verðr af hlaupi kattarins ok eigi eru rætr undir bjarginu. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at jafnsatt er þat allt, er ek hef sagt þér, þótt þeir sé sumir hlutir, er þú mátt eigi reyna."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta má ek at vísu skilja, at satt er. Þessa hluti má ek sjá, er þú hefir nú til dæma tekit. En hvernig varð fjöturrinn smíðaðr?"
Hárr segir: "Þat kann ek þér vel segja. Fjöturrinn varð sléttr ok blautr sem silkiræma, en svá traustr ok sterkr sem nú skaltu heyra. Þá er fjöturrinn var færðr ásunum, þökkuðu þeir vel sendimanni sitt erindi. Þá fóru æsirnir út í vatn þat, er Ámsvartnir heitir, í hólm þann, er Lyngvi er kallaðr, ok kölluðu með sér úlfinn, sýndu honum silkibandit ok báðu hann slíta ok kváðu vera nökkuru traustara en líkendi þætti á fyrir digrleiks sakir, ok seldi hverr öðrum ok treysti með handafli, ok slitnaði eigi, en þó kváðu þeir úlfinn slíta mundu.
Þá svarar úlfrinn: "Svá lízt mér á þenna dregil sem enga frægð munak af hljóta, þótt ek slíta í sundr svá mjótt band. En ef þat er gert með list ok vél, þótt þat sýnist lítit, þá kemr þat band eigi á mína fætr."
Þá sögðu æsirnir, at hann myndi skjótt sundr slíta mjótt silkiband, er hann hafði fyrr brotit stóra járnfjötra, - "en ef þú fær eigi þetta band slitit, þá muntu ekki hræða mega goðin. Skulum vér þá leysa þik."
Úlfrinn segir: "Ef þér bindið mik, svá at ek fæk eigi leyst mik, þá skollið þér svá, at mér mun seint verða at taka af yðr hjálp. Ófúss em ek at láta þetta band á mik leggja, en heldr en þér frýið mér hugar, þá leggi einn hverr yðarr hönd sína í munn mér at veði, at þetta sé falslaust gert."
En hverr ásanna sá til annars ok þótti nú vera tvau vandræði, ok vildi engi sína hönd fram selja, fyrr en Týr lét fram hönd sína hægri ok leggr í munn úlfinum. En er úlfrinn spyrnir, þá harðnaði bandit, ok því harðara er hann brauzt um, því skarpara var bandit. Þá hlógu allir nema Týr. Hann lét hönd sína. Þá er æsirnir sá, at úlfrinn var bundinn at fullu, þá tóku þeir festina, er ór var fjötrinum, er Gelgja heitir, ok drógu hana gegnum hellu mikla, - sú heitir Gjöll, - ok festu helluna langt í jörð niðr. Þá tóku þeir mikinn stein ok skutu enn lengra í jörðina, - sá heitir Þviti, - ok höfðu þann stein fyrir festarhælinn. Úlfrinn gapði ákafliga ok fekksk um mjök ok vildi bíta þá. Þeir skutu í munn honum sverði nökkuru. Nema hjöltin við neðra gómi, en efra gómi blóðrefillinn. Þat er gómsparri hans. Hann grenjar illiliga, ok slefa renn ór munni hans. Þat er á sú, er Ván heitir. Þar liggr hann til ragnarökrs."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Furðu illa barna eign gat Loki, en öll þessi systkin eru mikil fyrir sér. En fyrir hví drápu æsir eigi úlfinn, er þeim er ills ván af honum?"
Hárr svarar: "Svá mikils virðu goðin vé sín ok griðastaði, at eigi vildu þau saurga þá með blóði úlfsins, þótt svá segi spárnar, at hann myni verða at bana Óðni."
|35. The wolf was fostered by the asas at home, and Tyr was the only one who had the courage to go to him and give him food. When the gods saw how much he grew every day, and all prophecies declared that he was predestined to become fatal to them, they resolved to make a very strong fetter, which they called Lading. They brought it to the wolf, and bade him try his strength on the fetter. The wolf, who did not think it would be too strong for him, let them do therewith as they pleased. But as soon as he spurned against it the fetter burst asunder, and he was free from Lading. Then the asas made another fetter, by one-half stronger, and this they called Drome. They wanted the wolf to try this also, saying to him that he would become very famous for his strength, if so strong a chain was not able to hold him. The wolf thought that this fetter was indeed very strong, but also that his strength had increased since he broke Lading. He also took into consideration that it was necessary to expose one’s self to some danger if he desired to become famous; so he let them put the fetter on him. When the asas said they were ready, the wolf shook himself, spurned against and dashed the fetter on the ground, so that the broken pieces flew a long distance. Thus he broke loose out of Drome. Since then it has been held as a proverb, “to get loose out of Lading” or “to dash out of Drome,” whenever anything is extraordinarily hard. The asas now began to fear that they would not get the wolf bound. So Alfather sent the youth, who is called Skirner, and is Frey’s messenger, to some dwarfs in Svartalfaheim, and had them make the fetter which is called Gleipner. It was made of six things: of the footfall of cats, of the beard of woman, of the roots of the mountain, of the sinews of the bear, of the breath of the fish, and of the spittle of the birds. If you have not known this before, you can easily find out that it is true and that there is no lie about it, since you must have observed that a woman has no beard, that a cat’s footfall cannot be heard, and that mountains have no roots; and I know, forsooth, that what I have told you is perfectly true, although there are some things that you do not understand. Then said Ganglere: This I must surely understand to be true. I can see these things which you have taken as proof. But how was the fetter smithied? Answered Har: That I can well explain to you. It was smooth and soft as a silken string. How strong and trusty it was you shall now hear. When the fetter was brought to the asas, they thanked the messenger for doing his errand so well. Then they went out into the lake called Amsvartner, to the holm (rocky island) called Lyngve, and called the wolf to go with them. They showed him the silken band and bade him break it, saying that it was somewhat stronger than its thinness would lead one to suppose. Then they handed it from one to the other and tried its strength with their hands, but it did not break. Still they said the wolf would be able to snap it. The wolf answered: It seems to me that I will get no fame though I break asunder so slender a thread as this is. But if it is made with craft and guile, then, little though it may look, that band will never come on my feet. Then said the asas that he would easily be able to break a slim silken band, since he had already burst large iron fetters asunder. But even if you are unable to break this band, you have nothing to fear from the gods, for we will immediately loose you again. The wolf answered: If you get me bound so fast that I am not able to loose myself again, you will skulk away, and it will be long before I get any help from you, wherefore I am loth to let this band be laid on me; but in order that you may not accuse me of cowardice, let some one of you lay his hand in my mouth as a pledge that this is done without deceit. The one asa looked at the other, and thought there now was a choice of two evils, and no one would offer his hand, before Tyr held out his right hand and laid it in the wolf’s mouth. But when the wolf now began to spurn against it the band grew stiffer, and the more he strained the tighter it got. They all laughed except Tyr; he lost his hand. When the asas saw that the wolf was sufficiently well bound, they took the chain which was fixed to the fetter, and which was called Gelgja, and drew it through a large rock which is called Gjol, and fastened this rock deep down in the earth. Then they took a large stone, which is called Tvite, and drove it still deeper into the ground, and used this stone for a fastening-pin. The wolf opened his mouth terribly wide, raged and twisted himself with all his might, and wanted to bite them; but they put a sword in his mouth, in such a manner that the hilt stood in his lower jaw and the point in the upper, that is his gag. He howls terribly, and the saliva which runs from his mouth forms a river called Von. There he will lie until Ragnarok. Then said Ganglere: Very bad are these children of Loke, but they are strong and mighty. But why did not the asas kill the wolf when they have evil to expect from him? Har answered: So great respect have the gods for their holiness and peace-stead, that they would not stain them with the blood of the wolf, though prophecies foretell that he must become the bane of Odin.|
|35. Frá ásynjum.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverjar eru ásynjurnar?"
42. "Hvat þar flýgr,
43. "Né ek flýg,
Af Gnár nafni er svá kallat, at þat gnæfar,
er hátt ferr.
36. Ganglere asked: Which are the goddesses? Har answered: Frigg is the first; she possesses the right lordly dwelling which is called Fensaler. The second is Saga, who dwells in Sokvabek, and this is a large dwelling. The third is Eir, who is the best leech. The fourth is Gefjun, who is a may, and those who die maids become her hand-maidens. The fifth is Fulla, who is also a may, she wears her hair flowing and has a golden ribbon about her head; she carries Frigg’s chest, takes care of her shoes and knows her secrets. The sixth is Freyja, who is ranked with Frigg. She is wedded to the man whose name is Oder; their daughter’s name is Hnos, and she is so fair that all things fair and precious are called, from her name, Hnos. Oder went far away. Freyja weeps for him, but her tears are red gold. Freyja has many names, and the reason therefor is that she changed her name among the various nations to which she came in search of Oder. She is called Mardol, Horn, Gefn, and Syr. She has the necklace Brising, and she is called Vanadis. The seventh is Sjofn, who is fond of turning men’s and women’s hearts to love, and it is from her name that love is called Sjafne. The eighth is Lofn, who is kind and good to those who call upon her, and she has permission from Alfather or Frigg to bring together men and women, no matter what difficulties may stand in the way; therefore “love” is so called from her name, and also that which is much loved by men. The ninth is Var. She hears the oaths and troths that men and women plight to each other. Hence such vows are called vars, and she takes vengeance on those who break their promises. The tenth is Vor, who is so wise and searching that nothing can be concealed from her. It is a saying that a woman becomes vor (ware) of what she becomes wise. The eleventh is Syn, who guards the door of the hall, and closes it against those who are not to enter. In trials she guards those suits in which anyone tries to make use of falsehood. Hence is the saying that “syn is set against it,” when anyone tries to deny ought. The twelfth is Hlin, who guards those men whom Frigg wants to protect from any danger. Hence is the saying that he hlins who is forewarned. The thirteenth is Snotra, who is wise and courtly. After her, men and women who are wise are called Snotras. The fourteenth is Gna, whom Frigg sends on her errands into various worlds. She rides upon a horse called Hofvarpner, that runs through the air and over the sea. Once, when she was riding, some vans saw her faring through the air. Then said one of them:
What flies there?
47. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 36
48. See page 66. [Gylfaginning 12]
|36. Frá valkyrjum||
THE GODDESSES (ASYNJES).
Enn eru þær aðrar, er þjóna skulu í Valhöll, bera drykkju ok gæta borðbúnaðar ok ölgagna. Svá eru þær nefndar í Grímnismálum:
44. Hrist ok Mist,
Þessar heita valkyrjur. Þær sendir Óðinn til hverrar orrustu. Þær kjósa feigð á menn ok ráða sigri. Guðr ok Róta ok norn in yngsta, er Skuld heitir, ríða jafnan at kjósa val ok ráða vígum. Jörð, móðir Þórs, ok Rindr, móðir Vála, eru talðar með ásynjum.
37. There are still others who are to serve in Valhal, bear the drink around, wait upon the table and pass the ale-horns. Thus they are named in Grimner’s Lay:
Hrist and Mist
49. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 36.
|37. Freyr fekk Gerðar Gymisdóttir.||
Gymir hét maðr, en kona hans Aurboða. Hon var bergrisa ættar. Dóttir þeira er Gerðr, er allra kvinna var fegrst. Þat var einn dag, at Freyr hafði gengit í Hliðskjálf ok sá of heima alla. En er hann leit í norðrætt, þá sá hann á einum bæ mikit hús ok fagrt, ok til þess húss gekk kona, ok er hon tók upp höndum ok lauk hurð fyrir sér, þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði í loft ok á lög, ok allir heimar birtust af henni. Ok svá hefnði honum þat mikla mikillæti, er hann hafði setzt í þat it helga sæti, at hann gekk í braut fullr af harmi. Ok er hann kom heim, mælti hann ekki. Ekki svaf hann, ekki drakk hann. Engi þorði ok at krefja hann orða.
Þá lét Njörðr kalla til sín Skírni, skósvein Freys, ok bað hann ganga til Freys ok beiða hann orða ok spyrja, hverjum hann væri svá reiðr, at hann mælti ekki við menn. En Skírnir lézt ganga mundu ok eigi fúss ok kvað illra svara vera ván af honum. En er hann kom til Freys, þá spurði hann, hví Freyr var svá hnipinn ok mælti ekki við menn.
Þá svarar Freyr ok sagði, at hann hefði sét konu fagra ok fyrir hennar sakir var hann svá harmfullr, at eigi myndi hann lengi lifa, ef hann skyldi eigi ná henni - "ok nú skaltu fara ok biðja hennar mér til handa ok hafa hana heim hingat, hvárt er faðir hennar vill eða eigi, ok skal ek þat vel launa þér."
Þá svarar Skírnir, sagði svá, at hann skal fara sendiferð, en Freyr skal fá honum sverð sitt. Þat var svá gott sverð, at sjálft vást. En Freyr lét eigi þat til skorta ok gaf honum sverðit. Þá fór Skírnir ok bað honum konunnar ok fekk heit hennar, ok níu nóttum síðar skyldi hon þar koma, er Barrey heitir, ok ganga þá at brullaupinu með Frey. En er Skírnir sagði Frey sitt erindi, þá kvað hann þetta:
45. Löng er nótt,
Þessi sök er til þess, er Freyr var svá
vápnlauss, er hann barðist við Belja ok drap hann með hjartarhorni."
