Legendary Sagas of the Northland
in English Translation
|Hrómundar Saga Gripssonar||The Saga of Hromund Greipsson|
Translated by Nora Kershaw
1. Frá ætt Hrómundar
Sá konungr réð fyrir Görðum í Danmörk, er Óláfr hét. Hann var sonr
Gnóðar-Ásmundar. Hann var maðr frægr. Bræði tveir, Kári ok Örnúlfr, váru
landvarnarmenn konungs, hermenn miklir. Þar bjó einn ríkr bóandi. Sá hét
Gripr. Hann átti þá konu er Gunnlöð hét, dóttir Hróks ins svarta. Þau
áttu níu sonu, er svá hétu: Hrólfr, Haki, Gautr, Þröstr, Angantýr, Logi,
Hrómundr, Helgi, Hrókr. Þeir váru allir efniligir menn. Þó var Hrómundr
fyrir þeim öllum. Hann kunni eigi at hræðast. Hann var augnafagr,
hárbjartr ok herðamikill, mikill ok sterkr, líktist mjök Hróki,
móðurföður sínum. Með konungi váru tveir menn. Hét einn Bíldr, annarr
Váli. Þeir váru illir ok undirförulir. Konungr matti þá mikils. Eitt
sinn helt Óláfr konungr austr fyrir Noreg með her sinn, ok heldu at
Úlfaskerjum, herjuðu ok lágu við eitt eyland. Konungr býðr Kára ok
Örnúlfi at ganga upp á eyjuna ok vita, hvárt þeir sæi engi herskip. Þeir
gengu upp á landit ok litu sex herskip undir hömrum nokkurum. Þar var
einn dreki allskrautligr. Kári kallar til þeira ok spyrr, hverr fyrir
skipunum réði. Einn dólgr stóð upp á drekanum ok kvaðst Hröngviðr heita,
-- "eða hvert er nafn þitt?" Kári sagði til sín ok síns bróður ok mælti:
"Ek veit engan verri en þik, ok þar fyrir skal ek höggva þik í smá
Hröngviðr mælti: "Ek hefi herjat sumar ok vetr í þrjú ok þrjá tigi ár ok háð sex tigi orrostur ok fengit jafnan sigr. Mitt sverð heitir Brynþvari, er aldri hefir sljóvgazt. Kom þú hér á morgun, Kári, ek skal slíðra hann í þínu brjósti."
Kári kveðst eigi bila mundu. Hröngviðr mátti kjósa hvern dag mann fyrir sverðsins oddi.
I. There was a King called Olaf, the son of Gnothar-Asmund, and
he ruled over Garthar in Denmark, and was very famous. Two brothers,
Kari and Örnulf, both mighty warriors, were entrusted with the defence
of his territories. In that district there was a wealthy landowner
called Greip, who had a wife called Gunnlöth, the daughter of Hrok the
Black. They had nine sons whose names were as follows: Hrolf, Haki,
Gaut, Thröst, Angantyr, Logi, Hromund, Helgi, Hrok. They were all
promising fellows, though Hromund was the finest of them. He did not
know what fear was. He was blue-eyed and fair-haired; he was
broad-shouldered, tall and strong, and resembled his mother's father.
The King had two men called Bild and Voli. They were wicked and
deceitful, but the King valued them highly.
On one occasion King Olaf was sailing eastwards with his fleet along the coast of Norway. They put in at Ulfasker, and lying to off one of the islands they began to plunder. The King bade Kari and Örnulf go up on the island and look if they could see any warships. They went up on land and saw six warships under some cliffs, one of them being a most gorgeous 'Dragon.' Kari called to the men and asked whose ships they were. One of the scoundrels on the 'Dragon' stood up and declared his name to be Hröngvith, adding:
"But what may your name be?"
Kari told him his own name and the name of his brother and added:
"You are the worst man I know and I am going to chop you into fragments."
Hröngvith replied: "For thirty-three years I have harried both summer and winter. I have fought sixty battles and been victorious every time with my sword Brynthvari, which has never grown blunt. Come here to-morrow, Kari, and I will sheathe it in your breast."
Kari said he would not fail to appear.
Hröngvith had it in his power to choose every day who was to perish by the point of his sword.
|2. Hrómundr drap Hröngvið víking||Chapter 2|
|Þeir bræðr kómu aptr til konungs ok sögðu honum tíðendin. Konungr bauð at halda til orrostu, ok svá var gert. Hittust þeir, ok tókst þar harðr bardagi. Þeir bræðr gengu vel fram. Kári hafði jafnan átta eða tólf í hverju höggi. Hröngviðr sá þetta. Hljóp hann upp á konungs skip til Kára ok lagði sverðinu í gegnum hann. Þegar Kári hafði fengit sárit, segir hann til konungs: "Lifið heilir, herra, ek mun hjá Óðni gista." Hröngviðr vá Örnúlf upp á spjóti sínu. Eptir fall þeira bræðra kallar Hröngviðr, at þeir skuli upp gefast. Er þá illr kurr í liði konungs. Engi járn bitu Hröngvið. Nú er þess getit, at Hrómundr Gripsson var í fylgd með konungi. Hann tekr sér kylfu í hönd, bindr sér grátt ok sítt geitarskegg ok setr síðan hatt á höfuð sér, veðr svá fram ok finnr þá bræðr báða dauða, tekr upp merki konungs ok lemr með kylfunni blámenn til dauða. Hröngviðr spyrr, hverr sá væri, -- "eða er þetta nokkut faðir hans illa Kára?" Hrómundr segir nafn sitt ok kveðst hefna vilja þeira bræðra, -- "en eigi var Kári mér skyldr. Samt skal ek drepa þik." Ok í því gaf hann Hröngviði kylfuhögg svá mikit, at hann bar hallt höfuð eptir ok mælti: "Ek hefi verit víða í bardögum ok aldri fengit þvílíkt högg." Annat högg sló Hrómundr til Hröngviðar, svá at haussinn brotnaði. Í þriðja höggi missti hann lífit. Eptir þat gengu þeir, sem eptir lifðu, allir á hendr konungi, ok lyktaðist svá bardaginn.||
II. The brothers went back to the King and told him the news.
The King gave orders to prepare for battle, and his men set to work. The
hosts met and a stiff fight took place. The brothers fought bravely,
Kari slaying eight or twelve men with every blow. When Hröngvith saw
that, he leapt up on the King's ship, attacked Kari and thrust him
through with his sword. As soon as Kari was wounded he called to the
"Farewell, Sire. I am going to be Othin's guest!"