38. Gymer hight a man whose wife was Orboda, of the race of the mountain giants. Their daughter was Gerd, the fairest of all women. One day when Frey had gone into Hlidskjalf, and was looking out upon all the worlds, he saw toward the north a hamlet wherein was a large and beautiful house. To this house went a woman, and when she raised her hands to open the door, both the sky and the sea glistened therefrom, and she made all the world bright. As a punishment for his audacity in seating himself in that holy seat, Frey went away full of grief. When he came home, he neither spake, slept, nor drank, and no one dared speak to him. Then Njord sent for Skirner, Frey’s servant, bade him go to Frey and ask him with whom he was so angry, since he would speak to nobody. Skirner said that he would go, though he was loth to do so, as it was probable that he would get evil words in reply. When he came to Frey and asked him why he was so sad that he would not talk, Frey answered that he had seen a beautiful woman, and for her sake he had become so filled with grief, that he could not live any longer if he could not get her. And now you must go, he added, and ask her hand for me and bring her home to me, whether it be with or without the consent of her father. I will reward you well for your trouble. Skirner answered saying that he would go on this errand, but Frey must give him his sword, that was so excellent that it wielded itself in fight. Frey made no objection to this and gave him the sword. Skirner went on his journey, courted Gerd for him, and got the promise of her that she nine nights thereafter should come to Bar-Isle and there have her wedding with Frey. When Skirner came back and gave an account of his journey, Frey said:
50. This is the Niblung story in a nut-shell.
51. Elder Edda: Skirner’s Journey, 42
|38. Frá vist Einherja ok Óðins||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þat segir þú, at allir þeir menn, er í orrustu
hafa fallit frá upphafi heims eru nú komnir til Óðins í Valhöll. Hvat hefir hann
at fá þeim at vistum? Ek hugða, at þar skyldi vera allmikit fjölmenni."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt hefir Óðinn þat sama borðhald sem
47. Gera ok Freka
Hrafnar tveir sitja á öxlum honum ok segja í eyru honum öll tíðendi, þau er þeir sjá eða heyra. Þeir heita svá, Huginn ok Muninn. Þá sendir hann í dagan at fljúga um heim allan, ok koma þeir aftr at dögurðarmáli. Þar af verðr hann margra tíðenda víss. Því kalla menn hann Hrafnaguð, svá sem sagt er:
48. Huginn ok Muninn
39. Then said Ganglere: You say that all men who since the beginning of the world have fallen in battle have come to Odin in Valhal. What does he have to give them to eat? It seems to me there must be a great throng of people. Har answered: It is true, as you remark, that there is a great throng; many more are yet to come there, and still they will be thought too few when the wolf52 comes. But however great may be the throng in Valhal, they will get plenty of flesh of the boar Sahrimner. He is boiled every day and is whole again in the evening. But as to the question you just asked, it seems to me there are but few men so wise that they are able to answer it correctly. The cook’s name is Andhrimner, and the kettle is called Eldhrimner as is here said:
Ganglere asked: Does Odin have the same kind of food as the einherjes? Har answered: The food that is placed on his table he gives to his two wolves, which hight Gere and Freke. He needs no food himself. Wine is to him both food and drink, as is here said:
Gere and Freke
Two ravens sit on Odin’s shoulders, and bring to his ears all that they hear and see. Their names are Hugin and Munin. At dawn he sends them out to fly over the whole world, and they come back at breakfast time. Thus he gets information about many things, and hence he is called Rafnagud (raven-god). As is here said:
Hugin and Munin
53. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 18.
54. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 19.
55. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 20.
|39. Frá drykk Einherja.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat hafa einherjar at
drykk, þat er þeim endist jafngnógliga sem vistin, eða er þar vatn drukkit?"
40. Then asked Ganglere: What do the einherjes have to drink that is furnished them as bountifully as the food? Or do they drink water? Har answered: That is a wonderful question. Do you suppose that Alfather invites kings, jarls, or other great men, and gives them water to drink? This I know, forsooth, that many a one comes to Valhal who would think he was paying a big price for his water-drink, if there were no better reception to be found there,—persons, namely, who have died from wounds and pain. But I can tell you other tidings. A she-goat, by name Heidrun, stands up in Valhal and bites the leaves off the branches of that famous tree called Lerad. From her teats runs so much mead that she fills every day a vessel in the hall from which the horns are filled, and which is so large that all the einherjes get all the drink they want out of it. Then said Ganglere: That is a most useful goat, and a right excellent tree that must be that she feeds upon. Then said Har: Still more remarkable is the hart Eikthyrner, which stands over Valhal and bites the branches of the same tree. From his horns fall so many drops down into Hvergelmer, that thence flow the rivers that are called Sid, Vid, Sekin, Ekin, Svol, Gunthro, Fjorm, Fimbulthul, Gipul, Gopul, Gomul and Geirvimul, all of which fall about the abodes of the asas. The following are also named: Thyn, Vin, Thol, Bol, Grad, Gunthrain, Nyt, Not, Non, Hron, Vina, Vegsvin, Thjodnuma.
|40. Um stærð Valhallar.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Þetta eru undarlig tíðendi, er nú sagðir þú.
Geysimikit hús mun Valhöll vera. Allþröngt mun þar oft vera fyrir
Þá svarar Hárr: "Hví spyrr þú eigi þess, hversu margar dyrr eru á höllinni eða hversu stórar? Ef þú heyrir þat sagt, þá muntu segja, at hitt er undarligt, ef eigi má ganga út ok inn hverr, er vill. En þat er með sönnu at segja, at eigi er þröngra at skipa hana en ganga í hana. Hér máttu heyra í Grímnismálum:
49. Fimm hundrað dura
41. Then said Ganglere: That was a wonderful tiding that you now told me. A mighty house must Valhal be, and a great crowd there must often be at the door. Then answered Har: Why do you not ask how many doors there are in Valhal, and how large they are? When you find that out, you will confess that it would rather be wonderful if everybody could not easily go in and out. It is also a fact that it is no more difficult to find room within than to get in. Of this you may hear what the Lay of Grimner says:
56. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 23
|41. Frá skemmtan Einherja.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill mannfjölði er í Valhöll. Svá njóta trú
minnar, at allmikill höfðingi er Óðinn, er hann stýrir svá miklum her. Eða hvat
er skemmtun Einherja, þá er þeir drekka eigi?"
50. Allir Einherjar
En satt er þat, er þú sagðir. Mikill er Óðinn fyrir sér. Mörg dæmi finnast til þess. Svá er hér sagt í orðum sjálfra ásanna:
51. Askr Yggdrasils,
42. Then said Ganglere: A mighty band of men there is in Valhal, and, forsooth, I know that Odin is a very great chief, since he commands so mighty a host. But what is the pastime of the einherjes when they do not drink? Har answered: Every morning, when they have dressed themselves, they take their weapons and go out into the court and fight and slay each other. That is their play. Toward breakfast-time they ride home to Valhal and sit down to drink. As is here said:
All the einherjes
But true it is, as you said, that Odin is a great chief. There are many proofs of that. Thus it is said in the very words of the asas themselves:
57. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 41.
58. Elder Edda: Grimner’s Lay, 44
|42. Æsir rufu eiða sína á borgarsmiðnum.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hverr á þann hest, Sleipni, eða hvat er frá honum at segja?"
Hárr segir: "Eigi kanntu deili á Sleipni, ok eigi veiztu atburði, af hverju hann kom, en þat mun þér þykkja frásagnar vert. Þat var snimma í öndverða byggð goðanna, þá er goðin höfðu sett Miðgarð ok gert Valhöll, þá kom þar smiðr nökkurr ok bauð at gera þeim borg á þrim misserum svá góða, at trú ok örugg væri fyrir bergrisum ok hrímþursum, þótt þeir kæmi inn um Miðgarð, en hann mælti sér þat til kaups, at hann skyldi eignast Freyju, ok hafa vildi hann sól ok mána. Þá gengu æsirnir á tal ok réðu ráðum sínum, ok var þat kaup gert við smiðinn, at hann skyldi eignast þat, er hann mælti til, ef hann fengi gert borgina á einum vetri, en inn fyrsta sumarsdag, ef nökkurr hlutr væri ógerr at borginni, þá skyldi hann af kaupinu. Skyldi hann af engum manni lið þiggja til verksins. Ok er þeir sögðu honum þessa kosti, þá beiddist hann, at þeir skyldu lofa, at hann hefði lið af hesti sínum, er Svaðilfari hét, en því réð Loki, er þat var til lagt við hann. Hann tók til inn fyrsta vetrardag at gera borgina, en of nætr dró hann til grjót á hestinum. En þat þótti ásunum mikit undr, hversu stór björg sá hestr dró, ok hálfu meira þrekvirki gerði hestrinn en smiðrinn. En at kaupi þeira váru sterk vitni ok mörg særi, fyrir því at jötnum þótti ekki tryggt at vera með ásum griðalaust, ef Þórr kæmi heim, en þá var hann farinn í austrveg at berja tröll. En er á leið vetrinn, þá sóttist mjök borgargerðin, ok var hon svá há ok sterk, at eigi mátti á þat leita.
En þá er þrír dagar váru til sumars, þá var komit mjök at borghliði. Þá settust goðin á dómstóla sína ok leituðu ráða ok spurði hverr annan, hverr því hefði ráðit at gifta Freyju í Jötunheima eða spilla loftinu ok himninum svá, at taka þaðan sól ok tungl ok gefa jötnum. En þat kom ásamt með öllum, at þessu myndi ráðit hafa sá, er flestu illu ræðr, Loki Laufeyjarson, ok kváðu hann verðan ills dauða, ef eigi hitti hann ráð til, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, ok veittu Loka atgöngu. En er hann varð hræddr, þá svarði hann eiða, at hann skyldi svá til haga, at smiðrinn væri af kaupinu, hvat sem hann kostaði til.
Ok it sama kveld, er smiðrinn ók út eftir grjótinu með hestinn Svaðilfara, þá hljóp ór skógi nökkurum merr ok at hestinum ok hrein við. En er hestrinn kenndi, hvat hrossi þetta var, þá æddist hann ok sleit sundr reipin ok hljóp til merarinnar, en hon undan til skógar ok smiðrinn eftir ok vill taka hestinn, en þessi hross hlaupa alla nótt, ok dvelst smíðin þá nótt, ok eftir um daginn varð ekki svá smíðat sem fyrr hafði orðit. Ok þá er smiðrinn sér, at eigi mun lokit verða verkinu, þá færist smiðrinn í jötunmóð. En er æsirnir sá þat til víss, at þar var bergrisi kominn, þá varð eigi þyrmt eiðunum, ok kölluðu þeir á Þór, ok jafnskjótt kom hann, ok því næst fór á loft hamarinn Mjöllnir. Galt hann þá smíðarkaupit ok eigi sól eða tungl, heldr synjaði hann honum at byggva í Jötunheimum ok laust þat it fyrsta högg, er haussinn brotnaði í smán mola, ok sendi hann niðr undir Niflheim.
En Loki hafði þá ferð haft til Svaðilfara, at nökkuru síðar bar hann fyl. Þat var grátt ok hafði átta fætr, ok er sá hestr beztr með goðum ok mönnum. Svá segir í Völuspá:
52. Þá gengu regin öll
43. Ganglere asked: Whose is that horse Sleipner, and what is there to
say about it? Har answered: You have no knowledge of Sleipner, nor do you
know the circumstances attending his birth; but it must seem to you worth
the telling. In the beginning, when the town of the gods was building, when
the gods had established Midgard and made Valhal, there came a certain
builder and offered to make them a burg, in three half years, so excellent
that it should be perfectly safe against the mountain-giants and
frost-giants, even though they should get within Midgard. But he demanded as
his reward, that he should have Freyja, and he wanted the sun and moon
besides. Then the asas came together and held counsel, and the bargain was
made with the builder that he should get what he demanded if he could get
the burg done in one winter; but if on the first day of summer any part of
the burg was unfinished, then the contract should be void. It was also
agreed that no man should help him with the work. When they told him these
terms, he requested that they should allow him to have the help of his
horse, called Svadilfare, and at the suggestion of Loke this was granted
59. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 29, 30
|43. Frá Skíðblaðni.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat er at segja frá
Skíðblaðni, er hann er beztr skipa, hvárt er ekki skip jafnmikit sem hann?"
44. Then asked Ganglere: What is there to be said of Skidbladner, which you say is the best of ships? Is there no ship equally good, or equally great? Made answer Har: Skidbladner is the best of ships, and is made with the finest workmanship; but Naglfare, which is in Muspel, is the largest. Some dwarfs, the sons of Ivalde, made Skidbladner and gave it to Frey. It is so large that all the asas, with their weapons and war-gear, can find room on board it, and as soon as the sails are hoisted it has fair wind, no matter whither it is going. When it is not wanted for a voyage, it is made of so many pieces and with so much skill, that Frey can fold it together like a napkin and carry it in his pocket.
|44. Þórr hóf för sína til Útgarða-Loka.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Gott skip er Skíðblaðnir, en allmikil
fjölkynngi mun vera við höfð, áðr svá fái gert. Hvárt hefir Þórr hvergi
svá farit, at hann hafi hitt fyrir sér svá ríkt eða rammt, at honum hafi
ofrefli verit fyrir afls sakar eða fjölkynngi?"
Þá mælti Hárr: "Fár maðr, vættir mik, at frá því kunni at segja, en margt hefir honum harðfært þótt. En þótt svá hafi verit, at nökkurr hlutr hafi svá verit rammr eða sterkr, at Þórr hafi eigi sigr fengit á unnit, þá er eigi skylt at segja frá, fyrir því at mörg dæmi eru til þess ok því eru allir skyldir at trúa, at Þórr er máttkastr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Svá lízt mér sem þess hlutar mynda ek yðr spurt hafa, er engi er til færr at segja."
Þá mælti Jafnhárr: "Heyrt höfum vér sagt frá þeim atburðum, er oss þykkja ótrúligir, at sannir myni vera. En hér mun sá sitja nær, er vita mun sönn tíðendi af at segja, ok muntu því trúa, at hann mun eigi ljúga nú it fyrsta sinn, er aldri laug fyrr."