Hröngvith spitted Örnulf on his spear, and when both the brothers had fallen, Hröngvith called out to the rest to surrender. Then a murmur of discontent arose in the King's host. No blade would wound Hröngvith. Now it is told that Hromund Greipsson was in the King's retinue. He took a club in his hand, fastened a long grey goat's beard on his face, drew a hood over his head, and then rushed to the fight, where he found the two brothers lying dead. He rescued the King's standard, and began to deal death among the scoundrels with his club.
Hröngvith asked who he was and if he were the father of that wretched Kari.
Hromund told him his name and said he was going to avenge the brothers:—
"Though Kari was no relative of mine, I will slay you all the same."
And thereupon he dealt Hröngvith such a blow with his club that his head was all awry afterwards.
Hröngvith said: "I have been in many battles, but I never got such a blow!"
Hromund struck another blow at Hröngvith and broke his skull. At the third stroke he died. After that all the survivors surrendered to the King, and so the battle ended.
|3. Hrómundi vísat til fjár||Chapter 3.|
Nú kannar Hrómundr skipin ok finnr einn mann hallast upp við í stafni. Hann spyrr þann mann at nafni. Sá kveðst Helgi heita inn frækni, bróðir Hröngviðar, -- "ok nenni ek eigi friðar at biðja."
Hrómundr lét græða Helga inn frækna. Hann sigldi þar eptir í Svíþjóð ok gerðist landvarnarmaðr.
Þar eptir helt Óláfr konungr liði sínu vestr til Suðreyja, gengu þar á land ok tóku strandhögg. Karl einn bjó þar nærri. Konungmenn höfðu tekit kýr hans ok ráku undan sér. Lét hann mjök aumliga um þann missi.
Hrómundr kemr at ok spyrr, hverr sá væri. Karlinn segir, at byggð sín væri allskammt þaðan, ok kvað meiri fremd at brjóta hauga ok ræna drauga fé. Þessi kvaðst Máni at nafni. Hrómundr bað hann segja sér, ef hann vissi nokkut um soddan.
Máni sagðist víst vita ok mælti: "Þráinn, sem vann Valland ok var þar konungr, berserkr mikill ok sterkr, fullr galdra, hann var settr í haug með sverði, herklæðum ok fé miklu, en fáir fýsast þangat."
Hrómundr spyrr, hverja leið sigla skal þangat. Hann segir, at hann má sigla rétt suðr í sex daga. Hrómundr þakkar karli fregn þessa, gaf honum fé ok lét hann taka kýr sínar. Sigldu þeir svá þaðan eptir því, sem karl vísaði þeim til, ok at sex daga fresti sáu þeir hauginn rétt fyrir framstafni.
Hromund proceeded to ransack the ship, and came upon a man prepared to
offer resistance in the prow. He asked the man's name; and he replied
that he was called Helgi the Bold, a brother of Hröngvith, and added: "I
have no mind to sue for peace." Hromund gave orders that the wounds of
Helgi the Bold should be attended to. Then he sailed away to Sweden and
was entrusted with the defence of part of the country.
After that King Olaf sailed away to the British Isles with his host, as far as the Hebrides, where they landed and made a raid. There was a man dwelling hard by whose cattle had been taken and driven away by the King's men, and he was bewailing his loss piteously. Hromund went and asked him who he was.
The man replied that his name was Mani and that his home was a very little way off; and he said that they would win more honour by breaking into barrows and plundering the treasures of ghosts.
Hromund asked him to tell him if he knew anything about places of this kind.
Mani replied that he certainly did:—
"There was a berserk called Thrain, a big, strong man who was deeply versed in sorcery. He conquered Valland and was King there. He was put into a barrow with a sword, armour and great treasure; but no-one is in a hurry to go there."
Hromund asked in which direction they should sail in order to reach it, and he replied that they could reach it by sailing due south for six days.[pg 66]Hromund thanked the man for his information, gave him money, and restored his cattle to him. Then they sailed away in the direction indicated by the man, and at the end of six days they saw the barrow straight in front of their ship.
|4. Hrómundr vann haugbúa||Chapter 4.|
Þeir kómu vestan at Vallandi ok fundu hauginn ok rufu þegar. Ok at liðnum sex dögum kómu þeir glugga á hauginn. Sáu þeir, at þar sat á stóli dólgr mikill, blár ok digr, allr gulli klæddr, svá at leiptraði af. Rumdi hann mjök ok blés at eldi. Hrómundr spyrr, hverr nú vill ganga í hauginn, ok sá skuli kjósa sér þrjá gripi.
Váli kvað: "Engi mundi vilja gefa líf sitt við því. Eru hér nú sex tigir manna, ok mun tröll þetta öllum dauða veita."
Hrómundr mælti: "Vogat mundi Kári hafa þetta, ef lífs væri," -- ok kvað makligt, þótt sér væri niðr sleppt í festi, þótt betra sé at fást við átta aðra. Fór svá Hrómundr niðr í festinni. Var þat á nóttu. Ok er hann kom niðr, bar hann saman fé mikit ok batt í festarenda.
Þráinn hafði verit á fyrri dögum konungr yfir Vallandi ok vann allt með göldrum, gerði margt illt af sér, ok þá hann var svá gamall, at hann kunni eigi at stríða lengr, lét hann setja sik lifanda í hauginn ok mikit fé með sér.
Nú sér Hrómundr, hvar sverðit hangir uppi á einni súlu. Hann kippir því ofan, gyrðist með ok gengr fram at stólnum ok mælti: "Mér mun vera mál ór hauginum, fyrst engi hamlar, eða hverninn vegnar þér, þú hérna, inn gamli? Sástu eigi, at ek bar saman fé þitt, en þú höktir kyrr, hundr leiðr, eða hvat var þér í augum, er þú horfðir á, at ek tók sverðit ok menit ok fjölda þinna annarra gripa?"
Þráinn kvað sér einskis um vert þykkja, ef hann léti sik kyrran sitja á stóli sinum, -- "ek kunna áðr fyrr at berjast. Er ek þá orðinn nógu ragr, ef þú einn skalt ræna mik auði, ok vil ek synja þér gripanna. Máttu sjá við mér dauðum."
Þá mælti Hrómundr: "Rigaðu þér á fætr, ragr ok blauðr, ok tak þú sverðit aptr af mér, ef þú þorir."
Draugr mælti: "Þat er engi fremd at bera sverð á mik vápnlausan. Heldr vil ek reyna afl við þik ok glímu."
Hrómundr kastar þá sverðinu ok treysti afli sínu. Þráinn sá þetta ok leysti ofan ketil sinn, er hafði uppi. Hann var þá eigi frýnligr, blés þá at eldi, er hann var búinn at eta ór katlinum. Funi mikill var í milli fóta honum, en ketillinn fullr í búki. Hann var í stakki gullfáguðum. Báðar hendr hans váru brenglaðar, ok beygðust neglr fyrir góma.
Hrómundr mælti: "Skríddu af stóli, skálkr argr, sviptr öllu fé."
Þá sagði draugr: "Nú mun mál vera at fara á fætr, fyrst þú frýjar mér hugar."
Dagr líðr, en kveldar, ok gerðist þá myrkt í hauginum. Hann gekk þá til glímu við Hrómund, en kastaði niðr katli sínum. Neytti þá Hrómundr afls, ok svá gengust þeir hart at, at grjót ok steinar gengu upp.
Þá datt draugrinn á annat kné ok mælti: "Þú stjakar mér, ok víst ertu hraustr maðr."
Hrómundr sagði: "Stattu stuðningslaust á fætr aptr. Miklu ertu linari en Máni karl sagði."
Þá tók Þráinn at tryllast, ok fylltist upp haugrinn með illan daun. Setti hann þá klær sínar á hnakka Hrómundi ok sleit hold af beinum á lendar ofan ok mælti: "Kvarta eigi um, þótt gráni leikrinn ok sárni kroppr þinn, því at nú skal ek rífa þik kvikan í sundr."
"Eigi veit ek," sagði Hrómundr, "hvaðan soddan kattakyn er komit í haug þenna."
Draugrinn mælti: "Þú munt fæddr vera af Gunnlöðu. Eru fáir þínir líkar."
"Illt mun vera," sagði Hrómundr, "at þú klórir mik lengi."
Glímdu þeir hart ok lengi, svá at allt skalf, þat nærri var, þar til um síðir, at Hrómundr felldi hann á fótarbragði. Þá var orðit mjök dimmt.
Þá mælti draugr: "Nú vannstu mik með ráðum ok tókst sverð mitt. Þat skipti með okkr leikum. Lengi hefi ek lifat í haugi mínum ok lafat á fé, en eigi er gott at trúa gripum sínum, þótt góðir þykki, of mjök, ok aldri hefi ek ætlat, at þú, Mistilteinn, mitt góða sverð, mundir verða mér til meins."
Varð Hrómundr þá lauss ok náði sverðinu ok mælti: "Herm mér nú, hvat marga menn í hólmgöngu þú vannst með Mistilteini."
"Hundrað fjóra ok tuttugu," kvað draugrinn, "ok fekk ek aldri skeinu. Semingr konungr, er var í Svíþjóð, ok ek reyndum okkrar íþróttir, ok hugði hann ek mundi seint unninn verða."
"Lengi hefir þú," sagði Hrómundr, "verit mönnum til meins, ok mun þat happaverk at láta þik sem fyrst deyja."
Hjó hann svá höfuðit af draugnum ok brenndi hann upp allan á báli, fór svá ór hauginum. Spurðu menn þá, hverninn Þráinn ok hann hefðu skilit. Hann kvað þat hafa gengit í kjör, -- "því at ek hjó af honum höfuðit."
Eignaðist Hrómundr þá þrjá gripi, er hann sótti í hauginn, hring, men ok Mistiltein. Allir fengu þeir of fjár. Sigldi Óláfr konungr svá þaðan ok norðr til síns ríkis, settist síðan at landi sínu um kyrrt.
They went from the British Isles to Valland, and found the barrow and
immediately set to work to break it open. And when six days had elapsed
they came upon a trap-door in the barrow. There they beheld a big fiend,
black and huge, all clad in glittering gold, and seated on a throne. He
was roaring loudly and blowing a fire.
Hromund asked: "Now who will enter the barrow? Whoever does so shall have his choice of three treasures."
Voli replied: "No-one will be anxious to forfeit his life for them. There are sixty men here, and that troll will be the death of them all."
Hromund said: "Kari would have ventured on it, had he been alive," and he added—what was true enough—that even if he were let down by a rope, it would not be so bad to struggle against eight others as against Thrain.
Then Hromund climbed down by a rope.—It was during the night; and when he had got down, he gathered up a great amount of treasure and bound it to the end of the rope.
Thrain had been King of Valland in bygone days and had won all his victories by magic. He had wrought great evil; and when he was so old that he could fight no longer, he had got himself shut up alive in the barrow, and much treasure along with him.
Now Hromund saw a sword hanging up on a pillar. He took it down, girded it on, and marched up to the throne, saying:
"It is time for me to leave the barrow since there is no-one to stop me. But what ails you, old fellow? Have you not seen me gathering up your money while you sit quietly by, you hateful cur? Were you not ashamed to look on while I took your sword and necklace and ever so many more of your treasures?"
Thrain said that he cared for nothing if only he would let him sit quietly on his throne: "Formerly," he continued, "I used to be the first to fight. I must have become a great coward if I let you rob me of my wealth single handed; but I'm going to prevent your taking my treasures; you had better beware of me, dead though I am."
Then said Hromund: "Hoist yourself up on your legs, coward and weakling, and take back your sword from me if you dare."
The ghost replied: "There is no glory in attacking me with a sword when I am unarmed. I would rather try my strength in wrestling with you."
Then Hromund flung down the sword and trusted to his strength. When Thrain saw that, he took down his cauldron which he kept above him. He was by no means pleasant to watch as he blew up his fire, ready to make a meal from the cauldron. The body of the cauldron was full, and there was a big flame beneath its feet. Thrain was wearing a gold-wrought mantle. Both his hands were crooked and his finger nails were like talons.
Then said the ghost: "To be sure, it is high time to get on my legs, since you taunt me with lack of courage."
Day departed, and evening drew on, and it became dark in the barrow. Then the ghost began wrestling with Hromund and threw down his cauldron. Hromund put forth all his strength, and they fought so hard that rubble and stones were torn up. Then the ghost sank down on one knee, saying:
"You press me hard: you are indeed a brave fellow."
Hromund replied: "Stand up on your feet again without support. You are much weaker than Mani the peasant said."