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hér mun ek standa ok hlýða, ef nökkur órlausn fæst þessa máls, en at öðrum kosti kalla ek yðr vera yfir komna, ef þér kunnuð eigi at segja, þat er ek spyr."
Þá mælti Þriði: "Auðsýnt er nú, at hann vill þessi tíðendi vita, þótt oss þykki eigi fagrt at segja.
Þat er upphaf þessa máls, at Öku-Þórr fór með hafra sína ok reið ok með honum sá áss, er Loki er heitir. Koma þeir at kveldi til eins búanda ok fá þar náttstað. En um kveldit tók Þórr hafra sína ok skar báða. Eftir þat váru þeir flegnir ok bornir til ketils. En er soðit var, þá settist Þórr til náttverðar ok þeir lagsmenn. Þórr bauð til matar með sér búandanum ok konu hans ok börnum þeira. Sonr búanda hét Þjálfi, en Röskva dóttir. Þá lagði Þórr hafrstökurnar útar frá eldinum ok mælti, at búandi ok heimamenn hans skyldu kasta á hafrstökurnar beinunum. Þjálfi, sonr búanda, hélt á lærlegg hafrsins ok spretti á knífi sínum ok braut til mergjar. Þórr dvalðist þar of nóttina. En í óttu fyrir dag stóð hann upp ok klæddi sik, tók hamarinn Mjöllni ok brá upp ok vígði hafrstökurnar. Stóðu þá upp hafrarnir, ok var þá annarr haltr eftra fæti. Þat fann Þórr ok talði, at búandinn eða hans hjón myndu eigi skynsamliga hafa farit með beinum hafrsins. Kennir hann, at brotinn var lærleggrinn. Eigi þarf langt frá því at segja. Vita mega þat allir, hversu hræddr búandinn mundi vera, er hann sá, at Þórr lét síga brýnnar ofan fyrir augun, en þat er hann sá augnanna, þá hugðist hann falla mundu fyrir sjónum hans einum saman. Hann herði hendrnar at hamarskaftinu, svá at hvítnuðu knúarnir. En búandinn gerði sem ván var ok öll hjúnin, kölluðu ákafliga, báðu sér friðar, buðu at yfirbótum allt þat, er þau áttu. En er hann sá hræðslu þeira, þá gekk af honum móðrinn, ok sefaðist hann ok tók af þeim í sætt börn þeira, Þjálfa ok Röskvu, ok gerðust þau þá skyldir þjónustumenn hans, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan síðan.
Then said Ganglere: A good ship is Skidbladner, but much black art must have been resorted to ere it was so fashioned. Has Thor never come where he has found anything so strong and mighty that it has been superior to him either in strength or in the black art? Har answered: Few men, I know, are able to tell thereof, but still he has often been in difficult straits. But though there have been things so mighty and strong that Thor has not been able to gain the victory, they are such as ought not to be spoken of; for there are many proofs which all must accept that Thor is the mightiest. Then said Ganglere: It seems to me that I have now asked about something that no one can answer. Said Jafnhar: We have heard tell of adventures that seem to us incredible, but here sits one near who is able to tell true tidings thereof, and you may believe that he will not lie for the first time now, who never told a lie before. Then said Ganglere: I will stand here and listen, to see if any answer is to be had to this question. But if you cannot answer my question I declare you to be defeated. Then answered Thride: It is evident that he now is bound to know, though it does not seem proper for us to speak thereof. The beginning of this adventure is that Oku-Thor went on a journey with his goats and chariot, and with him went the asa who is called Loke. In the evening they came to a bonde60 and got there lodgings for the night. In the evening Thor took his goats and killed them both, whereupon he had them flayed and borne into a kettle. When the flesh was boiled, Thor and his companion sat down to supper. Thor invited the bonde, his wife and their children, a son by name Thjalfe, and a daughter by name Roskva, to eat with them. Then Thor laid the goat-skins away from the fire-place, and requested the bonde and his household to cast the bones onto the skins. Thjalfe, the bonde’s son, had the thigh of one of the goats, which he broke asunder with his knife, in order to get at the marrow, Thor remained there over night. In the morning, just before daybreak, he arose, dressed himself, took the hammer Mjolner, lifted it and hallowed the goat-skins. Then the goats arose, but one of them limped on one of its hind legs. When Thor saw this he said that either the bonde or one of his folk had not dealt skillfully with the goat’s bones, for he noticed that the thigh was broken. It is not necessary to dwell on this part of the story. All can understand how frightened the bonde became when he saw that Thor let his brows sink down over his eyes. When he saw his eyes he thought he must fall down at the sight of them alone. Thor took hold of the handle of his hammer so hard that his knuckles grew white. As might be expected, the bonde and all his household cried aloud and sued for peace, offering him as an atonement all that they possessed. When he saw their fear, his wrath left him. He was appeased, and took as a ransom the bonders children, Thjalfe and Roskva. They became his servants, and have always accompanied him since that time.
61. Bonde = peasant.
|45. Frá skiptum Þórs ok Skrýmis.|
Lét hann þar eftir hafra ok byrjaði ferðina austr í Jötunheima
ok allt til hafsins, ok þá fór hann út yfir hafit þat it djúpa. En er
hann kom til lands, þá gekk hann upp ok með honum Loki ok Þjálfi ok
Röskva. Þá er þau höfðu litla hríð gengit, varð fyrir þeim mörk stór.
Gengu þau þann dag allan til myrkurs. Þjálfi var allra manna
fóthvatastr. Hann bar kýl Þórs, en til vista var eigi gott.
Þá er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sér náttstaðar ok fundu fyrir sér skála nokkurn mjök mikinn. Váru dyrr á enda ok jafnbreiðar skálanum. Þar leituðu þeir sér náttbóls. En of miðja nótt varð landskjálfti mikill. Gekk jörðin undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf húsit. Þá stóð Þórr upp ok hét á lagsmenn sína, ok leituðust fyrir ok fundu afhús til hægri handar í miðjum skálanum ok gengu þannig. Settist Þórr í dyrrnar, en önnur þau váru innar frá honum, ok váru þau hrædd, en Þórr helt hamarskaftinu ok hugði at verja sik. Þá heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gný.
En er kom at dagan, þá gekk Þórr út ok sér mann, hvar lá skammt frá honum í skóginum, ok var sá eigi lítill. Hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga. Þá þóttist Þórr skilja, hvat látum verit hafði of nóttina. Hann spennir sik megingjörðum, ok óx honum ásmegin. Ok í því bili vaknar sá maðr ok stóð skjótt upp, en þá er sagt, at Þór varð bilt einu sinni at slá hann með hamrinum ok spurði hann at nafni.
En sá nefndist Skrýmir, - "en eigi þarf ek", sagði hann, "at spyrja þik at nafni. Kenni ek, at þú ert Ása-þórr. En hvárt hefir þú dregit á braut hanzka minn?"
Seildist þá Skrýmir til ok tók upp hanzkann. Sér Þórr þá, at þat hafði hann haft of nóttina fyrir skála, en afhúsit, þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans.
Skrýmir spurði, ef Þórr vildi hafa föruneyti hans, en Þórr játti því. Þá tók Skrýmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn ok bjóst til at eta dögurð, en Þórr í öðrum stað ok hans félagar. Skrýmir bauð þá, at þeir legðu mötuneyti sitt, en Þórr játti því. Þá batt Skrýmir nest þeira allt í einn bagga ok lagði á bak sér. Hann gekk fyrir of daginn ok steig heldr stórum, en síð at kveldi leitaði Skrýmir þeim náttstaðar undir eik nökkurri mikilli.
Þá mælti Skrýmir til Þórs, at hann vill leggjast niðr at sofa, - "en þér takið nestbaggan ok búið til nótturðar yðr."
Því næst sofnar Skrýmir ok hraut fast, en Þórr tók nestbaggann ok skal leysa, en svá er at segja, sem ótrúligt mun þykkja, at engi knút fekk hann leyst ok engi álarendann hreyft, svá at þá væri lausari en áðr. Ok er hann sér, at þetta verk má eigi nýtast, þá varð hann reiðr, greip þá hamarinn Mjöllni tveim höndum ok steig fram öðrum fæti at þar, er Skrýmir lá, ok lýstr í höfuð honum, en Skrýmir vaknar ok spyrr, hvárt laufsblað nakkvat felli í höfuð honum eða hvárt þeir hafi þá matazt ok sé búnir til rekkna.
Þórr segir, at þeir munu þá sofa ganga. Ganga þau þá undir aðra eik. Er þat þér satt at segja, at ekki var þá óttalaust at sofa.
En at miðri nótt, þá heyrir Þórr, at Skrýmir hrýtr ok sefr fast, svá at dunar í skóginum. Þá stendr hann upp ok gengr til hans, reiðir hamarinn títt ok hart ok lýstr ofan í miðjan hvirfil honum. Hann kennir, at hamarsmuðrinn sökkr djúpt í höfuðit.
En í því bili vaknar Skrýmir ok mælti: "Hvat er nú? Fell akarn nökkut í höfuð mér, eða hvat er títt um þik, Þórr?"
En Þórr gekk aftr skyndiliga ok svarar, at hann var þá nývaknaðr, sagði, at þá var mið nótt ok enn væri mál at sofa. Þá hugsaði Þórr þat, ef hann kæmi svá í færi at slá hann it þriðja högg, at aldri skyldi hann sjá sik síðan, liggr nú ok gætir, ef Skrýmir sofnaði enn fast. En litlu fyrir dagan þá heyrir hann, at Skrýmir mun sofnat hafa, stendr þá upp ok hleypr at honum, reiðir þá hamarinn af öllu afli ok lýstr á þunnvangann, þann er upp vissi. Sökkr þá hamarrinn upp at skaftinu.
En Skrýmir settist upp ok strauk of vangann ok mælti: "Hvárt munu fuglar nökkurir sitja í trénu yfir mér? Mik grunaði, er ek vaknaða, at tros nökkut af kvistunum felli í höfuð mér. Hvárt vakir þú, Þórr? Mál mun vera upp at standa ok klæðast, en ekki eiguð þér nú langa leið fram til borgarinnar, er kölluð er Útgarðr. Heyrt hefi ek, at þér hafit kvisat í milli yðvar, at ek væra ekki lítill maðr vexti, en sjá skuluð þér þar stærri menn, ef þér komit í Útgarð. Nú mun ek ráða yðr heilræði. Látið þér eigi stórliga yfir yðr. Ekki munu hirðmenn Útgarða-Loka vel þola þvílíkum kögursveinum köpuryrði. En at öðrum kosti hverfið aftr, ok þann ætla ek yðr betra af at taka. En ef þér vilið fram fara, þá stefnið þér í austr, en ek á nú norðr leið til fjalla þessa, er þér meguð nú sjá."
Tekr Skrýmir nestbaggann ok kastar á bak sér ok snýr þvers á braut í skóginn frá þeim, ok er þess eigi getit, at æsirnir bæði þá heila hittast.
|46. He left his goats there and went on his way east into Jotunheim, clear to the sea, and then he went on across the deep ocean, and went ashore on the other side, together with Loke and Thjalfe and Roskva. When they had proceeded a short distance, there stood before them a great wood, through which they kept going the whole day until dark. Thjalfe, who was of all men the fleetest of foot, bore Thor’s bag, but the wood was no good place for provisions. When it had become dark, they sought a place for their night lodging, and found a very large hall. At the end of it was a door as wide as the hall. Here they remained through the night. About midnight there was a great earthquake; the ground trembled beneath them, and the house shook. Then Thor stood up and called his companions. They looked about them and found an adjoining room to the right, in the midst of the hall, and there they went in. Thor seated himself in the door; the others went farther in and were very much frightened. Thor held his hammer by the handle, ready to defend himself. Then they heard a great groaning and roaring. When it began to dawn, Thor went out and saw a man lying not far from him in the wood. He was very large, lay sleeping, and snored loudly. Then Thor thought he had found out what noise it was that they had heard in the night. He girded himself with his Megingjarder, whereby his asa-might increased. Meanwhile the man woke, and immediately arose. It is said that Thor this once forbore to strike him with the hammer, and asked him for his name. He called himself Skrymer; but, said he, I do not need to ask you what your name is,—I know that you are Asa-Thor. But what have you done with my glove? He stretched out his hand and picked up his glove. Then Thor saw that the glove was the hall in which he had spent the night, and that the adjoining room was the thumb of the glove. Skrymer asked whether they would accept of his company. Thor said yes. Skrymer took and loosed his provision-sack and began to eat his breakfast; but Thor and his fellows did the same in another place. Skrymer proposed that they should lay their store of provisions together, to which Thor consented. Then Skrymer bound all their provisions into one bag, laid it on his back, and led the way all the day, taking gigantic strides. Late in the evening he sought out a place for their night quarters under a large oak. Then Skrymer said to Thor that he wanted to lie down to sleep; they might take the provision-sack and make ready their supper. Then Skrymer fell asleep and snored tremendously. When Thor took the provision-sack and was to open it, then happened what seems incredible, but still it must be told,—that he could not get one knot loosened, nor could he stir a single end of the strings so that it was looser than before. When he saw that all his efforts were in vain he became wroth, seized his hammer Mjolner with both his hands, stepped with one foot forward to where Skrymer was lying and dashed the hammer at his head. Skrymer awoke and asked whether some leaf had fallen upon his head; whether they had taken their supper, and were ready to go to sleep. Thor answered that they were just going to sleep. Then they went under another oak. But the truth must be told, that there was no fearless sleeping. About midnight Thor heard that Skrymer was snoring and sleeping so fast that it thundered in the wood. He arose and went over to him, clutched the hammer tight and hard, and gave him a blow in the middle of the crown, so that he knew that the head of the hammer sank deep into his head. But just then Skrymer awoke and asked: What is that? Did an acorn fall onto my head? How is it with you, Thor? Thor hastened back, answered that he had just waked up, and said that it was midnight and still time to sleep. Then Thor made up his mind that if he could get a chance to give him the third blow, he should never see him again, and he now lay watching for Skrymer to sleep fast. Shortly before daybreak he heard that Skrymer had fallen asleep. So he arose and ran over to him. He clutched the hammer with all his might and dashed it at his temples, which he saw uppermost. The hammer sank up to the handle. Skrymer sat up, stroked his temples, and said: Are there any birds sitting in the tree above me? Methought, as I awoke, that some moss from the branches fell on my head. What! are you awake, Thor? It is now time to get up and dress; but you have not far left to the burg that is called Utgard. I have heard that you have been whispering among yourselves that I am not small of stature, but you will see greater men when you come to Utgard. Now I will give you wholesome advice. Do not brag too much of yourselves, for Utgard-Loke’s thanes will not brook the boasting of such insignificant little fellows as you are; otherwise turn back, and that is, in fact, the best thing for you to do. But if you are bound to continue your journey, then keep straight on eastward; my way lies to the north, to those mountains that you there see. Skrymer then took the provision-sack and threw it on his back, and, leaving them, turned into the wood, and it has not been learned whether the asas wished to meet him again in health.|
|46. Frá íþróttum Þórs ok félaga hans.|
Þórr snýr fram á leið ok þeir félagar ok
gengr framan til miðs dags. Þá sá þeir borg standa á völlum nökkurum ok settu
hnakkann á bak sér aftr, áðr þeir fengu séð yfir upp, ganga til borgarinnar, ok
var grind fyrir borghliðinu ok lokin aftr. Þórr gekk á grindina ok fekk eigi upp
lokit, en er þeir þreyttu at komast í borgina, þá smugu þeir milli spalanna ok
kómu svá inn, sá þá höll mikla ok gengu þannig. Var hurðin opin. Þá gengu þeir
inn ok sá þar marga menn á tvá bekki ok flesta ærit stóra.