Then Thrain turned himself into a troll, and the barrow was filled with a horrible stench: and he stuck his claws into the back of Hromund's neck, tearing the flesh from his bones down to his loins, saying:
"You need not complain if the game is rough and your body sore, for I am going to tear you limb from limb."
"I cannot imagine," cried Hromund, "how such a cat has got into this barrow!"
The ghost replied: "You must have been brought up by Gunnlöth. There are not many like you.""It will go ill with you," said Hromund, "if you go on scratching me long."
They wrestled hard and long till everything round them shook. At last Hromund tripped him and brought him down. It had become very dark by this time.
Then said the ghost: "By guile you have overcome me and taken my sword. It was that that brought our struggle to this issue. I have lived in my barrow for a long time, brooding over my riches; but it is not wise to trust too much to one's treasures, however good they may seem. Never would I have thought that you, Mistletoe, my good sword, would do me a hurt."
Hromund then freed himself and seized the sword, and said:
"Now tell me how many men you have slain in single combat with Mistletoe."
"A hundred and forty four," said the ghost, "and I never got a scratch. I tried my skill with King Seming who was in Sweden, and he was of the opinion that it would take a long time to vanquish me.
"Hromund said: "You have been a curse on men for a long time, and it will be a good deed to kill you at once."
Then he cut off the ghost's head, and burned him to ashes on the fire; and then he went out of the barrow. They asked him on what terms he and Thrain had parted, and he replied that matters had gone according to his wishes:—"For I cut off his head."
Hromund kept for himself the three treasures which he had won in the barrow—the ring, the necklace and Mistletoe; but everyone received a share of the money.
Then King Olaf sailed away to his kingdom in the north, and settled down peacefully in his own country.
|5. Hrómundr rægðr við konung||Chapter 5.|
Eptir þetta var Hrómundr mjök frægr, vinsæll ok stórgjöfull. Hann gaf einum manni, þeim er Hrókr hét, eitt sinn gullhring góðan, er vá eyri. Þat fekk Váli at vita ok drap Hrók á náttartíma, en tók hringinn. En sem konungr vissi þetta, kvaðst hann skyldu launa Vála einhvern tíma hans hrekki.
Konungr átti tvær systr. Önnur þeira hét Dagný, en hin Svanhvít. Sú var framar at öllu, ok var engi hennar líki millum Svíþjóðar ok Hálogalands. Hrómundr Gripsson var nú heima ok gerði sér kátt við Svanhvít ok forðast hvárki Vála né Bíld. Hún mælti eitt sinn við Hrómund ok segir Váli og Bíldr muni rægja hann við konung.
Hann mælti: "Ek hræðumst engar argar fýlur, ok svá lengi þú vil unna mér viðtals, þá mun ek tala við þik."
Svá varð megn þessi rógburðr, at Hrómundr ok hans bróðir urðu at rýma frá konungs hirð ok fóru heim til föður síns.
Lítit hér eptir talar Svanhvít við Óláf konung ok sagði: "Nú er Hrómundr dæmdr í brott frá konungs hirð, hverr vára sæmd jók þó mest, en aptr í staðinn hafi þér með yðr þá tvá, er hvárki rækja frægð né dáð."
Konungr svarar: "Heyrt hefi ek getit hann mundi fífla þik, ok skal sverðit skilja ykkar ást."
"Lítt manstu nú," sagði hún, "þegar hann einn gekk í hauginn, en engi annarr þorði, ok fyrr mun Váli ok Bíldr hengdr verða," sagði hún, gekk síðan snúðugt í brott.
After that Hromund grew very famous. He[pg 70]was generous and popular.
One day he gave to a man called Hrok a ring of solid gold which weighed
an ounce. Voli got to know about that and slew Hrok by night and stole
the ring. And when the King heard of it he said he would be even with
Voli some day for such a piece of villainy.
The King had two sisters, one called Dagny and the other Svanhvit. Svanhvit was better than her sister in every way, and had no equal between Sweden and Halogaland.
Hromund Greipsson was at home at this time and became friendly with Svanhvit; but he took no precautions against either Voli or Bild. On one occasion she told Hromund that Voli and Bild were busy slandering him to the King.
He said: "I am not afraid of any low wretch, and I shall talk to you as long as you give me the chance."
This slander became so serious that Hromund and his brother had to leave the King's retinue and go home to their father.
A short time after, Svanhvit was talking to King Olaf and said:
"Hromund, who brought us the greatest glory, has now been banished from the royal retinue; and in his place you retain two men who care for neither honour nor virtue."
The King replied: "A rumour reached me that he intended to betray you; and the sword shall part your love."
"You have very soon forgotten," said she, "the time when he went alone into the barrow; and no-one else dared.—Voli and Bild will be hanged first."
And having said this, she departed hastily.
|6. Óláfr konungr átti orrostu||Chapter 6.|
Nokkuru síðar kómu tveir konungar af Svíþjóð. Hétu báðir Haldingjar. Helgi Hröngviðsbróðir var með þeim. Þeir buðu Óláfi konungi til orrostu vestr á Vænisís. Hann vill nú heldr mæta þeim en flýja óðal sitt, gerir nú orð Hrómundi ok bræðrum hans at fylgja sér. Þá vildi Hrómundr hvergi fara, kvað Bíld ok Vála vel duga ok vinna allt með konungi. Konungr fór af stað með lið sitt.
Svanhvít klökknaði við ok fór heim til Hrómundar. Hann tók henni vel. "Virð nú til bæn mína," sagði hún, "meir en beiðni bróður míns ok veit nú lið konungi. Ek vil gefa þér einn skjöld með því bandi, er honum fylgir. Mun þik eigi saka, meðan þú hefir þat."
Hrómundr þakkar henni gjöf þessa. Gladdist hún þá. Hann bjóst til ferðar ok bræðr hans átta.
Nú kemr konungr með lið sitt til Vænisíss. Var þar fyrir Svía lið. En at morgni, þegar vígljóst var, vápnast þeir á ísnum, ok sóttu Svíar hart fram. Strax sem bardaginn hófst, var Bíldr veginn, en Váli kom þar eigi. Óláfr konungr ok konungr Haldingr varð sárr. Hrómundr hafði sett hrauktjald hinum megin vatnsins. Bræðr hans herklæðast snemma um morguninn.
Hrómundr mælti: "Illa hefir mik dreymt í nótt, ok mun eigi ganga allt at óskum, ok mun ek ekki fara í dag til orrostu."