Því næst koma þeir fyrir konunginn Útgarða-Loka ok kvöddu hann, en hann leit seint til þeira ok glotti við tönn ok mælti: "Seint er um langan veg at spyrja tíðenda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, er þessi sveinstauli orðinn Öku-Þórr? En meiri muntu vera en mér lízt þú, eða hvat íþrótta er þat, er þér félagar þykkizt vera við búnir? Engi skal hér vera með oss, sá er eigi kunni nökkurs konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta menn."
Þá segir sá, er síðast gekk, er Loki heitir: "Kann ek þá íþrótt, er ek em albúinn at reyna, at engi er hér sá inni, er skjótara skal eta mat sinn en ek."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki: "Íþrótt er þat, ef þú efnir, ok freista skal þá þessar íþróttar." - kallaði útar á bekkinn, at sá, er Logi heitir, skal ganga á gólf fram ok freista sín í móti Loka.
Þá var tekit trog eitt ok borit inn á hallargólfit ok fyllt af slátri. Settist Loki at öðrum enda, en Logi at öðrum, ok át hvárrtveggi sem tíðast ok mættust í miðju troginu. Hafði þá Loki etið slátr allt af beinum, en Logi hafði ok etit slátr allt ok beinin með ok svá trogit, ok sýndist nú öllum sem Loki hefði látit leikinn.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki, hvat sá inn ungi maðr kunni leika, en Þjálfi segir, at hann mun freista at renna skeið nökkur við einhvern þann, er Útgarða-Loki fær til. Þá segir Útgarða-Loki, at þetta er góð íþrótt, ok kallar þess meiri ván, at hann sé vel at sér búinn of skjótleikinn, ef hann skal þessa íþrótt inna, en þó lætr hann skjótt þessa skulu freista. Stendr þá upp Útgarða-Loki ok gengr út, ok var þar gott skeið at renna eftir sléttum velli. Þá kallar Útgarða-Loki til sín sveinstaula nökkurn, er nefndr er Hugi, ok bað hann renna í köpp við Þjálfa. Þá taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi því framar, at hann snýst aftr í móti honum at skeiðsenda.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þurfa muntu, Þjálfi, at leggja þik meir fram, ef þú skalt vinna leikinn, en þó er þat satt, at ekki hafa hér komit þeir menn, er mér þykkja fóthvatari en svá."
Þá taka þeir aftr annat skeið, ok þá er Hugi er kemr til skeiðsenda ok hann snýst aftr, þá var langt kólfskot til Þjálfa.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel þykkir mér Þjálfi renna skeiðit, en eigi trúi ek honum nú, at hann vinni leikinn, en nú mun reyna, er þeir renna it þriðja skeiðit."
Þá taka þeir enn skeið, en er Hugi er kominn til skeiðsenda ok snýst aftr, ok er Þjálfi eigi þá kominn á mitt skeið. Þá segja allir, at reynt er um þenna leik.
Þá spyrr Útgarða-Loki Þór, hvat þeira íþrótta mun vera, er hann myni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svá miklar sögur sem menn hafa gert um stórvirki hans. Þá mælti Þórr, at helzt vill hann þat taka til at þreyta drykkju við einhvern mann. Útgarða-Loki segir, at þat má vel vera, ok gengr inn í höllina ok kallar skutilsvein sinn, biðr, at hann taki vítishorn þat, er hirðmenn eru vanir at drekka af. Því næst kemr fram skutilsveinn með horninu ok fær Þór í hönd.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Af horni þessu þykkir þá vel drukkit, ef í einum drykk gengr af, en sumir menn drekka af í tveim drykkjum, en engi er svá lítill drykkjumaðr, at eigi gangi af í þrimr."
Þórr lítr á hornit ok sýnist ekki mikit ok er þó heldr langt, en hann er mjök þyrstr, tekr at drekka ok svelgr allstórum ok hyggr, at eigi skal hann þurfa at lúta oftar í hornit. En er hann þraut örendit ok hann laut ór horninu ok sér, hvat leið drykkinum, ok lízt honum svá sem alllítill munr mun vera, at nú sé lægra í horninu en áðr.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Vel er drukkit ok eigi til mikit. Eigi myndak trúa, ef mér væri sagt frá, at Ása-Þórr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka, en þó veit ek, at þú munt vilja drekka af í öðrum drykk."
Þórr svarar engu, setr hornit á munn sér ok hyggr nú, at hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir á drykkjuna, sem honum vannst til örendi, ok enn sér hann, at stikillinn hornsins vill ekki upp svá mjök sem honum líkar. Ok er hann tók hornið af munni sér ok sér í, lízt honum nú svá sem minna hafi þorrit men í inu fyrra sinni. Er nú gott beranda borð á horninu.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Hvat er nú, Þórr, muntu nú eigi sparast til eins drykkjar meira en þér mun hagr á vera? Svá lízt mér, ef þú skalt nú drekka af horninu inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr. En ekki muntu mega hér með oss heita svá mikill maðr sem æsir kalla þik, ef þú gerir eigi meira af þér um aðra leika en mér lízt, at um þenna mun vera."
Þá varð Þórr reiðr, setr hornit á munn sér ok drekkr sem ákafligast má hann ok þreytur sem mest á drykkinn. En er hann sá í hornit, þá hafði helst nú nökkut munr á fengizt, ok þá býðr hann upp hornit ok vill eigi drekka meira.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Auðsætt er nú, at máttr þinn er ekki svá mikill sem vér hugðum, en viltu freista um fleiri leika? Sjá má nú, at ekki nýtir þú hér af."
Þórr svarar: "Freista má ek enn of nökkura leika, en undarliga myndi mér þykkja, þá er ek var heima með ásum, ef þvílíkir drykkir væri svá litlir kallaðir. En hvat leik vilið þér nú bjóða mér?"
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Þat gera hér ungir sveinar, er lítit mark mun at þykkja, at hefja upp af jörðu kött minn, en eigi myndak kunna at mæla þvílíkt við Ása-Þór, ef ek hefða eigi sét fyrr, at þú er miklu minni fyrir þér en ek hugða."
Því næst hljóp fram köttr einn grár á hallargólfit ok heldr mikill, en Þórr gekk til ok tók hendi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn ok lyfti upp, en kötttrinn beygði kenginn, svá sem Þórr rétti upp höndina. En er Þórr seildist svá langt upp sem hann mátti lengst, þá létti kötturinn einum fæti, ok fekk Þórr eigi framit þenna leik meir.
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Svá fór þessi leikr sem mik varði. Köttrinn er heldr mikill, en Þórr er lágr ok lítill hjá stórmenni því, sem hér er með oss."
Þá mælti Þórr: "Svá lítinn sem þér kallið mik, þá gangi nú til einn hverr ok fáist við mik! Nú em ek reiðr."
Þá svarar Útgarða-Loki ok litast um á bekkina ok mælti: "Eigi sé ek þann mann hér inni, er eigi mun lítilræði í þykkja at fást við þik."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Sjám fyrst, kalli mér hingat kerlinguna fóstru mína, Elli, ok fáist Þórr við hana, ef hann vill. Fellt hefir hon þá menn, er mér hafa litizt eigi ósterkligri en Þórr er."
Því næst gekk í höllina kerling ein gömul. Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki, at hon skal taka fang við Ása-þór. Ekki er langt um að gera. Svá fór fang þat, at því harðara er Þórr knúðist at fanginu, því fastara stóð hon. Þá tók kerling at leita til bragða, ok varð Þórr þá lauss á fótum, ok váru þær sviptingar allharðar ok eigi lengi, áðr en Þórr féll á kné öðrum fæti. Þá gekk til Útgarða-Loki ok bað þau hætta fanginu ok sagði svá, at Þórr myndi eigi þurfa at bjóða fleirum mönnum fang í hans hirð. Var þá ok liðit at nótt. Vísaði Útgarða-Loki Þór ok þeim félögum til sætis, ok dveljast þar náttlangt í góðum fagnaði.
47. Thor and his companions went their way and continued their
journey until noon. Then they saw a burg standing on a plain, and it was so high
that they had to bend their necks clear back before they could look over it.
They drew nearer and came to the burg-gate, which was closed. Thor finding
himself unable to open it, and being anxious to get within the burg, they crept
between the bars and so came in. They discovered a large hall and went to it.
Finding the door open they entered, and saw there many men, the most of whom
were immensely large, sitting on two benches. Thereupon they approached the
king, Utgard-Loke, and greeted him. He scarcely deigned to look at them, smiled
scornfully and showed his teeth, saying: It is late to ask for tidings of a
long journey, but if I am not mistaken this stripling is Oku-Thor, is it not? It
may be, however, that you are really bigger than you look For what feats are you
and your companions prepared? No one can stay with us here, unless he is skilled
in some craft or accomplishment beyond the most of men. Then answered he who
came in last, namely Loke: I know the feat of which I am prepared to give proof,
that there is no one present who can eat his food faster than I. Then said
Utgard-Loke: That is a feat, indeed, if you can keep your word, and you shall
try it immediately. He then summoned from the bench a man by name Loge, and
requested him to come out on the floor and try his strength against Loke. They
took a trough full of meat and set it on the floor, whereupon Loke seated
himself at one end and Loge at the other. Both ate as fast as they could, and
met at the middle of the trough. Loke had eaten all the flesh off from the
bones, but Loge had consumed both the flesh and the bones, and the trough too.
All agreed that Loke had lost the wager. Then Utgard-Loke asked what game that
young man knew? Thjalfe answered that he would try to run a race with anyone
that Utgard-Loke might designate. Utgard-Loke said this was a good feat, and
added that it was to be hoped that he excelled in swiftness if he expected
to win in this game, but he would soon have the matter decided. He arose and
went out. There was an excellent race-course along the flat plain. Utgard-Loke
then summoned a young man, whose name was Huge, and bade him run a race with
Thjalfe. Then they took the first heat, and Huge was so much ahead that when he
turned at the goal he met Thjalfe. Said Utgard-Loke: You must lay yourself more
forward, Thjalfe, if you want to win the race; but this I confess, that there
has never before come anyone hither who was swifter of foot than you. Then they
took a second heat, and when Huge came to the goal and turned, there was a long
bolt-shot to Thjalfe. Then said Utgard-Loke: Thjalfe seems to me to run well;
still I scarcely think he will win the race, but this will be proven when they
run the third heat. Then they took one more heat. Huge ran to the goal and
turned back, but Thjalfe had not yet gotten to the middle of the course. Then
all said that this game had been tried sufficiently. Utgard-Loke now asked Thor
what feats there were that he would be willing to exhibit before them,
corresponding to the tales that men tell of his great works. Thor replied that
he preferred to compete with someone in drinking. Utgard-Loke said there would
be no objection to this. He went into the hall, called his cup-bearer, and
requested him to take the sconce-horn that his thanes were wont to drink from.
The cup-bearer immediately brought forward the horn and handed it to Thor. Said
Utgard-Loke: From this horn it is thought to be well drunk if it is emptied in
one draught, some men empty it in two draughts, but there is no drinker so
wretched that he cannot exhaust it in three. Thor looked at the horn and did not
think it was very large, though it seemed pretty long, but he was very thirsty.
He put it to his lips and swallowed with all his might, thinking that he should
not have to bend over the horn a second time. But when his breath gave out, and
he looked into the horn to see how it had gone with his drinking, it seemed to
him difficult to determine whether there was less in it than before. Then said
Utgard-Loke: That is well drunk, still it is not very much. I could never have
believed it, if anyone had told me, that Asa-Thor could not drink more, but I
know you will be able to empty it in a second draught. Thor did not answer, but
set the horn to his lips, thinking that he would now take a larger draught. He
drank as long as he could and drank deep, as he was wont, but still he could not
make the tip of the horn come up as much as he would like. And when he set the
horn away and looked into it, it seemed to him that he had drunk less than
the first time; but the horn could now be borne without spilling. Then said
Utgard-Loke: How now, Thor! Are you not leaving more for the third draught than
befits your skill? It seems to me that if you are to empty the horn with the
third draught, then this will be the greatest. You will not be deemed so great a
man here among us as the asas call you, if you do not distinguish yourself more
in other feats than you seem to me to have done in this. Then Thor became wroth,
set the horn to his mouth and drank with all his might and kept on as long as he
could, and when he looked into it its contents had indeed visibly diminished,
but he gave back the horn and would not drink any more. Said Utgard-Loke: It is
clear that your might is not so great as we thought. Would you like to try other
games? It is evident that you gained nothing by the first. Answered Thor: I
should like to try other games, but I should be surprised if such a drink at
home among the asas would be called small. What game will you now offer me?