Bræðr hans sögðu þat væri stór skömm at þora eigi at veita konungi lið, en vera þó kominn þess erendis. Þeir kómu til orrostu ok gengu hart fram, ok fell hverr um þveran annan, er þeim mætti af liði Haldingja. Ein fjölkynngiskona var þar komin í álptar ham. Hún gólaði með svá miklum galdralátum, at engi gáði at verja sik Óláfs manna. Flaug hún yfir þá Gripssyni ok söng hátt. Hún hét Lára. Helgi inn frækni mætti þeim bræðrum þat sama sinn ok drap þá alla átta saman.
Some time after this, two kings, both called Hadding, came from Sweden,
and Helgi the brother of Hröngvith was with them. They challenged King
Olaf to battle with them on the frozen surface of Lake Vener in the
western part of the land. He preferred fighting them to abandoning his
country, so he summoned Hromund and his brothers to follow him. Hromund,
however, declined to go, saying that Bild and Voli were mighty fine
fellows and always fought for the King.
The King departed with his host. Svanhvit was grieved at what had happened, and went to Hromund's home. Hromund welcomed her.
"Hearken now to my prayer," said she, "more favourably than you did to my brother's request, and help the King. I will give you a shield with a strap attached. Nothing can harm you while you wear this strap."
Hromund thanked her for the gift and she was comforted; so he and his eight brothers made ready to set out.
In the meantime the King and his host reached the frozen Vener, where the Swedish army was waiting for them. And in the morning, as soon as it was light enough to fight, they armed themselves on the ice, and the Swedes made a fierce onslaught. Bild was slain as soon as the battle began, but Voli was nowhere to be seen. King Olaf and King Hadding were wounded.
Hromund had pitched his tent near the side of the lake. His brothers armed themselves early in the morning; but Hromund said:
His brothers replied that it was disgraceful not to have the courage to support the King's army, when he had come for that very purpose.
They went into the battle and fought bravely and all those of the army of the Haddings who came against them fell in heaps. A witch had come among them in the likeness of a swan. She sang and worked such powerful spells that none of Olaf's men took heed to defend themselves. Then she flew over the sons of Greip, singing loudly. Her name was Kara. At that same moment Helgi the Bold encountered the eight brothers and slew every one of them.
|7. Frá framgöngu Hrómundar||Chapter 7.|
Í því bili kom Hrómundr í bardagann. Helgi inn frækni þekkti hann ok mælti: "Nú er sá kominn hér, sem vá Hröngvið, bróður minn. Megi þér nú sjá við hans sverði, sem hann sótti í hauginn. Varstu nú fjarri, er ek drap bræðr þína."
Hrómundr mælti: "Eigi þarftu, Helgi, at frýja mér hugar, því at annathvárt ek eða þú skulum nú falla."
Helgi sagði: "Mistilteinn er svá þungt vápn, at þú fær eigi valdit. Vil ek ljá þér þat annat sverð, er þú getr valdit."
Hrómundr mælti: "Eigi þarftu at bregða mér um hugleysi. Muna muntu þat högg, er ek gaf Hröngviði, þá hauss hans molaðist."
Helgi sagði: "Þú, Hrómundr, hefir bundit um þína hönd sokkaband meyjar einnar. Skil þik við skjöld þann, er þú berr. Þú fær engi sár, meðan þú berr þetta, ok held ek fyrir satt þú trúir á þá meyju."
Hrómundr þoldi eigi þessi skapraunarorð ok kastaði niðr skildinum. Helgi frækni hafði jafnan sigr haft ok vann með fjölkynngi. Frilla hans hét Lára, sú sem þar var í álptarlíki.
Helgi reiddi svá hátt sverð sitt upp yfir sik, at þat tók sundr fótlegg álptarinnar, ok renndi sverðit ofan í völlinn upp at hjöltum, ok mælti: "Nú er mín heill farin, ok illa tókst til, er ek missta þín."
Hrómundr mælti: "Þú vannst, Helgi, it mesta slys, er þú drapst sjálfr frillu þína, ok farin mun þín heill."
Datt Lára dauð niðr. En af því höggi, er Helgi hjó til Hrómundar, svá at sverðit hljóp at hjöltum ofan, snart oddr sverðsins kvið Hrómundar ok risti niðr, en Helgi laut eptir högginu. Var þá Hrómundr eigi seinn ok höggr Mistilteini í höfuð Helga, klauf hjálminn ok hausinn, svá at staðar nam í herðum. Brotnaði þá skarð í sverðit. Eptir þat tók Hrómundr tygilkníf sinn ok stakk á kviðinn á sér í sársbrúnirnar raufir, hratt svá inn ístrunni, er út hangdi, rifjar þar með saman kviðinn með bandi ok batt klæðin hart at, barðist svá í ákafa ok felldi hvern um annan þveran ok barðist fram til miðrar nætr. Flýði þat lið, sem eptir var af Haldingjum. Lýkr þar með orrostu.
Hrómundr sér þá, at einn maðr stendr þar á ísnum. Veit hann sá sami muni hafa með göldrum gert ísinn á vatnit. Þekkti hann, at þetta var Váli. Hann kvað eigi óskylt at launa honum, hljóp til hans, reiddi Mistiltein ok vildi höggva hann. Váli blés sverðit ór hendi honum, ok hitti þat fyrir vök eina ok sökk niðr til grunns.
Þá hló Váli ok mælti: "Nú ertu feigr, er þú misstir Mistiltein ór hendi þinni."
Hrómundr sagði: "Fyrr muntu deyja en ek."
Hljóp hann þá at Vála ok greip hann upp, færði niðr við ísinn, svá at hálsbeinit brotnaði. Lá þessi galdrarumr þar dauðr. En Hrómundr settist niðr á ísinn.
Hann mælti: "Ek hafði eigi ráð meyjarinnar. Því hefi ek nú fengit fjórtán undir, ok þó þar til fellu bræðr mínir átta, ok mitt góða sverð, Mistilteinn, fell í vatnit, ok þess fæ ek aldri bætr, at ek missti sverðit."
Gekk hann síðan þaðan ok heim at tjaldi sínu ok tók nokkura hvíld.
VII. At this point Hromund entered the battle.
Helgi the Bold caught sight of him and cried:
"Here comes the man who slew my brother Hröngvith. Now you must beware of that sword of his which he got in the barrow.—You held aloof while I slew your brothers."
"You need not question my courage, Helgi," replied Hromund, "for one or other of us must fall now."
Helgi said: "Mistletoe is such a heavy weapon that you cannot use it. I will lend you another that you can manage."