Answered Utgard-Loke: Young lads here think it nothing but play to lift my cat
up from the ground, and I should never have dared to offer such a thing to
Asa-Thor had I not already seen that you are much less of a man than I thought.
Then there sprang forth on the floor a gray cat, and it was rather large. Thor
went over to it, put his hand under the middle of its body and tried to lift
it up, but the cat bent its back in the same degree as Thor raised his hands;
and when he had stretched them up as far as he was able the cat lifted one foot,
and Thor did not carry the game any further. Then said Utgard-Loke: This game
ended as I expected. The cat is rather large, and Thor is small, and little
compared with the great men that are here with us. Said Thor: Little as you call
me, let anyone who likes come hither and wrestle with me, for now I am wroth.
Answered Utgard-Loke, looking about him on the benches: I do not see anyone here
who would not think it a trifle to wrestle with you. And again he said: Let me
see first! Call hither that old woman, Elle, my foster-mother, and let Thor
wrestle with her if he wants to. She has thrown to the ground men who have
seemed to me no less strong than Thor. Then there came into the hall an old
woman. Utgard-Loke bade her take a wrestle with Asa-Thor. The tale is not long.
The result of the grapple was, that the more Thor tightened his grasp, the
firmer she stood. Then the woman began to bestir herself, and Thor lost his
footing. They had some very hard tussles, and before long Thor was brought down
on one knee. Then Utgard-Loke stepped forward, bade them cease the wrestling,
and added that Thor did not need to challenge anybody else to wrestle with him
in his hall, besides it was now getting late. He showed Thor and his companions
to seats, and they spent the night there enjoying the best of hospitality.
|47. Skilnaðr Þórs ok Útgarða-Loka.|
En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stendr Þórr upp ok þeir félagar,
klæða sik ok eru búnir braut at ganga. Þá kom þar Útgarða-Loki ok lét
setja þeim borð. Skorti þá eigi góðan fagnað, mat ok drykk. En er þeir
hafa matazt, þá snúast þeir til ferðar.
Útgarða-Loki fylgir þeim út, gengr með þeim braut ór borginni, en at skilnaði þá mælti Útgarða-Loki til Þórs ok spyrr, hvernig honum þykkir ferð sín orðin, eða hvárt hann hefir hitt ríkara mann nökkurn en sik.
Þórr segir, at eigi mun hann þat segja, at eigi hafi hann mikla ósæmð farit í þeira viðskiptum, - "en þó veit ek, at þér munuð kalla mik lítinn mann fyrir mér, ok uni ek því illa."
Þá mælti Útgarða-Loki: "Nú skal segja þér it sanna, er þú ert út kominn ór borginni, at ef ek lifi ok megak ráða, þá skaltu aldri oftar í hana koma. Ok þat veit trúa mín, at aldri hefðir þú í hana komit, ef ek hefða vitat áðr, at þú hefðir svá mikinn kraft með þér ok þú hafðir svá nær haft oss mikilli ófæru. En sjónhverfingar hef ek gert þér, svá at fyrsta sinn á skóginum kom ek til fundar við yðr, ok þá er þú skyldir leysa nestbaggann, þá hafðak bundit hann með grésjárni, en þú fannt eigi, hvar upp skyldi lúka. En því næst laust þú mik með hamrinum þrjú högg, ok var it fyrsta minnst ok var þó svá mikit, at mér mundi endast til bana, ef á hefði komit. En þar er þú sátt hjá höll minni setberg ok þar sáttu ofan í þrjá dali ferskeytta ok einn djúpastan, þar váru hamarspor þín. Setberginu brá ek fyrir höggin, en eigi sást þú þat. Svá var ok of leikana, er þér þreyttuð við hirðmenn mína, þá var þat it fyrsta er, Loki gerði. Hann var mjök soltinn ok át títt, en sá er Logi hét, þat var villieldr, ok brenndi hann eigi seinna trogið en slátrit. En er Þjálfi þreytti rásina við þann, er Hugi hét, þat var hugr minn, ok var Þjálfa eigi vænt at þreyta skjótfæri við hann. En er þú drakkt af horninu ok þótti þér seint líða, en þat veit trúa mín, at þá varð þat undr, er ek mynda eigi trúa, at vera mætti. Annarr endir hornsins var úti í hafi, en þat sáttu eigi, en nú, er þú kemr til sjávarins, þá muntu sjá mega, hvern þurrð þú hefir drukkit á sænum. Þat eru nú fjörur kallaðar."
Ok enn mælti hann: "Eigi þótti mér hitt minna vera vert, er þú lyftir upp kettinum, ok þér satt at segja, þá hræddust allir þeir, er sá, er þú lyftir af jörðu einum fætinum. En sá köttr var eigi sem þér sýndist. Þat var Miðgarðsormr, er liggr um öll lönd, ok vannst honum varliga lengð til, at jörðina tæki sporðr ok höfuð, svá langt seildist þú upp, at skammt var þá til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þú stótt svá lengi við ok fellt eigi meir en á kné öðrum fæti, er þú fékkst við Elli, fyrir því at engi hefir sá orðit ok engi mun verða, ef svá gamall verðr, at elli bíðr, at eigi komi ellin öllum til falls. Ok er nú þat satt at segja, at vér munum skiljast, ok mun þá betr hvárratveggju handar, at þér komit eigi oftar mik at hitta. Ek mun enn annat sinn verja borg mína með þvílíkum vélum eða öðrum, svá at ekki vald munuð þér á mér fá."
En er Þórr heyrði þessa tölu, greip hann til hamarsins ok bregðr á loft, en er hann skal fram reiða, þá sér hann þar hvergi Útgarða-Loka. Ok þá snýst hann aftr til borgarinnar ok ætlast þá fyrir at brjóta borgina. Þá sér hann þar völlu víða ok fagra, en enga borg. Snýst hann þá aftr ok ferr leið sína, til þess er hann kom aftr í Þrúðvanga. En þat er satt at segja, at þá hafi hann ráðit fyrir sér at leita til, ef saman mætti bera fundi þeira Miðgarðsorms, sem síðar varð. Nú ætla ek engan kunna þér sannara at segja frá þessi ferð Þórs."
48. At daybreak the next day Thor and his companions arose, dressed
themselves and were ready to depart. Then came Utgard-Loke and had the table
spread for them, and there was no lack of feasting both in food and in drink.
When they had breakfasted, they immediately departed from the burg. Utgard-Loke
went with them out of the burg, but at parting he spoke to Thor and asked him
how he thought his journey had turned out, or whether he had ever met a mightier
man than himself. Thor answered that he could not deny that he had been greatly
disgraced in this meeting; and this I know, he added, that you will call me a
man of little account, whereat I am much mortified. Then said Utgard-Loke: Now I
will tell you the truth, since you have come out of the burg, that if I live,
and may have my way, you shall never enter it again; and this I know, forsooth,
that you should never have come into it had I before known that you were so
strong, and that you had come so near bringing us into great misfortune. Know,
then, that I have deceived you with illusions. When I first found you in the
woods I came to meet you, and when you were to loose the provision-sack I
had bound it with iron threads, but you did not find where it was to be untied.
In the next place, you struck me three times with the hammer. The first blow was
the least, and still it was so severe that it would have been my death if it had
hit me. You saw near my burg a mountain cloven at the top into three square
dales, of which one was the deepest,—these were the dints made by your hammer.
The mountain I brought before the blows without your seeing it. In like manner I
deceived you in your contests with my courtiers. In regard to the first, in
which Loke took part, the facts were as follows: He was very hungry and ate
fast; but he whose name was Loge was wildfire, and he burned the trough no less
rapidly than the meat. When Thjalfe ran a race with him whose name was Huge,
that was my thought, and it was impossible for him to keep pace with its
swiftness. When you drank from the horn, and thought that it diminished so
little, then, by my troth, it was a great wonder, which I never could have
deemed possible.. One end of the horn stood in the sea, but that you did not
see. When you come to the sea-shore you will discover how much the sea has sunk
by your drinking; that is now called the ebb. Furthermore he said: Nor did it
seem less wonderful to me that you lifted up the cat; and, to tell you the
truth, all who saw it were frightened when they saw that you raised one of
its feet from the ground, for it was not such a cat as you thought. It was in
reality the Midgard-serpent, which surrounds all lands. It was scarcely long
enough to touch the earth with its tail and head, and you raised it so high that
your hand nearly reached to heaven. It was also a most astonishing feat when you
wrestled with Elle, for none has ever been, and none shall ever be, that Elle
(eld, old age) will not get the better of him, though he gets to be old enough
to abide her coming. And now the truth is that we must part; and it will be
better for us both that you do not visit me again. I will again defend my burg
with similar or other delusions, so that you will get no power over me. When
Thor heard this tale he seized his hammer and lifted it into the air, but when
he was about to strike he saw Utgard-Loke nowhere; and when he turned back to
the burg and was going to dash that to pieces, he saw a beautiful and large
plain, but no burg. So he turned and went his way back to Thrudvang. But it is
truthfully asserted that he then resolved in his own mind to seek that meeting
with the Midgard-serpent, which afterward took place. And now I think that no
one can tell you truer tidings of this journey of Thor.
|48. Þórr reri á sæ með Hymi.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmikill er fyrir sér
Útgarða-Loki, en með vélum ok fjölkynngi ferr hann mjök, en þat má sjá, at hann
er mikill fyrir sér, at hann átti hirðmenn þá, er mikinn mátt hafa, eða hvárt
hefir Þórr ekki þessa hefnt?"
Hárr svarar: "Eigi er þat ókunnigt, þótt eigi sé fræðimenn, at Þórr leiðrétti þessa ferðina, er nú var frá sagt, ok dvalðist ekki lengi heima, áðr hann bjóst svá skyndiliga til ferðarinnar, at hann hafði eigi reið ok eigi hafrana ok ekki föruneyti. Gekk hann út of Miðgarð svá sem ungr drengr ok kom einn aftan at kveldi til jötuns nökkurs. Sá er Hymir nefndr. Þórr dvalðist þar at gistingu of nóttina.
En í dagan stóð Hymir upp ok klæddist ok bjóst at róa á sæ til fiskjar, en Þórr spratt upp ok varð skjótt búinn ok bað, at Hymir skyldi hann láta róa á sæ með sér, en Hymir segir, at lítil liðsemð myndi at honum vera, er hann var lítill ok ungmenni eitt - "ok mun þik kala, ef ek sit svá lengi ok útarliga sem ek em vanr."
En Þórr sagði, at hann myndi róa mega fyrir því langt frá landi, at eigi var víst, hvárt hann myndi fyrr beiðast at róa útan, ok reiddist Þórr jötninum svá, at þá var búit, at hann myndi þegar láta hamarinn skjalla honum, en hann lét þat við berast, því at hann hugðist þá at reyna afl sitt í öðrum stað. Hann spurði Hymi hvat, þeir skyldu hafa at beitum, en Hymir bað hann fá sér sjálfan beitur.
Þá snerist Þórr á braut þangat, er hann sá öxnaflokk nökkurn, er Hymir átti. Hann tók inn mesta uxann, er Himinhrjóðr hét, ok sleit af höfuðit ok fór með til sjávar. Hafði þá Hymir út skotit nökkvanum. Þórr gekk á skipit ok settist í austrrúm, tók tvær árar ok reri, ok þótti Hymi skriðr verða af róðri hans. Hymir reri í hálsinum fram, ok sóttist skjótt róðrinn. Sagði þá Hymir, at þeir váru komnir á þær vastir, er hann var vanr at sitja ok draga flata fiska, en Þórr kveðst vilja róa miklu lengra, ok tóku þeir enn snertiróðr. Sagði Hymir þá, at þeir váru komnir svá langt út, at hætt var at sitja útar fyrir Miðgarðsormi, en Þórr kveðst myndu róa enn um hríð, ok svá gerði hann, en Hymir var þá allókátr.
En þá er Þórr lagði upp árarnar, greiddi hann til vað heldr sterkjan, ok eigi var öngullinn minni eða óramligri. Þar lét Þórr koma á öngulinn uxahöfuðit ok kastaði fyrir borð, ok fór öngullinn til grunns, ok er þér þat satt at segja, at engu ginnti þá Þórr miðr Miðgarðsorm en Útgarða-Loki hafði spottat Þór, þá er hann hóf orminn upp á hendi sér.
Miðgarðsormr gein yfir uxahöfuðit, en öngullinn vá í góminn orminum. En er ormrinn kenndi þess, brá hann við svá hart, at báðir hnefar Þórs skullu út at borðinu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok færðist í ásmegin, spyrnði við fast, svá at hann hljóp báðum fótum gegnum skipit ok spyrnði við grunni, dró þá orminn upp at borði. En þat má segja, at engi hefir sá sét allógurligar sjónir, er eigi mátti þat sjá, er Þórr hvessti augun á orminn, en ormrinn starði neðan í mót ok blés eitrinu. Þá er sagt, at jötunninn Hymir gerðist litverpr, fölnaði ok hræddist, er hann sá orminn ok þat er særinn féll út ok inn of nökkvann. Ok í því bili, er Þórr greip hamarinn ok færði á loft, þá fálmaði jötunninn til agnsaxinu ok hjó vað Þórs á borði, en ormrinn sökkðist í sæinn. En Þórr kastaði hamrinum eftir honum, ok segja menn, at hann lysti af honum höfuðit við hrönnunum, en ek hygg hitt vera þér satt at segja, at Miðgarðsormr lifir enn ok liggr í umsjá. En Þór reiddi til hnefann ok setr við eyra Hymi, svá at hann steypðist fyrir borð, ok sér í iljar honum, en Þórr óð til lands."