"You need not taunt me with faint-heartedness," cried Hromund. "Remember the blow which I dealt Hröngvith, when I shattered his skull to atoms!"
Helgi said: "You have bound a girl's garter round your hand, Hromund. Lay aside the shield which you are carrying. It will be impossible to wound youso long as you carry that: I am sure that you are dependent on that girl." Hromund could not endure these galling words, and flung down his shield. Helgi the Bold had always been victorious, and it was by means of magic that he had gained his success. His mistress' name was Kara—she who was present in the form of a swan. Helgi brandished his sword so high over his head that it chopped off the swan's leg. He drove the sword down into the ground as far as the hilt, and said:
"My luck has fled now; and it was a bad business when I missed you."
Hromund replied: "You were very unlucky, Helgi, to be the slayer of your own mistress, and you will have no more happiness."
Kara dropped down dead. And with the stroke that Helgi made at Hromund, when the sword was buried up to the hilt, the point of the sword caught Hromund's belly and ripped it open, and Helgi fell forward with the force of his own stroke. Hromund was not behindhand then: he struck Helgi on the head with Mistletoe, cleaving helmet and skull down to the shoulders, and breaking a piece out of the sword. Then Hromund took his belt-knife and thrust it into his belly where there was a gaping wound, and forced back the paunch fat which was hanging out. At the same time he stitched up the edges of his belly with a cord, bound his clothes firmly over it, and so continued fighting valiantly. Men fell dead in heaps before him, and he fought on till midnight. Then the survivors of the army of the Haddings fled, and thereupon the battle came to an end.
Then Hromund saw a man standing before him on the ice, and he felt convinced that he must have made the ice on the lake by spells. He perceived that it was Voli. He remarked that it was not unfitting that he should give him his deserts, and rushed at him, brandishing Mistletoe and intending to strike him. Voli blew the sword out of his hand, and it happened to light on a hole in the ice, and sank to the bottom.
Then Voli laughed and
said: "You are doomed now that you have lost hold of Mistletoe."
|8. Hrómundr græddr á laun||Chapter 8.|
Nú eru konungs systr sóttar. Kannar Svanhvít sár Hrómundar ok saumar kviðinn saman ok leitar honum hægenda. Hún lét færa hann karli þeim til græðslu, er Hagall hét. Kerling hans var klók. Þau tóku vel við honum ok græddu hann at heilu. Þat fann Hrómundr, at þessi hjón váru margkunnug. Karl var vanr at veiða fiska, ok eitt sinn, er hann var at veiðiskap sínum, dró hann eina geddu, ok er hann kom heim ok krufði hana, fann hann í hennar maga Mistiltein, sverð Hrómundar, ok fekk honum þat. Hrómundr varð glaðr við ok kyssti á hjölt sverðsins ok umbunaði vel karli.
Einn maðr var sá með Haldings konungs her, sem hét Blindr inn illi. Hann sagði konungi, at Hrómundr væri lífs ok græddr á laun hjá Hagali karli ok konu hans. Konungr kvað ótrúligt, at þau mundu þora at leyna honum. Konungr bauð at leita hans. Blindr fór með nokkura menn til húsa þeira Hagals ok spurði, ef Hrómundr væri þar geymdr. Kerling sagði hann mundi eigi þar finnast. Blindr leitaði vandliga ok fann eigi, því at kerling hafði falit Hrómund undir hitunarkatli sínum.
Blindr ok hans félagar gengu þaðan, ok er þeir váru á leið komnir, sagði Blindr: "Eigi er ferð vár fræg orðin, ok skulum vér aptr snúa."
Þeir gerðu svá, kómu heim ok fundu kerlingu. Sagði Blindr hún væri brögðótt, ok hefði hún geymt Hrómund undir katli sínum.
"Leitið ok takið hann þar þá," kvað hún.
En því sagði hún þetta, at þegar hún sá þeir sneru aptr, færði hún Hrómund í kvenskrúða ok lét hann mala ok snúa kvörn. Þeir leita nú í húsunum. Ok þegar þeir koma þar mærin sneri kvörninni, snuðruðu þeir allt um kring, en sú sama leit óhýrt til konungsmanna, sneru svá í brott, at þeir fundu eigi.
Ok er þeir váru á leið komnir, sagði Blindr, at kerling mun hafa villt sjónir fyrir þeim ok sér þykki grunsamt, at Hrómundr muni hafa verit þat, sem sneri kvörninni í kvenklæðum, -- "ok sé ek oss hefir yfir sézt. Dugir oss eigi at þreyta við kerlingu, því at hún er oss klókari."
Báðu þeir henni ills ok fóru heim aptr til konungs við svá búit.
Now the King's sisters were sent for. Svanhvit examined Hromund's wound,
and stitched his stomach together and tried to bring him round. She got
him taken to a man called Hagal to be cured. This man's wife was very
skilful, and they made him welcome and nursed him back to health.
Hromund discovered that the couple were skilled in magic.
The man was a fisherman, and one day when he was fishing, he caught a pike, and on going home and cutting it open he found Hromund's swordMistletoe in its maw, and gave it to him. Hromund was glad to get it and kissed the sword-hilt and rewarded the peasant richly.
In King Hadding's army was a man called
Blind the Evil. He told the King that Hromund was alive and was being
nursed secretly in the home of the peasant couple. The King refused to
believe it, declaring that they would not dare to conceal him; but he
ordered a search to be made. Blind and some other men went to the
dwelling of Hagal and his wife and asked if Hromund was under their
care. The woman said he would not be found there. Blind searched
thoroughly, but did not find Hromund because the woman had hidden him
under her cauldron. Blind and his companions went away, and when they
had gone some distance Blind said:
They cursed her and went back home to the King, leaving matters as they stood.
|9. Frá draumum Blinds||Chapter 9.|
Um vetrinn eptir bar margt fyrir Blind í svefni, ok segir konungi eitt sinn draum sinn ok mælti svá: "Mér þótti vargr einn renna austan. Hann beit yðr, konungr, ok veitti yðr áverka."
Konungr kvaðst ráða þenna draum svá: "Hér mun koma konungr af nokkurum stað, ok mun fundrinn verða skæðr fyrst, en falla þó niðr til sátta."
Enn kvað Blindr sik dreymt hafa, at honum þótti margir haukar sitja í einu húsi, -- "ok þekkti ek þar fálka þinn, herra. Hann var allr fjaðralauss ok flettr hamnum."
Konungr mælti: "Vindr mun koma af skýjum ok skelfa vára borg."