49. Then said Ganglere: A most powerful man is Utgard-Loke,
though he deals much with delusions and sorcery. His power is also proven by the
fact that he had thanes who were so mighty. But has not Thor avenged himself for
this? Made answer Har: It is not unknown, though no wise men tell thereof, how
Thor made amends for the journey that has now been spoken of. He did not remain
long at home, before he busked himself so suddenly for a new journey, that he
took neither chariot, nor goats nor any companions with him. He went out of
Midgard in the guise of a young man, and came in the evening to a giant by name
Hymer.61 Thor tarried there as a guest through the night.
In the morning Hymer arose, dressed himself, and busked himself to row out upon
the sea to fish. Thor also sprang up, got ready in a hurry and asked Hymer
whether he might row out with him. Hymer answered that he would get but little
help from Thor, as he was so small and young; and he added, you will get cold if
I row as far out and remain as long as I am wont. Thor said that he might row as
far from shore as he pleased, for all that, and it was yet to be seen who would
be the first to ask to row back to land. And Thor grew so wroth at the giant
that he came near letting the hammer ring on his head straightway, but he
restrained himself, for he intended to try his strength elsewhere. He asked
Hymer what they were to have for bait, but Hymer replied that he would have to
find his own bait. Then Thor turned away to where he saw a herd of oxen, that
belonged to Hymer. He took the largest ox, which was called Himinbrjot, twisted
his head off and brought it down to the sea-strand. Hymer had then shoved the
boat off. Thor went on board and seated himself in the stern; he took two oars
and rowed so that Hymer had to confess that the boat sped fast from his rowing.
Hymer plied the oars in the bow, and thus the rowing soon ended. Then said Hymer
that they had come to the place where he was wont to sit and catch flat-fish,
but Thor said he would like to row much farther out, and so they made another
swift pull. Then said Hymer that they had come so far out that it was dangerous
to stay there, for the Midgard-serpent. Thor said he wished to row a while
longer, and so he did; but Hymer was by no means in a happy mood. Thor took in
the oars, got ready a very strong line, and the hook was neither less nor
weaker. When he had put on the ox-head for bait, he cast it overboard and it
sank to the bottom. It must be admitted that Thor now beguiled the
Midgard-serpent not a whit less than Utgard-Loke mocked him when he was to
lift the serpent with his hand. The Midgard-serpent took the ox-head into his
mouth, whereby the hook entered his palate, but when the serpent perceived this
he tugged so hard that both Thor’s hands were dashed against the gunwale. Now
Thor became angry, assumed his asa-might and spurned so hard that both his feet
went through the boat and he stood on the bottom of the sea. He pulled the
serpent up to the gunwale; and in truth no one has ever seen a more terrible
sight than when Thor whet his eyes on the serpent, and the latter stared at him
and spouted venom. It is said that the giant Hymer changed hue and grew pale
from fear when he saw the serpent and beheld the water flowing into the boat;
but just at the moment when Thor grasped the hammer and lifted it in the air,
the giant fumbled for his fishing-knife and cut off Thor’s line at the gunwale,
whereby the serpent sank back into the sea. Thor threw the hammer after it, and
it is even said that he struck off his head at the bottom, but I think the truth
is that the Midgard-serpent still lives and lies in the ocean. Thor clenched his
fist and gave the giant a box on the ear so that he fell backward into the sea,
and he saw his heels last, but Thor waded ashore.
61. Called Ymer in the Younger Edda, but the Elder Edda calls him Hymer. [Indeed mss. R, T, W read Ymir for Hymir, and mss. U reads Eymir. See Here.]
|49. Dauði Baldrs ins góða.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hafa nökkur meiri tíðendi
orðit með ásunum? Allmikit þrekvirki vann Þórr í þessi ferð."
Hárr svarar: "Vera mun at segja frá þeim tíðendum, er meira þótti vert ásunum. En þat er upphaf þeirar sögu, at Baldr inn góða dreymði drauma stóra ok hættliga um líf sitt. En er hann sagði ásunum draumana, þá báru þeir saman ráð sín, ok var þat gert at beiða griða Baldri fyrir allskonar háska, ok Frigg tók svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, járn ok alls konar málmr, steinar, jörðin, viðirnir, sóttirnar, dýrin, fuglarnir, eitrit, ormarnir.
En er þetta var gert ok vitat, þá var þat skemmtun Baldrs ok ásanna, at hann skyldi standa upp á þingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjóta á hann, sumir höggva til, sumir berja grjóti, en hvat sem at var gert, sakaði hann ekki, ok þótti þetta öllum mikill frami.
En er þetta sá Loki Laufeyjarson, þá líkaði honum illa, er Baldr sakaði ekki. Hann gekk til Fensalar til Friggjar ok brá sér í konu líki. Þá spyrr Frigg, ef sú kona vissi, hvat æsir höfðust at á þinginu. Hon sagði, at allir skutu at Baldri ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki.
Þá mælti Frigg: "Eigi munu vápn eða viðir granda Baldri. Eiða hefi ek þegit af öllum þeim."
Þá spyr konan: "Hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira Baldri?"
Þá svarar Frigg: "Vex viðarteinungr einn fyrir vestan Valhöll. Sá er mistilteinn kallaðr. Sá þótti mér ungr at krefja eiðsins."
Því næst hvarf konan á braut, en Loki tók mistiltein ok sleit upp ok gekk til þings. En Höðr stóð útarliga í mannhringnum, því at hann var blindr.
Þá mælti Loki við hann: "Hví skýtr þú ekki at Baldri?"
Hann svarar: "Því, at ek sé eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em vápnlauss."
Þá mælti Loki: "Gerðu þó í líking annarra manna ok veit Baldri sæmð sem aðrir menn. Ek mun vísa þér til, hvar hann stendr. Skjót at honum vendi þessum."
Höðr tók mistiltein ok skaut at Baldri at tilvísun Loka. Flaug skotit í gegnum Baldr, ok féll hann dauðr til jarðar, ok hefir þat mest óhapp verit unnit með goðum ok mönnum.
Þá er Baldr var fallinn, þá féllust öllum ásum orðtök ok svá hendr at taka til hans, ok sá hverr til annars, ok váru allir með einum hug til þess, er unnit hafði verkit, en engi mátti hefna. Þar var svá mikill griðastaðr. En þá er æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, þá var hitt þó fyrr, at grátrinn kom upp, svá at engi mátti öðrum segja með orðunum frá sínum harmi. En Óðinn bar þeim mun verst þenna skaða sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hversu mikil aftaka ok missa ásunum var í fráfalli Baldrs.
En er goðin vitkuðust, þá mælti Frigg ok spurði, hverr sá væri með ásum, er eignast vildi allar ástir hennar ok hylli ok vili hann ríða á helveg ok freista, ef hann fái fundit Baldr, ok bjóða Helju útlausn, ef hon vill láta fara Baldr heim í Ásgarð. En sá er nefndr Hermóðr inn hvati, sonr Óðins, er til þeirar farar varð. Þá var tekinn Sleipnir, hestr Óðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig Hermóðr á þann hest ok hleypði braut.
|50. Then asked Ganglere: Have there happened any other remarkable things among the asas? A great deed it was, forsooth, that Thor wrought on this journey. Har answered: Yes, indeed, there are tidings to be told that seemed of far greater importance to the asas. The beginning of this tale is, that Balder dreamed dreams great and dangerous to his life. When he told these dreams to the asas they took counsel together, and it was decided that they should seek peace for Balder against all kinds of harm. So Frigg exacted an oath from fire, water, iron and all kinds of metal, stones, earth, trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds and creeping things, that they should not hurt Balder. When this was done and made known, it became the pastime of Balder and the asas that he should stand up at their meetings while some of them should shoot at him, others should hew at him, while others should throw stones at him; but no matter what they did, no harm came to him, and this seemed to all a great honor. When Loke, Laufey’s son, saw this, it displeased him very much that Balder was not scathed. So he went to Frigg, in Fensal, having taken on himself the likeness of a woman. Frigg asked this woman whether she knew what the asas were doing at their meeting. She answered that all were shooting at Balder, but that he was not scathed thereby. Then said Frigg: Neither weapon nor tree can hurt Balder, I have taken an oath from them all. Then asked the woman: Have all things taken an oath to spare Balder? Frigg answered: West of Valhal there grows a little shrub that is called the mistletoe, that seemed to me too young to exact an oath from. Then the woman suddenly disappeared. Loke went and pulled up the mistletoe and proceeded to the meeting. Hoder stood far to one side in the ring of men, because he was blind. Loke addressed himself to him, and asked: Why do you not shoot at Balder? He answered: Because I do not see where he is, and furthermore I have no weapons. Then said Loke: Do like the others and show honor to Balder; I will show you where he stands; shoot at him with this wand. Hoder took the mistletoe and shot at Balder under the guidance of Loke. The dart pierced him and he fell dead to the ground. This is the greatest misfortune that has ever happened to gods and men. When Balder had fallen, the asas were struck speechless with horror, and their hands failed them to lay hold of the corpse. One looked at the other, and all were of one mind toward him who had done the deed, but being assembled in a holy peace-stead, no one could take vengeance. When the asas at length tried to speak, the wailing so choked their voices that one could not describe to the other his sorrow. Odin took this misfortune most to heart, since he best comprehended how great a loss and injury the fall of Balder was to the asas. When the gods came to their senses, Frigg spoke and asked who there might be among the asas who desired to win all her love and good will by riding the way to Hel and trying to find Balder, and offering Hel a ransom if she would allow Balder to return home again to Asgard. But he is called Hermod, the Nimble, Odin’s swain, who undertook this journey. Odin’s steed, Sleipner, was led forth. Hermod mounted him and galloped away.|
|En æsirnir tóku lík Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar. Hringhorni hét skip Baldrs. Hann var allra skipa mestr. Hann vildu goðin fram setja ok gera þar á bálför Baldrs, en skipit gekk hvergi fram. Þá var sent í Jötunheima eftir gýgi þeiri, er Hyrrokkin hét. En er hon kom ok reið vargi ok hafði höggorm at taumum, þá hljóp hon af hestinum, en Óðinn kallaði til berserki fjóra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir felldi hann. Þá gekk Hyrrokkin á framstafn nökkvans ok hratt fram í fyrsta viðbragði, svá at eldr hraut ór hlunnunum ok lönd öll skulfu. Þá varð Þórr reiðr ok greip hamarinn ok myndi þá brjóta höfuð hennar, áðr en goðin öll báðu henni friðar. Þá var borit út á skipit lík Baldrs, ok er þat sá kona hans, Nanna Nepsdóttir, þá sprakk hon af harmi ok dó. Var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi. Þá stóð Þórr at ok vígði bálit með Mjöllni. En fyrir fótum honum rann dvergr nökkurr; sá er Litr nefndr; en Þórr spyrnði fæti sínum á hann ok hratt honum í eldinn, ok brann hann. En þessa brennu sótti margs konar þjóð, fyrst at segja frá Óðni, at með honum fór Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans, en Freyr ók í kerru með gelti þeim, er Gullinbursti heitir eða Slíðrugtanni, en Heimdallr reið hesti þeim, er Gulltoppr heitir, en Freyja ók köttum sínum. Þar kom ok mikit fólk hrímþursa ok bergrisar. Óðinn lagði á bálit gullhring þann, er Draupnir heitir. Honum fylgði sú náttúra, at ina níundu hverja nótt drupu af honum átta gullhringar jafnhöfgir. Hestr Baldrs var leiddr á bálit með öllu reiði.||
51. The asas took the corpse of Balder and brought it to the sea-shore. Hringhorn was the name of Balder’s ship, and it was the largest of all ships. The gods wanted to launch it and make Balder’s bale-fire thereon, but they could not move it. Then they sent to Jotunheim after the giantess whose name is Hyrrokken. She came riding on a wolf, and had twisted serpents for reins. When she alighted, Odin appointed four berserks to take care of her steed, but they were unable to hold him except by throwing him down on the ground. Hyrrokken went to the prow and launched the ship with one single push, but the motion was so violent that fire sprang from the underlaid rollers and all the earth shook. Then Thor became wroth, grasped his hammer, and would forthwith have crushed her skull, had not all the gods asked peace for her. Balder’s corpse was borne out on the ship; and when his wife, Nanna, daughter of Nep, saw this, her heart was broken with grief and she died. She was borne to the funeral-pile and cast on the fire. Thor stood by and hallowed the pile with Mjolner. Before his feet ran a dwarf, whose name is Lit. Him Thor kicked with his foot and dashed him into the fire, and he, too, was burned. But this funeral-pile was attended by many kinds of folk. First of all came Odin, accompanied by Frigg and the valkyries and his ravens. Frey came riding in his chariot drawn by the boar called Gullinburste or Slidrugtanne. Heimdal rode his steed Gulltop, and Freyja drove her cats. There was a large number of frost-giants and mountain-giants. Odin laid on the funeral-pile his gold ring, Draupner, which had the property of producing, every ninth night, eight gold rings of equal weight. Balder’s horse, fully caparisoned, was led to his master’s pile.
En þat er at segja frá Hermóði, at hann reið níu nætr dökkva dala ok djúpa, svá
at hann sá ekki, fyrr en hann kom til árinnar Gjallar ok reið á Gjallarbrúna.
Hon var þökð lýsigulli.