Þriðja draum sagði Blindr sváleiðis: "Mörg svín sá ek renna sunnan at konungs höllu, rótuðu jörðinni upp með rananum."
Konungr mælti: "Þat er fyrir sjóvar ólgu, vátviðrum ok grasvexti þeim, er grær at vatnsins vökva, er sólin skínn í heiði."
Fjórða draum sagði Blindr: "Mér þótti einn ógurligr hriki koma austan at. Hann beit yðr stóra und."
Konungr mælti: "Sendimenn frá nokkurum konungi munu koma í mína höll. Þeir munu bíta upp öllum sínum vápnum, ok þar af mun ek reiðast."
"Fimmti draumr er sá," sagði Blindr, "at mér þótti liggja um Svíaveldi grimmligr ormr."
"Hér mun koma at landi," sagði konungr, "dreki vænn, hlaðinn gersemum."
"Sétta sinn dreymdi mik," sagði Blindr, "at mér þótti koma af landi svört ský með klóm ok vængjum, ok flugu brott með þik, konungr. Þá dreymdi mik enn, at ormr einn væri hjá Hagali karli. Sá beit menn grimmliga. Át hann bæði mik ok yðr upp ok alla konungs menn, eða hvat mun þetta þýða?"
Konungr mælti: "Heyrt hefi ek skammt frá hýbýlum Hagals liggi híðbjörn nokkurr. Ek mun fara at vinna björninn, ok mun hann þá byrstast mjök."
"Hér næst dreymdi mik, at dreka hamr væri dreginn um konungs höll, ok hekk þar við lindi Hrómunds."
Konungr mælti: "Þat veiztu, at Hrómundr missti sverðit ok linda í vatninu, eða ertu nú hræddr við Hrómund?"
Fleiri drauma dreymdi Blind, hverja hann sagði konungi, en konungr réð þá alla sér í vil, en engan svá sem merking til höfðu. Nú segir Blindr enn einn draum sinn, þann er hann sjálfan snerti, ok mælti: "Mér þótti járnhringr settr á minn háls."
Konungr sagði: "Þat er þýðing þess draums, at þú munt hengdr verða, ok þar með munu vit báðir feigir."
IX. In the following winter Blind saw many
things in a dream, and on one occasion he told his dream to the King,
"I dreamed that a wolf came running from the east, and bit you and wounded you, O King."
The King said he would interpret his dream as follows:
"A King will come here from some other land, and his coming will be terrible at first; yet afterwards peace will be brought about."
And Blind said that he dreamed he saw many hawks perched on a house—"And there I espied your falcon, Sire. He was all bare and stripped of his feathers."
The King said: "A wind will come from the clouds and shake our castle."
Blind related a third dream as follows.
"I saw a herd of swine running from the south towards the King's hall and rooting up the earth with their snouts."
The King said: "That signifies the flood-tide, wet weather, and grass springing from moisture, when the sun shines on the heath."
Blind related a fourth dream:
"I thought I saw a terrible giant come hither from the east; he gave you a great wound with his teeth."
The King said: "Messengers from some King will come into my hall. They will provoke enmity and I shall be angered thereby."
"Here is a fifth dream," said Blind; "I dreamed that a terrible serpent lay coiled round Sweden."
"A splendid warship will land here, loaded with jewels," said the King.
"I had a sixth dream," said Blind; "I dreamed that dark clouds came over the land with claws and wings, and flew away with thee, O King; and I dreamed moreover that there was a serpent in the house of Hagal the peasant. He attacked people in a terrible manner. He devoured both you and me and all the men belonging to the court. Now what can that signify?"
The King said: "I have heard that there is a bear lurking not far from Hagal's dwelling. I will go and attack the bear, and it will be in a great rage."
"Next I dreamed that a dragon's form had been drawn round the King's hall, and Hromund's belt was hanging from it."
The King said: "You know that Hromund lost his sword and belt in the lake; and are you afraid of Hromund after that?"
Blind dreamed yet more dreams which he told to the King; and the King interpreted them all to his liking, and none of them according to their real significance.
But now Blind related one more dream—this time one which concerned himself.
"I dreamed that an iron ring was fixed round my neck."
The King said: "The meaning of this dream is that you are going to be hanged; and that will be the end of both of us."
|10. Hrómundr fekk Svanhvítar||Chapter 10.|
Eptir þetta safnar Óláfr konungr liði, helt síðan til Svíþjóðar. Hrómundr fylgdi honum. Kómu þeir óvart at höllu Haldings konungs. Hann lá í útiskemmu einni. Hann varð eigi fyrr varr við en upp var brotin skemmuhurðin. Haldingr hrópar á menn sína ok spyrr, hverir um nætr stríða. Hrómundr sagði til sín.
Konungr sagði: "Þú munt vilja hefna þinna bræðra."
Hrómundr kvað hann skyldi fátt tala um fall bræðra sinna, -- "skaltu nú þess gjalda ok hér lífit missa."
Þá hljóp upp einn kappi Haldings konungs svá storr sem risi. Hrómundr drap þann. Haldingr konungr verst í hvílunni, en fekk ekkert sár, því at hvert sinn Hrómundr hjó til hans, kom sverðit flatt á konung. Þá tók Hrómundr kylfu ok lamdi Halding konung í hel.
Þá mælti Hrómundr: "Hér hefi ek felldan Halding konung, ok hefi ek eigi sét frægra mann."
Karlinn Blindr, er hét Bavis, var bundinn ok hengdr, ok rættist svá draumr hans. Tóku þeir þar mikit gull ok annat fé, heldu síðan heim.
Óláfr konungr gifti Hrómundi Svanhvít. Þau unntust vel, áttu sonu ok dætr til samans ok váru afbragð annarra. Eru af þeim komnar konunga ættir ok kappar miklir, ok lýkr hér sögu Hrómundar Gripssonar.
X. After that King Olaf gathered
together an army and went to Sweden. Hromund accompanied him, and they
took the hall of King Hadding by surprise. He was in bed in an outer
chamber, and was not aware of their presence till they smashed in the
door of his room. Hadding shouted to his men and asked who was
disturbing the peace of the night. Hromund told him who they were.
The King said: "You are anxious to avenge your brothers."
Hromund said that he had not come to waste words about the death of his brothers, adding—"Now you will have to pay for it and perish on the spot."
Then one of King Hadding's champions, as big as a giant, leapt up; but Hromund slew him. King Hadding covered himself up in bed and got no wound, because every time Hromund cut down at him, the sword turned and came down flat on him. Then Hromund took a club and beat King Hadding to death.
Then said Hromund: "Here I have laid low King Hadding, the most famous man I have ever seen."
The man Blind, who was also called Bavis, was bound and then hanged; and so his dream was fulfilled.
They got a quantity of gold and other booty there, and then went home. King Olaf married Svanhvit to Hromund. They were devoted to one another, and had a family of sons and daughters; they were people of great distinction in every respect. Kings and great champions sprang from their stock.
Here ends the Saga of Hromund Greipsson.
INTRODUCTION TO THE SAGA OF HROMUND GREIPSSON
In the Saga of Thorgils and Haflithi, ch. 10 (published in Sturlunga Saga, ed. by G. Vigfusson, Vol. i, p. 19), we are told that at a wedding held at Reykjaholar in Iceland in 1119, "There was fun and merriment and great festivity and all kinds of amusements, such as dancing and wrestling and story-telling.... Although it is a matter of no great importance, some record has been preserved of the entertainment which was provided, and who were the people who provided it. Stories were told which many people now reject, and of which they disclaim any knowledge; for it seems that many people do not know what is true, but think some things to be true which are really pure invention and other things to be fictitious which are really true. Hralf of Skalmarnes told a story about Hröngvith the Viking and Olaf 'the Sailors' King,' and about the rifling of the barrow of Thrain the berserk, and about Hromund Gripsson, and included many verses in his story. King Sverrir used to be entertained with this story and declared that fictitious stories like this were the most entertaining of any. Yet there are men who can trace their ancestry to Hromund Gripsson. Hrolf himself had composed this story."
Among those whose ancestry was traced to Hromund Greipsson were Ingolf and Leif, the first Norwegian colonists of Iceland. According toLandnámabók, 1, ch. 3, they were second cousins, and their grandfathers, who had come from Thelamörk in the south-west of Norway, were sons of Hromund. Olaf 'The Sailors' King' is mentioned also in the Saga of Grím Lothinkinni, ch. 3; and members of his family figure prominently in several other sagas.
These persons may actually be historical. But the fictitious element is obvious enough in many places as, for instance, in Hromund's voyage to the west. Thrain himself is vividly presented to us as "black and huge, with talons like bird's claws, all clad in glittering gold, seated on a throne, roaring loudly and blowing a fire!" This chapter is indeed a tale of
Ghaisties and ghoulies,
And lang-leggity beasties,
And things that gae bump in the nicht.
The most curious features of the saga, however, are the blurred and perhaps confused reminiscences of stories and characters which form the subject of some of the Edda poems. The brothers Bild and Voli can hardly be other than corruptions of the god Balder and his avenger Váli. The name of Hromund's sword 'Mistletoe' too may be a reminiscence of the same story, though a sword of the same name is found in Hervarar Saga (ch. 2). Again, the account of Hromund's sojourn with Hagal, disguised as a grinding-maid, and the search made by Blind (ch. 8) are certainly reminiscences of the Edda poem Helgakvitha Hundingsbana II (sometimes called Völsungakvitha), where the same adventures are recorded in connection with the samenames, except that Helgi here takes the place Hromund.
But the most interesting case, however, is the story of Hromund's opponent Helgi the Bold and Kara (ch. 7). In this story, Helgi is said to be in the service of two kings called Hadding, and there can be little doubt that Helgi and Kara are identical with Helgi Haddingjaskati and Kara, whose adventures formed the subject of a lost poem called Káruljóth. This poem is referred to in the prose at the end of Helgakvitha Hundingsbana II, where it is stated that they were reincarnations of Helgi Hundingsbani and Sigrún—just as the two latter were themselves reincarnations of Helgi the son of Hjörvarth and Sváva—"but that is now said to be an old wives' tale."
Chapter 4 also has a special interest of its own. Breaking into barrows was a favourite exploit of the Norsemen, no doubt for the sake of the gold which they often contained. References to the practice are very common in the sagas, e.g. Grettissaga, ch. 18; Hartharsaga, ch. 15; cf. also Saxo Grammaticus,Dan. Hist., p. 200 ff., etc. The ruthlessness with which the Norsemen plundered the Irish barrows is mentioned with great indignation in the Irish Chronicles. In the War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill, cap. xxv, we read that certain Norsemen plundered in Ireland "until they reached Kerry, and they left not a cave there under ground that they did not explore." In the same work cap. LXIX, we are told that—
Finally in the Annals of Ulster we read (sub anno 862) that
And in England as late as 1344 Thomas of Walsingham records the slaying of the dragon that guarded a barrow, and the recovery of a great treasure of gold by the retainers of the Earl of Warrenne.
Popular imagination believed that barrows were occupied by a ghostly inhabitant 'haugbui,' who guarded the treasure. This was sometimes a dragon, as in Beowulf, or a reanimated corpse, as in our saga; but whatever he was, he inspired the outside world with such fear that the breaking into a grave-mound came to be regarded as a deed of the greatest courage and prowess. The 'hogboy' (haugbui) of Maeshowe, a barrow in the Orkneys, is still a living reality in the imaginations of the country people1.
Unfortunately The Saga of Hromund Greipsson is preserved only in late paper mss., of which none apparently are earlier than the seventeenth century.None of the verses of which the notice in the Saga of Thorgils and Haflithi speaks (cf. p. 58 above) have been preserved. There is, however, a rhymed version of the saga known as Gríplur, dating apparently from about the year 1400 and evidently taken from a better text than any of those which have come down to us. A short extract from these rhymed verses will be found on pp. 173-75. For a full discussion of the relationship of the Gríplur to the extant texts of the saga and to the later ballads, the reader is referred to Kölbing, Beiträge zur Vergleichenden Geschichte der Romantischen Poesie und Prosa des Mittelalters (Breslau, 1876), pp. 181-83, and to Andrews, Studies in the Fornaldarsögur Northrlanda2 in Modern Philology, 1911, 1912.
A full bibliography of texts, translations and literature relating to this saga will be found inIslandica, Vol. v, p. 30.
Footnote 1: Cf. Joseph Anderson, Scotland in Pagan Times: The Bronze and Stone Ages, pp. 278-279 (publ. by Douglas, Edinburgh, 1886).
Footnote 2: It is pointed out by Andrews, p. 2, that the form Lara (which appears in Rafn's and Ásmundarson's editions, ch. 7) is due to a misreading. The mss. have Cara.]