Móðguðr er nefnd mær sú, er gætir brúarinnar. Hon spurði hann at nafni eða at ætt ok sagði, at inn fyrra dag riðu um brúna fimm fylki dauðra manna - "en eigi dynr brúin minnr undir einum þér, ok eigi hefir þú lit dauðra manna. Hví ríðr þú hér á helveg?"
Hann svarar, at -"ek skal ríða til Heljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvárt hefir þú nakkvat sét Baldr á helvegi?"
En hon sagði, at Baldr hafði þar riðit um Gjallarbrú, "en niðr ok norðr liggr helvegr."
Þá reið Hermóðr, þar til er hann kom at helgrindum. Þá sté hann af hestinum ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp ok keyrði hann sporum, en hestrinn hljóp svá hart ok yfir grindina, at hann kom hvergi nær. Þá reið Hermóðr heim til hallarinnar ok steig af hesti, gekk inn í höllina, sá þar sitja í öndugi, Baldr bróður sinn, ok dvalðist Hermóðr þar um nóttina. En at morgni þá beiddist Hermóðr af Helju, at Baldr skyldi ríða heim með honum, ok sagði, hversu mikill grátr var með ásum.
En Hel sagði, at þat skyldi svá reyna, hvárt Baldr var svá ástsæll - "sem sagt er. Ok ef allir hlutir í heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, gráta hann, þá skal hann fara til ása aftr, en haldast með Helju, ef nakkvarr mælir við eða vill eigi gráta."
Þá stóð Hermóðr upp, en Baldr leiddi hann út ór höllinni ok tók hringinn Draupni ok sendi Óðni til minja, en Nanna sendi Frigg rifti ok enn fleiri gjafar. Fullu fingrgull. Þá reið Hermóðr aftr leið sína ok kom í Ásgarð ok sagði öll tíðendi, þau er hann hafði séð ok heyrt. Því næst sendu æsir um allan heim erendreka at biðja, at Baldr væri grátinn ór helju, en allir gerðu þat, mennirnir ok kykvendin ok jörðin ok steinarnir ok tré ok allr málmr, svá sem þú munt sét hafa, at þessir hlutir gráta þá, er þeir koma ór frosti ok í hita.
52. But of Hermod it is to be told that he rode nine nights through
deep and dark valleys, and did not see light until he came to the Gjallar-river
and rode on the Gjallar-bridge, which is thatched with shining gold. Modgud is
the name of the may who guards the bridge. She asked him for his name, and of
what kin he was, saying that the day before there rode five fylkes (kingdoms,
bands) of dead men over the bridge; but she added, it does not shake less under
you alone, and you do not have the hue of dead men. Why do you ride the way to
He answered: I am to ride to Hel to find Balder. Have you seen him pass this way?
She answered that Balder had ridden over the Gjallar-bridge; adding: But downward and northward lies the way to Hel.
Then Hermod rode on till he came to Hel’s gate. He alighted from his horse, drew the girths tighter, remounted him, clapped the spurs into him, and the horse leaped over the gate with so much force that he never touched it. Thereupon Hermod proceeded to the hall and alighted from his steed. He went in, and saw there sitting on the foremost seat his brother Balder. He tarried there over night. In the morning he asked Hel whether Balder might ride home with him, and told how great weeping there was among the asas. But Hel replied that it should now be tried whether Balder was so much beloved as was said. If all things, said she, both quick and dead, will weep for him, then he shall go back to the asas, but if anything refuses to shed tears, then he shall remain with Hel. Hermod arose, and Balder accompanied him out of the hall. He took the ring Draupner and sent it as a keepsake to Odin. Nanna sent Frigg a kerchief and other gifts, and to Fulla she sent a ring. Thereupon Hermod rode back and came to Asgard, where he reported the tidings he had seen and heard.
Þá er sendimenn fóru heim ok höfðu vel rekit sín erendi, finna þeir í helli
nökkurum, hvar gýgr sat. Hon nefndist Þökk. Þeir biðja hana gráta Baldr ór
Helju. Hon segir:
54. "Þökk mun gráta
53. Then the asas sent messengers over all the world, praying that
Balder might be wept out of Hel’s power. All things did so,—men and beasts, the
earth, stones, trees and all metals, just as you must have seen that these
things weep when they come out of frost and into heat. When the messengers
returned home and had done their errand well, they found a certain cave wherein
sat a giantess (gygr = ogress) whose name was Thok. They requested her to weep
Balder from Hel; but she answered:
Thok will weep
It is generally believed that this Thok was Loke, Laufey’s son, who has wrought most evil among the asas.
|50. Loki bundin.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Allmiklu kom Loki á leið,
er hann olli fyrst því, er Baldr var veginn, ok svá því, er hann varð eigi
leystr frá helju. Eða hvárt varð honum þessa nakkvat hefnt?"
Hárr segir: "Goldit var honum þetta, svá at hann mun lengi kennast. Þá er goðin váru orðin honum svá reið sem ván var, hljóp hann á braut ok fal sik á fjalli nökkuru, gerði þar hús ok fjórar dyrr, at hann mátti sjá ór húsinu í allar ættir, en oft um daga, brá hann sér í laxlíki ok falst þá þar, sem heitir Fránangrsfoss. Þá hugsaði hann fyrir sér, hverja vél æsir mundu til finna at taka hann í forsinum. En er hann sat í húsinu, tók hann língarn ok reið á ræksna, svá sem net er síðan gert, en eldr brann fyrir honum. Þá sá hann, at æsir áttu skammt til hans, ok hafði Óðinn sét ór Hliðskjálfinni, hvar hann var. Hann hljóp þegar upp ok út í ána, en kastaði netinu fram á eldinn.
En er æsir koma til hússins, þá gekk sá fyrst inn, er allra var vitrastr, er Kvasir heitir, ok er hann sá á eldinum fölskvann, er netit hafði brunnit, þá skilði hann, at þat myndi vél vera til at taka fiska, ok sagði ásunum. Því næst tóku þeir ok gerðu sér net eftir því, sem þeir sá á fölskvanum, at Loki hafði gert. Ok er búit var netit, þá fara æsir til árinnar ok kasta neti í forsinn. Hélt Þórr öðrum netshálsi, en öðrum héldu allir æsir ok drógu netit, en Loki fór fyrir ok leggst niðr í milli steina tveggja. Drógu þeir netið yfir hann ok kenndu, at kykt var fyrir, ok fara í annat sinn upp til forsins ok kasta út netinu ok binda við svá þungt, at eigi skyli undir mega fara. Ferr þá Loki fyrir netinu. En er hann sér, at skammt var til sævar þá hleypr hann upp yfir þinulinn ok rennir upp í forsinn. Nú sá æsirnir, hvar hann fór, fara enn upp til forsins ok skipta liðinu í tvá staði, en Þórr veðr eftir miðri ánni, ok fara svá út til sævar. En er Loki sér tvá kosti, var þat lífsháski at hlaupa á sæinn, en hinn var annarr at hlaupa enn yfir netit, ok þat gerði hann, hljóp sem snarast yfir netþinulinn. Þórr greip eftir honum ok tók um hann, ok renndi hann í hendi honum, svá at staðar nam höndin við sporðinn, ok er fyrir þá sök laxinn aftrmjór.
Nú var Loki tekinn griðalauss ok farit með
hann í helli nökkurn. Þá tóku þeir þrjár hellur ok settu á egg ok lustu
rauf á hellunni hverri. Þá váru teknir synir Loka, Váli ok Nari eða
Narfi. Brugðu æsir Vála í vargslíki ok reif hann í sundr Narfa, bróður
sinn. Þá tóku æsir þarma hans ok bundu Loka með yfir þá þrjá eggsteina.
Stendr einn undir herðum, annarr undir lendum, þriði undir knésbótum, ok
urðu þau bönd at járni. Þá tók Skaði eitrorm ok festi upp yfir hann, svá
at eitrit skyldi drjúpa ór orminum í andlit honum, en Sigyn, kona hans,
stendr hjá honum ok heldr mundlaug undir eitrdropa. En þá er full er
mundlaugin, þá gengr hon ok slær út eitrinu, en meðan drýpr eitrit í
andlit honum. Þá kippist hann svá hart við, at jörð öll skelfr. Þat
kallið þér landskjálfta. Þar liggr hann í böndum til ragnarökrs."
54. Then said Ganglere: A very great wrong did Loke perpetrate; first
of all in causing Balder’s death, and next in standing in the way of his being
loosed from Hel. Did he get no punishment for this misdeed? Har answered: Yes,
he was repaid for this in a way that he will long remember. The gods became
exceedingly wroth, as might be expected. So he ran away and hid himself in a
rock. Here he built a house with four doors, so that he might keep an outlook on
all sides. Oftentimes in the daytime he took on him the likeness of a salmon and
concealed himself in Frananger Force. Then he thought to himself what stratagems
the asas might have recourse to in order to catch him. Now, as he was sitting in
his house, he took flax and yarn and worked them into meshes, in the manner that
nets have since been made; but a fire was burning before him. Then he saw that
the asas were not far distant. Odin had seen from Hlidskjalf where Loke kept
himself. Loke immediately sprang up, cast the net on the fire and leaped into
the river. When the asas came to the house, he entered first who was wisest of
them all, and whose name was Kvaser; and when he saw in the fire the ashes of
the net that had been burned, he understood that this must be a contrivance
for catching fish, and this he told to the asas. Thereupon they took flax and
made themselves a net after the pattern of that which they saw in the ashes and
which Loke had made. When the net was made, the asas went to the river and cast
it into the force. Thor held one end of the net, and all the other asas laid
hold on the other, thus jointly drawing it along the stream. Loke went before it
and laid himself down between two stones, so that they drew the net over him,
although they perceived that some living thing touched the meshes. They went up
to the force again and cast out the net a second time. This time they hung a
great weight to it, making it so heavy that nothing could possibly pass under
it. Loke swam before the net, but when he saw that he was near the sea he sprang
over the top of the net and hastened back to the force. When the asas saw
whither he went they proceeded up to the force, dividing themselves into two
bands, but Thor waded in the middle of the stream, and so they dragged the net
along to the sea. Loke saw that he now had only two chances of escape,—either to
risk his life and swim out to sea, or to leap again over the net. He chose the
latter, and made a tremendous leap over the top line of the net. Thor grasped
after him and caught him, but he slipped in his hand so that 139 Thor did not
get a firm hold before he got to the tail, and this is the reason why the salmon
has so slim a tail. Now Loke was taken without truce and was brought to a cave.
The gods took three rocks and set them up on edge, and bored a hole through each
rock. Then they took Loke’s sons, Vale and Nare or Narfe. Vale they changed into
the likeness of a wolf, whereupon he tore his brother Narfe to pieces, with
whose intestines the asas bound Loke over the three rocks. One stood under his
shoulders, another under his loins, and the third under his hams, and the
fetters became iron. Skade took a serpent and fastened up over him, so that the
venom should drop from the serpent into his face. But Sigyn, his wife, stands by
him, and holds a dish under the venom-drops. Whenever the dish becomes full, she
goes and pours away the venom, and meanwhile the venom drops onto Loke’s face.
Then he twists his body so violently that the whole earth shakes, and this you
call earthquakes. There he will lie bound until Ragnarok.
|51. Frá ragnarökum.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hver tíðendi eru at segja frá um ragnarökr?
Þess hef ek eigi fyrr heyrt getit." Hárr segir: "Mikil tíðendi eru þaðan
at segja ok mörg, þau in fyrstu, at vetr sá kemr, er kallaðr er
fimbulvetr. Þá drífr snær ór öllum áttum. Frost eru þá mikil ok vindar
hvassir. Ekki nýtr sólar. Þeir vetr fara þrír saman ok ekki sumar milli,
en áðr ganga svá aðrir þrír vetr, at þá er um alla veröld orrostur
miklar. Þá drepast bræðr fyrir ágirni sakar, ok engi þyrmir föður eða
syni í manndrápum eða sifjasliti. Svá segir í Völuspá:
55. Bræðr munu berjask
Þá verðr þat, er mikil tíðendi þykkja, at
úlfrinn gleypir sólna, ok þykkir mönnum þat mikit mein. Þá tekr annarr
úlfrinn tunglit, ok gerir sá ok mikit ógagn. Stjörnurnar hverfa af
himninum. Þá er ok þat til tíðenda, at svá skelfr jörð öll ok björg, at
viðir losna ór jörðu upp, en björgin hrynja, en fjötrar allir ok bönd
brotna ok slitna. Þá verðr Fenrisúlfr lauss. Þá geysist hafit á löndin,
fyrir því at þá snýst Miðgarðsormr í jötunmóð ok sækir upp á landit. Þá
verðr ok þat, at Naglfar losnar, skip þat, er svá heitir. Þat er gert af
nöglum dauðra manna, ok er þat fyrir því varnanar vert, ef maðr deyr með
óskornum nöglum, at sá maðr eykr mikit efni til skipsins Naglfars, er
goðin ok menn vildi seint, at gert yrði. En í þessum sævargang flýtr
Naglfar. Hrymr heitir jötunn, er stýrir Naglfari, en Fenrisúlfr ferr með
gapandi munn, ok er inn neðri kjöftr við jörðu, en in efri við himin.
Gapa myndi hann meira, ef rúm væri til. Eldar brenna ór augum hans ok
nösum. Miðgarðsormr blæss svá eitrinu, at hann dreifir loft öll ok lög,
ok er hann allógurligr, ok er hann á aðra hlið úlfinum. Í þessum gný
klofnar himinninn, ok ríða þaðan Múspellssynir. Surtr ríðr fyrst ok
fyrir honum ok eftir eldr brennandi. Sverð hans er gott mjök. Af því
skínn bjartara en af sólu. En er þeir ríða Bifröst, þá brotnar hon, sem
fyrr er sagt. Múspellsmegir sækja fram á þann völl, er Vígríðr heitir.
Þar kemr ok þá Fenrisúlfr ok Miðgarðsormr. Þar er ok þá Loki kominn ok
Hrymr ok með honum allir hrímþursar, en Loka fylgja allir Heljarsinnar.
En Múspellssynir hafa einir sér fylking, ok er sú björt mjök. Völlrinn
Vígríðr er hundrað rasta víðr á hvern veg.
55. Then said Ganglere: What tidings are to be told of Ragnarok? Of
this I have never heard before. Har answered: Great things are to be said
thereof. First, there is a winter called the Fimbul-winter, when snow drives
from all quarters, the frosts are so severe, the winds so keen and piercing,
that there is no joy in the sun. There are three such winters in succession,
without any intervening summer. But before these there are three other winters,
during which great wars rage over all the world. Brothers slay each other for
the sake of gain, and no one spares his father or mother in that manslaughter
and adultery. Thus says the Vala’s Prophecy:
Brothers will fight together
Then happens what will seem a great miracle, that the wolf64 devours the sun, and this will seem a great loss. The other wolf will devour the moon, and this too will cause great mischief. The stars shall be Hurled from heaven. Then it shall come to pass that the earth and the mountains will shake so violently that trees will be torn up by the roots, the mountains will topple down, and all bonds and fetters will be broken and snapped. The Fenris-wolf gets loose. The sea rushes over the earth, for the Midgard-serpent writhes in giant rage and seeks to gain the land. The ship that is called Naglfar also becomes loose. It is made of the nails of dead men; wherefore it is worth warning that, when a man dies with unpared nails, he supplies a large amount of materials for the building of this ship, which both gods and men wish may be finished as late as possible. But in this flood Naglfar gets afloat. The giant Hrym is its steersman. The Fenris-wolf advances with wide open mouth; the upper jaw reaches to heaven and the lower jaw is on the earth. He would open it still wider had he room. Fire flashes from his eyes and nostrils. The Midgard-serpent vomits forth venom, defiling all the air and the sea; he is very terrible, and places himself by the side of the wolf. In the midst of this clash and din the heavens are rent in twain, and the sons of Muspel come riding through the opening. Surt rides first, and before him and after him flames burning fire. He has a very good sword, which shines brighter than the sun. As they ride over Bifrost it breaks to pieces, as has before been stated. The sons of Muspel direct their course to the plain which is called Vigrid. Thither repair also the Fenris-wolf and the Midgard-serpent. To this place have also come Loke and Hrym, and with him all the frost-giants. In Loke’s company are all the friends of Hel. The sons of Muspel have there effulgent bands alone by themselves. The plain Vigrid is one hundred miles (rasts) on each side.62. Commit adultery.
63. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 48, 49.
En er þessi tíðendi verða, þá stendr upp Heimdallr ok blæss ákafliga í
Gjallarhorn ok vekr upp öll goðin, ok eiga þau þing saman. Þá ríðr Óðinn
til Mímisbrunns ok tekr ráð af Mími fyrir sér ok sínu liði. Þá skelfr
askr Yggdrasils, ok engi hlutr er þá óttalauss á himni eða jörðu. Æsir
hervæða sik ok allir Einherjar ok sækja fram á völluna. Ríðr fyrstr
Óðinn með gullhjálminn ok fagra brynju ok geir sinn, er Gungnir heitir.
Stefnir hann móti Fenrisúlf, en Þórr fram á aðra hlið honum, ok má hann
ekki duga honum, því at hann hefir fullt fang at berjast við
Miðgarðsorm. Freyr berst móti Surti, ok verðr harðr samgangr, áðr Freyr
fellr. Þat verðr hans bani, er hann missir þess ins góða sverðs, er hann
gaf Skírni. Þá er ok lauss orðinn hundrinn Garmr, er bundinn er fyrir
Gnipahelli. Hann er it mesta forað. Hann á víg móti Tý, ok verðr hvárr
öðrum at bana. Þórr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi ok stígr þaðan braut
níu fet. Þá fellr hann dauðr til jarðar fyrir eitri því, er ormrinn
blæss á hann. Úlfrinn gleypir Óðin. Verðr þat hans bani. En þegar eftir
snýst fram Víðarr ok stígr öðrum fæti í neðra kjöft úlfsins. Á þeim fæti
hefir hann þann skó, er allan aldr hefir verit til samnat. Þat eru
bjórar þeir, er menn sníða ór skóm sínum fyrir tám eða hæli. Því skal
þeim bjórum braut kasta sá maðr, er at því vill hyggja at koma ásunum at
liði. Annarri hendi tekr hann inn efra kjöft úlfsins ok rífr sundr gin
hans, ok verðr þat úlfsins bani. Loki á orrostu við Heimdall, ok verðr
hvárr annars bani. Því næst slyngr Surtr eldi yfir jörðina ok brennir
allan heim. Svá er sagt í Völuspá:
Hér segir enn svá:
65. Vígríðr heitir völlr,
56. While these things are happening, Heimdal stands up, blows with
all his might in the Gjallar-horn and awakens all the gods, who thereupon hold
counsel. Odin rides to Mimer’s well to ask advice of Mimer for himself and his
folk. Then quivers the ash Ygdrasil, and all things in heaven and earth fear and
tremble. The asas and the einherjes arm themselves and speed forth to the
battle-field. Odin rides first; with his golden helmet, resplendent byrnie, and
his spear Gungner, he advances against the Fenris-wolf. Thor stands by his side,
but can give him no assistance, for he has his hands full in his struggle with
the Midgard-serpent. Frey encounters Surt, and heavy blows are exchanged ere
Frey falls. The cause of his death is that he has not that good sword which he
gave to Skirner. Even the dog Garm, that was bound before the Gnipa-cave, gets
loose. He is the greatest plague. He contends with Tyr, and they kill each
other. Thor gets great renown by slaying the Midgard-serpent, but retreats only
nine paces when he falls to the earth dead, poisoned by the venom that the
serpent blows on him. The wolf swallows Odin, and thus causes his death; but
Vidar immediately turns and rushes at the wolf, placing one foot on his nether
jaw. On this foot he has the shoe for which materials have been gathering
through all ages, namely, the strips of leather which men cut off for the toes
and heels of shoes; wherefore he who wishes to render assistance to the asas
must cast these strips away. With one hand Vidar seizes the upper jaw of the
wolf, and thus rends asunder his mouth. Thus the wolf perishes. Loke fights with
Heimdal, and they kill each other. Thereupon Surt flings fire over the earth and
burns up all the world. Thus it is said in the Vala’s Prophecy:
Loud blows Heimdal
Odin’s son goes
Then goes the famous
The sun grows dark,
And again it is said as follows:
Vigrid is the name of the plain
67. The Fenris-wolf.
69. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 50-52, 54-57, 59, 60, 62, 63.
70. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 18.
|52. Vistarverur eftir ragnarökr.||
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvat verðr þá eftir, er brenndr er heimr
allr ok dauð goðin öll ok allir Einherjar ok allt mannfólk? Ok hafið þér áðr
sagt, at hverr maðr skal lifa í nökkurum heimi um allar aldir."
Þá svarar Þriði: "Margar eru þá vistir góðar ok margar illar. Bazt er þá at vera á Gimlé á himni, ok allgott er til góðs drykkjar þeim, er þat þykkir gaman, í þeim sal, er Brimir heitir. Hann stendr á Ókólni. Sá er ok góðr salr, er stendr á Niðafjöllum, gerr af rauðu gulli. Sá heitir Sindri. Í þessum sölum skulu byggja góðir menn ok siðlátir. Á Náströndum er mikill salr ok illr, ok horfa norðr dyrr. Hann er ofinn allr ormahryggjum sem vandahús, en ormahöfuð öll vitu inn í húsit ok blása eitri, svá at eftir salnum renna eitrár, ok vaða þær ár eiðrofar ok morðvargar, svá sem hér segir:
66. Sal veit ek standa
En í Hvergelmi er verst:
Þar kvelr Níðhöggr
57. Then asked Ganglere: What happens when heaven and earth and all
the world are consumed in flames, and when all the gods and all the einherjes
and all men are dead? You have already said that all men shall live in some
world through all ages. Har answered: There are many good and many bad abodes.
Best it is to be in Gimle, in heaven. Plenty is there of good drink for those
who deem this a joy in the hall called Brimer. That is also in heaven. There is
also an excellent hall which stands on the Nida mountains. It is built of red
gold, and is called Sindre. In this hall good and well-minded men shall dwell.
Nastrand is a large and terrible hall, and its doors open to the north. It is
built of serpents wattled together, and all the heads of the serpents turn into
the hall and vomit forth venom that flows in streams along the hall, and in
these streams wade perjurers and murderers. So it is here said:
A hall I know standing
There shall wade
But in Hvergelmer it is worst.
There tortures Nidhug
71. Elder Edda: The Vala’s Prophecy, 40, 41.
|53. Hverir lifa af ragnarökr.|
Þá mælti Gangleri: "Hvárt lifa nökkur goðin
þá, eða er þá nökkur jörð eða himinn?"
Hárr segir: "Upp skýtr jörðunni þá ór sænum ok er þá græn ok fögr. Vaxa þá akrar ósánir. Víðarr ok Váli lifa, svá at eigi hefir særinn ok Surtalogi grandat þeim, ok byggja þeir á Iðavelli, þar sem fyrr var Ásgarðr, ok þar koma þá synir Þórs, Móði ok Magni, ok hafa þar Mjöllni. Því næst koma þar Baldr ok Höðr frá Heljar, setjast þá allir samt ok talast við ok minnast á rúnar sínar ok ræða of tíðendi þau, er fyrrum höfðu verit, of Miðgarðsorm ok um Fenrisúlf. Þá finna þeir í grasinu gulltöflur þær, er æsirnir höfðu átt. Svá er sagt:
68. Víðarr ok Váli
En þar, sem heitir Hoddmímisholt leynast menn tveir í surtaloga, er svá heita, Líf ok Leifþrasir, ok hafa morgindöggvar fyrir mat, en af þessum mönnum kemr svá mikil kynslóð, at byggvist heimr allr, svá sem hér segir:
69. Líf ok Leifþrasir,
Ok hitt mun þér undarligt þykkja, er sólin hefir getit dóttur eigi ófegri en hon er, ok ferr sú þá stigu móður sinnar, sem hér segir:
70. Eina dóttur
En ef þú kannt lengra fram at spyrja, þá veit ek eigi, hvaðan þér kemr þat, fyrir því at engan mann heyrða ek lengra segja fram aldarfarit, ok njóttu nú sem þú namt."
58. Then said Ganglere: Do any gods live then? Is there any earth or
heaven? Har answered: The earth rises again from the sea, and is green and fair.
The fields unsown produce their harvests. Vidar and Vale live. Neither the sea
nor Surfs fire has harmed them, and they dwell on the plains of Ida, where
Asgard was before. Thither come also the sons of Thor, Mode and Magne, and they
have Mjolner. Then come Balder and Hoder from Hel. They all sit together and
talk about the things that happened aforetime,—about the Midgard-serpent and the
Fenris-wolf. They find in the grass those golden tables which the asas once had.
Thus it is said:
Vidar and Vale
In a place called Hodmimer’s-holt73 are concealed two persons during Surt’s fire, called Lif and Lifthraser. They feed on the morning dew. From these so numerous a race is descended that they fill the whole world with people, as is here said:
Lif and Lifthraser
But what will seem wonderful to you is that the sun has brought forth a daughter not less fair than herself, and she rides in the heavenly course of her mother, as is here said:
And if you now can ask more questions, said Har to Ganglere, I know not whence that power came to you. I have never heard any one tell further the fate of the world. Make now the best use you can of what has been told you.72. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay,
73. Holt = grove.
74. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 45.
75. Elder Edda: Vafthrudner’s Lay, 47.
|54. Frá Ganglera.|
Því næst heyrði Gangleri dyni mikla hvern veg frá sér ok leit út
á hlið sér. Ok þá er hann sést meir um, þá stendr hann úti á sléttum
velli, sér þá enga höll ok enga borg. Gengr hann þá leið sína braut ok
kemr heim í ríki sitt ok segir þau tíðendi, er hann hefir sét ok heyrt,
ok eftir honum sagði hverr maðr öðrum þessar sögur.
59. Then Ganglere heard a terrible noise on all
sides, and when he looked about him he stood out-doors on a level plain. He saw
neither hall nor burg. He went his way and came back to his kingdom, and told
the tidings which he had seen and heard, and ever since those tidings have been
handed down from man to man.
|En æsir setjast þá á tal ok ráða ráðum sínum ok minnast á þessar frásagnir allar, er honum váru sagðar, ok gefa nöfn þessi in sömu, er áðr váru nefnd, mönnum ok stöðum þeim, er þar váru, til þess, at þá er langar stundir liði, at menn skyldu ekki ifast í, at allir væru einir þeir æsir, er nú var frá sagt, ok þessir, er þá váru þau sömu nöfn gefin. Þar var þá Þórr kallaðr, ok er sá Ása-Þórr inn gamli. Þórr, sá er Akuþórr, ok honum eru kend þau stórvirki er Ektor gørði í Troju. En þat hyggja menn at Tyrkir hafi sagt frá Ulixes ok hafi þeir hann kallat Loka, þvíat Tyrki<r> váru hans inir mestu óvinir.||The asas now sat down to talk, and held their counsel, and remembered all the tales that were told to Gylfe. They gave the very same names that had been named before to the men and places that were there. This they did for the reason that, when a long time has elapsed, men should not doubt that those asas of whom these tales were now told and those to whom the same names were given were all identical. There was one who is called Thor, and he is Asa-Thor, the old. He is Oku-Thor, and to him are ascribed the great deeds done by Hektor in Troy. But men think that the Turks have told of Ulysses, and have called him Loke, for the Turks were his greatest enemies.|